Articles | Volume 12, issue 16
Research article 16 Aug 2012
Research article | 16 Aug 2012
Importance of tropospheric volcanic aerosol for indirect radiative forcing of climate
A. Schmidt et al.
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Factors controlling marine aerosol size distributions and their climate effects over the northwest Atlantic Ocean regionMass accommodation and gas–particle partitioning in secondary organic aerosols: dependence on diffusivity, volatility, particle-phase reactions, and penetration depthEvident PM2.5 drops in the east of China due to the COVID-19 quarantine measures in FebruaryWildfire smoke-plume rise: a simple energy balance parameterizationEffective radiative forcing from emissions of reactive gases and aerosols – a multi-model comparisonProcesses controlling the vertical aerosol distribution in marine stratocumulus regions – a sensitivity study using the climate model NorESM1-MPrecipitation response to aerosol–radiation and aerosol–cloud interactions in regional climate simulations over EuropeAeroCom phase III multi-model evaluation of the aerosol life cycle and optical properties using ground- and space-based remote sensing as well as surface in situ observationsResponse of dust emissions in southwestern North America to 21st century trends in climate, CO2 fertilization, and land use: implications for air qualityRevisiting the relationship between Atlantic dust and tropical cyclone activity using aerosol optical depth reanalyses: 2003–2018Weaker cooling by aerosols due to dust–pollution interactionsSource backtracking for dust storm emission inversion using an adjoint method: case study of Northeast ChinaStudy on the impact of three Asian industrial regions on PM2.5 in Taiwan and the process analysis during transportParticle aging and aerosol–radiation interaction affect volcanic plume dispersion: evidence from the Raikoke 2019 eruptionThe warming Tibetan Plateau improves winter air quality in the Sichuan Basin, ChinaUncertainty in aerosol radiative forcing impacts the simulated global monsoon in the 20th centuryEffects of 3D electric field on saltation during dust storms: an observational and numerical studyAir quality impact of the Northern California Camp Fire of November 2018Amplification of South Asian haze by water vapour–aerosol interactionsAssessment of regional aerosol radiative effects under the SWAAMI campaign – Part 2: Clear-sky direct shortwave radiative forcing using multi-year assimilated data over the Indian subcontinentThe determination of highly time-resolved and source-separated black carbon emission rates using radon as a tracer of atmospheric dynamicsUnderstanding processes that control dust spatial distributions with global climate models and satellite observationsEffectiveness of emission control to reduce PM2.5 pollution of Central China during winter haze episodes under various potential synoptic controlsHeterogeneous nucleation of water vapor on different types of black carbon particlesImpacts of atmospheric transport and biomass burning on the inter-annual variation in black carbon aerosols over the Tibetan PlateauA complex aerosol transport event over Europe during the 2017 Storm Ophelia in CAMS forecast systems: analysis and evaluationSensitivity analysis of the surface ozone and fine particulate matter to meteorological parameters in ChinaHow aerosols and greenhouse gases influence the diurnal temperature rangeEvaluation of climate model aerosol trends with ground-based observations over the last 2 decades – an AeroCom and CMIP6 analysisImpact of biomass burning aerosols on radiation, clouds, and precipitation over the Amazon: relative importance of aerosol–cloud and aerosol–radiation interactionsDirect and semi-direct radiative forcing of biomass-burning aerosols over the southeast Atlantic (SEA) and its sensitivity to absorbing properties: a regional climate modeling studyTechnical note: Estimating aqueous solubilities and activity coefficients of mono- and α,ω-dicarboxylic acids using COSMOthermModels transport Saharan dust too low in the atmosphere: a comparison of the MetUM and CAMS forecasts with observationsDependency of particle size distribution at dust emission on friction velocity and atmospheric boundary-layer stabilityUsing machine learning to derive cloud condensation nuclei number concentrations from commonly available measurementsConstraints on global aerosol number concentration, SO2 and condensation sink in UKESM1 using ATom measurementsImpacts of aerosol–radiation interaction on meteorological forecasts over northern China by offline coupling of the WRF-Chem-simulated aerosol optical depth into WRF: a case study during a heavy pollution eventA revised mineral dust emission scheme in GEOS-Chem: improvements in dust simulations over ChinaTechnical note: the enhancement limit of coagulation scavenging of small charged particlesDevelopment and intercity transferability of land-use regression models for predicting ambient PM10, PM2.5, NO2 and O3 concentrations in northern TaiwanAccelerated increases in global and Asian summer monsoon precipitation from future aerosol reductionsDistinct responses of Asian summer monsoon to black carbon aerosols and greenhouse gasesChanges in black carbon emissions over Europe due to COVID-19 lockdownsModulation of springtime surface sensible heating over the Tibetan Plateau on the interannual variability of East Asian dust cycleTemporally-resolved sectoral and regional contributions to air pollution in Beijing: Informing short-term emission controlsExamining the atmospheric radiative and snow-darkening effects of black carbon and dust across the Rocky Mountains of the United States using WRF-ChemQuantifying the range of the dust direct radiative effect due to source mineralogy uncertaintyImproving the Sectional MOSAIC Aerosol models of WRF-Chem with the revised Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation System and multi-wavelength aerosol optical measurements: DAO-K experiment 2019 at Kashi, near the Taklamakan Desert, northwestern ChinaModel Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) phase III: multimodel comparison of reactive nitrogen deposition over ChinaThe global dust cycle and uncertainty in CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5) models
Betty Croft, Randall V. Martin, Richard H. Moore, Luke D. Ziemba, Ewan C. Crosbie, Hongyu Liu, Lynn M. Russell, Georges Saliba, Armin Wisthaler, Markus Müller, Arne Schiller, Martí Galí, Rachel Y.-W. Chang, Erin E. McDuffie, Kelsey R. Bilsback, and Jeffrey R. Pierce
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1889–1916,Short summary
North Atlantic Aerosols and Marine Ecosystems Study measurements combined with GEOS-Chem-TOMAS modeling suggest that several not-well-understood key factors control northwest Atlantic aerosol number and size. These synergetic and climate-relevant factors include particle formation near and above the marine boundary layer top, particle growth by marine secondary organic aerosol on descent, particle formation/growth related to dimethyl sulfide, sea spray aerosol, and ship emissions.
Manabu Shiraiwa and Ulrich Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1565–1580,Short summary
Mass accommodation is a crucial process in secondary organic aerosol partitioning that depends on volatility, diffusivity, reactivity, and particle penetration depth of the chemical species involved. For efficient kinetic modeling, we introduce an effective mass accommodation coefficient that accounts for the above influencing factors, can be applied in the common Fuchs–Sutugin approximation, and helps to resolve inconsistencies and shortcomings of earlier experimental and model investigations.
Zhicong Yin, Yijia Zhang, Huijun Wang, and Yuyan Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1581–1592,Short summary
It is a must to disentangle the contributions of stable meteorology from the effects of the COVID-19 lockdown. A 59 % decline in PM2.5 related to the COVID-19 pandemic was found in North China. The COVID-19 quarantine measures decreased the PM2.5 in the Yangtze River Delta by 72 %. In Hubei Province where most pneumonia cases were confirmed, the impact of the total emission reduction (72 %) evidently exceeded the rising percentage of PM2.5 driven by meteorology (13 %).
Nadya Moisseeva and Roland Stull
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1407–1425,Short summary
Wildfire smoke-plume rise, which determines the emissions injection height, is widely recognized as an area of uncertainty within regional and global chemical transport models. In this work we propose a simple energy balance parameterization to predict the mean smoke equilibrium height for fires of arbitrary shape and intensity.
Gillian D. Thornhill, William J. Collins, Ryan J. Kramer, Dirk Olivié, Ragnhild B. Skeie, Fiona M. O'Connor, Nathan Luke Abraham, Ramiro Checa-Garcia, Susanne E. Bauer, Makoto Deushi, Louisa K. Emmons, Piers M. Forster, Larry W. Horowitz, Ben Johnson, James Keeble, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Martine Michou, Michael J. Mills, Jane P. Mulcahy, Gunnar Myhre, Pierre Nabat, Vaishali Naik, Naga Oshima, Michael Schulz, Christopher J. Smith, Toshihiko Takemura, Simone Tilmes, Tongwen Wu, Guang Zeng, and Jie Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 853–874,Short summary
This paper is a study of how different constituents in the atmosphere, such as aerosols and gases like methane and ozone, affect the energy balance in the atmosphere. Different climate models were run using the same inputs to allow an easy comparison of the results and to understand where the models differ. We found the effect of aerosols is to reduce warming in the atmosphere, but this effect varies between models. Reactions between gases are also important in affecting climate.
Lena Frey, Frida A.-M. Bender, and Gunilla Svensson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 577–595,Short summary
We investigate the vertical distribution of aerosol in the climate model NorESM1-M in five regions of marine stratocumulus clouds. We thereby analyze the total aerosol extinction to facilitate a comparison with satellite data. We find that the model underestimates aerosol extinction throughout the troposphere, especially elevated aerosol layers. Further, we perform sensitivity experiments to identify the processes most important for vertical aerosol distribution in our model.
José María López-Romero, Juan Pedro Montávez, Sonia Jerez, Raquel Lorente-Plazas, Laura Palacios-Peña, and Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 415–430,Short summary
The effect of aerosols on regional climate simulations presents large uncertainties due to their complex and non-linear interactions with a wide variety of factors, including aerosol–radiation and aerosol–cloud interactions. We show how these interactions are strongly conditioned by the meteorological situation and the type of aerosol. While natural aerosols tend to increase precipitation in some areas, anthropogenic aerosols decrease the number of rainy days in some pollutant regions.
Jonas Gliß, Augustin Mortier, Michael Schulz, Elisabeth Andrews, Yves Balkanski, Susanne E. Bauer, Anna M. K. Benedictow, Huisheng Bian, Ramiro Checa-Garcia, Mian Chin, Paul Ginoux, Jan J. Griesfeller, Andreas Heckel, Zak Kipling, Alf Kirkevåg, Harri Kokkola, Paolo Laj, Philippe Le Sager, Marianne Tronstad Lund, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Hitoshi Matsui, Gunnar Myhre, David Neubauer, Twan van Noije, Peter North, Dirk J. L. Olivié, Samuel Rémy, Larisa Sogacheva, Toshihiko Takemura, Kostas Tsigaridis, and Svetlana G. Tsyro
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 87–128,Short summary
Simulated aerosol optical properties as well as the aerosol life cycle are investigated for 14 global models participating in the AeroCom initiative. Considerable diversity is found in the simulated aerosol species emissions and lifetimes, also resulting in a large diversity in the simulated aerosol mass, composition, and optical properties. A comparison with observations suggests that, on average, current models underestimate the direct effect of aerosol on the atmosphere radiation budget.
Yang Li, Loretta J. Mickley, and Jed O. Kaplan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 57–68,Short summary
Climate models predict a shift toward warmer, drier environments in southwestern North America. Under future climate, the two main drivers of dust trends play opposing roles: (1) CO2 fertilization enhances vegetation and, in turn, decreases dust, and (2) increasing land use enhances dust emissions from northern Mexico. In the worst-case scenario, elevated dust concentrations spread widely over the domain by 2100 in spring, suggesting a large climate penalty on air quality and human health.
Peng Xian, Philip J. Klotzbach, Jason P. Dunion, Matthew A. Janiga, Jeffrey S. Reid, Peter R. Colarco, and Zak Kipling
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15357–15378,Short summary
Using dust AOD (DAOD) data from three aerosol reanalyses, we explored the correlative relationships between DAOD and multiple indices representing seasonal Atlantic TC activities. A robust negative correlation with Caribbean DAOD and Atlantic TC activity was found. We documented for the first time the regional differences of this relationship for over the Caribbean and the tropical North Atlantic. We also evaluated the impacts of potential confounding climate factors in this relationship.
Klaus Klingmüller, Vlassis A. Karydis, Sara Bacer, Georgiy L. Stenchikov, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15285–15295,Short summary
Particulate air pollution cools the climate and partially masks the greenhouse warming by reflecting sunlight and enhancing the reflection by clouds. The intensity of this cooling depends on interactions between pollution and desert dust within the atmosphere. Our simulations with a global atmospheric chemistry-climate model indicate that these interactions significantly weaken the cooling.
Jianbing Jin, Arjo Segers, Hong Liao, Arnold Heemink, Richard Kranenburg, and Hai Xiang Lin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15207–15225,Short summary
Data assimilation provides a powerful tool to estimate emission inventories by feeding observations. This emission inversion relies on the correct assumption about the emission uncertainty, which describes the potential spatiotemporal spreads of sources. However, an unrepresentative uncertainty is unavoidable. Especially in the complex dust emission, the uncertainties can hardly all be taken into account. This study reports how adjoint can be used to detect errors in the emission uncertainty.
Ming-Tung Chuang, Maggie Chel Gee Ooi, Neng-Huei Lin, Joshua S. Fu, Chung-Te Lee, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Ming-Cheng Yen, Steven Soon-Kai Kong, and Wei-Syun Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14947–14967,Short summary
This study evaluated the impact of Asian haze from the three biggest industrial regions on Taiwan and analyzed the process during transport. The production and removal process revealed the mechanisms of long-range transport. This is the first time that the brute force method and process analysis technique has been applied in a Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System. Also, this study simulated the interesting transboundary transport of pollutants from southern mainland China to Taiwan.
Lukas O. Muser, Gholam Ali Hoshyaripour, Julia Bruckert, Ákos Horváth, Elizaveta Malinina, Sandra Wallis, Fred J. Prata, Alexei Rozanov, Christian von Savigny, Heike Vogel, and Bernhard Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15015–15036,Short summary
Volcanic aerosols endanger aircraft and thus disrupt air travel globally. For aviation safety, it is vital to know the location and lifetime of such aerosols in the atmosphere. Here we show that the interaction of volcanic particles with each other eventually reduces their atmospheric lifetime. Moreover, we demonstrate that sunlight heats these particles, which lifts them several kilometers in the atmosphere. These findings support a more reliable forecast of volcanic aerosol dispersion.
Shuyu Zhao, Tian Feng, Xuexi Tie, and Zebin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14873–14887,Short summary
The Tibetan Plateau has been experiencing a rapid warming during the last 40 years, particularly in winter. The warming leads to an increase in the planetary boundary layer height and a decrease in the relative humidity in the Sichuan Basin, causing a reduction of PM2.5 concentration by 17.5 % (~25.1 μg m−3), of which the reduction in secondary aerosols is 19.7 μg m−3. These findings indicate that the warming plateau plays an important role in mitigating air quality in downstream.
Jonathan K. P. Shonk, Andrew G. Turner, Amulya Chevuturi, Laura J. Wilcox, Andrea J. Dittus, and Ed Hawkins
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14903–14915,Short summary
We use a set of model simulations of the 20th century to demonstrate that the uncertainty in the cooling effect of man-made aerosol emissions has a wide range of impacts on global monsoons. For the weakest cooling, the impact of aerosol is overpowered by greenhouse gas (GHG) warming and monsoon rainfall increases in the late 20th century. For the strongest cooling, aerosol impact dominates over GHG warming, leading to reduced monsoon rainfall, particularly from 1950 to 1980.
Huan Zhang and You-He Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14801–14820,Short summary
We assess the effects of triboelectric charging on wind-blown sand via observations and a numerical model. The 3D electric field within a few centimetres of the ground is characterized for the first time. By using the discrete element method together with the particle-charging model, we explicitly account for the particle–particle charging during collisions. We find that triboelectric charging could enhance the total mass flux and saltation height by up to 20 % and 15 %, respectively.
Brigitte Rooney, Yuan Wang, Jonathan H. Jiang, Bin Zhao, Zhao-Cheng Zeng, and John H. Seinfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14597–14616,Short summary
Wildfires have become increasingly prevalent. Intense smoke consisting of particulate matter (PM) leads to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. The record-breaking Camp Fire ravaged Northern California for two weeks in 2018. Here, we employ a comprehensive chemical transport model along with ground-based and satellite observations to characterize the PM concentrations across Northern California and to investigate the pollution sensitivity predictions to key parameters of the model.
Vijayakumar Sivadasan Nair, Filippo Giorgi, and Usha Keshav Hasyagar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14457–14471,Short summary
Air pollution and wintertime fog over South Asia is a major concern due to its significant implications on air quality, visibility and health. Coupled model simulations show that hygroscopic growth of aerosols contributes significantly to the aerosol-induced cooling at the surface. Our analysis demonstrates that the aerosol–moisture interaction is the most significant contributor favouring and strengthening the high-aerosol conditions (poor air quality) prevailing over South Asia during winter.
Harshavardhana Sunil Pathak, Sreedharan Krishnakumari Satheesh, Krishnaswamy Krishna Moorthy, and Ravi Shankar Nanjundiah
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14237–14252,Short summary
We have estimated the aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) by employing the assimilated, gridded aerosol datasets over the Indian region. The present ARF estimates are more accurate and certain than those estimated using the currently available, latest satellite-retrieved aerosol products. Therefore, the present ARF estimates and corresponding assimilated aerosol products emerge as potential candidates for improving the aerosol climate impact assessment at regional, subregional and seasonal scales.
Asta Gregorič, Luka Drinovec, Irena Ježek, Janja Vaupotič, Matevž Lenarčič, Domen Grauf, Longlong Wang, Maruška Mole, Samo Stanič, and Griša Močnik
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14139–14162,Short summary
We present a new method for the determination of highly time-resolved and source-separated black carbon emission rates. The atmospheric dynamics is quantified using the atmospheric radon concentration. Different intensity and daily dynamics of black carbon emission rates for two different environments are presented: urban and rural area. The method can be used to assess the efficiency of pollution mitigation measures, thereby avoiding the influence of variable meteorology.
Mingxuan Wu, Xiaohong Liu, Hongbin Yu, Hailong Wang, Yang Shi, Kang Yang, Anton Darmenov, Chenglai Wu, Zhien Wang, Tao Luo, Yan Feng, and Ziming Ke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13835–13855,Short summary
The spatiotemporal distributions of dust aerosol simulated by global climate models (GCMs) are highly uncertain. In this study, we evaluate dust extinction profiles, optical depth, and surface concentrations simulated in three GCMs and one reanalysis against multiple satellite retrievals and surface observations to gain process-level understanding. Our results highlight the importance of correctly representing dust emission, dry/wet deposition, and size distribution in GCMs.
Yingying Yan, Yue Zhou, Shaofei Kong, Jintai Lin, Jian Wu, Huang Zheng, Zexuan Zhang, Yongqing Bai, Zhang Ling, Dantong Liu, and Tianliang Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We analyse the effectiveness of emission reduction of local and upwind regions during the winter haze episodes controlled by the main potential synoptic patterns over Central China, a regional pollutant transport hub with sub basin topography.Our results provide an opportunity to effectively mitigate haze pollution by local emission control actions in coordination with regional collaborative actions according to different synoptic patterns.
Ari Laaksonen, Jussi Malila, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13579–13589,Short summary
Aerosol particles containing black carbon are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and originate from combustion processes. We examine their capability to act as condensation centers for water vapor. We make use of published experimental data sets for different types of black carbon particles, ranging from very pure particles to particles that contain both black carbon and water soluble organic matter, and we show that a recently developed theory reproduces most of the experimental results.
Han Han, Yue Wu, Jane Liu, Tianliang Zhao, Bingliang Zhuang, Honglei Wang, Yichen Li, Huimin Chen, Ye Zhu, Hongnian Liu, Qin'geng Wang, Shu Li, Tijian Wang, Min Xie, and Mengmeng Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13591–13610,Short summary
Combining simulations from a global chemical transport model and a trajectory model, we find that black carbon aerosols from South Asia and East Asia contribute 77 % of the surface black carbon in the Tibetan Plateau. The Asian monsoon largely modulates inter-annual transport of black carbon from non-local regions to the Tibetan Plateau surface in most seasons, while inter-annual fire activities in South Asia influence black carbon concentration over the Tibetan Plateau surface mainly in spring.
Dimitris Akritidis, Eleni Katragkou, Aristeidis K. Georgoulias, Prodromos Zanis, Stergios Kartsios, Johannes Flemming, Antje Inness, John Douros, and Henk Eskes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13557–13578,Short summary
We assess the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) global and regional forecasts performance during a complex aerosol transport event over Europe induced by the passage of Storm Ophelia in mid-October 2017. Comparison with satellite observations reveals a satisfactory performance of CAMS global forecast assisted by data assimilation, while comparison with ground-based measurements indicates that the CAMS regional system over-performs compared to the global one in terms of air quality.
Zhihao Shi, Lin Huang, Jingyi Li, Qi Ying, Hongliang Zhang, and Jianlin Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13455–13466,Short summary
Meteorological conditions play important roles in the formation of O3 and PM2.5 pollution in China. O3 is most sensitive to temperature and the sensitivity is dependent on the O3 chemistry formation or loss regime. PM2.5 is negatively sensitive to temperature, wind speed, and planetary boundary layer height and positively sensitive to humidity. The results imply that air quality in certain regions of China is sensitive to climate changes.
Camilla W. Stjern, Bjørn H. Samset, Olivier Boucher, Trond Iversen, Jean-François Lamarque, Gunnar Myhre, Drew Shindell, and Toshihiko Takemura
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13467–13480,Short summary
The span between the warmest and coldest temperatures over a day is a climate parameter that influences both agriculture and human health. Using data from 10 models, we show how individual climate drivers such as greenhouse gases and aerosols produce distinctly different responses in this parameter in high-emission regions. Given the high uncertainty in future aerosol emissions, this improved understanding of the temperature responses may ultimately help these regions prepare for future changes.
Augustin Mortier, Jonas Gliß, Michael Schulz, Wenche Aas, Elisabeth Andrews, Huisheng Bian, Mian Chin, Paul Ginoux, Jenny Hand, Brent Holben, Hua Zhang, Zak Kipling, Alf Kirkevåg, Paolo Laj, Thibault Lurton, Gunnar Myhre, David Neubauer, Dirk Olivié, Knut von Salzen, Ragnhild Bieltvedt Skeie, Toshihiko Takemura, and Simone Tilmes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13355–13378,Short summary
We present a multiparameter analysis of the aerosol trends over the last 2 decades in the different regions of the world. In most of the regions, ground-based observations show a decrease in aerosol content in both the total atmospheric column and at the surface. The use of climate models, assessed against these observations, reveals however an increase in the total aerosol load, which is not seen with the sole use of observation due to partial coverage in space and time.
Lixia Liu, Yafang Cheng, Siwen Wang, Chao Wei, Mira L. Pöhlker, Christopher Pöhlker, Paulo Artaxo, Manish Shrivastava, Meinrat O. Andreae, Ulrich Pöschl, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13283–13301,Short summary
This modeling paper reveals how aerosol–cloud interactions (ACIs) and aerosol–radiation interactions (ARIs) induced by biomass burning (BB) aerosols act oppositely on radiation, cloud, and precipitation in the Amazon during the dry season. The varying relative significance of ACIs and ARIs with BB aerosol concentration leads to a nonlinear dependence of the total climate response on BB aerosol loading and features the growing importance of ARIs at high aerosol loading.
Marc Mallet, Fabien Solmon, Pierre Nabat, Nellie Elguindi, Fabien Waquet, Dominique Bouniol, Andrew Mark Sayer, Kerry Meyer, Romain Roehrig, Martine Michou, Paquita Zuidema, Cyrille Flamant, Jens Redemann, and Paola Formenti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13191–13216,Short summary
This paper presents numerical simulations using two regional climate models to study the impact of biomass fire plumes from central Africa on the radiative balance of this region. The results indicate that biomass fires can either warm the regional climate when they are located above low clouds or cool it when they are located above land. They can also alter sea and land surface temperatures by decreasing solar radiation at the surface. Finally, they can also modify the atmospheric dynamics.
Noora Hyttinen, Reyhaneh Heshmatnezhad, Jonas Elm, Theo Kurtén, and Nønne L. Prisle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13131–13143,Short summary
We present aqueous solubilities and activity coefficients of mono- and dicarboxylic acids (C1–C6 and C2–C8, respectively) estimated using the COSMOtherm program. In addition, we have calculated effective equilibrium constants of dimerization and hydration of the same acids in the condensed phase. We were also able to improve the agreement between experimental and estimated properties of monocarboxylic acids in aqueous solutions by including clustering reactions in COSMOtherm calculations.
Debbie O'Sullivan, Franco Marenco, Claire L. Ryder, Yaswant Pradhan, Zak Kipling, Ben Johnson, Angela Benedetti, Melissa Brooks, Matthew McGill, John Yorks, and Patrick Selmer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12955–12982,Short summary
Mineral dust is an important component of the climate system, and we assess how well it is predicted by two operational models. We flew an aircraft in the dust layers in the eastern Atlantic, and we also make use of satellites. We show that models predict the dust layer too low and that it predicts the particles to be too small. We believe that these discrepancies may be overcome if models can be constrained with operational observations of dust vertical and size-resolved distribution.
Yaping Shao, Jie Zhang, Masahide Ishizuka, Masao Mikami, John Leys, and Ning Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12939–12953,Short summary
It has been recognized in earlier research that particle size distribution of dust at emission (dust PSD) is dependent on friction velocity. This recognition has been challenged in some recent papers. Based on the analysis of experimental data, we confirm that dust PSD is dependent on friction velocity and atmospheric boundary-layer stability. By theoretical and numerical analysis, we reveal the reasons for this dependency.
Arshad Arjunan Nair and Fangqun Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12853–12869,Short summary
Small particles in the atmosphere can affect cloud formation and properties and thus Earth's energy budget. These cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) contribute the largest uncertainties in climate change modeling. To reduce these uncertainties, it is important to quantify CCN numbers accurately, measurements of which are sparse. We propose and evaluate a machine learning method to estimate CCN, in the absence of their direct measurements, using more common measurements of weather and air quality.
Ananth Ranjithkumar, Hamish Gordon, Christina Williamson, Andrew Rollins, Kirsty J. Pringle, Agnieszka Kupc, Nathan Luke Abraham, Charles A. Brock, and Kenneth S. Carslaw
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The effect aerosols have on climate can be better understood by studying their vertical and spatial distribution throughout the atmosphere. We use observation data from the ATom Campaign and evaluate the vertical profile of aerosol number concentration, Sulphur dioxide and condensation sink using UKESM (UK earth system model). We identify uncertainties in key atmospheric processes that help improve their theoretical representation in global climate models.
Yang Yang, Min Chen, Xiujuan Zhao, Dan Chen, Shuiyong Fan, Jianping Guo, and Shaukat Ali
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12527–12547,Short summary
This study analyzed the impacts of aerosol–radiation interaction on radiation and meteorological forecasts using the offline coupling of WRF and high-frequency updated AOD simulated by WRF-Chem. The results revealed that aerosol–radiation interaction had a positive influence on the improvement of predictive accuracy, including 2 m temperature (~ 73.9 %) and horizontal wind speed (~ 7.8 %), showing potential prospects for its application in regional numerical weather prediction in northern China.
Rong Tian, Xiaoyan Ma, and Jianqi Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We improve the treatments of dust emission process in GEOS-Chem by considering the effect of geographical variation of aerodynamic roughness length, smooth roughness length, soil texture, as well as Owen effect and more physically-based formulation of sandblasting efficiency, which together improve the estimated threshold friction velocity and dust concentrations over China. Our study highlights the importance of incorporation of realistic land-surface properties in dust emission scheme.
Naser G. A. Mahfouz and Neil M. Donahue
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
In this technical note, we show that the limit of the coagulation scavenging enhancement of charged particles is asymptotically 2; that is, in the limit, charged particles are lost at twice the rate of their neutral counterparts. This has serious implications for aerosol particle survivability where ions play a role in nucleation and growth. Such cases can happen readily in experiments, and cannot be neglected in the atmosphere.
Zhiyuan Li, Kin-Fai Ho, and Steve Hung Lam Yim
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This study established land-use regression (LUR) models using only routine air quality measurement data to support long-term health studies in an Asian metropolitan area. The established LUR models captured the spatial variability of exposure to air pollution, with remarkable predictive accuracy. This is the first Asian study to evaluate intercity transferability of LUR models, and it highlights that there exist uncertainties when transferring LUR models between nearby cities.
Laura J. Wilcox, Zhen Liu, Bjørn H. Samset, Ed Hawkins, Marianne T. Lund, Kalle Nordling, Sabine Undorf, Massimo Bollasina, Annica M. L. Ekman, Srinath Krishnan, Joonas Merikanto, and Andrew G. Turner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11955–11977,Short summary
Projected changes in man-made aerosol range from large reductions to moderate increases in emissions until 2050. Rapid reductions between the present and the 2050s lead to enhanced increases in global and Asian summer monsoon precipitation relative to scenarios with continued increases in aerosol. Relative magnitude and spatial distribution of aerosol changes are particularly important for South Asian summer monsoon precipitation changes, affecting the sign of the trend in the coming decades.
Xiaoning Xie, Gunnar Myhre, Xiaodong Liu, Xinzhou Li, Zhengguo Shi, Hongli Wang, Alf Kirkevåg, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Drew Shindell, Toshihiko Takemura, and Yangang Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11823–11839,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) and greenhouse gases (GHGs) enhance precipitation minus evaporation (P–E) of Asian summer monsoon (ASM). Further analysis reveals distinct mechanisms controlling BC- and GHG-induced ASM P–E increases. The change in ASM P–E by BC is dominated by the dynamic effect of enhanced large-scale monsoon circulation, the GHG-induced change by the thermodynamic effect of increasing atmospheric water vapor. This results from different atmospheric temperature feedbacks due to BC and GHGs.
Nikolaos Evangeliou, Stephen M. Platt, Sabine Eckhardt, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Paolo Laj, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, John Backman, Benjamin T. Brem, Markus Fiebig, Harald Flentje, Angela Marinoni, Marco Pandolfi, Jesus Yus-Dìez, Natalia Prats, Jean P. Putaud, Karine Sellegri, Mar Sorribas, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Stergios Vratolis, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Andreas Stohl
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Following the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to Europe, social distancing rules were introduced to prevent further spread. We investigate the impacts of the European lockdowns on black carbon (BC) emissions by means of in-situ observations and inverse modelling. BC emissions declined by 11 % in Europe during the lockdown as compared with previous years and 10 % as compared with the period prior to lockdowns. Residential combustion prevailed in Eastern Europe as confirmed from remote sensing data.
Xiaoning Xie, Anmin Duan, Zhengguo Shi, Xinzhou Li, Hui Sun, Xiaodong Liu, Xugeng Cheng, Tianliang Zhao, Huizheng Che, and Yangang Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11143–11159,Short summary
Observational and modeling results both show that the surface dust concentrations over the East Asian (EA) dust source region and over the northwestern Pacific (NP) in MAM are significantly positively correlated with TPSH. These atmospheric circulation anomalies induced by the increased TPSH result in increasing westerly winds over both EA and NP, which in turn increases dust emissions over the dust source and dust transport over these two regions, as well as the regional dust cycles.
Tabish Umar Ansari, Oliver Wild, Edmund Ryan, Ying Chen, Jie Li, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We use novel modelling approaches to quantify the lingering effects of one-day local and regional emission controls on subsequent days, the effects of longer continuous emission controls of individual sectors over different regions and the effects of combined emission controls of multiple sectors and regions on air quality in Beijing under varying weather conditions to inform precise short-term emission control policies for avoiding heavy haze pollution in Beijing.
Stefan Rahimi, Xiaohong Liu, Chun Zhao, Zheng Lu, and Zachary J. Lebo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10911–10935,Short summary
Dark particles emitted to the atmosphere can absorb sunlight and heat the air. As these particles settle, they may darken the surface, especially over snow-covered regions like the Rocky Mountains. This darkening of the surface may lead to changes in snowpack, affecting the local meteorology and hydrology. We seek to evaluate whether these light-absorbing particles more prominently affect this region through their atmospheric presence or their on-snow presence.
Longlei Li, Natalie M. Mahowald, Ron L. Miller, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Martina Klose, Douglas S. Hamilton, Maria Gonçalves Ageitos, Paul Ginoux, Yves Balkanski, Robert O. Green, Olga Kalashnikova, Jasper F. Kok, Vincenzo Obiso, David Paynter, and David R. Thompson
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
For the first time, this study quantifies the range of dust direct radiative effect due to uncertainty in the soil mineral abundance using all currently available information. We show that the majority of the estimated direct radiative effect range is due to uncertainty in the simulated mass fractions of iron oxides and thus their soil abundance which is independent of the model employed. We, therefore, prove the necessity of considering mineralogy for understanding dust-climate interactions.
Wenyuan Chang, Ying Zhang, Zhengqiang Li, Jie Chen, and Kaitao Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The MOSAIC aerosol mechanism in WRF-Chem has been often used for aerosol simulation, but variational data assimilation (DA) for the MOSAIC aerosols is still in need. This study provides an initial version of our variational DA system for the MOSAIC aerosols. The adjoint operators for multi-source aerosol optical data are present. We applied the DA system in an aerosol field campaign to assimilate multi-wavelength aerosol optical data. This DA system will expand to incorporate more aerosol data.
Baozhu Ge, Syuichi Itahashi, Keiichi Sato, Danhui Xu, Junhua Wang, Fan Fan, Qixin Tan, Joshua S. Fu, Xuemei Wang, Kazuyo Yamaji, Tatsuya Nagashima, Jie Li, Mizuo Kajino, Hong Liao, Meigen Zhang, Zhe Wang, Meng Li, Jung-Hun Woo, Junichi Kurokawa, Yuepeng Pan, Qizhong Wu, Xuejun Liu, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10587–10610,Short summary
Performances of the simulated deposition for different reduced N (Nr) species in China were conducted with the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia. Results showed that simulated wet deposition of oxidized N was overestimated in northeastern China and underestimated in south China, but Nr was underpredicted in all regions by all models. Oxidized N has larger uncertainties than Nr, indicating that the chemical reaction process is one of the most importance factors affecting model performance.
Chenglai Wu, Zhaohui Lin, and Xiaohong Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10401–10425,Short summary
This study provides a comprehensive evaluation of the global dust cycle in 15 models participating in the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). We assess the global budget and associated uncertainties. We also quantify the discrepancies in each model. The results highlight the large uncertainties in both the locations and intensities of dust emission. Our study will serve as a useful reference for model communities and help further model improvements.
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