Articles | Volume 17, issue 8
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Investigation of the aerosol–cloud–rainfall association over the Indian summer monsoon region
Department of Civil Engineering and Centre for Environmental Science and Engineering, India Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India
Sachchida Nand Tripathi
Department of Civil Engineering and Centre for Environmental Science and Engineering, India Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India
Vijay P. Kanawade
Department of Civil Engineering and Centre for Environmental Science and Engineering, India Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India
currently at: University Centre for Earth and Space Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, India
Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Weizmann Institute, Rehovot, Israel
No articles found.
Nishant Ajnoti, Hemant Gehlot, and Sachchida Nand Tripathi
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
This research focuses on the optimal placement of hybrid instruments (sensors and monitors) to maximize satisfaction function considering population, PM2.5 concentration, budget and other factors. Two algorithms are developed in this study: a genetic algorithm and a greedy algorithm. We tested these algorithms on various regions. The insights of this work aid in quantitative placement of air quality monitoring instruments in large cities, moving away from ad hoc approaches.
Wei Huang, Cheng Wu, Linyu Gao, Yvette Gramlich, Sophie L. Haslett, Joel Thornton, Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker, Ben H. Lee, Junwei Song, Harald Saathoff, Xiaoli Shen, Ramakrishna Ramisetty, Sachchida N. Tripathi, Dilip Ganguly, Feng Jiang, Magdalena Vallon, Siegfried Schobesberger, Taina Yli-Juuti, and Claudia Mohr
This preprint is open for discussion and under review for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).Short summary
We present distinct molecular composition and volatility of oxygenated organic aerosol particles in different rural, urban, and remote environments across the globe. We did a comprehensive investigation of the relationship between chemical composition and volatility of oxygenated organic aerosol particles across different systems and environments. This study provides implications for volatility descriptions of oxygenated organic aerosol particles in different model frameworks.
Sophie L. Haslett, David M. Bell, Varun Kumar, Jay G. Slowik, Dongyu S. Wang, Suneeti Mishra, Neeraj Rastogi, Atinderpal Singh, Dilip Ganguly, Joel Thornton, Feixue Zheng, Yuanyuan Li, Wei Nie, Yongchun Liu, Wei Ma, Chao Yan, Markku Kulmala, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, David Hadden, Urs Baltensperger, Andre S. H. Prevot, Sachchida N. Tripathi, and Claudia Mohr
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9023–9036,Short summary
In Delhi, some aspects of daytime and nighttime atmospheric chemistry are inverted, and parodoxically, vehicle emissions may be limiting other forms of particle production. This is because the nighttime emissions of nitrogen oxide (NO) by traffic and biomass burning prevent some chemical processes that would otherwise create even more particles and worsen the urban haze.
Huan Liu, Ilan Koren, Orit Altaratz, and Mickaël D. Chekroun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6559–6569,Short summary
Clouds' responses to global warming contribute the largest uncertainty in climate prediction. Here, we analyze 42 years of global cloud cover in reanalysis data and show a decreasing trend over most continents and an increasing trend over the tropical and subtropical oceans. A reduction in near-surface relative humidity can explain the decreasing trend in cloud cover over land. Our results suggest potential stress on the terrestrial water cycle, associated with global warming.
Vaishali Jain, Nidhi Tripathi, Sachchida N. Tripathi, Mansi Gupta, Lokesh K. Sahu, Vishnu Murari, Sreenivas Gaddamidi, Ashutosh K. Shukla, and Andre S. H. Prevot
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3383–3408,Short summary
This research chemically characterises 173 different NMVOCs (non-methane volatile organic compounds) measured in real time for three seasons in the city of the central Indo-Gangetic basin of India, Lucknow. Receptor modelling is used to analyse probable sources of NMVOCs and their crucial role in forming ozone and secondary organic aerosols. It is observed that vehicular emissions and solid fuel combustion are the highest contributors to the emission of primary and secondary NMVOCs.
Matthias Kohl, Jos Lelieveld, Sourangsu Chowdhury, Sebastian Ehrhart, Disha Sharma, Yafang Cheng, Sachchida Nand Tripathi, Mathew Sebastian, Govindan Pandithurai, Hongli Wang, and Andrea Pozzer
Knowledge on atmospheric ultrafine particles (UFP) with a diameter smaller than 100 nm is crucial for public health and the hydrological cycle. We present a new global dataset of UFP concentrations at the Earth's surface derived with a comprehensive chemistry climate model, and evaluated with ground-based observations. The evaluation results are combined with high-resolution primary emissions to downscale UFP concentrations to an unprecedented horizontal resolution of 0.1° x 0.1°.
Sudipta Ghosh, Sagnik Dey, Sushant Das, Nicole Riemer, Graziano Giuliani, Dilip Ganguly, Chandra Venkataraman, Filippo Giorgi, Sachchida Nand Tripathi, Srikanthan Ramachandran, Thazhathakal Ayyappen Rajesh, Harish Gadhavi, and Atul Kumar Srivastava
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 1–15,Short summary
Accurate representation of aerosols in climate models is critical for minimizing the uncertainty in climate projections. Here, we implement region-specific emission fluxes and a more accurate scheme for carbonaceous aerosol ageing processes in a regional climate model (RegCM4) and show that it improves model performance significantly against in situ, reanalysis, and satellite data over the Indian subcontinent. We recommend improving the model performance before using them for climate studies.
Elisa T. Sena, Ilan Koren, Orit Altaratz, and Alexander B. Kostinski
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 16111–16122,Short summary
We used record-breaking statistics together with spatial information to create record-breaking SST maps. The maps reveal warming patterns in the overwhelming majority of the ocean and coherent islands of cooling, where low records occur more frequently than high ones. Some of these cooling spots are well known; however, a surprising elliptical area in the Southern Ocean is observed as well. Similar analyses can be performed on other key climatological variables to explore their trend patterns.
Varun Kumar, Stamatios Giannoukos, Sophie L. Haslett, Yandong Tong, Atinderpal Singh, Amelie Bertrand, Chuan Ping Lee, Dongyu S. Wang, Deepika Bhattu, Giulia Stefenelli, Jay S. Dave, Joseph V. Puthussery, Lu Qi, Pawan Vats, Pragati Rai, Roberto Casotto, Rangu Satish, Suneeti Mishra, Veronika Pospisilova, Claudia Mohr, David M. Bell, Dilip Ganguly, Vishal Verma, Neeraj Rastogi, Urs Baltensperger, Sachchida N. Tripathi, André S. H. Prévôt, and Jay G. Slowik
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7739–7761,Short summary
Here we present source apportionment results from the first field deployment in Delhi of an extractive electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (EESI-TOF). The EESI-TOF is a recently developed instrument capable of providing uniquely detailed online chemical characterization of organic aerosol (OA), in particular the secondary OA (SOA) fraction. Here, we are able to apportion not only primary OA but also SOA to specific sources, which is performed for the first time in Delhi.
Himadri Sekhar Bhowmik, Ashutosh Shukla, Vipul Lalchandani, Jay Dave, Neeraj Rastogi, Mayank Kumar, Vikram Singh, and Sachchida Nand Tripathi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2667–2684,Short summary
This study presents comparisons between online and offline measurements of both refractory and non-refractory aerosol. This study shows differences between the measurements, related to either the limitations of the instrument (e.g., aerosol mass spectrometer only observing non-refractory aerosol) or known interferences with the technique (e.g., volatilization or reactions). The findings highlight the measurement methods' accuracy and imply the particular type of measurements needed.
Mathew Sebastian, Sobhan Kumar Kompalli, Vasudevan Anil Kumar, Sandhya Jose, S. Suresh Babu, Govindan Pandithurai, Sachchidanand Singh, Rakesh K. Hooda, Vijay K. Soni, Jeffrey R. Pierce, Ville Vakkari, Eija Asmi, Daniel M. Westervelt, Antti-Pekka Hyvärinen, and Vijay P. Kanawade
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4491–4508,Short summary
Characteristics of particle number size distributions and new particle formation in six locations in India were analyzed. New particle formation occurred frequently during the pre-monsoon (spring) season and it significantly modulates the shape of the particle number size distributions. The contribution of newly formed particles to cloud condensation nuclei concentrations was ~3 times higher in urban locations than in mountain background locations.
Chandan Sarangi, TC Chakraborty, Sachchidanand Tripathi, Mithun Krishnan, Ross Morrison, Jonathan Evans, and Lina M. Mercado
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3615–3629,Short summary
Transpiration fluxes by vegetation are reduced under heat stress to conserve water. However, in situ observations over northern India show that the strength of the inverse association between transpiration and atmospheric vapor pressure deficit is weakening in the presence of heavy aerosol loading. This finding not only implicates the significant role of aerosols in modifying the evaporative fraction (EF) but also warrants an in-depth analysis of the aerosol–plant–temperature–EF continuum.
Eshkol Eytan, Ilan Koren, Orit Altaratz, Mark Pinsky, and Alexander Khain
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16203–16217,Short summary
Describing cloud mixing processes is among the most challenging fronts in cloud physics. Therefore, the adiabatic fraction (AF) that serves as a mixing measure is a valuable metric. We use high-resolution (10 m) simulations of single clouds with a passive tracer to test the skill of different methods used to derive AF. We highlight a method that is insensitive to the available cloud samples and allows considering microphysical effects on AF estimations in different environmental conditions.
Tom Dror, Mickaël D. Chekroun, Orit Altaratz, and Ilan Koren
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12261–12272,Short summary
A part of continental shallow convective cumulus (Cu) was shown to share properties such as organization and formation over vegetated areas, thus named green Cu. Mechanisms behind the formed patterns are not understood. We use different metrics and an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) to decompose the dataset and quantify organization factors (cloud streets and gravity waves). We show that clouds form a highly organized grid structure over hundreds of kilometers at the field lifetime.
Karn Vohra, Eloise A. Marais, Shannen Suckra, Louisa Kramer, William J. Bloss, Ravi Sahu, Abhishek Gaur, Sachchida N. Tripathi, Martin Van Damme, Lieven Clarisse, and Pierre-F. Coheur
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6275–6296,Short summary
We find satellite observations of atmospheric composition generally reproduce variability in surface air pollution, so we use their long record to estimate air quality trends in major UK and Indian cities. Our trend analysis shows that pollutants targeted with air quality policies have not declined in Delhi and Kanpur but have in London and Birmingham, with the exception of a recent and dramatic increase in reactive volatile organics in London. Unregulated ammonia has increased only in Delhi.
Pragati Rai, Jay G. Slowik, Markus Furger, Imad El Haddad, Suzanne Visser, Yandong Tong, Atinderpal Singh, Günther Wehrle, Varun Kumar, Anna K. Tobler, Deepika Bhattu, Liwei Wang, Dilip Ganguly, Neeraj Rastogi, Ru-Jin Huang, Jaroslaw Necki, Junji Cao, Sachchida N. Tripathi, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 717–730,Short summary
We present a simple conceptual framework based on elemental size distributions and enrichment factors that allows for a characterization of major sources, site-to-site similarities, and local differences and the identification of key information required for efficient policy development. Absolute concentrations are by far the highest in Delhi, followed by Beijing, and then the European cities.
Ravi Sahu, Ayush Nagal, Kuldeep Kumar Dixit, Harshavardhan Unnibhavi, Srikanth Mantravadi, Srijith Nair, Yogesh Simmhan, Brijesh Mishra, Rajesh Zele, Ronak Sutaria, Vidyanand Motiram Motghare, Purushottam Kar, and Sachchida Nand Tripathi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 37–52,Short summary
A unique feature of our low-cost sensor deployment is a swap-out experiment wherein four of the six sensors were relocated to different sites in the two phases. The swap-out experiment is crucial in investigating the efficacy of calibration models when applied to weather and air quality conditions vastly different from those present during calibration. We developed a novel local calibration algorithm based on metric learning that offers stable and accurate calibration performance.
Goutam Choudhury, Bhishma Tyagi, Naresh Krishna Vissa, Jyotsna Singh, Chandan Sarangi, Sachchida Nand Tripathi, and Matthias Tesche
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15389–15399,Short summary
This study uses 17 years (2001–2017) of observed rain rate, aerosol optical depth (AOD), meteorological reanalysis fields and outgoing long-wave radiation to investigate high precipitation events at the foothills of the Himalayas. Composite analysis of all data sets for high precipitation events (daily rainfall > 95th percentile) indicates clear and robust associations between high precipitation events, high aerosol loading and high moist static energy values.
Tom Dror, J. Michel Flores, Orit Altaratz, Guy Dagan, Zev Levin, Assaf Vardi, and Ilan Koren
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15297–15306,Short summary
We used in situ aerosol measurements over the Atlantic, Caribbean, and Pacific to initialize a cloud model and study the impact of aerosol concentration and sizes on warm clouds. We show that high aerosol concentration increases cloud mass and reduces surface rain when giant particles (diameter > 9 µm) are present. The large aerosols changed the timing and magnitude of internal cloud processes and resulted in an enhanced evaporation below cloud base and dramatically reduced surface rain.
Liwei Wang, Jay G. Slowik, Nidhi Tripathi, Deepika Bhattu, Pragati Rai, Varun Kumar, Pawan Vats, Rangu Satish, Urs Baltensperger, Dilip Ganguly, Neeraj Rastogi, Lokesh K. Sahu, Sachchida N. Tripathi, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9753–9770,
Amit Misra, Sachchida Tripathi, Harjinder Sembhi, and Hartmut Boesch
Ann. Geophys. Discuss.,
Publication in ANGEO not foreseenShort summary
In this work we validated Copernicus Aerosol Monitoring Service (CAMS) derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) at four sites in Indo-Gangetic Basin and used it to study aerosol climatology and trend in AOD at these sites. We find that sulphate AOD has largest influence on total aerosol climatology. Comparison of CAMS AOD with AERONET AOD shows better correlation when aerosol climatology is dominated by coarse particles. Trend analysis shows largest increase in organic matter and least in sea salt.
Tongshu Zheng, Michael H. Bergin, Ronak Sutaria, Sachchida N. Tripathi, Robert Caldow, and David E. Carlson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5161–5181,Short summary
Here we present a simultaneous Gaussian process regression (GPR) and linear regression pipeline to calibrate and monitor dense wireless low-cost particulate matter sensor networks (WLPMSNs) on the fly by using all available reference monitors across an area. Our approach can achieve an overall 30 % prediction error at a 24 h scale, can differentiate malfunctioning nodes, and track drift. Our solution can substantially reduce manual labor for managing WLPMSNs and prolong their lifetimes.
Reuven H. Heiblum, Lital Pinto, Orit Altaratz, Guy Dagan, and Ilan Koren
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10717–10738,Short summary
It is useful to divide a cloud into two regions: core and margin. Three parameters used to define a core are compared: buoyancy (B), relative humidity (RH), and vertical velocity (W). Using theoretical arguments and simulations, we show that during most of a cloud's lifetime, the cores are subsets of one another: Bcore ⊆ RHcore ⊆ Wcore. Moreover, the core–shell cloud model applies to all core definitions. Our findings can serve as a benchmark in the partition the core and margin.
Reuven H. Heiblum, Lital Pinto, Orit Altaratz, Guy Dagan, and Ilan Koren
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10739–10755,Short summary
The effects of aerosol concentration on a cloud's partition to core and margin are examined. The main finding from Part I (i.e. Bcore ⊆ RHcore ⊆ Wcore) is seen for all aerosol concentrations. Clouds can produce positive buoyancy due to both saturated updrafts or unsaturated downdrafts; the latter are dependent on low aerosol concentrations. We show that a cloud's mass is mainly dependent on core processes (condensation), while its volume is mainly dependent on margin processes (evaporation).
Erika Brattich, Encarnación Serrano Castillo, Fabrizio Giulietti, Jean-Baptiste Renard, Sachi N. Tripathi, Kunal Ghosh, Gwenael Berthet, Damien Vignelles, and Laura Tositti
Ann. Geophys., 37, 389–403,Short summary
This paper describes the aerosol measurement setup and results obtained from the BEXUS18 stratospheric balloon within the A5-Unib (Advanced Atmospheric Aerosol Acquisition and Analysis) experiment performed on 10 October 2014 in northern Sweden (Kiruna). The experiment and the results here presented broaden the understanding of the processes linking the presence of charges with particles all over the vertical heights from the ground to the stratosphere.
Tongshu Zheng, Michael H. Bergin, Karoline K. Johnson, Sachchida N. Tripathi, Shilpa Shirodkar, Matthew S. Landis, Ronak Sutaria, and David E. Carlson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4823–4846,Short summary
Low-cost particulate matter sensors are promising tools for supplementing existing air quality monitoring networks but their performance under field conditions is not well understood. We characterized how well Plantower PMS3003 sensors measure PM2.5 in a wide range of ambient conditions against different reference sensors. When a more precise reference method is used for calibration and proper RH corrections are made, our work suggests PMS3003's can measure PM2.5 within ~ 10 % of ambient values.
Guy Dagan, Ilan Koren, and Orit Altaratz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6761–6769,Short summary
In this paper we distill the problem of aerosol–cloud interactions to an interplay between the system's two characteristic vertical velocities, i.e., the air vertical velocity and the collective droplets fall velocity. We show using theoretical considerations and cloud-resolving models that the relations between the two velocities are extremely sensitive to the cloud field's thermodynamics and microphysical properties.
Brent N. Holben, Jhoon Kim, Itaru Sano, Sonoyo Mukai, Thomas F. Eck, David M. Giles, Joel S. Schafer, Aliaksandr Sinyuk, Ilya Slutsker, Alexander Smirnov, Mikhail Sorokin, Bruce E. Anderson, Huizheng Che, Myungje Choi, James H. Crawford, Richard A. Ferrare, Michael J. Garay, Ukkyo Jeong, Mijin Kim, Woogyung Kim, Nichola Knox, Zhengqiang Li, Hwee S. Lim, Yang Liu, Hal Maring, Makiko Nakata, Kenneth E. Pickering, Stuart Piketh, Jens Redemann, Jeffrey S. Reid, Santo Salinas, Sora Seo, Fuyi Tan, Sachchida N. Tripathi, Owen B. Toon, and Qingyang Xiao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 655–671,Short summary
Aerosol particles, such as smoke, vary over space and time. This paper describes a series of very high-resolution ground-based aerosol measurement networks and associated studies that contributed new understanding of aerosol processes and detailed comparisons to satellite aerosol validation. Significantly, these networks also provide an opportunity to statistically relate grab samples of an aerosol parameter to companion satellite observations, a step toward air quality assessment from space.
Yevgeny Derimian, Marie Choël, Yinon Rudich, Karine Deboudt, Oleg Dubovik, Alexander Laskin, Michel Legrand, Bahaiddin Damiri, Ilan Koren, Florin Unga, Myriam Moreau, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Arnon Karnieli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11331–11353,Short summary
We present influence of daily occurrence of the sea breeze flow from the Mediterranean Sea on physicochemical and optical properties of atmospheric aerosol deep inland in the Negev Desert of Israel. Sampled airborne dust was found be internally mixed with sea-salt particles and reacted with anthropogenic pollution, which makes the dust highly hygroscopic and a liquid coating of particles appears. These physicochemical transformations are associated with a change in aerosol radiative properties.
Qian Chen, Ilan Koren, Orit Altaratz, Reuven H. Heiblum, Guy Dagan, and Lital Pinto
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9585–9598,
Guy Dagan, Ilan Koren, Orit Altaratz, and Reuven H. Heiblum
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7435–7444,Short summary
Large eddy simulations with bin microphysics are used to study cloud fields' sensitivity to changes in aerosol loading and the time evolution of this response. We show that the mean field properties change with a non-monotonic trend, with an optimum aerosol concentration for which the field reaches its maximal water mass or rain yield. The evolution of the mean thermodynamic properties is studied and shown to cause the migration of the optimal aerosol concentration toward higher values.
Yaniv Tubul, Ilan Koren, Orit Altaratz, and Reuven H. Heiblum
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Amit Misra, Vijay P. Kanawade, and Sachchida Nand Tripathi
Ann. Geophys., 34, 657–671,Short summary
For an accurate understanding of earth climate system, it is necessary to evaluate the performance of the climate models used to perform these simulations. In this work we have examined aerosol optical depths simulated by 17 models by comparing them with satellite-derived aerosol optical depth. Our results indicate the role of dust aerosols and biogeochemistry in the simulation of aerosols by models.
Graydon Snider, Crystal L. Weagle, Kalaivani K. Murdymootoo, Amanda Ring, Yvonne Ritchie, Emily Stone, Ainsley Walsh, Clement Akoshile, Nguyen Xuan Anh, Rajasekhar Balasubramanian, Jeff Brook, Fatimah D. Qonitan, Jinlu Dong, Derek Griffith, Kebin He, Brent N. Holben, Ralph Kahn, Nofel Lagrosas, Puji Lestari, Zongwei Ma, Amit Misra, Leslie K. Norford, Eduardo J. Quel, Abdus Salam, Bret Schichtel, Lior Segev, Sachchida Tripathi, Chien Wang, Chao Yu, Qiang Zhang, Yuxuan Zhang, Michael Brauer, Aaron Cohen, Mark D. Gibson, Yang Liu, J. Vanderlei Martins, Yinon Rudich, and Randall V. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9629–9653,Short summary
We examine the chemical composition of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) collected on filters at traditionally undersampled, globally dispersed urban locations. Several PM2.5 chemical components (e.g. ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, and black carbon) vary by more than an order of magnitude between sites while aerosol hygroscopicity varies by a factor of 2. Enhanced anthropogenic dust fractions in large urban areas are apparent from high Zn : Al ratios.
Y. Tubul, I. Koren, and O. Altaratz
Earth Syst. Dynam., 6, 781–788,
A. Arola, G. L. Schuster, M. R. A. Pitkänen, O. Dubovik, H. Kokkola, A. V. Lindfors, T. Mielonen, T. Raatikainen, S. Romakkaniemi, S. N. Tripathi, and H. Lihavainen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12731–12740,Short summary
There have been relatively few measurement-based estimates for the direct radiative effect of brown carbon so far. This is first time that the direct radiative effect of brown carbon is estimated by exploiting the AERONET-retrieved imaginary indices. We estimated it for four sites in the Indo-Gangetic Plain: Karachi, Lahore, Kanpur and Gandhi College.
Y. Ben Ami, O. Altaratz, Y. Yair, and I. Koren
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 2449–2459,
S. Fuzzi, U. Baltensperger, K. Carslaw, S. Decesari, H. Denier van der Gon, M. C. Facchini, D. Fowler, I. Koren, B. Langford, U. Lohmann, E. Nemitz, S. Pandis, I. Riipinen, Y. Rudich, M. Schaap, J. G. Slowik, D. V. Spracklen, E. Vignati, M. Wild, M. Williams, and S. Gilardoni
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8217–8299,Short summary
Particulate matter (PM) constitutes one of the most challenging problems both for air quality and climate change policies. This paper reviews the most recent scientific results on the issue and the policy needs that have driven much of the increase in monitoring and mechanistic research over the last 2 decades. The synthesis reveals many new processes and developments in the science underpinning climate-PM interactions and the effects of PM on human health and the environment.
G. Feingold, I. Koren, T. Yamaguchi, and J. Kazil
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7351–7367,Short summary
Most research on the relationship between aerosol and closed/open cell transitions tends to focus on the closed to open transition. Here we address the two-way transition between closed and open cellular states using a cloud resolving model. We find inherent asymmetry in the transitions and explain the source of the asymmetry. Results are supported by a dynamical system analogue to the full system.
C. Chaudhuri, S. Tripathi, R. Srivastava, and A. Misra
Ann. Geophys., 33, 671–686,Short summary
In this paper a Himalayan cloudburst event is investigated. The conditions of formation, evolution, and triggering mechanisms of this cloudburst are studied, looking at varieties of observed data sets and simulation with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. This cloudburst event is attributed to two mesoscale convective systems originating from Madhya Pradesh and Tibet which interacted over Uttarkashi, and under orographic uplifting in the presence of favorable moisture conditions.
G. Dagan, I. Koren, and O. Altaratz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2749–2760,
E. Tas, A. Teller, O. Altaratz, D. Axisa, R. Bruintjes, Z. Levin, and I. Koren
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2009–2017,
G. Snider, C. L. Weagle, R. V. Martin, A. van Donkelaar, K. Conrad, D. Cunningham, C. Gordon, M. Zwicker, C. Akoshile, P. Artaxo, N. X. Anh, J. Brook, J. Dong, R. M. Garland, R. Greenwald, D. Griffith, K. He, B. N. Holben, R. Kahn, I. Koren, N. Lagrosas, P. Lestari, Z. Ma, J. Vanderlei Martins, E. J. Quel, Y. Rudich, A. Salam, S. N. Tripathi, C. Yu, Q. Zhang, Y. Zhang, M. Brauer, A. Cohen, M. D. Gibson, and Y. Liu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 505–521,Short summary
We have initiated a global network of ground-level monitoring stations to measure concentrations of fine aerosols in urban environments. Our findings include major ions species, total mass, and total scatter at three wavelengths. Results will be used to further evaluate and enhance satellite remote sensing estimates.
Y. You, V. P. Kanawade, J. A. de Gouw, A. B. Guenther, S. Madronich, M. R. Sierra-Hernández, M. Lawler, J. N. Smith, S. Takahama, G. Ruggeri, A. Koss, K. Olson, K. Baumann, R. J. Weber, A. Nenes, H. Guo, E. S. Edgerton, L. Porcelli, W. H. Brune, A. H. Goldstein, and S.-H. Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12181–12194,Short summary
Amiens play important roles in atmospheric secondary aerosol formation and human health, but the fast response measurements of amines are lacking. Here we show measurements in a southeastern US forest and a moderately polluted midwestern site. Our results show that gas to particle conversion is an important process that controls ambient amine concentrations and that biomass burning is an important source of amines.
E. Hirsch, I. Koren, Z. Levin, O. Altaratz, and E. Agassi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9001–9012,
A. K. Mishra, K. Klingmueller, E. Fredj, J. Lelieveld, Y. Rudich, and I. Koren
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7213–7231,
R. H. Heiblum, I. Koren, and G. Feingold
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6063–6074,
J. Huttunen, A. Arola, G. Myhre, A. V. Lindfors, T. Mielonen, S. Mikkonen, J. S. Schafer, S. N. Tripathi, M. Wild, M. Komppula, and K. E. J. Lehtinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6103–6110,
M. Michael, A. Yadav, S. N. Tripathi, V. P. Kanawade, A. Gaur, P. Sadavarte, and C. Venkataraman
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
G. Feingold and I. Koren
Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 20, 1011–1021,
J.-B. Renard, S. N. Tripathi, M. Michael, A. Rawal, G. Berthet, M. Fullekrug, R. G. Harrison, C. Robert, M. Tagger, and B. Gaubicher
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11187–11194,
E. Hirsch, I. Koren, O. Altaratz, Z. Levin, and E. Agassi
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
A. Arola, T. F. Eck, J. Huttunen, K. E. J. Lehtinen, A. V. Lindfors, G. Myhre, A. Smirnov, S. N. Tripathi, and H. Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7895–7901,
M. Michael, A. Yadav, S. N. Tripathi, V. P. Kanawade, A. Gaur, P. Sadavarte, and C. Venkataraman
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submitted
Related subject area
Subject: Clouds and Precipitation | Research Activity: Remote Sensing | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Distinct secondary ice production processes observed in radar Doppler spectra: insights from a case studyInvestigating the development of clouds within marine cold-air outbreaksDetection of large-scale cloud microphysical changes within a major shipping corridor after implementation of the International Maritime Organization 2020 fuel sulfur regulationsExamining cloud vertical structure and radiative effects from satellite retrievals and evaluation of CMIP6 scenariosSensitivities of cloud radiative effects to large-scale meteorology and aerosols from global observationsInfluence of cloud microphysics schemes on weather model predictions of heavy precipitationConvective organization and 3D structure of tropical cloud systems deduced from synergistic A-Train observations and machine learningRapid saturation of cloud water adjustments to shipping emissionsSeasonal controls on isolated convective storm drafts, precipitation intensity, and life cycle as observed during GoAmazon2014/5Uncertainty in aerosol–cloud radiative forcing is driven by clean conditionsSurface-based observations of cold-air outbreak clouds during the COMBLE field campaignBoundary layer moisture variability at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Eastern North Atlantic observatory during marine conditionsProfile-based estimated inversion strengthCharacteristics of supersaturation in midlatitude cirrus clouds and their adjacent cloud-free airEstablishment of an analytical model for remote sensing of typical stratocumulus cloud profiles under various precipitation and entrainment conditionsSatellite remote sensing of regional and seasonal Arctic cooling showing a multi-decadal trend towards brighter and more liquid cloudsMicrophysical processes of super typhoon Lekima (2019) and their impacts on polarimetric radar remote sensing of precipitationThe impacts of dust aerosol and convective available potential energy on precipitation vertical structure in southeastern China as seen from multisource observationsHeavy snowfall event over the Swiss Alps: did wind shear impact secondary ice production?On the global relationship between polarimetric radio occultation differential phase shift and ice water contentObservations of microphysical properties and radiative effects of a contrail cirrus outbreak over the North AtlanticNatural marine cloud brightening in the Southern OceanDistinct regional meteorological influences on low-cloud albedo susceptibility over global marine stratocumulus regionsDiurnal cycles of cloud cover and its vertical distribution over the Tibetan Plateau revealed by satellite observations, reanalysis datasets, and CMIP6 outputsSatellite observations of seasonality and long-term trends in cirrus cloud properties over Europe: investigation of possible aviation impactsIce crystal characterization in cirrus clouds III: retrieval of ice crystal shape and roughness from observations of halo displaysTechnical note: Identification of two ice-nucleating regimes for dust-related cirrus clouds based on the relationship between number concentrations of ice-nucleating particles and ice crystalsHighly supercooled riming and unusual triple-frequency radar signatures over McMurdo Station, AntarcticaIce microphysical processes in the dendritic growth layer: a statistical analysis combining multi-frequency and polarimetric Doppler cloud radar observationsObserving short-timescale cloud development to constrain aerosol–cloud interactionsExploring relations between cloud morphology, cloud phase, and cloud radiative properties in Southern Ocean's stratocumulus cloudsObservations of cold-cloud properties in the Norwegian Arctic using ground-based and spaceborne lidarAn evaluation of the liquid cloud droplet effective radius derived from MODIS, airborne remote sensing, and in situ measurements from CAMP2ExA Lagrangian analysis of pockets of open cells over the southeastern PacificThe formation and composition of the Mount Everest plume in winterNew insights on the prevalence of drizzle in marine stratocumulus clouds based on a machine learning algorithm applied to radar Doppler spectraAddressing the difficulties in quantifying droplet number response to aerosol from satellite observationsOptically thin clouds in the tradesStability-dependent increases in liquid water with droplet number in the ArcticLightning activity in northern Europe during a stormy winter: disruptions of weather patterns originating in global climate phenomenaA climatology of open and closed mesoscale cellular convection over the Southern Ocean derived from Himawari-8 observationsMethodology to determine the coupling of continental clouds with surface and boundary layer height under cloudy conditions from lidar and meteorological dataAlbedo susceptibility of northeastern Pacific stratocumulus: the role of covarying meteorological conditionsOpportunistic experiments to constrain aerosol effective radiative forcingEnvironmental effects on aerosol–cloud interaction in non-precipitating marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds over the eastern North AtlanticHemispheric contrasts in ice formation in stratiform mixed-phase clouds: disentangling the role of aerosol and dynamics with ground-based remote sensingMicrophysical process of precipitating hydrometeors from warm-front mid-level stratiform clouds revealed by ground-based lidar observationsOverview: Fusion of radar polarimetry and numerical atmospheric modelling towards an improved understanding of cloud and precipitation processesA climatology of trade-wind cumulus cold pools and their link to mesoscale cloud organizationGlobal evidence of aerosol-induced invigoration in marine cumulus clouds
Anne-Claire Billault-Roux, Paraskevi Georgakaki, Josué Gehring, Louis Jaffeux, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, Pierre Coutris, Athanasios Nenes, and Alexis Berne
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10207–10234,Short summary
Secondary ice production plays a key role in clouds and precipitation. In this study, we analyze radar measurements from a snowfall event in the Jura Mountains. Complex signatures are observed, which reveal that ice crystals were formed through various processes. An analysis of multi-sensor data suggests that distinct ice multiplication processes were taking place. Both the methods used and the insights gained through this case study contribute to a better understanding of snowfall microphysics.
Rebecca J. Murray-Watson, Edward Gryspeerdt, and Tom Goren
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9365–9383,Short summary
Clouds formed in Arctic marine cold air outbreaks undergo a distinct evolution, but the factors controlling their transition from high-coverage to broken cloud fields are poorly understood. We use satellite and reanalysis data to study how these clouds develop in time and the different influences on their evolution. The aerosol concentration is correlated with cloud break-up; more aerosol is linked to prolonged coverage and a stronger cooling effect, with implications for a more polluted Arctic.
Michael S. Diamond
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8259–8269,Short summary
Fuel sulfur regulations were implemented for ships in 2020 to improve air quality but may also accelerate global warming. We use spatial statistics and satellite retrievals to detect changes in the size of cloud droplets and find evidence for a resulting decrease in cloud brightness within a major shipping corridor after the sulfur limits went into effect. Our results confirm both that the regulations are being followed and that they are having a warming influence via their effect on clouds.
Hao Luo, Johannes Quaas, and Yong Han
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8169–8186,Short summary
Clouds exhibit a wide range of vertical structures with varying microphysical and radiative properties. We show a global survey of spatial distribution, vertical extent and radiative effect of various classified cloud vertical structures using joint satellite observations from the new CCCM datasets during 2007–2010. Moreover, the long-term trends in CVSs are investigated based on different CMIP6 future scenarios to capture the cloud variations with different, increasing anthropogenic forcings.
Hendrik Andersen, Jan Cermak, Alyson Douglas, Timothy A. Myers, Peer Nowack, Philip Stier, Casey J. Wall, and Sarah Wilson Kemsley
This study uses an observation-based cloud-controlling factor framework to study near-global sensitivities of cloud radiative effects to a large number of meteorological and aerosol controls. We present near-global sensitivity patterns to selected thermodynamic, dynamic and aerosol factors, and discuss the physical mechanisms underlying the derived sensitivities. Our study hopes to guide future analyses aimed at constraining cloud feedbacks and aerosol-cloud interactions.
Gregor Köcher, Tobias Zinner, and Christoph Knote
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6255–6269,Short summary
Polarimetric radar observations of 30 d of convective precipitation events are used to statistically analyze 5 state-of-the-art microphysics schemes of varying complexity. The frequency and area of simulated heavy-precipitation events are in some cases significantly different from those observed, depending on the microphysics scheme. Analysis of simulated particle size distributions and reflectivities shows that some schemes have problems reproducing the correct particle size distributions.
Claudia J. Stubenrauch, Giulio Mandorli, and Elisabeth Lemaitre
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5867–5884,Short summary
Organized convection leads to large convective cloud systems and intense rain and may change with a warming climate. Their complete 3D description, attained by machine learning techniques in combination with various satellite observations, together with a cloud system concept, link convection to anvil properties, while convective organization can be identified by the horizontal structure of intense rain.
Peter Manshausen, Duncan Watson-Parris, Matthew W. Christensen, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, and Philip Stier
Aerosol from burning fuel changes cloud properties, e.g. the number of droplets and the content of water. Here, we study how clouds respond to different amounts of shipping aerosol. Droplet numbers increase linearly with increasing aerosol over a broad range until they stop increasing, while the amount of liquid water always increases, independently of emission amount. These changes in cloud properties can make them reflect more or less sunlight, which is important for the earth's climate.
Scott E. Giangrande, Thiago S. Biscaro, and John M. Peters
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5297–5316,Short summary
Our study tracks thunderstorms observed during the wet and dry seasons of the Amazon Basin using weather radar. We couple this precipitation tracking with opportunistic overpasses of a wind profiler and other ground observations to add unique insights into the upwards and downwards air motions within these clouds at various stages in the storm life cycle. The results of a simple updraft model are provided to give physical explanations for observed seasonal differences.
Edward Gryspeerdt, Adam C. Povey, Roy G. Grainger, Otto Hasekamp, N. Christina Hsu, Jane P. Mulcahy, Andrew M. Sayer, and Armin Sorooshian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4115–4122,Short summary
The impact of aerosols on clouds is one of the largest uncertainties in the human forcing of the climate. Aerosol can increase the concentrations of droplets in clouds, but observational and model studies produce widely varying estimates of this effect. We show that these estimates can be reconciled if only polluted clouds are studied, but this is insufficient to constrain the climate impact of aerosol. The uncertainty in aerosol impact on clouds is currently driven by cases with little aerosol.
Zackary Mages, Pavlos Kollias, Zeen Zhu, and Edward P. Luke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3561–3574,Short summary
Cold-air outbreaks (when cold air is advected over warm water and creates low-level convection) are a dominant cloud regime in the Arctic, and we capitalized on ground-based observations, which did not previously exist, from the COMBLE field campaign to study them. We characterized the extent and strength of the convection and turbulence and found evidence of secondary ice production. This information is useful for model intercomparison studies that will represent cold-air outbreak processes.
Maria P. Cadeddu, Virendra P. Ghate, David D. Turner, and Thomas E. Surleta
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3453–3470,Short summary
We analyze the variability in marine boundary layer moisture at the Eastern North Atlantic site on a monthly and daily temporal scale and examine its fundamental role in the control of boundary layer cloudiness and precipitation. The study also highlights the complex interaction between large-scale and local processes controlling the boundary layer moisture and the importance of the mesoscale spatial distribution of vapor to support convection and precipitation.
Zhenquan Wang, Jian Yuan, Robert Wood, Yifan Chen, and Tiancheng Tong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3247–3266,Short summary
This study develops a novel profile-based algorithm based on the ERA5 to estimate the inversion strength in the planetary boundary layer better than the previous inversion index, which is a key low-cloud-controlling factor. This improved measure is more effective at representing the meteorological influence on low-cloud variations. It can better constrain the meteorological influence on low clouds to better isolate cloud responses to aerosols or to estimate low cloud feedbacks in climate models.
Georgios Dekoutsidis, Silke Groß, Martin Wirth, Martina Krämer, and Christian Rolf
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3103–3117,Short summary
Cirrus clouds affect Earth's atmosphere, deeming our study important. Here we use water vapor measurements by lidar and study the relative humidity (RHi) within and around midlatitude cirrus clouds. We find high supersaturations in the cloud-free air and within the clouds, especially near the cloud top. We study two cloud types with different formation processes. Finally, we conclude that the shape of the distribution of RHi can be used as an indicator of different cloud evolutionary stages.
Huazhe Shang, Souichiro Hioki, Guillaume Penide, Céline Cornet, Husi Letu, and Jérôme Riedi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2729–2746,Short summary
We find that cloud profiles can be divided into four prominent patterns, and the frequency of these four patterns is related to intensities of cloud-top entrainment and precipitation. Based on these analyses, we further propose a cloud profile parameterization scheme allowing us to represent these patterns. Our results shed light on how to facilitate the representation of cloud profiles and how to link them to cloud entrainment or precipitating status in future remote-sensing applications.
Luca Lelli, Marco Vountas, Narges Khosravi, and John Philipp Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2579–2611,Short summary
Arctic amplification describes the recent period in which temperatures have been rising twice as fast as or more than the global average and sea ice and the Greenland ice shelf are approaching a tipping point. Hence, the Arctic ability to reflect solar energy decreases and absorption by the surface increases. Using 2 decades of complementary satellite data, we discover that clouds unexpectedly increase the pan-Arctic reflectance by increasing their liquid water content, thus cooling the Arctic.
Yabin Gou, Haonan Chen, Hong Zhu, and Lulin Xue
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2439–2463,Short summary
This article investigates the complex precipitation microphysics associated with super typhoon Lekima using a host of in situ and remote sensing observations, including rain gauge and disdrometer data, as well as polarimetric radar observations. The impacts of precipitation microphysics on multi-source data consistency and radar precipitation estimation are quantified. It is concluded that the dynamical precipitation microphysical processes must be considered in radar precipitation estimation.
Hongxia Zhu, Rui Li, Shuping Yang, Chun Zhao, Zhe Jiang, and Chen Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2421–2437,Short summary
The impacts of atmospheric dust aerosols and cloud dynamic conditions on precipitation vertical development in southeastern China were studied using multiple satellite observations. It was found that the precipitating drops under dusty conditions grow faster in the middle layer but slower in the upper and lower layers compared with their pristine counterparts. Quantitative estimation of the sensitivity of the precipitation top temperature to the dust aerosol optical depth is also provided.
Zane Dedekind, Jacopo Grazioli, Philip H. Austin, and Ulrike Lohmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2345–2364,Short summary
Simulations allowing ice particles to collide with one another producing more ice particles represented surface observations of ice particles accurately. An increase in ice particles formed through collisions was related to sharp changes in the wind direction and speed with height. Changes in wind speed and direction can therefore cause more enhanced collisions between ice particles and alter how fast and how much precipitation forms. Simulations were conducted with the atmospheric model COSMO.
Ramon Padullés, Estel Cardellach, and F. Joseph Turk
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2199–2214,Short summary
The results of comparing the polarimetric radio occultation observables and the ice water content retrieved from the CloudSat radar in a global and statistical way show a strong correlation between the geographical patterns of both quantities for a wide range of heights. This implies that horizontally oriented hydrometeors are systematically present through the whole globe and through all vertical levels, which could provide insights on the physical processes leading to precipitation.
Ziming Wang, Luca Bugliaro, Tina Jurkat-Witschas, Romy Heller, Ulrike Burkhardt, Helmut Ziereis, Georgios Dekoutsidis, Martin Wirth, Silke Groß, Simon Kirschler, Stefan Kaufmann, and Christiane Voigt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1941–1961,Short summary
Differences in the microphysical properties of contrail cirrus and natural cirrus in a contrail outbreak situation during the ML-CIRRUS campaign over the North Atlantic flight corridor can be observed from in situ measurements. The cirrus radiative effect in the area of the outbreak, derived from satellite observation-based radiative transfer modeling, is warming in the early morning and cooling during the day.
Gerald G. Mace, Sally Benson, Ruhi Humphries, Peter M. Gombert, and Elizabeth Sterner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1677–1685,Short summary
The number of cloud droplets per unit volume is a significantly important property of clouds that controls their reflective properties. Computer models of the Earth's atmosphere and climate have low skill at predicting the reflective properties of Southern Ocean clouds. Here we investigate the properties of those clouds using satellite data and find that the cloud droplet number and cloud albedo in the Southern Ocean are related to the oceanic phytoplankton abundance near Antarctica.
Jianhao Zhang and Graham Feingold
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1073–1090,Short summary
Using observations from space, we show maps of potential brightness changes in marine warm clouds in response to increases in cloud droplet concentrations. The environmental and aerosol conditions in which these clouds reside covary differently in each ocean basin, leading to distinct evolutions of cloud brightness changes. This work stresses the central importance of the covariability between meteorology and aerosol for scaling up the radiative response of cloud brightness changes.
Yuxin Zhao, Jiming Li, Lijie Zhang, Cong Deng, Yarong Li, Bida Jian, and Jianping Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 743–769,Short summary
Diurnal variations of clouds play an important role in the radiative budget and precipitation. Based on satellite observations, reanalysis, and CMIP6 outputs, the diurnal variations in total cloud cover and cloud vertical distribution over the Tibetan Plateau are explored. The diurnal cycle of cirrus is a key focus and found to have different characteristics from those found in the tropics. The relationship between the diurnal cycle of cirrus and meteorological factors is also discussed.
Qiang Li and Silke Groß
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15963–15980,Short summary
The IPCC report identified that cirrus clouds have a significant impact on the radiation balance comparable to the CO2 effects, which, however, is still hard to parameterize. The current study investigates the possible impact of aviation on cirrus properties based on the analysis of 10-year lidar measurements of CALIPSO. The results reveal that there is a significant positive trend in cirrus depolarization ratio in the last 10 years before COVID-19, which is strongly correlated with aviation.
Linda Forster and Bernhard Mayer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15179–15205,Short summary
We present a novel retrieval using ground-based imaging observations of halo displays together with radiative transfer simulations to help improve our understanding of ice crystal properties representative of cirrus clouds. Analysis of 4400 calibrated HaloCam images featuring a 22° halo revealed aggregates of hexagonal columns of 20 µm effective radius with a mixture of about 37 % smooth and 63% severely roughened surfaces as the best match in general.
Yun He, Zhenping Yin, Fuchao Liu, and Fan Yi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13067–13085,Short summary
A method is proposed to identify the sole presence of heterogeneous nucleation and competition between heterogeneous and homogeneous nucleation for dust-related cirrus clouds by characterizing the relationship between dust ice-nucleating particle concentration calculated from CALIOP using the POLIPHON method and in-cloud ice crystal number concentration from the DARDAR-Nice dataset. Two typical cirrus cases are shown as a demonstration, and the proposed method can be extended to a global scale.
Frederic Tridon, Israel Silber, Alessandro Battaglia, Stefan Kneifel, Ann Fridlind, Petros Kalogeras, and Ranvir Dhillon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12467–12491,Short summary
The role of ice precipitation in the Earth water budget is not well known because ice particles are complex, and their formation involves intricate processes. Riming of ice crystals by supercooled water droplets is an efficient process, but little is known about its importance at high latitudes. In this work, by exploiting the deployment of an unprecedented number of remote sensing systems in Antarctica, we find that riming occurs at much lower temperatures compared with the mid-latitudes.
Leonie von Terzi, José Dias Neto, Davide Ori, Alexander Myagkov, and Stefan Kneifel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11795–11821,Short summary
We present a statistical analysis of ice microphysical processes (IMP) in mid-latitude clouds. Combining various radar approaches, we find that the IMP active at −20 to −10 °C seems to be the main driver of ice particle size, shape and concentration. The strength of aggregation at −20 to −10 °C correlates with the increase in concentration and aspect ratio of locally formed ice particles. Despite ongoing aggregation, the concentration of ice particles stays enhanced until −4 °C.
Edward Gryspeerdt, Franziska Glassmeier, Graham Feingold, Fabian Hoffmann, and Rebecca J. Murray-Watson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11727–11738,Short summary
The response of clouds to changes in aerosol remains a large uncertainty in our understanding of the climate. Studies typically look at aerosol and cloud processes in snapshot images, measuring all properties at the same time. Here we use multiple images to characterise how cloud temporal development responds to aerosol. We find a reduction in liquid water path with increasing aerosol, party due to feedbacks. This suggests the aerosol impact on cloud water may be weaker than in previous studies.
Jessica Danker, Odran Sourdeval, Isabel L. McCoy, Robert Wood, and Anna Possner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10247–10265,Short summary
Using spaceborne lidar-radar retrievals, we show that seasonal changes in cloud phase outweigh changes in cloud-phase statistics across cloud morphologies at given cloud-top temperatures. These results show that cloud morphology does not seem to pose a primary constraint on cloud-phase statistics in the Southern Ocean. Meanwhile, larger changes in in-cloud albedo across cloud morphologies are observed in supercooled liquid rather than mixed-phase stratocumuli.
Britta Schäfer, Tim Carlsen, Ingrid Hanssen, Michael Gausa, and Trude Storelvmo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9537–9551,Short summary
Cloud properties are important for the surface radiation budget. This study presents cold-cloud observations based on lidar measurements from the Norwegian Arctic between 2011 and 2017. Using statistical assessments and case studies, we give an overview of the macro- and microphysical properties of these clouds and demonstrate the capabilities of long-term cloud observations in the Norwegian Arctic from the ground-based lidar at Andenes.
Dongwei Fu, Larry Di Girolamo, Robert M. Rauber, Greg M. McFarquhar, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Jesse Loveridge, Yulan Hong, Bastiaan van Diedenhoven, Brian Cairns, Mikhail D. Alexandrov, Paul Lawson, Sarah Woods, Simone Tanelli, Sebastian Schmidt, Chris Hostetler, and Amy Jo Scarino
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8259–8285,Short summary
Satellite-retrieved cloud microphysics are widely used in climate research because of their central role in water and energy cycles. Here, we provide the first detailed investigation of retrieved cloud drop sizes from in situ and various satellite and airborne remote sensing techniques applied to real cumulus cloud fields. We conclude that the most widely used passive remote sensing method employed in climate research produces high biases of 6–8 µm (60 %–80 %) caused by 3-D radiative effects.
Kevin M. Smalley, Matthew D. Lebsock, Ryan Eastman, Mark Smalley, and Mikael K. Witte
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8197–8219,Short summary
We use geostationary satellite observations to track pockets of open-cell (POC) stratocumulus and analyze how precipitation, cloud microphysics, and the environment change. Precipitation becomes more intense, corresponding to increasing effective radius and decreasing number concentrations, while the environment remains relatively unchanged. This implies that changes in cloud microphysics are more important than the environment to POC development.
Edward E. Hindman and Scott Lindstrom
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7995–8008,Short summary
Winds buffeting the Mt. Everest massif often produce plumes. This systematic study identified plumes from daily observations of real-time, on-line images from a geosynchronous meteorological satellite. The corresponding meteorological data were used with a cloud-forming model to show the plumes were composed, depending on the temperature, of droplets, crystals or both. They were not composed of resuspended snow, which is a common belief. We estimated the plumes may produce significant snowfall.
Zeen Zhu, Pavlos Kollias, Edward Luke, and Fan Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7405–7416,Short summary
Drizzle (small rain droplets) is an important component of warm clouds; however, its existence is poorly understood. In this study, we capitalized on a machine-learning algorithm to develop a drizzle detection method. We applied this algorithm to investigate drizzle occurrence and found out that drizzle is far more ubiquitous than previously thought. This study demonstrates the ubiquitous nature of drizzle in clouds and will improve understanding of the associated microphysical process.
Hailing Jia, Johannes Quaas, Edward Gryspeerdt, Christoph Böhm, and Odran Sourdeval
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7353–7372,Short summary
Aerosol–cloud interaction is the most uncertain component of the anthropogenic forcing of the climate. By combining satellite and reanalysis data, we show that the strength of the Twomey effect (S) increases remarkably with vertical velocity. Both the confounding effect of aerosol–precipitation interaction and the lack of vertical co-location between aerosol and cloud are found to overestimate S, whereas the retrieval biases in aerosol and cloud appear to underestimate S.
Theresa Mieslinger, Bjorn Stevens, Tobias Kölling, Manfred Brath, Martin Wirth, and Stefan A. Buehler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6879–6898,Short summary
The trades are home to a plethora of small cumulus clouds that are often barely visible to the human eye and difficult to detect with active and passive remote sensing methods. With the help of a new method and by means of high-resolution data we can detect small and particularly thin clouds. We find that optically thin clouds are a common phenomenon in the trades, covering a large area and influencing the radiative effect of clouds if they are undetected and contaminate the cloud-free signal.
Rebecca J. Murray-Watson and Edward Gryspeerdt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5743–5756,Short summary
Clouds are important to the Arctic surface energy budget, but the impact of aerosols on their properties is largely uncertain. This work shows that the response of liquid water path to cloud droplet number increases is strongly dependent on lower tropospheric stability (LTS), with weaker cooling effects in polluted clouds and at high LTS. LTS is projected to decrease in a warmer Arctic, reducing the cooling effect of aerosols and producing a positive, aerosol-dependent cloud feedback.
Ivana Kolmašová, Ondřej Santolík, and Kateřina Rosická
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3379–3389,Short summary
The 2014–2015 winter brought an enormous number of lightning strokes to northern Europe, about 4 times more than their long-term median over the last decade. This unusual production of lightning, concentrated above the ocean and along the western coastal areas, was probably due to a combination of large-scale climatic events like El Niño and the North Atlantic Oscillation, causing increased sea surface temperatures and updraft strengths, which acted as additional thundercloud-charging drivers.
Francisco Lang, Luis Ackermann, Yi Huang, Son C. H. Truong, Steven T. Siems, and Michael J. Manton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2135–2152,Short summary
Marine low-level clouds cover vast areas of the Southern Ocean, and they are essential to the Earth system energy balance. We use 3 years of satellite observations to group low-level clouds by their spatial structure using a pattern-recognizing program. We studied two primary cloud type patterns, i.e. open and closed clouds. Open clouds are uniformly distributed over the storm track, while closed clouds are most predominant in the southeastern Indian Ocean. Closed clouds exhibit a daily cycle.
Tianning Su, Youtong Zheng, and Zhanqing Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1453–1466,Short summary
To enrich our understanding of coupling of continental clouds, we developed a novel methodology to determine cloud coupling state from a lidar and a suite of surface meteorological instruments. This method is built upon advancement in our understanding of fundamental boundary layer processes and clouds. As the first remote sensing method for determining the coupling state of low clouds over land, this methodology paves a solid ground for further investigating the coupled land–atmosphere system.
Jianhao Zhang, Xiaoli Zhou, Tom Goren, and Graham Feingold
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 861–880,Short summary
Oceanic liquid-form clouds are effective sunlight reflectors. Their brightness is highly sensitive to changes in the amount of aerosol particles in the atmosphere and the state of the atmosphere they reside in. This study quantifies this sensitivity using long-term satellite observations and finds an overall cloud brightening (a cooling effect) potential and an essential role of the covarying meteorological conditions in governing this sensitivity for northeastern Pacific stratocumulus.
Matthew W. Christensen, Andrew Gettelman, Jan Cermak, Guy Dagan, Michael Diamond, Alyson Douglas, Graham Feingold, Franziska Glassmeier, Tom Goren, Daniel P. Grosvenor, Edward Gryspeerdt, Ralph Kahn, Zhanqing Li, Po-Lun Ma, Florent Malavelle, Isabel L. McCoy, Daniel T. McCoy, Greg McFarquhar, Johannes Mülmenstädt, Sandip Pal, Anna Possner, Adam Povey, Johannes Quaas, Daniel Rosenfeld, Anja Schmidt, Roland Schrödner, Armin Sorooshian, Philip Stier, Velle Toll, Duncan Watson-Parris, Robert Wood, Mingxi Yang, and Tianle Yuan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 641–674,Short summary
Trace gases and aerosols (tiny airborne particles) are released from a variety of point sources around the globe. Examples include volcanoes, industrial chimneys, forest fires, and ship stacks. These sources provide opportunistic experiments with which to quantify the role of aerosols in modifying cloud properties. We review the current state of understanding on the influence of aerosol on climate built from the wide range of natural and anthropogenic laboratories investigated in recent decades.
Xiaojian Zheng, Baike Xi, Xiquan Dong, Peng Wu, Timothy Logan, and Yuan Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 335–354,Short summary
This study uses ground-based observations to investigate the physical processes in the aerosol–cloud interactions in non-precipitating marine boundary layer clouds, over the eastern North Atlantic Ocean. Results show that the cloud responses to the aerosols are diminished with limited water vapor supply, while they are enhanced with increasing water vapor availability. The clouds are found to be most sensitive to the aerosols under sufficient water vapor and strong boundary layer turbulence.
Martin Radenz, Johannes Bühl, Patric Seifert, Holger Baars, Ronny Engelmann, Boris Barja González, Rodanthi-Elisabeth Mamouri, Félix Zamorano, and Albert Ansmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17969–17994,Short summary
This study brings together long-term ground-based remote-sensing observations of mixed-phase clouds at three key locations of aerosol–cloud interactions in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere midlatitudes. The findings contribute several new aspects on the nature of the excess of supercooled liquid clouds in the Southern Hemisphere, such as a long-term lidar-based estimate of ice-nucleating particle profiles as well as the effects of boundary layer coupling and gravity waves on ice formation.
Yang Yi, Fan Yi, Fuchao Liu, Yunpeng Zhang, Changming Yu, and Yun He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17649–17664,Short summary
Our lidar observations reveal the complete microphysical process of hydrometeors falling from mid-level stratiform clouds. We find that the surface rainfall begins as supercooled mixed-phase hydrometeors fall out of a liquid parent cloud base. We find also that the collision–coalescence growth of precipitating raindrops and subsequent spontaneous breakup always occur around 0.6 km altitude during surface rainfalls. Our findings provide new insights into stratiform precipitation formation.
Silke Trömel, Clemens Simmer, Ulrich Blahak, Armin Blanke, Sabine Doktorowski, Florian Ewald, Michael Frech, Mathias Gergely, Martin Hagen, Tijana Janjic, Heike Kalesse-Los, Stefan Kneifel, Christoph Knote, Jana Mendrok, Manuel Moser, Gregor Köcher, Kai Mühlbauer, Alexander Myagkov, Velibor Pejcic, Patric Seifert, Prabhakar Shrestha, Audrey Teisseire, Leonie von Terzi, Eleni Tetoni, Teresa Vogl, Christiane Voigt, Yuefei Zeng, Tobias Zinner, and Johannes Quaas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17291–17314,Short summary
The article introduces the ACP readership to ongoing research in Germany on cloud- and precipitation-related process information inherent in polarimetric radar measurements, outlines pathways to inform atmospheric models with radar-based information, and points to remaining challenges towards an improved fusion of radar polarimetry and atmospheric modelling.
Raphaela Vogel, Heike Konow, Hauke Schulz, and Paquita Zuidema
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16609–16630,Short summary
The shallow cumulus clouds that populate the trade-wind regions can produce substantial amounts of rain. Before reaching the surface, part of the rain can evaporate and form pools of cold air that spread at the surface as density currents. We use 10 years of data from Barbados to show that such cold pools occur on 3 out of 4 d, that cold-pool periods are 90 % cloudier relative to the average winter conditions, and that they are connected to specific patterns of mesoscale cloud organization.
Alyson Douglas and Tristan L'Ecuyer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15103–15114,Short summary
When aerosols enter the atmosphere, they interact with the clouds above in what we term aerosol–cloud interactions and lead to a series of reactions which delay the onset of rain. This delay may lead to increased rain rates, or invigoration, when the cloud eventually rains. We show that aerosol leads to invigoration in certain environments. The strength of the invigoration depends on how large the cloud is, which suggests that it is highly tied to the organization of the cloud system.
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Aerosol-induced perturbations in cloud systems and rainfall are very uncertain. This study provides observational evidence of a robust positive association between aerosol–cloud–rainfall properties over the Indian summer monsoon region. Observed and modeled aerosol–cloud microphysical changes illustrate that cloud invigoration under a high AOD scenario can explain most of the aerosol-associated changes in cloud fraction, cloud top pressure, and surface rainfall over this region.
Aerosol-induced perturbations in cloud systems and rainfall are very uncertain. This study...