Articles | Volume 18, issue 20
23 Oct 2018
Research article | 23 Oct 2018
Temporal variations in the hygroscopicity and mixing state of black carbon aerosols in a polluted megacity area
Kangning Li et al.
No articles found.
Lei Shu, Lei Zhu, Juseon Bak, Peter Zoogman, Han Han, Song Liu, Xicheng Li, Shuai Sun, Juan Li, Yuyang Chen, Dongchuan Pu, Xiaoxing Zuo, Weitao Fu, Xin Yang, and Tzung-May Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We quantify the benefit of multisource observations (GEMS, LEO satellite, and surface) on ozone simulations in Asia. Data assimilation improves the monitoring of exceedance, spatial pattern, and diurnal variation of surface ozone, with the regional mean bias reduced from –2.1 to –0.2 ppbv. Data assimilation also better represents ozone vertical distributions in the middle to upper troposphere at low latitudes. Our results offer a valuable reference for future ozone simulations.
Yiqun Lu, Yingge Ma, Dan Dan Huang, Shengrong Lou, Sheng’ao Jing, Yaqin Gao, Hongli Wang, Yanjun Zhang, Hui Chen, Naiqiang Yan, Jianmin Chen, Christian George, Matthieu Riva, and Cheng Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
The N-containing oxygenated organic molecules have been expected as the important precursors of aerosol particles. This study used an ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometer coupled with an online sample inlet to accurately measure their molecular composition, concentration level and variation patterns. We demonstrated their formation process and the influencing factors in a Chinese megacity involving various VOC precursors and atmospheric oxidants, and highlight the influence of PM episode.
Jinlong Ma, Shengqiang Zhu, Siyu Wang, Peng Wang, Jianmin Chen, and Hongliang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
An updated version of the CMAQ model with BVOC emissions from MEGAN was applied to study the impacts of different land cover inputs on O3 and SOA in China. The estimated BVOCs emissions ranged from 25.42 to 37.39 Tg using different LAI and LC inputs. Those differences further induced differences of 4.8–6.9 ppb in O3 concentrations and differences of 5.3–8.4 μg m-3 in SOA concentrations in central China.
Jian-yan Lu, Sunling Gong, Chun-hong Zhou, Jian Zhang, Jian-min Chen, and Lei Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
A regional online chemical weather model WRF/ CUACE was used to assess the contributions of cloud chemistry to the SO2 and sulfate levels in typical regions in China. The cloud chemistry scheme in CUACE was evaluated, and well reproduces the cloud chemistry processes. During cloud availability in a heavy pollution episode, the sulfate production increases 40–80 % and SO2 reduces over 80 %. This study provides a way to analyze the over-estimate phenomenon of SO2 in many chemical transport models.
Tao Wang, Yangyang Liu, Hanyun Cheng, Zhenzhen Wang, Hongbo Fu, Jianmin Chen, and Liwu Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13467–13493,Short summary
This study compared the gas-phase, aqueous-phase, and heterogeneous SO2 oxidation pathways by combining laboratory work with a modelling study. The heterogeneous oxidation, particularly that induced by the dust surface drivers, presents positive implications for the removal of airborne SO2 and formation of sulfate aerosols. This work highlighted the atmospheric significance of heterogeneous oxidation and suggested a comparison model to evaluate the following heterogeneous laboratory research.
Hongxing Jiang, Jun Li, Jiao Tang, Min Cui, Shizhen Zhao, Yangzhi Mo, Chongguo Tian, Xiangyun Zhang, Bin Jiang, Yuhong Liao, Yingjun Chen, and Gan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6919–6935,Short summary
We conducted field observation employing Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry to characterize the molecular composition and major formation pathways or sources of organosulfur compounds in Guangzhou, where is heavily influenced by biogenic–anthropogenic interactions and has high relative humidity and temperature. We suggested that heterogeneous reactions such as SO2 uptake and heterogeneous oxidations are important to the molecular variations of organosulfur compounds.
Yu Han, Tao Wang, Rui Li, Hongbo Fu, Yusen Duan, Song Gao, Liwu Zhang, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
Limited knowledge is available on the volatile organic compound (VOC) multi-site research at a city level. This study performed a concurrent multi-site observation campaign at the three supersites of Shanghai, East China. The results showed that VOC characteristics varied at the different sampling sites. Vehicle-related sources were the dominant VOC sources. Alkenes and aromatics were the key concerns in controlling the VOC-related pollution of SOA and O3 in the diverse districts of Shanghai.
Chaoyang Xue, Can Ye, Jörg Kleffmann, Chenglong Zhang, Valéry Catoire, Fengxia Bao, Abdelwahid Mellouki, Likun Xue, Jianmin Chen, Keding Lu, Yong Zhao, Hengde Liu, Zhaoxin Guo, and Yujing Mu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3149–3167,Short summary
Summertime measurements of nitrous acid (HONO) and related parameters were conducted at the foot and the summit of Mt. Tai (1534 m above sea level). We proposed a rapid vertical air mass exchange between the foot and the summit level, which enhances the role of HONO in the oxidizing capacity of the upper boundary layer. Kinetics for aerosol-derived HONO sources were constrained. HONO formation from different paths was quantified and discussed.
Wei Sun, Yuzhen Fu, Guohua Zhang, Yuxiang Yang, Feng Jiang, Xiufeng Lian, Bin Jiang, Yuhong Liao, Xinhui Bi, Duohong Chen, Jianmin Chen, Xinming Wang, Jie Ou, Ping'an Peng, and Guoying Sheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16631–16644,Short summary
We sampled cloud water at a remote mountain site and investigated the molecular characteristics. CHON and CHO are dominant in cloud water. No statistical difference in the oxidation state is observed between cloud water and interstitial PM2.5. Most of the formulas are aliphatic and olefinic species. CHON, with aromatic structures and organosulfates, are abundant, especially in nighttime samples. The in-cloud and multi-phase dark reactions likely contribute significantly.
Men Xia, Xiang Peng, Weihao Wang, Chuan Yu, Zhe Wang, Yee Jun Tham, Jianmin Chen, Hui Chen, Yujing Mu, Chenglong Zhang, Pengfei Liu, Likun Xue, Xinfeng Wang, Jian Gao, Hong Li, and Tao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15985–16000,Short summary
ClNO2 is an important precursor of chlorine radical that affects photochemistry. However, its production and impact are not well understood. Our study presents field observations of ClNO2 at three sites in northern China. These observations provide new insights into nighttime processes that produce ClNO2 and the significant impact of ClNO2 on secondary pollutions during daytime. The results improve the understanding of photochemical pollution in the lower part of the atmosphere.
Letizia Abis, Carmen Kalalian, Bastien Lunardelli, Tao Wang, Liwu Zhang, Jianmin Chen, Sébastien Perrier, Benjamin Loubet, Raluca Ciuraru, and Christian George
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12613–12629,Short summary
Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from rapeseed leaf litter have been investigated by means of a controlled atmospheric simulation chamber. The diversity of emitted VOCs increased also in the presence of UV light irradiation. SOA formation was observed when leaf litter was exposed to both UV light and ozone, indicating a potential contribution to particle formation or growth at local scales.
Zhenzhen Wang, Di Wu, Zhuoyu Li, Xiaona Shang, Qing Li, Xiang Li, Renjie Chen, Haidong Kan, Huiling Ouyang, Xu Tang, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12227–12241,Short summary
This study firstly investigates the composition of sugars in the fine fraction of aerosol over three sites in southwest China. The result suggested no significant reduction in biomass burning emissions in southwest Yunnan Province to some extent. The result shown sheds light on the contributions of biomass burning and the characteristics of biogenic saccharides in these regions, which could be further applied to regional source apportionment models and global climate models.
Jiao Tang, Jiaqi Wang, Guangcai Zhong, Hongxing Jiang, Yangzhi Mo, Bolong Zhang, Xiaofei Geng, Yingjun Chen, Jianhui Tang, Congguo Tian, Surat Bualert, Jun Li, and Gan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11337–11352,Short summary
This article provides a combined EEM–PARAFAC and statistical analysis method to explore how excitation–emission matrix (EEM) chromophores influence BrC light absorption in soluble organic matter. The application enables us to deduce that BrC absorption is mainly dependent on longer-emission-wavelength chromophores largely associated with biomass burning emissions. This method promotes the application of EEM spectroscopy and helps us understand the light absorption of BrC in the atmosphere.
Rui Li, Yilong Zhao, Hongbo Fu, Jianmin Chen, Meng Peng, and Chunying Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8677–8692,Short summary
Based on a random forest model, the strict lockdown measures significantly decreased primary components such as Cr (−67 %) and Fe (−61 %) in PM2.5 (p < 0.01), whereas the higher relative humidity (RH) and NH3 level and the lower air temperature (T) remarkably enhanced the production of secondary aerosol including SO42− (29 %), NO3− (29 %), and NH4+ (21 %) (p < 0.05). The natural experiment suggested that the NH3 emission should be strictly controlled.
Jinlong Ma, Juanyong Shen, Peng Wang, Shengqiang Zhu, Yu Wang, Pengfei Wang, Gehui Wang, Jianmin Chen, and Hongliang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7343–7355,Short summary
Due to the reduced anthropogenic emissions during the COVID-19 lockdown, mainly from the transportation and industrial sectors, PM2.5 decreased significantly in the whole Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and its major cities. However, the contributions and relative importance of different source sectors and regions changed differently, indicating that control strategies should be adjusted accordingly for further pollution control.
Jianzhong Sun, Yuzhe Zhang, Guorui Zhi, Regina Hitzenberger, Wenjing Jin, Yingjun Chen, Lei Wang, Chongguo Tian, Zhengying Li, Rong Chen, Wen Xiao, Yuan Cheng, Wei Yang, Liying Yao, Yang Cao, Duo Huang, Yueyuan Qiu, Jiali Xu, Xiaofei Xia, Xin Yang, Xi Zhang, Zheng Zong, Yuchun Song, and Changdong Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2329–2341,Short summary
Brown carbon (BrC) emission factors from household biomass fuels were measured with an integrating sphere optics approach supported by iterative calculations. A novel algorithm to directly estimate the absorption contribution of BrC relative to that of BrC + black carbon (FBrC) was proposed based purely on the absorption exponent (AAE) (FBrC = 0.5519 lnAAE + 0.0067). The FBrC for household biomass fuels was as high as 50.8 % across the strongest solar spectral range of 350−850 nm.
Xiaona Shang, Ling Li, Xinlian Zhang, Huihui Kang, Guodong Sui, Gehui Wang, Xingnan Ye, Hang Xiao, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1037–1045,Short summary
Oxidative stress can be used to evaluate not only adverse health effects but also adverse ecological effects. However, little research uses eco-toxicological assay to assess the risks posed by particle matter to non-human biomes. One important reason might be that the concentration of toxic components of atmospheric particles is far below the high detection limit of eco-toxic measurement. To solve the rapid detection problem, we extended a VACES for ecotoxicity aerosol measurement.
Yujiao Zhu, Likun Xue, Jian Gao, Jianmin Chen, Hongyong Li, Yong Zhao, Zhaoxin Guo, Tianshu Chen, Liang Wen, Penggang Zheng, Ye Shan, Xinfeng Wang, Tao Wang, Xiaohong Yao, and Wenxing Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1305–1323,Short summary
This work investigates the long-term changes in new particle formation (NPF) events under reduced SO2 emissions at the summit of Mt. Tai during seven campaigns from 2007 to 2018. We found the NPF intensity increased 2- to 3-fold in 2018 compared to 2007. In contrast, the probability of new particles growing to CCN size largely decreased. Changes to biogenic VOCs and anthropogenic emissions are proposed to explain the distinct NPF characteristics.
Jiarong Li, Chao Zhu, Hui Chen, Defeng Zhao, Likun Xue, Xinfeng Wang, Hongyong Li, Pengfei Liu, Junfeng Liu, Chenglong Zhang, Yujing Mu, Wenjin Zhang, Luming Zhang, Hartmut Herrmann, Kai Li, Min Liu, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13735–13751,Short summary
Based on a field study at Mt. Tai, China, the simultaneous variations of cloud microphysics, aerosol microphysics and their potential interactions during cloud life cycles were discussed. Results demonstrated that clouds on clean days were more susceptible to the concentrations of particle number, while clouds formed on polluted days might be more sensitive to meteorological parameters. Particles larger than 150 nm played important roles in forming cloud droplets with sizes of 5–10 μm.
Yuwei Wang, Archit Mehra, Jordan E. Krechmer, Gan Yang, Xiaoyu Hu, Yiqun Lu, Andrew Lambe, Manjula Canagaratna, Jianmin Chen, Douglas Worsnop, Hugh Coe, and Lin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9563–9579,Short summary
A series of OH-initiated oxidation experiments of trimethylbenzene were investigated in the absence and presence of NOx. Many C9 products with 1–11 oxygen atoms and C18 products presumably formed from dimerization of C9 peroxy radicals were observed, hinting at the extensive existence of autoxidation and accretion reaction pathways. The presence of NOx would suppress the formation of highly oxygenated C18 molecules and enhance the formation of organonitrates and even dinitrate compounds.
Shengqiang Zhu, Lei Li, Shurong Wang, Mei Li, Yaxi Liu, Xiaohui Lu, Hong Chen, Lin Wang, Jianmin Chen, Zhen Zhou, Xin Yang, and Xiaofei Wang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4111–4121,Short summary
Single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS) is widely used to detect chemical compositions and sizes of individual aerosol particles. However, it has a major issue: the mass accuracy of high-resolution SPAMS is relatively low. Here we developed an automatic linear calibration method to greatly improve the mass accuracy of SPAMS spectra so that the elemental compositions of organic peaks, such as Cx, CxHy, CxHyOz and CxHyNO peaks, can be directly identified just based on their m / z values.
Jian Xu, Jia Chen, Na Zhao, Guochen Wang, Guangyuan Yu, Hao Li, Juntao Huo, Yanfen Lin, Qingyan Fu, Hongyu Guo, Congrui Deng, Shan-Hu Lee, Jianmin Chen, and Kan Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7259–7269,Short summary
This study provided evidence that gas-particle partitioning of ammonia, as opposed to ammonia concentration, plays a critical role in the haze formation. A reduction in ammonia emissions alone may not reduce air pollution effectively, at least at rural agricultural sites in China.
Manuela van Pinxteren, Khanneh Wadinga Fomba, Nadja Triesch, Christian Stolle, Oliver Wurl, Enno Bahlmann, Xianda Gong, Jens Voigtländer, Heike Wex, Tiera-Brandy Robinson, Stefan Barthel, Sebastian Zeppenfeld, Erik Hans Hoffmann, Marie Roveretto, Chunlin Li, Benoit Grosselin, Veronique Daële, Fabian Senf, Dominik van Pinxteren, Malena Manzi, Nicolás Zabalegui, Sanja Frka, Blaženka Gašparović, Ryan Pereira, Tao Li, Liang Wen, Jiarong Li, Chao Zhu, Hui Chen, Jianmin Chen, Björn Fiedler, Wolf von Tümpling, Katie Alana Read, Shalini Punjabi, Alastair Charles Lewis, James Roland Hopkins, Lucy Jane Carpenter, Ilka Peeken, Tim Rixen, Detlef Schulz-Bull, María Eugenia Monge, Abdelwahid Mellouki, Christian George, Frank Stratmann, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6921–6951,Short summary
An introduction to a comprehensive field campaign performed at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory regarding ocean–atmosphere interactions is given. Chemical, physical, biological and meteorological techniques were applied, and measurements of bulk water, the sea surface microlayer, cloud water and ambient aerosol particles took place. Oceanic compounds were found to be transferred to atmospheric aerosol and to the cloud level; however, sea spray contributions to CCN and INPs were limited.
Xinning Wang, Xingnan Ye, Jianmin Chen, Xiaofei Wang, Xin Yang, Tzung-May Fu, Lei Zhu, and Chongxuan Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6273–6290,Short summary
Hygroscopicity plays several key roles in determining aerosol optical properties and aging processes in the atmosphere. However, it is quite difficult to study aerosol hygroscopicity at the single-particle level. In this study, we built a comprehensive database linking hygroscopicities and mass spectra of individual particles. Based on the measured hygroscopicity–composition relations, we developed a statistical method to estimate ambient particle hygroscopicity just from their mass spectra.
Yuning Xie, Gehui Wang, Xinpei Wang, Jianmin Chen, Yubao Chen, Guiqian Tang, Lili Wang, Shuangshuang Ge, Guoyan Xue, Yuesi Wang, and Jian Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5019–5033,Short summary
As a result of strict emission control, nitrate-dominated PM2.5 in pollution episodes was observed in urban Beijing during the winter of 2017–2018. With the help of sufficient ammonia, particle pH could increase to near neutral (5.4) as particulate nitrate fraction increases. Further tests imply that airborne particle hygroscopicity would be enhanced at moderate RH in nitrate-dominated particles, and pH elevation will be accelerated when ammonia and particulate nitrate both increase.
Jiao Tang, Jun Li, Tao Su, Yong Han, Yangzhi Mo, Hongxing Jiang, Min Cui, Bin Jiang, Yingjun Chen, Jianhui Tang, Jianzhong Song, Ping'an Peng, and Gan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2513–2532,Short summary
We investigated the light absorption, fluorescence, and molecular composition of dissolved organic carbon from the simulated combustion of biomass and coal and vehicle emissions with UV–vis spectra, EEM-PARAFAC, and FT-ICR MS. We observed high light absorption capacity from source emissions, and fluorescence spectra and molecular structures varied by source. We concluded that an EEM- and molecular-composition-based methodology could be helpful in the source apportionment of atmospheric aerosols.
Can Wu, Gehui Wang, Jin Li, Jianjun Li, Cong Cao, Shuangshuang Ge, Yuning Xie, Jianmin Chen, Xingru Li, Guoyan Xue, Xinpei Wang, Zhuyu Zhao, and Fang Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2017–2030,Short summary
Brown carbon (BrC), as an important component of aerosol, has attracted wide attention in recent years, yet very limited information on size differences is available. This paper reveals that BrC presented a bimodal pattern and was mainly derived from biomass burning in an interior city of China. Our results are very helpful for readers to comprehensively understand the features of brown carbon in China.
Fan Zhang, Hai Guo, Yingjun Chen, Volker Matthias, Yan Zhang, Xin Yang, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1549–1564,Short summary
Particulate matter (PM) emitted from ships has gained more attention in recent decades. Organic matter, elemental carbon, water-soluble ions and heavy metals in PM and particle numbers are the main points. However, studies of detailed chemical compositions in particles with different size ranges emitted from ships are in shortage. This study could bring new and detailed measurement data into the field of size-segregated particles from ships and be of great source emission interest.
Min Cui, Cheng Li, Yingjun Chen, Fan Zhang, Jun Li, Bin Jiang, Yangzhi Mo, Jia Li, Caiqing Yan, Mei Zheng, Zhiyong Xie, Gan Zhang, and Junyu Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13945–13956,Short summary
Refined source apportionment is urgently needed but hard to achieve due to a lack of specific biomarkers. Recently, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry has been used to analyse the probable chemical structure of polar organic matter emitted from off-road engines. We found more condensed aromatic rings in S-containing compounds for HFO-fueled vessels, while more abundant aliphatic chains were observed in emissions from diesel equipment.
Zhenzhen Wang, Tao Wang, Hongbo Fu, Liwu Zhang, Mingjin Tang, Christian George, Vicki H. Grassian, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12569–12585,Short summary
This study confirmed that SO2 uptake on mineral particles could be greatly enhanced during cloud processing. The large pH fluctuations between the cloud-aerosol modes could significantly modify the microphysical properties of particles, and triggered the formation of reactive Fe particles to accelerate sulfate formation via a self-amplifying process. Results of this study could partly explain the missing source of sulfate and improve agreement between models and field observations.
Yunhua Chang, Yan-Lin Zhang, Jiarong Li, Chongguo Tian, Linlin Song, Xiaoyao Zhai, Wenqi Zhang, Tong Huang, Yu-Chi Lin, Chao Zhu, Yunting Fang, Moritz F. Lehmann, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12221–12234,Short summary
The present work underscores the value of cloud water dissolved inorganic nitrogen isotopes as carriers of quantitative information on regional NOx and NH3 emissions. It sheds light on the origin and production pathways of nitrogenous species in clouds and emphasizes the importance of biomass-burning-derived nitrogenous species as cloud condensation nuclei in China’s troposphere. Moreover, it highlights the rapid evolution of NOx emissions in China.
Tao Wang, Yangyang Liu, Yue Deng, Hanyun Cheng, Yang Yang, Yiqing Feng, Muhammad Ali Tahir, Xiaozhong Fang, Xu Dong, Kejian Li, Saira Ajmal, Aziz-Ur-Rahim Bacha, Iqra Nabi, Hongbo Fu, Liwu Zhang, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
We studied the heterogeneous formation of nitrate and nitrite aerosols by in-situ laboratory tests and field observations. Sunlight becomes the protagonist under weak illumination, while a costar under strong irradiation, attributing to the balance between NO2 adsorption and the formation of photoinduced active species. Meanwhile, sunlight determines the association between atmospheric nitrate and nitrite. We hope this work offer more suggestions for modelling studies.
Zhijian Li, Sergey A. Nizkorodov, Hong Chen, Xiaohui Lu, Xin Yang, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1343–1356,Short summary
In this work, we found that acrolein, the smallest α,β-unsaturated aldehyde, has the potential to form light-absorbing heterocyclic secondary organic aerosol. In the gaseous phase, acrolein can react with gaseous ammonia, forming 3-picoline. In the liquid phase, the dissolved acrolein can react with ammonium to form higher molecular-weight pyridinium compounds. All the pyridinium compounds can increase the light absorptivity of aerosol particles.
Lei Liu, Jian Zhang, Liang Xu, Qi Yuan, Dao Huang, Jianmin Chen, Zongbo Shi, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Daizhou Zhang, and Weijun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14681–14693,Short summary
Using transmission electron microscopy, we studied individual cloud droplet residual and interstitial particles collected in cloud events at Mt. Tai in the polluted North China region. We found that individual cloud droplets were an extremely complicated mixture containing abundant refractory soot (i.e., black carbon), fly ash, and metals. The complicated cloud droplets have not been reported in clean continental or marine air before.
Zhong Li, Chunlin Li, Xingnan Ye, Hongbo Fu, Lin Wang, Xin Yang, Xinke Wang, Zhuohui Zhao, Haidong Kan, Abdelwahid Mellouki, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14445–14464,Short summary
Air quality over the Yangtze River is important as it may significantly influence aquatic ecosystems, public health, and coastal areas. A comprehensive 15-day cruise campaign, TEMP, was performed in the mid–lower reaches of the Yangtze River in winter of 2015. Based on the filter samples, the chemical composition of PM2.5 greatly varied or fluctuated.
Ying Ji, Xiaofei Qin, Bo Wang, Jian Xu, Jiandong Shen, Jianmin Chen, Kan Huang, Congrui Deng, Renchang Yan, Kaier Xu, and Tian Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13581–13600,Short summary
Large-scale joint emission control measures were carried out in the Yangtze River Delta during the Hangzhou G20 Summit in 2016. The extent of secondary inorganic aerosol formation was found to be significantly enhanced under transport conditions from northern China. However, the formation of secondary organic aerosols was also greatly suppressed due to the emission control measures. Overall, it was found that regional/long-range transport could have offset part of the emission control efforts.
Yanhong Zhu, Lingxiao Yang, Jianmin Chen, Kimitaka Kawamura, Mamiko Sato, Andreas Tilgner, Dominik van Pinxteren, Ying Chen, Likun Xue, Xinfeng Wang, Isobel J. Simpson, Hartmut Herrmann, Donald R. Blake, and Wenxing Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10741–10758,Short summary
Molecular distributions of dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls in the free troposphere are identified, and their concentration variations between 2014 and 2006 are presented. High nighttime concentrations were probably due to precursor emissions and aqueous-phase oxidation. Biomass burning was significant, but its tracer levoglucosan in 2014 was 5 times lower than 2006 concentrations. Finally, regional emission from anthropogenic activities was identified as a major source.
Di Liu, Matthias Vonwiller, Jun Li, Junwen Liu, Sönke Szidat, Yanlin Zhang, Chongguo Tian, Yinjun Chen, Zhineng Cheng, Guangcai Zhong, Pingqing Fu, and Gan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Liwei Wang, Xinfeng Wang, Rongrong Gu, Hao Wang, Lan Yao, Liang Wen, Fanping Zhu, Weihao Wang, Likun Xue, Lingxiao Yang, Keding Lu, Jianmin Chen, Tao Wang, Yuanghang Zhang, and Wenxing Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4349–4359,Short summary
This study presents concentrations, variation characteristics, sources and secondary formations of nitrated phenols, a major component of brown carbon, in typical seasons at four sites in northern China. The results highlight the strong influences and contributions of anthropogenic activities, in particular coal combustion and the aging processes, to the atmospheric nitrated phenols in this region.
Ganglin Lv, Xiao Sui, Jianmin Chen, Rohan Jayaratne, and Abdelwahid Mellouki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2243–2258,Short summary
We conducted an investigation of new particle formation (NPF) at the summit of Mt. Tai, eastern China, based on simultaneous measurements of particle size distribution, meteorological parameters, gaseous species, mass concentration, and chemical composition of PM2.5. The general characteristics, favorable conditions, and potential precursor species of NPF events are discussed. An in-depth study of NPF on Mt. Tai is important for understanding the effect of particles on air quality.
Di Liu, Jun Li, Zhineng Cheng, Guangcai Zhong, Sanyuan Zhu, Ping Ding, Chengde Shen, Chongguo Tian, Yingjun Chen, Guorui Zhi, and Gan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11491–11502,Short summary
To elucidate the carbon sources of air pollution, source apportionment was conducted using radiocarbon and unique molecular organic tracers during the beginning of winter 2013 in 10 Chinese cities. The results indicated that non-fossil-fuel (NF) emissions were predominant. During haze episodes, there were no dramatic changes in the carbon source or composition in the cities under study, but the contribution of primary OC from both fossil fuel and NF increased significantly.
Caihong Xu, Min Wei, Jianmin Chen, Chao Zhu, Jiarong Li, Ganglin Lv, Xianmang Xu, Lulu Zheng, Guodong Sui, Weijun Li, Bing Chen, Wenxing Wang, Qingzhu Zhang, Aijun Ding, and Abdelwahid Mellouki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11247–11260,Short summary
Fungi are ubiquitous throughout the near-surface atmosphere, where they represent an important component of primary biological aerosol particles. The diversity and composition of the fungal communities varied over the different seasons between the fine (PM2.5) and submicron (PM1) particles at the summit of Mt. Tai located in the North China Plain, China. This work may serve as an important reference for the fungal contribution to primary biological aerosol particles.
Jiarong Li, Xinfeng Wang, Jianmin Chen, Chao Zhu, Weijun Li, Chengbao Li, Lu Liu, Caihong Xu, Liang Wen, Likun Xue, Wenxing Wang, Aijun Ding, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9885–9896,Short summary
Cloud events at Mt. Tai were investigated for the chemical composition and size distribution of cloud droplets. An obvious rise in pH was found for elevated NH+4 during the last decade. Higher PM2.5 levels resulted in higher concentrations of water-soluble ions, smaller sizes and higher numbers of cloud droplets. The mechanism of cloud-droplet formation and the mass transfer between aerosol–gas–cloud phases were summarized to enrich the knowledge of cloud chemical and microphysical properties.
Jinghao Zhai, Xiaohui Lu, Ling Li, Qi Zhang, Ci Zhang, Hong Chen, Xin Yang, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7481–7493,Short summary
The effective density, chemical composition, and optical properties of particles produced by burning rice straw were measured. Density distribution and single-particle mass spectrometry showed the size-dependent external mixing of black carbon, organic carbon, and potassium salts in biomass burning particles. Optical measurements indicated the significant presence of brown carbon in all particles. Though freshly emitted, light absorption enhancement was observed for particles larger than 200 nm.
Yuanyuan Xie, Xingnan Ye, Zhen Ma, Ye Tao, Ruyu Wang, Ci Zhang, Xin Yang, Jianmin Chen, and Hong Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7277–7290,Short summary
Urban air pollution is one of the greatest environmental concern in 21st century. In this paper, we trace temporal evolutions of aerosol hygroscopicity and effective density during a representative particulate matter episode, which provide a strong support on that severe haze pollution can be formed in highly polluted areas by the initial accumulation of gas-phase and particulate pollutants under stagnant meteorological conditions and subsequent rapid particle growth by secondary processes.
Min Cui, Yingjun Chen, Yanli Feng, Cheng Li, Junyu Zheng, Chongguo Tian, Caiqing Yan, and Mei Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6779–6795,Short summary
PM emitted from diesel vehicles has a severe impact on air quality and human health. However, characteristics of PM from diesel vehicles, particularly measured under real-world condition, are scarce. In this study, 6 excavators and 5 trucks were tested to characterize constituents of PM. PM emission factor (EFPM) and compositions were affected by fuel quality, operating modes and emission standards. Moreover, EFPM and risk of carcinogenic for excavators were 1.7 and 31 fold of those for trucks.
Min Wei, Caihong Xu, Jianmin Chen, Chao Zhu, Jiarong Li, and Ganglin Lv
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5253–5270,Short summary
Bacterial communities in cloud water collected at the summit of Mt Tai from 24 July to 23 August 2014 were investigated. A highly diverse bacterial community was retrieved. Community function prediction suggested that pathways related to metabolism and disease infections were significantly correlated with the predominant genera. Potential pathogens were enriched in the polluted cloud samples, whereas the diverse ecological function groups were significant in the non-polluted samples.
Rui Li, Yunjie Hu, Ling Li, Hongbo Fu, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5079–5093,Short summary
Five episodes were divided based on meteorological conditions and chemical composition. The clear episodes (EP-2 and EP-4) featured low light extinction with fewer pollutants, which are mostly externally mixed. In contrast, EP-1 and EP-5 were impacted by the industrial activities and biomass burning through the southern air mass, respectively. Soot at the fog period detected in EP-3 was mostly internally mixed with sulfates and nitrates.
Chunlin Li, Yunjie Hu, Fei Zhang, Jianmin Chen, Zhen Ma, Xingnan Ye, Xin Yang, Lin Wang, Xingfu Tang, Renhe Zhang, Mu Mu, Guihua Wang, Haidong Kan, Xinming Wang, and Abdelwahid Mellouki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4957–4988,Short summary
Detailed emission factors for smoke particulate species in PM2.5 and PM1.0 were derived from laboratory simulation of crop straw burning using aerosol chamber systems. Based on this, emissions for crop residue field burning in China were calculated and characterized with respect to five different burning scenarios. Moreover, health effects and health-related economic loss from smoke particle exposure were assessed; a practical emission control policy for agricultural field burning was proposed.
Jianzhong Sun, Guorui Zhi, Regina Hitzenberger, Yingjun Chen, Chongguo Tian, Yayun Zhang, Yanli Feng, Miaomiao Cheng, Yuzhe Zhang, Jing Cai, Feng Chen, Yiqin Qiu, Zhiming Jiang, Jun Li, Gan Zhang, and Yangzhi Mo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4769–4780,Short summary
This paper investigates the emission factors and the light absorption properties of brown carbon (BrC) from China’s household coal burning. Seven coals of various ranks were burned in four typical stoves as both chunk and briquette styles. The optical integrating sphere (IS) method was employed to quantify BrC and black carbon (BC). We conclude that, in the scenario of current household coal burning in China, solar light absorption by BrC accounts for 26.5 % of the total absorption.
Shurui Chen, Liang Xu, Yinxiao Zhang, Bing Chen, Xinfeng Wang, Xiaoye Zhang, Mei Zheng, Jianmin Chen, Wenxing Wang, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, and Weijun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1259–1270,Short summary
Many studies have focused on the unusually severe hazes instead of the more frequent light and moderate hazes (22–63 %) in winter in the North China Plain (NCP). The morphology, mixing state, and size of organic aerosols in the L & M hazes were characterized. We conclude that the direct emissions from residential coal stoves without any pollution controls in rural and urban outskirts contribute large amounts of primary OM particles to the regional L & M hazes in winter in the NCP.
Chen Xu, Junyan Duan, Yanyu Wang, Yifan Wang, Hailin Zhu, Xiang Li, Lingdong Kong, Qianshan He, Tiantao Cheng, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
We intensively examined the influence of polluted aerosol on cloud and precipitation on different underlying surfaces and evaluated relationship between aerosol types and physical properties of clouds under different atmospheric conditions over the YRD. Aerosol plays an important role in cloud evolution in the low layers of troposphere (below 5 km) in the case of the stable atmosphere in wintertime.The results are helpful to in-depth understanding of aerosol indirect effects in Asian.
Lei Yao, Ming-Yi Wang, Xin-Ke Wang, Yi-Jun Liu, Hang-Fei Chen, Jun Zheng, Wei Nie, Ai-Jun Ding, Fu-Hai Geng, Dong-Fang Wang, Jian-Min Chen, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Lin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14527–14543,Short summary
We present the development of a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) method, utilizing protonated ethanol as reagent ions to simultaneously detect atmospheric gaseous amines (C1 to C6) and amides (C1 to C6). Deployment of this ethanol HR-ToF-CIMS has been demonstrated in a field campaign in urban Shanghai, China, detecting amines (from a few pptv to hundreds of pptv) and amides (from tens of pptv to a few ppbv).
Yi Zhu, Jiping Zhang, Junxia Wang, Wenyuan Chen, Yiqun Han, Chunxiang Ye, Yingruo Li, Jun Liu, Limin Zeng, Yusheng Wu, Xinfeng Wang, Wenxing Wang, Jianmin Chen, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12551–12565,Short summary
With five repeated experiments using a mobile laboratory, we obtained the spatial distribution of major air pollutants over the surface of the North China Plain (NCP). All the pollutants were at high levels, with pollutant peak values in nearby major cities and along transport routes. With simulated wind fields, we identified the prevalent transport routes of air pollutants on different parts of the NCP, reflecting the transport of air pollution between megacities and surrounding regions.
Zheng Zong, Xiaoping Wang, Chongguo Tian, Yingjun Chen, Lin Qu, Ling Ji, Guorui Zhi, Jun Li, and Gan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11249–11265,Short summary
We explore the source apportionment of PM2.5 in North China in winter using an original combination method, and coal combustion, biomass burning and vehicle emissions are identified as the largest contributors of PM2.5, accounting for 29.6, 19.3 and 15.8 %, respectively. Biomass burning emission was highlighted in the present study because of its dominant contribution to the PM2.5 burden in the Shandong Peninsula and because it is neglected in the air pollution control program.
Lei Sun, Likun Xue, Tao Wang, Jian Gao, Aijun Ding, Owen R. Cooper, Meiyun Lin, Pengju Xu, Zhe Wang, Xinfeng Wang, Liang Wen, Yanhong Zhu, Tianshu Chen, Lingxiao Yang, Yan Wang, Jianmin Chen, and Wenxing Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10637–10650,Short summary
We compiled the available observations of surface O3 at Mt. Tai – the highest mountain in the North China Plain, and found a significant increase of O3 concenrations from 2003 to 2015. The observed O3 increase was mainly due to the increase of O3 precursors, especially VOCs. Our analysis shows that controlling NOx alone, in the absence of VOC controls, is not sufficient to reduce regional O3 levels in North China in a short period.
Chunpeng Leng, Junyan Duan, Chen Xu, Hefeng Zhang, Yifan Wang, Yanyu Wang, Xiang Li, Lingdong Kong, Jun Tao, Renjian Zhang, Tiantao Cheng, Shuping Zha, and Xingna Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9221–9234,Short summary
Meteorological conditions, local anthropogenic emissions and aerosol properties played major roles in this historic winter haze weather formation. Aerosols the size of 600–1400 nm are mostly responsible for the impairment of atmospheric visibility. This study was performed by combining many on-line measurement techniques which were calibrated regularly to ensure reliability, and can act as a reference for forecasting and eliminating the occurrences of regional atmospheric pollutions in China.
Fan Zhang, Yingjun Chen, Chongguo Tian, Diming Lou, Jun Li, Gan Zhang, and Volker Matthias
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6319–6334,Short summary
In this study, on-board tests of three offshore vessels in China have been carried out for the first time. Emission factors for gaseous species, PM, and relevant chemical components (OC, EC, metal elements, and water soluble ions) in different operating modes are given, which means a lot for estimating contributions of ships to atmosphere and calculating emission inventories of ships. Additionally, impacts of engine speed on NOx emission factors are discussed for the first time.
Xianda Gong, Ci Zhang, Hong Chen, Sergey A. Nizkorodov, Jianmin Chen, and Xin Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5399–5411,Short summary
In this study, we used a Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer and a Single Particle Soot Photometer to investigate the chemical and physical properties of black carbon (BC) aerosols during a regional air pollution episode in urban Shanghai. BC containing particles were mainly attributed to biomass burning and traffic emissions. We observed a group of highly aged traffic emitted particles with a relatively small BC core (~ 60–80 nm) and a very thick absolute coating thickness (~ 130–300 nm).
Yan Lyu, Tingting Xu, Xiang Li, Tiantao Cheng, Xin Yang, Xiaomin Sun, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1025–1037,Short summary
This study presents the particle size distribution of PBDEs in the atmosphere of a megacity and evaluates the contribution of size-fractionated PBDEs' deposition in the human respiratory tract.
Yan Lv, Xiang Li, Ting Ting Xu, Tian Tao Cheng, Xin Yang, Jian Min Chen, Yoshiteru Iinuma, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2971–2983,Short summary
The study focused on size-resolved PAHs in urban aerosols at a megacity Shanghai site. The results provide us with a mechanistic understanding of the particle size distribution of PAHs and their transport in the human respiratory system; this can help develop better source control strategies.
Xin Ke Wang, Stéphanie Rossignol, Ye Ma, Lei Yao, Ming Yi Wang, Jian Min Chen, Christian George, and Lin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2285–2298,Short summary
PM2.5 filter samples have been collected in three megacities at the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River: Wuhan, Nanjing, and Shanghai. The samples were analyzed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with Orbitrap mass spectrometry, which allowed for detection of about 200 formulas of particulate organosulfates, including dozens of formulas of nitrooxy-organosulfates, with various numbers of isomers for each tentatively determined formula at each location.
T. Liu, X. Wang, Q. Hu, W. Deng, Y. Zhang, X. Ding, X. Fu, F. Bernard, Z. Zhang, S. Lü, Q. He, X. Bi, J. Chen, Y. Sun, J. Yu, P. Peng, G. Sheng, and J. Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 675–689,Short summary
The formation of SOA and sulfate aerosols from the photooxidation of gasoline vehicle exhaust (GVE) when mixing with SO2 was investigated in a smog chamber. We found that the presence of GVE enhanced the conversion of SO2 to sulfate predominantly through reactions with stabilized Criegee intermediates. On the other hand, the elevated particle acidity enhanced the SOA production from GVE. This study indicated that SO2 and GVE could enhance each other in forming secondary aerosols.
T. Liu, X. Wang, W. Deng, Q. Hu, X. Ding, Y. Zhang, Q. He, Z. Zhang, S. Lü, X. Bi, J. Chen, and J. Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9049–9062,
S. Xiao, M. Y. Wang, L. Yao, M. Kulmala, B. Zhou, X. Yang, J. M. Chen, D. F. Wang, Q. Y. Fu, D. R. Worsnop, and L. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1769–1781,
C. Leng, Q. Zhang, D. Zhang, C. Xu, T. Cheng, R. Zhang, J. Tao, J. Chen, S. Zha, Y. Zhang, X. Li, L. Kong, and W. Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12499–12512,
C. Leng, Q. Zhang, J. Tao, H. Zhang, D. Zhang, C. Xu, X. Li, L. Kong, T. Cheng, R. Zhang, X. Yang, J. Chen, L. Qiao, S. Lou, H. Wang, and C. Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11353–11365,
L. D. Kong, X. Zhao, Z. Y. Sun, Y. W. Yang, H. B. Fu, S. C. Zhang, T. T. Cheng, X. Yang, L. Wang, and J. M. Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9451–9467,
X. Wang, B. J. Williams, X. Wang, Y. Tang, Y. Huang, L. Kong, X. Yang, and P. Biswas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10919–10932,
Y. Huang, L. Li, J. Li, X. Wang, H. Chen, J. Chen, X. Yang, D. S. Gross, H. Wang, L. Qiao, and C. Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3931–3944,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Measurement report: Intensive biomass burning emissions and rapid nitrate formation drive severe haze formation in the Sichuan Basin, China – insights from aerosol mass spectrometryAfrican smoke particles act as cloud condensation nuclei in the wintertime tropical North Atlantic boundary layer over BarbadosMeasurement report: Changes in light absorption and molecular composition of water-soluble humic-like substances during a winter haze bloom-decay process in Guangzhou, ChinaVarying chiral ratio of pinic acid enantiomers above the Amazon rainforestImpact of aging on the sources, volatility, and viscosity of organic aerosols in Chinese outflowsBiogenic and anthropogenic sources of isoprene and monoterpenes and their secondary organic aerosol in Delhi, IndiaDifferent physicochemical behaviors of nitrate and ammonium during transport: a case study on Mt. Hua, ChinaA method for using stationary networks to observe long-term trends of on-road emission factors of primary aerosol from heavy-duty vehiclesAtmospheric particle abundance and sea salt aerosol observations in the springtime Arctic: a focus on blowing snow and leadsChromophores and chemical composition of brown carbon characterized at an urban kerbside by excitation–emission spectroscopy and mass spectrometryMeasurement report: Contrasting elevation-dependent light absorption by black and brown carbon: lessons from in situ measurements from the highly polluted Sichuan Basin to the pristine Tibetan PlateauLong-term declines in atmospheric nitrogen and sulfur deposition reduce critical loads exceedances at multiple Canadian rural sites, 2000–2018Composition and mixing state of Arctic aerosol and cloud residual particles from long-term single-particle observations at Zeppelin Observatory, SvalbardA meteorological overview of the ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS) campaign over the southeastern Atlantic during 2016–2018: Part 2 – Daily and synoptic characteristicsMeasurement report: Characterization of sugars and amino acids in atmospheric fine particulates and their relationship to local primary sourcesFates of secondary organic aerosols in the atmosphere identified from compound-specific dual-carbon isotope analysis of oxalic acidOrganic enrichment in droplet residual particles relative to out of cloud over the northwestern Atlantic: analysis of airborne ACTIVATE dataLong-term trends and drivers of aerosol pH in eastern ChinaPotential underestimation of ambient brown carbon absorption based on the methanol extraction method and its impacts on source analysisContributions of primary sources to submicron organic aerosols in Delhi, IndiaExamination of brown carbon absorption from wildfires in the western US during the WE-CAN studySource apportionment and evolution of N-containing aerosols at a rural cloud forest in Taiwan by isotope analysisImpact of biogenic SOA loading on the molecular composition of wintertime PM2.5 in urban Tianjin: an insight from Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometryMeasurement report: Aerosol vertical profiles over the Western North Atlantic Ocean during the North Atlantic Aerosols and Marine Ecosystems Study (NAAMES)Impacts of biomass burning and photochemical processing on the light absorption of brown carbon in the southeastern Tibetan PlateauMeasurement report: Characterisation and sources of the secondary organic carbon in a Chinese megacity over 5 years from 2016 to 2020Exploring the inorganic composition of the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer using medium-duration balloon flightsTechnical note: Use of PM2.5 to CO ratio as an indicator of wildfire smoke in urban areasIce-nucleating particles near two major dust source regionsMeasurement Report: Abundance and fractional solubilities of aerosol metals in urban Hong Kong: Insights into factors that control aerosol metal dissolution in an urban site in South ChinaThe effect of COVID-19 restrictions on atmospheric new particle formation in BeijingThe effect of clouds and precipitation on the aerosol concentrations and composition in a boreal forest environmentThe impact of atmospheric motions on source-specific black carbon and the induced direct radiative effects over a river-valley regionMeasurement report: The 10-year trend of PM2.5 major components and source tracers from 2008 to 2017 in an urban site of Hong Kong, ChinaContribution of wood burning to exposures of PAHs and oxy-PAHs in Eastern SwedenChemical evolution of secondary organic aerosol tracers during high-PM2.5 episodes at a suburban site in Hong Kong over 4 months of continuous measurementCharacteristics of fine particle matters at the top of Shanghai TowerSources and processes of water-soluble and water-insoluble organic aerosol in cold season in Beijing, ChinaMeasurement report: Size-resolved chemical characterisation of aerosols in low-income urban settlements in South AfricaMeasurement report: Large contribution of biomass burning and aqueous-phase processes to the wintertime secondary organic aerosol formation in Xi'an, Northwest ChinaPM10 variation, composition, and source analysis in Tuscany (Italy) following the COVID-19 lockdown restrictionsEmissions of organic compounds from western US wildfires and their near-fire transformationsA comprehensive study about the in-cloud processing of nitrate through coupled measurements of individual cloud residuals and cloud waterIron (Fe) speciation in size-fractionated aerosol particles in the Pacific Ocean: The role of organic complexation of Fe with humic-like substances in controlling Fe solubilityMeasurement report: On the contribution of long-distance transport to the secondary aerosol formation and agingFactors controlling atmospheric DMS and its oxidation products (MSA and nssSO42−) in the aerosol at Terra Nova Bay, AntarcticaParticle phase-state variability in the North Atlantic free troposphere during summertime is determined by atmospheric transport patterns and sourcesPolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their alkylated, nitrated and oxygenated derivatives in the atmosphere over the Mediterranean and Middle East seasNine-year trends of PM10 sources and oxidative potential in a rural background site in FranceDramatic changes in atmospheric pollution source contributions for a coastal megacity in northern China from 2011 to 2020
Zhier Bao, Xinyi Zhang, Qing Li, Jiawei Zhou, Guangming Shi, Li Zhou, Fumo Yang, Shaodong Xie, Dan Zhang, Chongzhi Zhai, Zhenliang Li, Chao Peng, and Yang Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1147–1167,Short summary
We characterised non-refractory fine particulate matter (PM2.5) during winter in the Sichuan Basin (SCB), Southwest China. The factors driving severe aerosol pollution were revealed, highlighting the importance of rapid nitrate formation and intensive biomass burning. Nitrate was primarily formed through gas-phase oxidation during daytime and aqueous-phase oxidation during nighttime. Controlling nitrate and biomass burning will benefit the mitigation of haze formation in the SCB.
Haley M. Royer, Mira L. Pöhlker, Ovid Krüger, Edmund Blades, Peter Sealy, Nurun Nahar Lata, Zezhen Cheng, Swarup China, Andrew P. Ault, Patricia K. Quinn, Paquita Zuidema, Christopher Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat Andreae, and Cassandra J. Gaston
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 981–998,Short summary
This paper presents atmospheric particle chemical composition and measurements of aerosol water uptake properties collected at Ragged Point, Barbados, during the winter of 2020. The result of this study indicates the importance of small African smoke particles for cloud droplet formation in the tropical North Atlantic and highlights the large spatial and temporal pervasiveness of smoke over the Atlantic Ocean.
Chunlin Zou, Tao Cao, Meiju Li, Jianzhong Song, Bin Jiang, Wanglu Jia, Jun Li, Xiang Ding, Zhiqiang Yu, Gan Zhang, and Ping'an Peng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 963–979,Short summary
In this study, PM2.5 samples were obtained during a winter haze event in Guangzhou, China, and light absorption and molecular composition of humic-like substances (HULIS) were investigated by UV–Vis spectrophotometry and ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry. The findings obtained present some differences from the results reported in other regions of China and significantly enhanced our understanding of HULIS evolution during haze bloom-decay processes in the subtropic region of southern China.
Denis Leppla, Nora Zannoni, Leslie Kremper, Jonathan Williams, Christopher Pöhlker, Marta Sá, Maria Christina Solci, and Thorsten Hoffmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 809–820,Short summary
Chiral chemodiversity plays a critical role in biochemical processes such as insect and plant communication. Here we report on the measurement of chiral-specified secondary organic aerosol in the Amazon rainforest. The results show that the chiral ratio is mainly determined by large-scale emission processes. Characteristic emissions of chiral aerosol precursors from different forest ecosystems can thus provide large-scale information on different biogenic sources via chiral particle analysis.
Tingting Feng, Yingkun Wang, Weiwei Hu, Ming Zhu, Wei Song, Wei Chen, Yanyan Sang, Zheng Fang, Wei Deng, Hua Fang, Xu Yu, Cheng Wu, Bin Yuan, Shan Huang, Min Shao, Xiaofeng Huang, Lingyan He, Young Ro Lee, Lewis Gregory Huey, Francesco Canonaco, Andre S. H. Prevot, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 611–636,Short summary
To investigate the impact of aging processes on organic aerosols (OA), we conducted a comprehensive field study at a continental remote site using an on-line mass spectrometer. The results show that OA in the Chinese outflows were strongly influenced by upwind anthropogenic emissions. The aging processes can significantly decrease the OA volatility and result in a varied viscosity of OA under different circumstances, signifying the complex physiochemical properties of OA in aged plumes.
Daniel J. Bryant, Beth S. Nelson, Stefan J. Swift, Sri Hapsari Budisulistiorini, Will S. Drysdale, Adam R. Vaughan, Mike J. Newland, James R. Hopkins, James M. Cash, Ben Langford, Eiko Nemitz, W. Joe F. Acton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Tuhin Mandal, Bhola R. Gurjar, Shivani, Ranu Gadi, James D. Lee, Andrew R. Rickard, and Jacqueline F. Hamilton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 61–83,Short summary
This paper investigates the sources of isoprene and monoterpene compounds and their particulate-phase oxidation products in Delhi, India. This was done to improve our understanding of the sources, concentrations, and fate of volatile emissions in megacities. By studying the chemical composition of offline filter samples, we report that a significant share of the oxidised organic aerosol in Delhi is from isoprene and monoterpenes. This has implications for human health and policy development.
Can Wu, Cong Cao, Jianjun Li, Shaojun Lv, Jin Li, Xiaodi Liu, Si Zhang, Shijie Liu, Fan Zhang, Jingjing Meng, and Gehui Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15621–15635,Short summary
Over the past decade, the relative abundance of NH4NO3 in aerosol has been enhanced in most urban areas of China, which profoundly affects the PM2.5 pollution episodes. Our work finds that fine-particle nitrate and ammonium exhibited distinct, different physicochemical behaviors in the aerosol aging process.
Helen L. Fitzmaurice and Ronald C. Cohen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15403–15411,Short summary
We develop a novel method for finding heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) emission factors (g PM kg fuel) using regulatory sensor networks and publicly available traffic data. We find that particulate matter emission factors have decreased by a factor of ~ 9 in the past decade in the San Francisco Bay area. Because of the wide availability of similar data sets across the USA and globally, this method could be applied to other settings to understand long-term trends and regional differences in HDV emissions.
Qianjie Chen, Jessica A. Mirrielees, Sham Thanekar, Nicole A. Loeb, Rachel M. Kirpes, Lucia M. Upchurch, Anna J. Barget, Nurun Nahar Lata, Angela R. W. Raso, Stephen M. McNamara, Swarup China, Patricia K. Quinn, Andrew P. Ault, Aaron Kennedy, Paul B. Shepson, Jose D. Fuentes, and Kerri A. Pratt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15263–15285,Short summary
During a spring field campaign in the coastal Arctic, ultrafine particles were enhanced during high wind speeds, and coarse-mode particles were reduced during blowing snow. Calculated periods blowing snow were overpredicted compared to observations. Sea spray aerosols produced by sea ice leads affected the composition of aerosols and snowpack. An improved understanding of aerosol emissions from leads and blowing snow is critical for predicting the future climate of the rapidly warming Arctic.
Feng Jiang, Junwei Song, Jonas Bauer, Linyu Gao, Magdalena Vallon, Reiner Gebhardt, Thomas Leisner, Stefan Norra, and Harald Saathoff
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14971–14986,Short summary
We studied brown carbon aerosol during typical summer and winter periods in downtown Karlsruhe in southwestern Germany. The chromophore and chemical composition of brown carbon was determined by excitation–emission spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The chromophore types and sources were substantially different in winter and summer. Humic-like chromophores of different degrees of oxidation dominated and were associated with molecules of different molecular weight and nitrogen content.
Suping Zhao, Shaofeng Qi, Ye Yu, Shichang Kang, Longxiang Dong, Jinbei Chen, and Daiying Yin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14693–14708,Short summary
Light absorption by aerosols is poorly understood at the eastern slope of the Tibetan Plateau (TP). We conducted the first in situ PM1 chemical measurements from the polluted Sichuan Basin to the eastern TP. A contrasting changes in mass absorption efficiency of black and brown carbon with altitude is found due to source differences. This study contributes to the understanding of the difference in light absorption by carbon with altitude, from the polluted basins to the pristine TP.
Irene Cheng, Leiming Zhang, Zhuanshi He, Hazel Cathcart, Daniel Houle, Amanda Cole, Jian Feng, Jason O'Brien, Anne Marie Macdonald, Julian Aherne, and Jeffrey Brook
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14631–14656,Short summary
Nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) deposition decreased significantly at 14 Canadian sites during 2000–2018. The greatest decline was observed in southeastern Canada owing to regional SO2 and NOx reductions. Wet deposition was more important than dry deposition, comprising 71–95 % of total N and 45–89 % of total S deposition. While critical loads (CLs) were exceeded at a few sites in the early 2000s, acidic deposition declined below CLs after 2012, which signifies recovery from legacy acidification.
Kouji Adachi, Yutaka Tobo, Makoto Koike, Gabriel Freitas, Paul Zieger, and Radovan Krejci
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14421–14439,Short summary
Ambient aerosol and cloud residual particles in the fine mode were collected at Zeppelin Observatory in Svalbard and were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy. Fractions of mineral dust and sea salt particles increased in cloud residual samples collected at ambient temperatures below 0 °C. This study highlights the variety of aerosol and cloud residual particle compositions and mixing states that influence or are influenced by aerosol–cloud interactions in Arctic low-level clouds.
Ju-Mee Ryoo, Leonhard Pfister, Rei Ueyama, Paquita Zuidema, Robert Wood, Ian Chang, and Jens Redemann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14209–14241,Short summary
The variability in the meteorological fields during each deployment is highly modulated at a daily to synoptic timescale. This paper, along with part 1, the climatological overview paper, provides a meteorological context for interpreting the airborne measurements gathered during the three ORACLES deployments. This study supports related studies focusing on the detailed investigation of the processes controlling stratocumulus decks, aerosol lifting, transport, and their interactions.
Ren-Guo Zhu, Hua-Yun Xiao, Liqin Cheng, Huixiao Zhu, Hongwei Xiao, and Yunyun Gong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14019–14036,Short summary
Sugars and amino acids are major classes of organic components in atmospheric fine particles and play important roles in the atmosphere. To identify their sources in different regions, the concentrations and compositions of sugar amino acids in fine particles were analysed. Our findings suggest that combining specific sugar tracers and chemical profiles of combined amino acids in local emission sources can identify various source characteristics of primary sources.
Buqing Xu, Jiao Tang, Tiangang Tang, Shizhen Zhao, Guangcai Zhong, Sanyuan Zhu, Jun Li, and Gan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We analyzed compound-specific dual-carbon isotope signatures (Δ14C and δ13C) of dominant secondary organic aerosol (SOA) tracer molecules (oxalic acid and related polar compounds) to investigate the fates of SOAs in the atmosphere at five emission hotspots in China. The results indicated that SOA carbon sources and chemical processes producing SOAs vary spatially and seasonally and these variations need including in Chinese climate projection models and air quality management practices.
Hossein Dadashazar, Andrea F. Corral, Ewan Crosbie, Sanja Dmitrovic, Simon Kirschler, Kayla McCauley, Richard Moore, Claire Robinson, Joseph S. Schlosser, Michael Shook, K. Lee Thornhill, Christiane Voigt, Edward Winstead, Luke Ziemba, and Armin Sorooshian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13897–13913,Short summary
Multi-season airborne data over the northwestern Atlantic show that organic mass fraction and the relative amount of oxygenated organics within that fraction are enhanced in droplet residual particles as compared to particles below and above cloud. In-cloud aqueous processing is shown to be a potential driver of this compositional shift in cloud. This implies that aerosol–cloud interactions in the region reduce aerosol hygroscopicity due to the jump in the organic : sulfate ratio in cloud.
Min Zhou, Guangjie Zheng, Hongli Wang, Liping Qiao, Shuhui Zhu, DanDan Huang, Jingyu An, Shengrong Lou, Shikang Tao, Qian Wang, Rusha Yan, Yingge Ma, Changhong Chen, Yafang Cheng, Hang Su, and Cheng Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13833–13844,Short summary
The trend of aerosol pH and its drivers is crucial in understanding the multiphase formation pathways of aerosols. We reported the first trend analysis of aerosol pH from 2011 to 2019 in eastern China. Although significant variations of aerosol compositions were observed from 2011 to 2019, the aerosol pH estimated by model only slightly declined by 0.24. Our work shows that the opposite effects of SO42− and non-volatile cation changes play key roles in determining the moderate pH trend.
Zhenqi Xu, Wei Feng, Yicheng Wang, Haoran Ye, Yuhang Wang, Hong Liao, and Mingjie Xie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13739–13752,Short summary
This work uses a solvent (DMF) that can efficiently dissolve low-volatility OC to examine BrC absorption and sources, which will benefit future investigations on the physicochemical properties of large organic molecules. The study results also shed light on potential sources for methanol-insoluble OC. These results highlight the importance of testing different solvents to investigate the structures and light absorption of low-volatility BrC.
Sahil Bhandari, Zainab Arub, Gazala Habib, Joshua S. Apte, and Lea Hildebrandt Ruiz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13631–13657,Short summary
Here we determine the sources of primary organic aerosol in Delhi, India, in two different seasons. In winter, the main sources are traffic and biomass burning; in the summer, the main sources are traffic and cooking. We obtain this result by conducting source apportionment resolved by time of day, using data from an aerosol chemical speciation monitor. Results from this work can be used to better design policies that target sources of organic aerosol.
Amy P. Sullivan, Rudra P. Pokhrel, Yingjie Shen, Shane M. Murphy, Darin W. Toohey, Teresa Campos, Jakob Lindaas, Emily V. Fischer, and Jeffrey L. Collett Jr.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13389–13406,Short summary
During the WE-CAN (Western Wildfire Experiment for Cloud Chemistry, Aerosol Absorption and Nitrogen) study, brown carbon (BrC) absorption was measured on the NSF/NCAR C-130 aircraft using a particle-into-liquid sampler and photoacoustic aerosol absorption spectrometer. Approximately 45 % of the BrC absorption in wildfires was observed to be due to water-soluble species. The ratio of BrC absorption to WSOC or ΔCO showed no clear dependence on fire dynamics or the time since emission over 9 h.
Ting-Yu Chen, Chia-Li Chen, Yi-Chi Chen, Charles C.-K. Chou, Haojia Ren, and Hui-Ming Hung
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13001–13012,Short summary
The anthropogenic influence on aerosol composition in a downstream river-valley forest was investigated using FTIR and isotope analysis. A higher N-containing species concentration during daytime fog events indicates that a stronger inversion leads to higher pollutant concentrations, and the fog enhances the aqueous-phase chemical processes. Moreover, the observed size-dependent oxygen isotope suggests the contribution of organic peroxyl radicals to local nitrate formation for small particles.
Shujun Zhong, Shuang Chen, Junjun Deng, Yanbing Fan, Qiang Zhang, Qiaorong Xie, Yulin Qi, Wei Hu, Libin Wu, Xiaodong Li, Chandra Mouli Pavuluri, Jialei Zhu, Xin Wang, Di Liu, Xiaole Pan, Yele Sun, Zifa Wang, Yisheng Xu, Haijie Tong, Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, Kimitaka Kawamura, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This study investigated the role of the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) loading on the molecular composition of wintertime urban aerosols by ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry. Results demonstrate that the SOA-loading is an important factor associating with the oxidation degree, nitrate group content and chemodiversity of nitrooxy-organosulfates. Our study also found that the hydrolysis of nitrooxy-organosulfates is a possible pathway for the formation of organosulfates.
Francesca Gallo, Kevin J. Sanchez, Bruce E. Anderson, Ryan Bennett, Matthew D. Brown, Ewan C. Crosbie, Chris Hostetler, Carolyn Jordan, Melissa Yang Martin, Claire E. Robinson, Lynn M. Russell, Taylor J. Shingler, Michael A. Shook, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, Edward L. Winstead, Armin Wisthaler, Luke D. Ziemba, and Richard H. Moore
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We integrate in-situ ship- and aircraft-based measurements of aerosol, trace gases, and meteorological parameters collected during the NASA North Atlantic Aerosols and Marine Ecosystems Study (NAAMES) field campaigns in the Western North Atlantic Ocean region. A comprehensive characterization of the vertical profiles of aerosol properties under different seasonal regimes is provide for improving the understanding of aerosol key processes and aerosol cloud interactions in marine regions.
Jie Tian, Qiyuan Wang, Yongyong Ma, Jin Wang, Yongming Han, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We investigated the light absorption properties of brown carbon (BrC) in the Tibetan Plateau. BrC had the substantial contribution to the submicron aerosol absorption, which is related to the cross-border transport of biomass burning emission and secondary aerosol from Southeast Asia. The radiative effect of BrC was half that of black carbon. In particular, BrC formed from photochemical processing contributed significantly to radiative forcing, twice as much as that of BrC from biomass burning.
Meng Wang, Yusen Duan, Wei Xu, Qiyuan Wang, Zhuozhi Zhang, Qi Yuan, Xinwei Li, Shuwen Han, Haijie Tong, Juntao Huo, Jia Chen, Shan Gao, Zhongbiao Wu, Long Cui, Yu Huang, Guangli Xiu, Junji Cao, Qingyan Fu, and Shun-cheng Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12789–12802,Short summary
In this study, we report the long-term measurement of organic carbon (OC) and elementary carbon (EC) in PM2.5 with hourly time resolution conducted at a regional site in Shanghai from 2016 to 2020. The results from this study provide critical information about the long-term trend of carbonaceous aerosol, in particular secondary OC, in one of the largest megacities in the world and are helpful for developing pollution control measures from a long-term planning perspective.
Hazel Vernier, Neeraj Rastogi, Hongyu Liu, Amit Kumar Pandit, Kris Bedka, Anil Patel, Madineni Venkat Ratnam, Buduru Suneel Kumar, Bo Zhang, Harish Gadhavi, Frank Wienhold, Gwenael Berthet, and Jean-Paul Vernier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12675–12694,Short summary
The chemical composition of the stratospheric aerosols collected aboard high-altitude balloons above the summer Asian monsoon reveals the presence of nitrate/nitrite. Using numerical simulations and satellite observations, we found that pollution as well as lightning could explain some of our observations.
Daniel A. Jaffe, Brendan Schnieder, and Daniel Inouye
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12695–12704,Short summary
In this paper we use commonly measured pollutants (PM2.5 and carbon monoxide) to develop a Monte Carlo simulation of the mixing of urban pollution with smoke. The simulations compare well with observations from a heavily impacted smoke site and show that we can use standard regulatory measurements to quantify the amount of smoke in urban areas.
Charlotte M. Beall, Thomas C. J. Hill, Paul J. DeMott, Tobias Köneman, Michael Pikridas, Frank Drewnick, Hartwig Harder, Christopher Pöhlker, Jos Lelieveld, Bettina Weber, Minas Iakovides, Roman Prokeš, Jean Sciare, Meinrat O. Andreae, M. Dale Stokes, and Kimberly A. Prather
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12607–12627,Short summary
Ice-nucleating particles (INPs) are rare aerosols that can trigger ice formation in clouds and affect climate-relevant cloud properties such as phase, reflectivity and lifetime. Dust is the dominant INP source, yet few measurements have been reported near major dust sources. We report INP observations within hundreds of kilometers of the biggest dust source regions globally: the Sahara and the Arabian Peninsula. Results show that at temperatures > −15 °C, INPs are dominated by organics.
Junwei Yang, Lan Ma, Xiao He, Wing Chi Au, Yanhao Miao, Wen-Xiong Wang, and Theodora Nah
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Water-soluble metals play key roles in human health and atmospheric processes. We report the seasonal abundance and fractional solubilities of different metals in aerosols collected in urban Hong Kong, South China, and the key factors that modulated solubilities of various metals in fine aerosols. Our results highlight the dual roles (i.e., acidifying the aerosol particle and providing a liquid reaction medium) that sulfate plays in the acid dissolution of metals in fine aerosols in Hong Kong.
Chao Yan, Yicheng Shen, Dominik Stolzenburg, Lubna Dada, Ximeng Qi, Simo Hakala, Anu-Maija Sundström, Yishuo Guo, Antti Lipponen, Tom V. Kokkonen, Jenni Kontkanen, Runlong Cai, Jing Cai, Tommy Chan, Liangduo Chen, Biwu Chu, Chenjuan Deng, Wei Du, Xiaolong Fan, Xu-Cheng He, Juha Kangasluoma, Joni Kujansuu, Mona Kurppa, Chang Li, Yiran Li, Zhuohui Lin, Yiliang Liu, Yuliang Liu, Yiqun Lu, Wei Nie, Jouni Pulliainen, Xiaohui Qiao, Yonghong Wang, Yifan Wen, Ye Wu, Gan Yang, Lei Yao, Rujing Yin, Gen Zhang, Shaojun Zhang, Feixue Zheng, Ying Zhou, Antti Arola, Johanna Tamminen, Pauli Paasonen, Yele Sun, Lin Wang, Neil M. Donahue, Yongchun Liu, Federico Bianchi, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Douglas R. Worsnop, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Aijun Ding, Jingkun Jiang, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12207–12220,Short summary
Atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) is a dominant source of atmospheric ultrafine particles. In urban environments, traffic emissions are a major source of primary pollutants, but their contribution to NPF remains under debate. During the COVID-19 lockdown, traffic emissions were significantly reduced, providing a unique chance to examine their relevance to NPF. Based on our comprehensive measurements, we demonstrate that traffic emissions alone are not able to explain the NPF in Beijing.
Sini Isokääntä, Paul Kim, Santtu Mikkonen, Thomas Kühn, Harri Kokkola, Taina Yli-Juuti, Liine Heikkinen, Krista Luoma, Tuukka Petäjä, Zak Kipling, Daniel Partridge, and Annele Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11823–11843,Short summary
This research employs air mass history analysis and observations to study how clouds and precipitation affect atmospheric aerosols during transport to a boreal forest site. The mass concentrations of studied chemical species showed exponential decrease as a function of accumulated rain along the air mass route. Our analysis revealed in-cloud sulfate formation, while no major changes in organic mass were seen. Most of the in-cloud-formed sulfate could be assigned to particle sizes above 200 nm.
Huikun Liu, Qiyuan Wang, Suixin Liu, Bianhong Zhou, Yao Qu, Jie Tian, Ting Zhang, Yongming Han, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11739–11757,Short summary
Atmospheric motions play an important role in the mass concentration and the direct radiative effect (DRE) of black carbon (BC). The finding from this study elaborated the impacts of different scales of atmospheric motion on source-specific BC and its DREs, which revealed the nonlinear change between BC mass concentration and its DREs and emphasizes the importance of regionally transported BC for potential climatic effects.
Wing Sze Chow, Kezheng Liao, X. H. Hilda Huang, Ka Fung Leung, Alexis K. H. Lau, and Jian Zhen Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11557–11577,Short summary
Long-term monitoring data of PM2.5 chemical composition provide essential information for evaluation and planning of control measures. Here we present a 10-year (2008–2017) time series of PM2.5, its major components, and select source markers in an urban site in Hong Kong. The dataset verified the success of local vehicular emission control measures as well as reduction of sulfate and regional sources such as industrial and coal combustion and crop residue burning emissions over the decade.
Hwanmi Lim, Sanna Silvergren, Silvia Spinicci, Farshid Mashayekhy Rad, Ulrika Nilsson, Roger Westerholm, and Christer Johansson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11359–11379,Short summary
Air pollutants from wood burning become more important as other regulated emissions are being reduced, e.g. combustion of diesel. We analysed particles in residential areas and found that local wood burning was the most important source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Specific tracers were used to separate wood combustion from other contributions. Calculations of population exposure showed that the mix of PAHs may cause 13 cancer cases per 0.1 million inhabitants.
Qiongqiong Wang, Shan Wang, Yuk Ying Cheng, Hanzhe Chen, Zijing Zhang, Jinjian Li, Dasa Gu, Zhe Wang, and Jian Zhen Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11239–11253,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is often enhanced during fine-particulate-matter (PM2.5) episodes. We examined bi-hourly measurements of SOA molecular tracers in suburban Hong Kong during 11 city-wide PM2.5 episodes. The tracers showed regional characteristics for both anthropogenic and biogenic SOA as well as biomass-burning-derived SOA. Multiple tracers of the same precursor revealed the dominance of low-NOx formation pathways for isoprene SOA and less-aged monoterpene SOA during winter.
Changqin Yin, Jianming Xu, Wei Gao, Liang Pan, Yixuan Gu, Qingyan Fu, and Fan Yang
The PM2.5 at the top of 632 m high Shanghai Tower were found higher than surface from June to October as results of unexpected larger PM2.5 levels during early to middle afternoon at Shanghai Tower. We suppose the significant chemical production of secondary species existed in mid-upper planetary boundary layer. In addition, we found high nitrate concentration at the tower site for both daytime and nighttime winter, implying efficient gas-phase and heterogeneous formation.
Zhiqiang Zhang, Yele Sun, Chun Chen, Bo You, Aodong Du, Weiqi Xu, Yan Li, Zhijie Li, Lu Lei, Wei Zhou, Jiaxing Sun, Yanmei Qiu, Lianfang Wei, Pingqing Fu, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10409–10423,Short summary
We present a comprehensive characterization of water-soluble organic aerosol and the first mass spectral characterization of water-insoluble organic aerosol in the cold season in Beijing by integrating online and offline aerosol mass spectrometer measurements. WSOA comprised dominantly secondary OA and showed large changes during the transition season from autumn to winter. WIOA was characterized by prominent hydrocarbon ions series, low oxidation states, and significant day–night differences.
Constance K. Segakweng, Pieter G. van Zyl, Cathy Liousse, Johan P. Beukes, Jan-Stefan Swartz, Eric Gardrat, Maria Dias-Alves, Brigitte Language, Roelof P. Burger, and Stuart J. Piketh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10291–10317,Short summary
A detailed size-resolved assessment of the chemical characteristics of outdoor and indoor aerosols collected in low-income urban settlements in South Africa indicated the significance of household combustion for cooking and space heating – an important source of pollutants in the developing world – to atmospheric chemical composition. The regional impact of industrial sources in the highly industrialised and densely populated north-eastern interior of South Africa was also evident.
Jing Duan, Ru-Jin Huang, Yifang Gu, Chunshui Lin, Haobin Zhong, Wei Xu, Quan Liu, Yan You, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Darius Ceburnis, Thorsten Hoffmann, and Colin O'Dowd
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10139–10153,Short summary
Biomass-burning-influenced oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA-BB), formed from the photochemical oxidation and aging of biomass burning OA (BBOA), was resolved in urban Xi’an. The aqueous-phase processed oxygenated OA (aq-OOA) concentration was more dependent on secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) content and aerosol liquid water content (ALWC). The increased aq-OOA contribution during SIA-enhanced periods likely reflects OA evolution due to the addition of alcohol or peroxide groups
Fabio Giardi, Silvia Nava, Giulia Calzolai, Giulia Pazzi, Massimo Chiari, Andrea Faggi, Bianca Patrizia Andreini, Chiara Collaveri, Elena Franchi, Guido Nincheri, Alessandra Amore, Silvia Becagli, Mirko Severi, Rita Traversi, and Franco Lucarelli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9987–10005,Short summary
The restriction measures adopted to contain the COVID-19 virus offered a unique opportunity to study urban particulate emissions in the near absence of traffic, which is one of the main emission sources in the urban environment. However, the drastic decrease in this source of particulate matter during the months of national lockdown did not lead to an equal decrease in the total particulate load. This is due to the inverse behavior shown by different sources, especially secondary sources.
Yutong Liang, Christos Stamatis, Edward C. Fortner, Rebecca A. Wernis, Paul Van Rooy, Francesca Majluf, Tara I. Yacovitch, Conner Daube, Scott C. Herndon, Nathan M. Kreisberg, Kelley C. Barsanti, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9877–9893,Short summary
This article reports the measurements of organic compounds emitted from western US wildfires. We identified and quantified 240 particle-phase compounds and 72 gas-phase compounds emitted in wildfire and related the emissions to the modified combustion efficiency. Higher emissions of diterpenoids and monoterpenes were observed, likely due to distillation from unburned heated vegetation. Our results can benefit future source apportionment and modeling studies as well as exposure assessments.
Guohua Zhang, Xiaodong Hu, Wei Sun, Yuxiang Yang, Ziyong Guo, Yuzhen Fu, Haichao Wang, Shengzhen Zhou, Lei Li, Mingjin Tang, Zongbo Shi, Duohong Chen, Xinhui Bi, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9571–9582,Short summary
We show a significant enhancement of nitrate mass fraction in cloud water and relative intensity of nitrate in the cloud residual particles and highlight that hydrolysis of N2O5 serves as the critical route for the in-cloud formation of nitrate, even during the daytime. Given that N2O5 hydrolysis acts as a major sink of NOx in the atmosphere, further model updates may improve our understanding about the processes contributing to nitrate production in cloud and the cycling of odd nitrogen.
Kohei Sakata, Minako Kurisu, Yasuo Takeichi, Aya Sakaguchi, Hiroshi Tanimoto, Yusuke Tamenori, Atsushi Matsuki, and Yoshio Takahashi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9461–9482,Short summary
Iron (Fe) species in size-fractionated aerosol particles collected in the western Pacific Ocean were determined to identify factors controlling fractional Fe solubility. We found that labile Fe was mainly present in submicron aerosol particles, and the Fe species were ferric organic complexes combined with humic-like substances (Fe(III)-HULIS). The Fe(III)-HULIS was formed by atmospheric processes. Thus, atmospheric processes play a significant role in controlling Fe solubility.
Haobin Zhong, Ru-Jin Huang, Chunshui Lin, Wei Xu, Jing Duan, Yifang Gu, Wei Huang, Haiyan Ni, Chongshu Zhu, Yan You, Yunfei Wu, Renjian Zhang, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Darius Ceburnis, and Colin D. O'Dowd
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9513–9524,Short summary
To investigate the physico-chemical properties of aerosol transported from major pollution regions in China, observations were conducted ~200 m above the ground at the junction location of the two key pollution areas. We found that the formation efficiency, oxidation state and production rate of secondary aerosol were different in the transport sectors from different pollution regions, and they were largely enhanced by the regional long-distance transport.
Silvia Becagli, Elena Barbaro, Simone Bonamano, Laura Caiazzo, Alcide di Sarra, Matteo Feltracco, Paolo Grigioni, Jost Heintzenberg, Luigi Lazzara, Michel Legrand, Alice Madonia, Marco Marcelli, Chiara Melillo, Daniela Meloni, Caterina Nuccio, Giandomenico Pace, Ki-Tae Park, Suzanne Preunkert, Mirko Severi, Marco Vecchiato, Roberta Zangrando, and Rita Traversi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9245–9263,Short summary
Measurements of phytoplanktonic dimethylsulfide and its oxidation products in the Antarctic atmosphere allow us to understand the role of the oceanic (sea ice melting, Chl α and dimethylsulfoniopropionate) and atmospheric (wind direction and speed, humidity, solar radiation and transport processes) factors in the biogenic aerosol formation, concentration and characteristic ratio between components in an Antarctic coastal site facing the polynya of the Ross Sea.
Zezhen Cheng, Megan Morgenstern, Bo Zhang, Matthew Fraund, Nurun Nahar Lata, Rhenton Brimberry, Matthew A. Marcus, Lynn Mazzoleni, Paulo Fialho, Silvia Henning, Birgit Wehner, Claudio Mazzoleni, and Swarup China
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9033–9057,Short summary
We observed a high abundance of liquid and internally mixed particles in samples collected in the North Atlantic free troposphere during summer. We also found several solid and semisolid particles for different emission sources and transport patterns. Our results suggest that considering the mixing state, emission source, and transport patterns of particles is necessary to estimate their phase state in the free troposphere, which is critical for predicting their effects on climate.
Marco Wietzoreck, Marios Kyprianou, Benjamin A. Musa Bandowe, Siddika Celik, John N. Crowley, Frank Drewnick, Philipp Eger, Nils Friedrich, Minas Iakovides, Petr Kukučka, Jan Kuta, Barbora Nežiková, Petra Pokorná, Petra Přibylová, Roman Prokeš, Roland Rohloff, Ivan Tadic, Sebastian Tauer, Jake Wilson, Hartwig Harder, Jos Lelieveld, Ulrich Pöschl, Euripides G. Stephanou, and Gerhard Lammel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8739–8766,Short summary
A unique dataset of concentrations and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their alkylated, oxygenated and nitrated derivatives, in total 74 individual species, in the marine atmosphere is presented. Exposure to these substances poses a major health risk. We found very low concentrations over the Arabian Sea, while both local and long-range-transported pollution caused elevated levels over the Mediterranean Sea and the Arabian Gulf.
Lucille Joanna Borlaza, Samuël Weber, Anouk Marsal, Gaëlle Uzu, Véronique Jacob, Jean-Luc Besombes, Mélodie Chatain, Sébastien Conil, and Jean-Luc Jaffrezo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8701–8723,Short summary
A 9-year dataset of the chemical and oxidative potential (OP) of PM10 was investigated at a rural background site. Extensive source apportionment led to identification of differences in source impacts between mass and OP, underlining the importance of PM redox activity when considering health effects. The influence of mixing and ageing processes was also tackled. Traffic contributions have decreased here over the years, attributed to regulations limiting vehicular emissions in bigger cities.
Baoshuang Liu, Yanyang Wang, He Meng, Qili Dai, Liuli Diao, Jianhui Wu, Laiyuan Shi, Jing Wang, Yufen Zhang, and Yinchang Feng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8597–8615,Short summary
Understanding effectiveness of air pollution regulatory measures is critical for control policy. Machine learning and dispersion-normalized approaches were applied to decouple meteorologically deduced variations in Qingdao, China. Most pollutant concentrations decreased substantially after the Clean Air Action Plan. The largest emission reduction was from coal combustion and steel-related smelting. Qingdao is at risk of increased emissions from increased vehicular population and ozone pollution.
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Temporal variation in the hygroscopicity and its correlation with the mixing state of ambient BC particles were studied using a HTDMA–SP2 system. Secondary organic carbon formation and condensation of nitrates were mainly responsible for the changes of hygroscopicity of BC particles during daytime and nighttime, respectively. Different atmospheric aging processes led to the change of BC particles' mixing states, which play a fundamental role in determining their hygroscopicity.
Temporal variation in the hygroscopicity and its correlation with the mixing state of ambient BC...