Articles | Volume 18, issue 16
Research article 17 Aug 2018
Research article | 17 Aug 2018
Cloud vertical structure over a tropical station obtained using long-term high-resolution radiosonde measurements
Nelli Narendra Reddy et al.
No articles found.
Rohit Chakraborty, Arindam Chakraborty, Ghouse Basha, and Madineni Venkat Ratnam
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11161–11177,Short summary
In this study, urbanization-induced surface warming has been found to trigger prominent changes in upper-troposphere–lower-stratosphere regions leading to stronger and more frequent lightning extremes over India. Consequently, the implementation of this hypothesis in global climate models reveals that lightning frequency and intensity values across India will rise by ~10–25 % and 15–50 %, respectively, by 2100 at the current urbanization rate, which should be alarming for present policymakers.
Saginela Ravindra Babu, Madineni Venkat Ratnam, Ghouse Basha, Shantanu Kumar Pani, and Neng-Huei Lin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5533–5547,Short summary
The present study explores the detailed structure, dynamics, and trace gas variability in the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone (ASMA) in the extreme El Niño of 2015/16. The results find the structure of the ASMA shows strong spatial variability between July and August. A West Pacific mode of the anticyclone is noticed in August. A significant lowering of tropospheric tracers and strong increase in stratospheric tracers are found. The tropopause temperatures also exhibit a warming in the ASMA.
Kizhathur Narasimhan Uma, Siddarth Shankar Das, Madineni Venkat Ratnam, and Kuniyil Viswanathan Suneeth
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2083–2103,Short summary
Reanalysis data of vertical wind (w) are widely used by the atmospheric community to determine various calculations of atmospheric circulations, diabatic heating, convection, etc. There are no studies that assess the available reanalysis data with respect to observations. The present study assesses for the first time all the reanalysis w by comparing it with 20 years of radar data from Gadanki and Kototabang and shows that downdrafts and peaks in the updrafts are not produced in the reanalyses.
Ghouse Basha, M. Venkat Ratnam, and Pangaluru Kishore
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6789–6801,Short summary
This study explores the variability of the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone (ASMA) spatial variability and trends using long-term observational and reanalysis data sets. The decadal variability of the anticyclone is very large at the edges compared with the core region. We propose that the transport process over the Tibetan Plateau and the Indian region is significant in active monsoon, strong monsoon and strong La Niña years. Thus, different phases of the monsoon are important in UTLS analyses.
Ghouse Basha, M. Venkat Ratnam, Pangaluru Kishore, S. Ravindrababu, and Isabella Velicogna
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
The Asian Summer Monsoon Anticyclone (ASMA) plays an important role in confining the trace gases and aerosols for a longer period. This study explores the variability of tropopause parameters, trace gases and aerosols and its relation with ENSO and QBO in ASMA. Further, the influence of the Indian summer monsoon activity on the ASMA trace gases and aerosols is studied with respect to active and break spells of monsoon, strong and weak monsoon years and strong La Niña, El Niño years.
Rohit Chakraborty, Bijay Kumar Guha, Shamitaksha Talukdar, Madineni Venkat Ratnam, and Animesh Maitra
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12325–12341,Short summary
The present study investigates the plausible aspects which influence the probability of drought occurrences over three Indian regions during the southwest Asian mid-monsoon period. The investigation reveals that an increasing tendency of dry day frequency (DDF) over urbanized regions in the last few decades has significant association with the abundance of anthropogenic aerosols. Additionally, future projections of DDF indicate a five-fold rise which can be a crucial concern for policy makers.
Rohit Chakraborty, Madineni Venkat Ratnam, and Shaik Ghouse Basha
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3687–3705,Short summary
Intense convective phenomena are a common climatic feature in the Indian tropical region which occur during the pre-monsoon to post-monsoon seasons (April–October) and are generally accompanied by intense thunderstorms, lightning, and wind gusts with heavy rainfall. Here we show long-term trends of the parameters related to convection and instability obtained from 27 radiosonde stations across six subdivisions over the Indian region during the period 1980–2016.
Sivan Thankamani Akhil Raj, Madineni Venkat Ratnam, Daggumati Narayana Rao, and Boddam Venkata Krishna Murthy
Ann. Geophys., 36, 149–165,Short summary
Ozone and water vapor are two potent greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. They influence the temperature structure greatly, particularly in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. We have investigated the long-term trends in these trace gases over the Indian region using long-term data (1993–2015) constructed from multi-satellite observations. A decreasing trend in ozone associated with NOx chemistry in the tropical middle stratosphere and a good correlation between N2O and O3 is found.
Sanjay Kumar Mehta, Madineni Venkat Ratnam, Sukumarapillai V. Sunilkumar, Daggumati Narayana Rao, and Boddapaty V. Krishna Murthy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 531–549,Short summary
Study of the diurnal variation of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) height is important for the knowledge of pollutant dispersion, crucial for all living beings. The most difficult part in the study of the diurnal variation is in identification of the stable boundary layer which occurs ~ 50% of times only and mostly during nighttime winter. Surface temperature and clouds directly affect the diurnal pattern of the ABL. Thus, stronger (weaker) diurnal variation found during pre-monsoon (winter).
Madineni Venkat Ratnam, Alladi Hemanth Kumar, and Achuthan Jayaraman
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5735–5745,Short summary
Launch of INSAT-3D carrying a multi-spectral imager by the ISRO made it possible to obtain profiles of temperature and water vapour over India with higher temporal and vertical resolutions. Initial validation is made with the radiosonde, other satellites and reanalysis data sets. Good correlation between INSAT-3D and in situ measurements is noticed with a few cautions. Temperature data from INSAT-3D are of high quality and can be directly assimilated for better forecasts over India.
M. Venkat Ratnam, S. Ravindra Babu, S. S. Das, G. Basha, B. V. Krishnamurthy, and B. Venkateswararao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8581–8591,Short summary
The impact of cyclones that occurred over the north Indian Ocean during 2007–2013 on the STE process is quantified using satellite observations. It is shown that cyclones have a significant impact on the tropopause structure, ozone and water vapour budget, and consequentially STE in the UTLS region. The cross-tropopause mass flux from the stratosphere to the troposphere for cyclonic storms is found to be 0.05 ± 0.29 × 10−3 kg m−2, and for very severe cyclonic storms it is 0.5 ± 1.07 × 10−3 kg m−2.
K. K. Shukla, K. Niranjan Kumar, D. V. Phanikumar, R. K. Newsom, V. R. Kotamarthi, T. B. M. J. Ouarda, and M. V. Ratnam
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Estimation of Cloud base height was carried out by using various ground based instruments (Doppler Lidar and Ceilometer) and satellite datasets (MODIS) over central Himalayan region for the first time. The present study demonstrates the potential of Doppler Lidar in precise estimation of cloud base height and updraft velocities. More such deployments will be invaluable inputs for regional weather prediction models over complex Himalayan terrains.
Siddarth Shankar Das, Madineni Venkat Ratnam, Kizhathur Narasimhan Uma, Kandula Venkata Subrahmanyam, Imran Asatar Girach, Amit Kumar Patra, Sundaresan Aneesh, Kuniyil Viswanathan Suneeth, Karanam Kishore Kumar, Amit Parashuram Kesarkar, Sivarajan Sijikumar, and Geetha Ramkumar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4837–4847,Short summary
The present study examines the role of tropical cyclones in the enhancement of tropospheric ozone. The most significant and new observation reported is the increase in the upper-tropospheric ozone by 20–50 ppbv, which has extended down to the middle and lower troposphere. The descent rate of enhanced ozone layer during the passage of tropical cyclone is 0.8–1 km day−1. Enhancement of surface ozone concentration by ~ 10 ppbv in the daytime and 10–15 ppbv at night-time is observed.
Sanjeev Dwivedi, M. S. Narayanan, M. Venkat Ratnam, and D. Narayana Rao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4497–4509,Short summary
Monsoon inversion (MI) over the Arabian Sea is one of the important characteristics associated with the monsoon activity over Indian region. The initiation and dissipation times of MI, their percentage of occurrence, strength etc., has been examined. We suggest MI could also be included as one of the semi-permanent features of southwest monsoon.
A. K. Pandit, H. S. Gadhavi, M. Venkat Ratnam, K. Raghunath, S. V. B. Rao, and A. Jayaraman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13833–13848,Short summary
We present the longest (1998 to 2013) cirrus cloud climatology over a tropical station using a ground-based lidar. A statistically significant increase is found in the altitude of sub-visible cirrus clouds. Also a systematic shift from thin to sub-visible cirrus cloud type is observed. Ground-based lidar is found to detect more number of sub-visible cirrus clouds than space-based lidar. These findings have implications to global warming and stratosphere-troposphere water vapour exchange studies.
S. Ravindra Babu, M. Venkat Ratnam, G. Basha, B. V. Krishnamurthy, and B. Venkateswararao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10239–10249,Short summary
The effect of tropical cyclones (TCs) that occurred over the north Indian Ocean in the last decade on the tropical tropopause parameters has been quantified for the first time. The vertical structure of temperature and tropopause parameters within the 5º radius away from the cyclone centre during TC period is also presented. The water vapour variability in the vicinity of TC is investigated. It is demonstrated that the TCs can significantly affect the tropical tropopause and thus STE processes.
M. Pramitha, M. Venkat Ratnam, A. Taori, B. V. Krishna Murthy, D. Pallamraju, and S. Vijaya Bhaskar Rao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2709–2721,Short summary
Sources and propagation characteristics of high-frequency gravity waves observed in the mesosphere using airglow emissions from Gadanki and Hyderabad, India, are investigated using reverse ray tracing. Wave amplitudes are also traced back, including both radiative and diffusive damping. Interestingly, large vertical shears in the horizontal wind are noticed near the ray terminal points (at 10-12km altitude) and are thus identified to be the source for generating the observed gravity waves.
K. Ramesh, A. P. Kesarkar, J. Bhate, M. Venkat Ratnam, and A. Jayaraman
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 369–384,Short summary
The study of atmospheric convection is important for the understanding of evolution of diurnal cycles of rainfall. High-resolution observations of vertical profiles of temperature and relative humidity are very useful for understanding the behaviour of these convections. Microwave radiometers are becoming useful tools for it. In this paper, we propose a new method to retrieve these profiles based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy interface systems and find that this method has a better skill of retrieval.
M. Venkat Ratnam, N. Pravallika, S. Ravindra Babu, G. Basha, M. Pramitha, and B. V. Krishna Murthy
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1011–1025,
P. Kishore, M. Venkat Ratnam, I. Velicogna, V. Sivakumar, H. Bencherif, B. R. Clemesha, D. M. Simonich, P. P. Batista, and G. Beig
Ann. Geophys., 32, 301–317,
D. V. Phanikumar, K. Niranjan Kumar, K. K. Shukla, H. Joshi, M. Venkat Ratnam, M. Naja, and K. Reddy
Ann. Geophys., 32, 175–180,
Related subject area
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Jakub L. Nowak, Holger Siebert, Kai-Erik Szodry, and Szymon P. Malinowski
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10965–10991,Short summary
Turbulence properties in two cases of a marine stratocumulus-topped boundary layer have been compared using high-resolution helicopter-borne in situ measurements. In the coupled one, small-scale turbulence was close to isotropic and reasonably followed inertial range scaling according to Kolmogorov theory. In the decoupled one, turbulence was more anisotropic and the scaling deviated from theory. This was more pronounced in the cloud and subcloud layers in comparison to the surface mixed layer.
Sandra Vázquez-Martín, Thomas Kuhn, and Salomon Eliasson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7545–7565,Short summary
In this work, we present new fall speed measurements of natural snow particles and ice crystals. We study the particle fall speed relationships and how they depend on particle shape. We analyze these relationships as a function of particle size, cross-sectional area, and area ratio for different particle shape groups. We also investigate the dependence of the particle fall speed on the orientation, as it has a large impact on the cross-sectional area.
Nathan Magee, Katie Boaggio, Samantha Staskiewicz, Aaron Lynn, Xuanyi Zhao, Nicholas Tusay, Terance Schuh, Manisha Bandamede, Lucas Bancroft, David Connelly, Kevin Hurler, Bryan Miner, and Elissa Khoudary
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7171–7185,Short summary
The cryo-electron microscopy images and analysis in this paper result from the first balloon-borne capture, preservation, and high-resolution imaging of ice particles from cirrus clouds. The images show cirrus particle complexity in unprecedented detail, revealing unexpected morphology, a mixture of surface roughness scales and patterns, embedded aerosols, and a large variety of habits within a single cloud. The results should inform ongoing efforts to refine modeling of cirrus radiative impact.
Thiago S. Biscaro, Luiz A. T. Machado, Scott E. Giangrande, and Michael P. Jensen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6735–6754,Short summary
This study suggests that there are two distinct modes driving diurnal precipitating convective clouds over the central Amazon. In the wet season, local factors such as turbulence and nighttime cloud coverage are the main controls of daily precipitation, while dry-season daily precipitation is modulated primarily by the mesoscale convective pattern. The results imply that models and parameterizations must consider different formulations based on the seasonal cycle to correctly resolve convection.
Fabiola Ramelli, Jan Henneberger, Robert O. David, Johannes Bühl, Martin Radenz, Patric Seifert, Jörg Wieder, Annika Lauber, Julie T. Pasquier, Ronny Engelmann, Claudia Mignani, Maxime Hervo, and Ulrike Lohmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6681–6706,Short summary
Orographic mixed-phase clouds are an important source of precipitation, but the ice formation processes within them remain uncertain. Here we investigate the origin of ice crystals in a mixed-phase cloud in the Swiss Alps using aerosol and cloud data from in situ and remote sensing observations. We found that ice formation primarily occurs in cloud top generating cells. Our results indicate that secondary ice processes are active in the feeder region, which can enhance orographic precipitation.
Ulrike Egerer, André Ehrlich, Matthias Gottschalk, Hannes Griesche, Roel A. J. Neggers, Holger Siebert, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6347–6364,Short summary
This paper describes a case study of a three-day period with a persistent humidity inversion above a mixed-phase cloud layer in the Arctic. It is based on measurements with a tethered balloon, complemented with results from a dedicated high-resolution large-eddy simulation. Both methods show that the humidity layer acts to provide moisture to the cloud layer through downward turbulent transport. This supply of additional moisture can contribute to the persistence of Arctic clouds.
Sinan Gao, Chunsong Lu, Yangang Liu, Seong Soo Yum, Jiashan Zhu, Lei Zhu, Neel Desai, and Yongfeng Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Only a few studies have been focused on the vertical variation of entrainment mixing with low resolutions which are crucial to cloud-related processes. Sawtooth pattern allows for an examination of mixing with high vertical resolution. A new measure is introduced to estimate entrainment mixing to overcome difficulties in existing measures, which vertical profile indicates that entrainment mixing becomes more homogeneous with decreasing altitudes consistent with the dynamical measures.
Andrew M. Dzambo, Tristan L'Ecuyer, Kenneth Sinclair, Bastiaan van Diedenhoven, Siddhant Gupta, Greg McFarquhar, Joseph R. O'Brien, Brian Cairns, Andrzej P. Wasilewski, and Mikhail Alexandrov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5513–5532,Short summary
This work highlights a new algorithm using data collected from the 2016–2018 NASA ORACLES field campaign. This algorithm synthesizes cloud and rain measurements to attain estimates of cloud and precipitation properties over the southeast Atlantic Ocean. Estimates produced by this algorithm compare well against in situ estimates. Increased rain fractions and rain rates are found in regions of atmospheric instability. This dataset can be used to explore aerosol–cloud–precipitation interactions.
Maxi Boettcher, Andreas Schäfler, Michael Sprenger, Harald Sodemann, Stefan Kaufmann, Christiane Voigt, Hans Schlager, Donato Summa, Paolo Di Girolamo, Daniele Nerini, Urs Germann, and Heini Wernli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5477–5498,Short summary
Warm conveyor belts (WCBs) are important airstreams in extratropical cyclones, often leading to the formation of intense precipitation. We present a case study that involves aircraft, lidar and radar observations of water and clouds in a WCB ascending from western Europe across the Alps towards the Baltic Sea during the field campaigns HyMeX and T-NAWDEX-Falcon in October 2012. A probabilistic trajectory measure and an airborne tracer experiment were used to confirm the long pathway of the WCB.
Youssef Wehbe, Sarah A. Tessendorf, Courtney Weeks, Roelof Bruintjes, Lulin Xue, Roy M. Rasmussen, Paul Lawson, Sarah Woods, and Marouane Temimi
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The role of dust aerosols as ice nucleating particles is well established in the literature, whereas their role as cloud condensation nuclei is less understood, particularly in polluted desert environments. We analyze coincident cloud particle imagery and size distributions collected over the UAE using an instrumented aircraft. Despite the presence of large aerosol sizes associated with dust, fine-mode aerosols appear to suppress the formation of large droplets needed for rainfall production.
Fabiola Ramelli, Jan Henneberger, Robert O. David, Annika Lauber, Julie T. Pasquier, Jörg Wieder, Johannes Bühl, Patric Seifert, Ronny Engelmann, Maxime Hervo, and Ulrike Lohmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5151–5172,Short summary
Interactions between dynamics, microphysics and orography can enhance precipitation. Yet the exact role of these interactions is still uncertain. Here we investigate the role of low-level blocking and turbulence for precipitation by combining remote sensing and in situ observations. The observations show that blocked flow can induce the formation of feeder clouds and that turbulence can enhance hydrometeor growth, demonstrating the importance of local flow effects for orographic precipitation.
Jianhao Zhang and Paquita Zuidema
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The subtropical Atlantic hosts one of the planet’s largest marine low cloud decks and interacts with biomass-burning aerosol from approximately July through October. This study clarifies how the monthly evolution in meteorology and biomass-burning aerosol vertical structure affects the seasonal cycle in its low cloud fraction, such that the July–October evolution in low cloud cover and morphology are reinforced, compared to that with less aerosol present.
Xiang Zhong, Shaw Chen Liu, Run Liu, Xinlu Wang, Jiajia Mo, and Yanzi Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4899–4913,Short summary
The distributions of linear trends in total cloud cover and precipitation in 1983–2009 are both characterized by a broadening of the major ascending zone of Hadley circulation around the Maritime Continent. The broadening is driven primarily by the moisture–convection–latent-heat feedback cycle under global warming conditions. Contribution by other climate oscillations is secondary. The reduction of total cloud cover in China in 1957–2005 is driven by the same mechanism.
Uriya Veerendra Murali Krishna, Subrata Kumar Das, Ezhilarasi Govindaraj Sulochana, Utsav Bhowmik, Sachin Madhukar Deshpande, and Govindan Pandithurai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4741–4757,Short summary
Indian summer monsoon (ISM) rainfall exhibits sub-seasonal variability as active spells with good rainfall (wet spell) and weak spells or breaks with little to no rainfall (dry spell). Studies have shown that during the wet and dry periods of the ISM, there are contrasting behaviors in the formation of weather systems and large-scale instability. Thus, it is worth investigating how the raindrop size distribution varies during intra-seasonal timescale variations of the ISM in the Western Ghats.
Siddhant Gupta, Greg M. McFarquhar, Joseph R. O'Brien, David J. Delene, Michael R. Poellot, Amie Dobracki, James R. Podolske, Jens Redemann, Samuel E. LeBlanc, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, and Kristina Pistone
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4615–4635,Short summary
Observations from the 2016 NASA ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS (ORACLES) field campaign examine how biomass burning aerosols from southern Africa affect marine stratocumulus cloud decks over the Southeast Atlantic. Instances of contact and separation between aerosols and clouds are examined to quantify the impact of aerosol mixing into cloud top on cloud drop numbers and sizes. This information is needed for improving Earth system models and satellite retrievals.
Fernanda Córdoba, Carolina Ramírez-Romero, Diego Cabrera, Graciela B. Raga, Javier Miranda, Harry Alvarez-Ospina, Daniel Rosas, Bernardo Figueroa, Jong Sung Kim, Jacqueline Yakobi-Hancock, Talib Amador, Wilfrido Gutierrez, Manuel García, Allan K. Bertram, Darrel Baumgardner, and Luis A. Ladino
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4453–4470,Short summary
Most precipitation from deep clouds over the continents and in the intertropical convergence zone is strongly influenced by the presence of ice crystals whose formation requires the presence of aerosol particles. In the present study, the ability of three different aerosol types (i.e., marine aerosol, biomass burning, and African dust) to facilitate ice particle formation was assessed in the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico.
Israel Silber, Ann M. Fridlind, Johannes Verlinde, Andrew S. Ackerman, Grégory V. Cesana, and Daniel A. Knopf
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3949–3971,Short summary
Long-term ground-based radar and sounding measurements over Alaska (Antarctica) indicate that more than 85 % (75 %) of supercooled clouds are precipitating at cloud base and that 75 % (50 %) are precipitating to the surface. Such high prevalence is reconciled with lesser spaceborne estimates by considering radar sensitivity. Results provide a strong observational constraint for polar cloud processes in large-scale models.
Annika Lauber, Jan Henneberger, Claudia Mignani, Fabiola Ramelli, Julie T. Pasquier, Jörg Wieder, Maxime Hervo, and Ulrike Lohmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3855–3870,Short summary
An accurate prediction of the ice crystal number concentration (ICNC) is important to determine the radiation budget, lifetime, and precipitation formation of clouds. Even though secondary-ice processes can increase the ICNC by several orders of magnitude, they are poorly constrained and lack a well-founded quantification. During measurements on a mountain slope, a high ICNC of small ice crystals was observed just below 0 °C, attributed to a secondary-ice process and parametrized in this study.
Kwonil Kim, Wonbae Bang, Eun-Chul Chang, Francisco J. Tapiador, Chia-Lun Tsai, Eunsil Jung, and Gyuwon Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This study analyzed the microphysical characteristics of snow in complex terrain and nearby ocean according to topography and wind pattern during the ICE-POP 2018. The observations from collocated vertically pointing radars and disdrometers indicate the riming in the mountainous region is likely caused by a strong shear and turbulence. The different behaviors of aggregation and riming were found by three different synoptic patterns (air-sea interaction, cold low, and warm low).
Zhibo Zhang, Qianqian Song, David B. Mechem, Vincent E. Larson, Jian Wang, Yangang Liu, Mikael K. Witte, Xiquan Dong, and Peng Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3103–3121,Short summary
This study investigates the small-scale variations and covariations of cloud microphysical properties, namely, cloud liquid water content and cloud droplet number concentration, in marine boundary layer clouds based on in situ observation from the Aerosol and Cloud Experiments in the Eastern North Atlantic (ACE-ENA) campaign. We discuss the dependence of cloud variations on vertical location in cloud and the implications for warm-rain simulations in the global climate models.
Maurin Zouzoua, Fabienne Lohou, Paul Assamoi, Marie Lothon, Véronique Yoboue, Cheikh Dione, Norbert Kalthoff, Bianca Adler, Karmen Babić, Xabier Pedruzo-Bagazgoitia, and Solène Derrien
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2027–2051,Short summary
Based on a field experiment conducted in June and July 2016, we analyzed the daytime breakup of continental low-level stratiform clouds over southern West Africa in order to provide complementary guidance for model evaluation during the monsoon season. Those clouds exhibit weaker temperature and moisture jumps at the top compared to marine stratiform clouds. Their lifetime and the transition towards shallow convective clouds during daytime hours depend on their coupling with the surface.
Ryan Patnaude, Minghui Diao, Xiaohong Liu, and Suqian Chu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1835–1859,Short summary
A comprehensive, in situ observation dataset of cirrus clouds was developed based on seven field campaigns, ranging from 87° N–75° S. The observations were compared with a global climate model. Several key factors for cirrus cloud formation were examined, including thermodynamics, dynamics, aerosol indirect effects and geographical locations. Model biases include lower ice mass concentrations, smaller ice crystals and weaker aerosol indirect effects.
Claudia Mignani, Jörg Wieder, Michael A. Sprenger, Zamin A. Kanji, Jan Henneberger, Christine Alewell, and Franz Conen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 657–664,Short summary
Most precipitation above land starts with ice in clouds. It is promoted by extremely rare particles. Some ice-nucleating particles (INPs) cause cloud droplets to already freeze above −15°C, a temperature at which many clouds begin to snow. We found that the abundance of such INPs among other particles of similar size is highest in precipitating air masses and lowest when air carries desert dust. This brings us closer to understanding the interactions between land, clouds, and precipitation.
Jutta Vüllers, Peggy Achtert, Ian M. Brooks, Michael Tjernström, John Prytherch, Annika Burzik, and Ryan Neely III
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 289–314,Short summary
This paper provides interesting new results on the thermodynamic structure of the boundary layer, cloud conditions, and fog characteristics in the Arctic during the Arctic Ocean 2018 campaign. It provides information for interpreting further process studies on aerosol–cloud interactions and shows substantial differences in thermodynamic conditions and cloud characteristics based on comparison with previous campaigns. This certainly raises the question of whether it is just an exceptional year.
Jann Schrod, Erik S. Thomson, Daniel Weber, Jens Kossmann, Christopher Pöhlker, Jorge Saturno, Florian Ditas, Paulo Artaxo, Valérie Clouard, Jean-Marie Saurel, Martin Ebert, Joachim Curtius, and Heinz G. Bingemer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15983–16006,Short summary
Long-term ice-nucleating particle (INP) data are presented from four semi-pristine sites located in the Amazon, the Caribbean, Germany and the Arctic. Average INP concentrations did not differ by orders of magnitude between the sites. For all sites short-term variability dominated the time series, which lacked clear trends and seasonalities. Common drivers to explain the INP levels and their variations could not be identified, illustrating the complex nature of heterogeneous ice nucleation.
André Welti, E. Keith Bigg, Paul J. DeMott, Xianda Gong, Markus Hartmann, Mike Harvey, Silvia Henning, Paul Herenz, Thomas C. J. Hill, Blake Hornblow, Caroline Leck, Mareike Löffler, Christina S. McCluskey, Anne Marie Rauker, Julia Schmale, Christian Tatzelt, Manuela van Pinxteren, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15191–15206,Short summary
Ship-based measurements of maritime ice nuclei concentrations encompassing all oceans are compiled. From this overview it is found that maritime ice nuclei concentrations are typically 10–100 times lower than over continents, while concentrations are surprisingly similar in different oceanic regions. The analysis of the influence of ship emissions shows no effect on the data, making ship-based measurements an efficient strategy for the large-scale exploration of ice nuclei concentrations.
Peggy Achtert, Ewan J. O'Connor, Ian M. Brooks, Georgia Sotiropoulou, Matthew D. Shupe, Bernhard Pospichal, Barbara J. Brooks, and Michael Tjernström
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14983–15002,Short summary
We present observations of precipitating and non-precipitating Arctic liquid and mixed-phase clouds during a research cruise along the Russian shelf in summer and autumn of 2014. Active remote-sensing observations, radiosondes, and auxiliary measurements are combined in the synergistic Cloudnet retrieval. Cloud properties are analysed with respect to cloud-top temperature and boundary layer structure. About 8 % of all liquid clouds show a liquid water path below the infrared black body limit.
J. Brant Dodson, Patrick C. Taylor, Richard H. Moore, David H. Bromwich, Keith M. Hines, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Chelsea A. Corr, Bruce E. Anderson, Edward L. Winstead, and Joseph R. Bennett
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Aircraft in situ observations of low level Beaufort Sea cloud properties and thermodynamics from the ARISE campaign are compared with the Arctic System Reanalysis (ASR) to better understand deficiencies in simulated clouds. ASR produces too little cloud water, which coincides with being too warm and dry. In addition, ASR struggles to produce cloud water even in favorable thermodynamic conditions. A random sampling experiment also shows the effects of the limited aircraft sampling on the results.
Jiarong Li, Chao Zhu, Hui Chen, Defeng Zhao, Likun Xue, Xinfeng Wang, Hongyong Li, Pengfei Liu, Junfeng Liu, Chenglong Zhang, Yujing Mu, Wenjin Zhang, Luming Zhang, Hartmut Herrmann, Kai Li, Min Liu, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13735–13751,Short summary
Based on a field study at Mt. Tai, China, the simultaneous variations of cloud microphysics, aerosol microphysics and their potential interactions during cloud life cycles were discussed. Results demonstrated that clouds on clean days were more susceptible to the concentrations of particle number, while clouds formed on polluted days might be more sensitive to meteorological parameters. Particles larger than 150 nm played important roles in forming cloud droplets with sizes of 5–10 μm.
Jann Schrod, Dominik Kleinhenz, Maria Hörhold, Tobias Erhardt, Sarah Richter, Frank Wilhelms, Hubertus Fischer, Martin Ebert, Birthe Twarloh, Damiano Della Lunga, Camilla M. Jensen, Joachim Curtius, and Heinz G. Bingemer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12459–12482,Short summary
Ice-nucleating particle (INP) concentrations of the last 6 centuries are presented from an ice core in Greenland. The data are accompanied by physical and chemical aerosol data. INPs are correlated to the dust signal from the ice core and seem to follow the annual input of mineral dust. We find no clear trend in the INP concentration. However, modern-day concentrations are higher and more variable than the concentrations of the past. This might have significant atmospheric implications.
Andreas Petzold, Patrick Neis, Mihal Rütimann, Susanne Rohs, Florian Berkes, Herman G. J. Smit, Martina Krämer, Nicole Spelten, Peter Spichtinger, Philippe Nédélec, and Andreas Wahner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8157–8179,Short summary
The first analysis of 15 years of global-scale water vapour and relative humidity observations by passenger aircraft in the MOZAIC and IAGOS programmes resolves detailed features of water vapour and ice-supersaturated air in the mid-latitude tropopause. Key results provide in-depth insight into seasonal and regional variability and chemical signatures of ice-supersaturated air masses, including trend analyses, and show a close link to cirrus clouds and their highly important effects on climate.
Adam Majewski and Jeffrey R. French
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5035–5054,Short summary
The study reports formation of supercooled drizzle drops in response to repeating kilometer-wide updrafts and downdrafts within a mixed-phase, mountain-layer cloud containing very little ice despite cold cloud top temperatures (T ~ -30°C). The discrete, embedded hydrometeor growth layers and downwind transition to drizzle production at cloud top indicates the relative importance of kinematic mechanisms in determining the location of precipitation development in cloud.
Hossein Dadashazar, Ewan Crosbie, Mohammad S. Majdi, Milad Panahi, Mohammad A. Moghaddam, Ali Behrangi, Michael Brunke, Xubin Zeng, Haflidi H. Jonsson, and Armin Sorooshian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4637–4665,Short summary
Clearings in the marine-boundary-layer (MBL) cloud deck of the Pacific Ocean were studied. Remote sensing, reanalysis, and airborne data were used along with machine-learning modeling to characterize the spatiotemporal nature of clearings and factors governing their growth. The most significant implications of our results are linked to modeling of fog and MBL clouds, with implications for societal and environmental issues like climate, military operations, transportation, and coastal ecology.
Philippe Ricaud, Massimo Del Guasta, Eric Bazile, Niramson Azouz, Angelo Lupi, Pierre Durand, Jean-Luc Attié, Dana Veron, Vincent Guidard, and Paolo Grigioni
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4167–4191,Short summary
Thin (~ 100 m) supercooled liquid water (SLW, water staying in liquid phase below 0 °C) clouds have been detected, analysed, and modelled over the Dome C (Concordia, Antarctica) station during the austral summer 2018–2019 using observations and meteorological analyses. The SLW clouds were observed at the top of the planetary boundary layer and the SLW content was always strongly underestimated by the model indicating an incorrect simulation of the surface energy budget of the Antarctic Plateau.
Steven J. Abel, Paul A. Barrett, Paquita Zuidema, Jianhao Zhang, Matt Christensen, Fanny Peers, Jonathan W. Taylor, Ian Crawford, Keith N. Bower, and Michael Flynn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4059–4084,Short summary
In situ measurements of a free-tropospheric (FT) biomass burning aerosol plume in contact with the boundary layer inversion overriding a pocket of open cells (POC) and surrounding stratiform cloud are presented. The data highlight the contrasting thermodynamic, aerosol and cloud properties in the two cloud regimes and further demonstrate that the cloud regime plays a key role in regulating the flow of FT aerosols into the boundary layer, which has implications for the aerosol indirect effect.
Gary Lloyd, Thomas Choularton, Keith Bower, Jonathan Crosier, Martin Gallagher, Michael Flynn, James Dorsey, Dantong Liu, Jonathan W. Taylor, Oliver Schlenczek, Jacob Fugal, Stephan Borrmann, Richard Cotton, Paul Field, and Alan Blyth
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3895–3904,Short summary
Measurements of liquid and ice cloud particles were made using an aircraft to penetrate fresh growing convective clouds in the tropical Atlantic. We found small ice particles at surprisingly high temperatures just below freezing. At colder temperatures secondary ice processes rapidly generated high concentrations of ice crystals.
Emmanuel Fontaine, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, Delphine Leroy, Julien Delanoë, Alain Protat, Fabien Dezitter, John Walter Strapp, and Lyle Edward Lilie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3503–3553,Short summary
This study investigates properties of ice hydrometeors (shape, concentration, density, and size) in deep convective systems. The analysis focuses on similarities and differences over four locations in the tropical troposphere. It shows that measurements as a function of temperature and radar reflectivity factors tend to be similar in the four types of deep convective systems when concentrations of ice are larger than 0.1 g m-3.
Mary Kacarab, K. Lee Thornhill, Amie Dobracki, Steven G. Howell, Joseph R. O'Brien, Steffen Freitag, Michael R. Poellot, Robert Wood, Paquita Zuidema, Jens Redemann, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3029–3040,Short summary
We find that extensive biomass burning aerosol plumes from southern Africa can profoundly influence clouds in the southeastern Atlantic. Concurrent variations in vertical velocity, however, are found to magnify the relationship between boundary layer aerosol and the cloud droplet number. Neglecting these covariances may strongly bias the sign and magnitude of aerosol impacts on the cloud droplet number.
Fabienne Lohou, Norbert Kalthoff, Bianca Adler, Karmen Babić, Cheikh Dione, Marie Lothon, Xabier Pedruzo-Bagazgoitia, and Maurin Zouzoua
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2263–2275,Short summary
A conceptual model of the low-level stratiform clouds (LLSCs), which develop almost every night in southern West Africa, is built with the dataset acquired during the DACCIWA (Dynamics Aerosol Chemistry Cloud Interactions in West Africa) ground-based field experiment. Several processes occur during the four phases composing this diurnal cycle: the cooling of the air until saturation (stable and jet phases), LLSC and low-level jet interactions (stratus phase), and LLSC breakup (convective phase).
Paul A. Barrett, Alan Blyth, Philip R. A. Brown, and Steven J. Abel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1921–1939,Short summary
Here we present new in situ observations from altocumulus clouds made with a research aircraft. By carefully measuring the cloud top height, we are able to study the turbulence and cloud properties in high vertical resolution, something not presented before. The clouds contain both ice particles and liquid drops, even though the temperature is −30 °C. These measurements will hopefully assist future developers of climate models to verify and assess the performance of simulations.
Xianda Gong, Heike Wex, Manuela van Pinxteren, Nadja Triesch, Khanneh Wadinga Fomba, Jasmin Lubitz, Christian Stolle, Tiera-Brandy Robinson, Thomas Müller, Hartmut Herrmann, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1451–1468,Short summary
In this study, we examined number concentrations of ice nucleating particles (INPs) at Cabo Verde in the oceanic sea surface microlayer and underlying seawater, in the air close to both sea level and cloud level, and in cloud water. The results show that most INPs are supermicron in size, that INP number concentrations in air fit well to those in cloud water and that sea spray aerosols at maximum contributed a small fraction of all INPs in the air at Cabo Verde.
Alexei Korolev, Ivan Heckman, Mengistu Wolde, Andrew S. Ackerman, Ann M. Fridlind, Luis A. Ladino, R. Paul Lawson, Jason Milbrandt, and Earle Williams
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1391–1429,Short summary
This study attempts identification of mechanisms of secondary ice production (SIP) based on the observation of small faceted ice crystals. It was found that in both mesoscale convective systems and frontal clouds, SIP was observed right above the melting layer and extended to the higher altitudes with colder temperatures. A principal conclusion of this work is that the freezing drop shattering mechanism is plausibly accounting for the measured ice concentrations in the observed condition.
Killian P. Brennan, Robert O. David, and Nadine Borduas-Dedekind
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 163–180,Short summary
To contribute to our understanding of the liquid water-to-ice ratio in mixed-phase clouds, this study provides a spatial and temporal dataset of ice-nucleating particle (INP) concentrations in meltwater of 88 snow samples across 17 locations in the Swiss Alps. The impact of altitude, terrain, time since last snowfall and depth on freezing temperatures was also investigated. The measured INP concentrations provide an estimate of cloud glaciation temperatures important for cloud lifetime.
Fei Wang, Zhanqing Li, Qi Jiang, Gaili Wang, Shuo Jia, Jing Duan, and Yuquan Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14967–14977,Short summary
Though many laboratory, modeling, and field experimental studies on cloud seeding have been conducted for more than a half-century, assessing the effectiveness of cloud seeding is still very challenging due to the notorious difficulties in gaining convincing scientific evidences. The goals of this study are to evaluate any consequence of aircraft hygroscopic seeding and to develop a feasible method for analyzing the cloud seeding effect for stratocumulus clouds.
Lester Alfonso, Graciela B. Raga, and Darrel Baumgardner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14917–14932,Short summary
The aim of this paper is to find some observational evidence of gel formation in clouds, by analyzing the distribution of the largest droplet at an early stage of cloud formation, and to show that the mass of the gel (
lucky droplet) is a mixture of Gaussian and Gumbel distributions. The results obtained may help advance the understanding of precipitation formation and are a novel application of the theory of critical phenomena in cloud physics.
Jianhao Zhang and Paquita Zuidema
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14493–14516,Short summary
Boundary layer (BL) semi-direct effects in the remote SE Atlantic are investigated using LASIC field measurements and satellite retrievals. Low-cloud cover and cloud liquid water path decrease with increasing smoke loadings in the BL. Daily-mean surface-based mixed layer is warmer by 0.5 K, moisture accumulates near the surface throughout the night, and the BL deepens by 200 m, with LWPs and cloud top heights increasing, in the sunlit morning hours, as part of the smoke-altered BL diurnal cycle.
Xianda Gong, Heike Wex, Thomas Müller, Alfred Wiedensohler, Kristina Höhler, Konrad Kandler, Nan Ma, Barbara Dietel, Thea Schiebel, Ottmar Möhler, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10883–10900,Short summary
For the diverse aerosol on Cyprus, we found the following: new particle formation can be a source of cloud condensation nuclei. Particle hygroscopicity showed that particles ~<100 nm contained mostly organic material, while larger ones were more hygroscopic. Two separate methods obtained similar concentrations of ice-nucleating particles (INP), with mostly no evidence of a local origin. Different parameterizations overestimated INP concentration in this rather polluted region.
Christian Mallaun, Andreas Giez, Georg J. Mayr, and Mathias W. Rotach
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9769–9786,Short summary
This study presents airborne measurements in shallow convection over land to investigate the dynamic properties of clouds focusing on possible narrow downdraughts in the surrounding of the clouds. A characteristic narrow downdraught region (
subsiding shell) is found directly outside the cloud borders for the mean vertical wind distribution. The
subsiding shellresults from the distribution of the highly variable updraughts and downdraughts in the near vicinity of the cloud.
Samuel Nahmani, Olivier Bock, and Françoise Guichard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9541–9561,Short summary
A mesoscale convective system (MCS) is a cloud system that occurs in connection with an ensemble of thunderstorms and produces a contiguous precipitation area of the order of 100 km or more. Numerous questions related to MCSs remain poorly answered (e.g., their life cycle, and interactions between physical processes and atmospheric circulations). This work shows how a GPS technique can provide relevant and complementary information on MCSs passing over or in the vicinity of observation stations.
Jörg Burdanowitz, Stefan A. Buehler, Stephan Bakan, and Christian Klepp
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9241–9252,Short summary
Sensitivity of precipitation to sea surface temperature over the ocean determines how precipitation potentially changes in a warming climate. This relationship has hardly been studied over ocean due to a lack of long-term oceanic data. Our study shows how the precipitation sensitivity depends on resolution, what process limits oceanic precipitation and how the event duration depends on temperature. This provides valuable information for future climate observations, modeling and understanding.
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Cloud vertical structure affects large-scale atmosphere circulation by altering gradients in total diabatic heating and cooling and latent heat release. Detailed cloud vertical structure in all seasons, including diurnal variation over the Indian region, is made for the first time. The detected cloud layers are verified with independent observations using cloud particle sensor sonde. Heating and cooling in the troposphere and lower stratosphere due to these cloud layers are also investigated.
Cloud vertical structure affects large-scale atmosphere circulation by altering gradients in...