Articles | Volume 17, issue 11
Research article
09 Jun 2017
Research article |  | 09 Jun 2017

Measurement of PM and its chemical composition in real-world emissions from non-road and on-road diesel vehicles

Min Cui, Yingjun Chen, Yanli Feng, Cheng Li, Junyu Zheng, Chongguo Tian, Caiqing Yan, and Mei Zheng

Abstract. With the rapid growth in the number of both non-road and on-road diesel vehicles, the adverse effects of particulate matter (PM) and its constituents on air quality and human health have attracted increasing attentions. However, studies on the characteristics of PM and its composition emitted from diesel vehicles are still scarce, especially under real-world driving conditions. In this study, six excavators and five trucks that provided a wide range of emission standards and operation modes were tested, and PM emissions and their constituents – including organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble ions (WSIs), elements, and organic species like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), n-alkanes, and hopanes – as well as steranes were analyzed and characterized. The average emission factors for PM (EFPM) from excavator and truck emissions were 829 ± 806 and 498 ± 234 mg kg−1 fuel, respectively. EFPM and PM constituents were significantly affected by fuel quality, operational mode, and emission standards. A significant correlation (R2 = 0. 79, p < 0. 01) was found between EFPM for excavators and the sulfur contents in fuel. The highest average EFPM for working excavators was 904 ± 979 mg kg−1 fuel as a higher engine load required in this mode. From pre-stage 1 to stage 2, the average EFPM for excavators decreased by 58 %. For trucks, the average non-highway EFPM at 548 ± 311 mg kg−1 fuel was higher than the highway EFPM at 497 ± 231 mg kg−1 fuel. Moreover, the reduction rates were 63.5 and 65.6 % when switched from China II and III to China IV standards, respectively. Generally, the PM composition emitted from excavators was dominated by OC (39. 2 ± 21. 0 %) and EC (33. 3 ± 25. 9 %); PM from trucks was dominated by EC (26. 9 ± 20. 8 %), OC (9. 89 ± 12 %), and WSIs (4. 67 ± 5. 74 %). The average OC ∕ EC ratios for idling and working excavators were 3 to 4 times higher than those for moving excavators. Although the EFPM for excavators and trucks was reduced with the constraint of regulations, the element fractions for excavators increased from 0.49 % in pre-stage 1 to 3.03 % in stage 2, and the fraction of WSIs for the China IV truck was 5 times higher than the average value of all other-level trucks. Furthermore, as compared with other diesel vehicles, wide ranges were found for excavators of the ratios of benzo[a]anthracene ∕ (benzo[a]anthracene + chrysene) (0.26–0.86), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene ∕ (indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene + benzo[ghi]perylene) (0.20–1.0), and fluoranthene ∕ (fluoranthene + pyrene) (0.24–0.87), which might be a result of the complex characteristics of the excavator operation modes. A comparison of our results with those in the literature revealed that on-board measurement data more accurately reflect actual conditions. Although the fractions of the 16 priority PAHs in PM from the excavator and truck emissions were similar, the equivalent concentrations of total benzo[a]pyrene of excavators were 31 times than that for trucks, implying that more attention should be paid to non-road vehicle emissions.

Short summary
PM emitted from diesel vehicles has a severe impact on air quality and human health. However, characteristics of PM from diesel vehicles, particularly measured under real-world condition, are scarce. In this study, 6 excavators and 5 trucks were tested to characterize constituents of PM. PM emission factor (EFPM) and compositions were affected by fuel quality, operating modes and emission standards. Moreover, EFPM and risk of carcinogenic for excavators were 1.7 and 31 fold of those for trucks.
Final-revised paper