Articles | Volume 15, issue 1
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Improved AIOMFAC model parameterisation of the temperature dependence of activity coefficients for aqueous organic mixtures
Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
Department of Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, USA
Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Québec, Canada
Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
Marcolli Chemistry and Physics Consulting GmbH, Zurich, Switzerland
Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
No articles found.
Franziska Zilker, Timofei Sukhodolov, Gabriel Chiodo, Marina Friedel, Tatiana Egorova, Eugene Rozanov, Jan Sedlacek, Svenja Seeber, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13387–13411,Short summary
The Montreal Protocol (MP) has successfully reduced the Antarctic ozone hole by banning chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) that destroy the ozone layer. Moreover, CFCs are strong greenhouse gases (GHGs) that would have strengthened global warming. In this study, we investigate the surface weather and climate in a world without the MP at the end of the 21st century, disentangling ozone-mediated and GHG impacts of CFCs. Overall, we avoided 1.7 K global surface warming and a poleward shift in storm tracks.
Marina Friedel, Gabriel Chiodo, Timofei Sukhodolov, James Keeble, Thomas Peter, Svenja Seeber, Andrea Stenke, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Eugene Rozanov, David Plummer, Patrick Jöckel, Guang Zeng, Olaf Morgenstern, and Béatrice Josse
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10235–10254,Short summary
Previously, it has been suggested that springtime Arctic ozone depletion might worsen in the coming decades due to climate change, which might counteract the effect of reduced ozone-depleting substances. Here, we show with different chemistry–climate models that springtime Arctic ozone depletion will likely decrease in the future. Further, we explain why models show a large spread in the projected development of Arctic ozone depletion and use the model spread to constrain future projections.
Sandro Vattioni, Andrea Stenke, Beiping Luo, Gabriel Chiodo, Timofei Sukhodolov, Elia Wunderlin, and Thomas Peter
We investigate the sensitivity of aerosol size distributions in the presence of strong SO2 injections for climate intervention or after volcanic eruptions to the call sequence and frequency of the routines for nucleation and condensation in sectional aerosol models with operator splitting. Using the aerosol chemistry-climate model SOCOL-AERvs2, we show that the radiative and chemical output is sensitive to these settings at high H2SO4 supersaturations, and how to obtain reliable results.
Christina V. Brodowsky, Timofei Sukhodolov, Gabriel Chiodo, Valentina Aquila, Slimane Bekki, Sandip S. Dhomse, Anton Laakso, Graham W. Mann, Ulrike Niemeier, Ilaria Quaglia, Eugene Rozanov, Anja Schmidt, Takashi Sekiya, Simone Tilmes, Claudia Timmreck, Sandro Vattioni, Daniele Visioni, Pengfei Yu, Yunqian Zhu, and Thomas Peter
The aerosol layer is an essential part of the climate system. We characterize the sulfur budget in a volcanically quiescent (background) setting, with a special focus on the sulfate aerosol layer, for the first time using a multi-model approach. The aim is to identify weak points in the representation of the atmospheric sulfur budget in an intercomparison of nine state-of-the-art coupled global circulation models.
Ryan Schmedding and Andreas Zuend
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7741–7765,Short summary
Aerosol particles below 100 nm in diameter have high surface-area-to-volume ratios. The enrichment of compounds in the surface of an aerosol particle may lead to depletion of that species in the interior bulk of the particle. We present a framework for modeling the equilibrium bulk–surface partitioning of mixed organic–inorganic particles, including cases of co-condensation of semivolatile organic compounds and species with extremely limited solubility in the bulk or surface of a particle.
Rolf Müller, Uli Pöschl, Thomas Koop, Thomas Peter, and Ken Carslaw
This paper is a short summary of the scientific work of Paul Crutzen and its impact on society. Particular focus is on his role as a founding member of the journal atmospheric chemistry and physics (ACP) and the Anthropocene.
Anand Kumar, Kristian Klumpp, Chen Barak, Giora Rytwo, Michael Plötze, Thomas Peter, and Claudia Marcolli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4881–4902,Short summary
Smectites are a major class of clay minerals that are ice nucleation (IN) active. They form platelets that swell or even delaminate in water by intercalation of water between their layers. We hypothesize that at least three smectite layers need to be stacked together to host a critical ice embryo on clay mineral edges and that the larger the surface edge area is, the higher the freezing temperature. Edge sites on such clay particles play a crucial role in imparting IN ability to such particles.
Arseniy Karagodin-Doyennel, Eugene Rozanov, Timofei Sukhodolov, Tatiana Egorova, Jan Sedlacek, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4801–4817,Short summary
The future ozone evolution in SOCOLv4 simulations under SSP2-4.5 and SSP5-8.5 scenarios has been assessed for the period 2015–2099 and subperiods using the DLM approach. The SOCOLv4 projects a decline in tropospheric ozone in the 2030s in SSP2-4.5 and in the 2060s in SSP5-8.5. The stratospheric ozone increase is ~3 times higher in SSP5-8.5, confirming the important role of GHGs in ozone evolution. We also showed that tropospheric ozone strongly impacts the total column in the tropics.
Jan Clemens, Bärbel Vogel, Lars Hoffmann, Sabine Griessbach, Nicole Thomas, Survana Fadnavis, Rolf Müller, Thomas Peter, and Felix Ploeger
The source regions of the Asian tropopause aerosol layer are under debate. We use balloon-borne measurements of the layer above Nainital (India) in August 2016 and atmospheric transport models, to find the ATALs source regions. Most air originate from the Tibetan plateau. However, the measured ATAL was stronger when more air originated from the Indo-Gangetic plain and weaker when more air originated from the Pacific. Hence, the results indicate important anthropogenic contributions to the ATAL.
Kristian Klumpp, Claudia Marcolli, Ana Alonso-Hellweg, Christopher H. Dreimol, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1579–1598,Short summary
The prerequisites of a particle surface for efficient ice nucleation are still poorly understood. This study compares the ice nucleation activity of two chemically identical but morphologically different minerals (kaolinite and halloysite). We observe, on average, not only higher ice nucleation activities for halloysite than kaolinite but also higher diversity between individual samples. We identify the particle edges as being the most likely site for ice nucleation.
Arseniy Karagodin-Doyennel, Eugene Rozanov, Timofei Sukhodolov, Tatiana Egorova, Jan Sedlacek, William Ball, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15333–15350,Short summary
Applying the dynamic linear model, we confirm near-global ozone recovery (55°N–55°S) in the mesosphere, upper and middle stratosphere, and a steady increase in the troposphere. We also show that modern chemistry–climate models (CCMs) like SOCOLv4 may reproduce the observed trend distribution of lower stratospheric ozone, despite exhibiting a lower magnitude and statistical significance. The obtained ozone trend pattern in SOCOLv4 is generally consistent with observations and reanalysis datasets.
Nikou Hamzehpour, Claudia Marcolli, Sara Pashai, Kristian Klumpp, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14905–14930,Short summary
Playa surfaces in Iran that emerged through Lake Urmia (LU) desiccation have become a relevant dust source of regional relevance. Here, we identify highly erodible LU playa surfaces and determine their physicochemical properties and mineralogical composition and perform emulsion-freezing experiments with them. We find high ice nucleation activities (up to 250 K) that correlate positively with organic matter and clay content and negatively with pH, salinity, K-feldspars, and quartz.
Nikou Hamzehpour, Claudia Marcolli, Kristian Klumpp, Debora Thöny, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14931–14956,Short summary
Dust aerosols from dried lakebeds contain mineral particles, as well as soluble salts and (bio-)organic compounds. Here, we investigate ice nucleation (IN) activity of dust samples from Lake Urmia playa, Iran. We find high IN activity of the untreated samples that decreases after organic matter removal but increases after removing soluble salts and carbonates, evidencing inhibiting effects of soluble salts and carbonates on the IN activity of organic matter and minerals, especially microcline.
Marina Friedel, Gabriel Chiodo, Andrea Stenke, Daniela I. V. Domeisen, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13997–14017,Short summary
In spring, winds the Arctic stratosphere change direction – an event called final stratospheric warming (FSW). Here, we examine whether the interannual variability in Arctic stratospheric ozone impacts the timing of the FSW. We find that Arctic ozone shifts the FSW to earlier and later dates in years with high and low ozone via the absorption of UV light. The modulation of the FSW by ozone has consequences for surface climate in ozone-rich years, which may result in better seasonal predictions.
Florin N. Isenrich, Nadia Shardt, Michael Rösch, Julia Nette, Stavros Stavrakis, Claudia Marcolli, Zamin A. Kanji, Andrew J. deMello, and Ulrike Lohmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5367–5381,Short summary
Ice nucleation in the atmosphere influences cloud properties and lifetimes. Microfluidic instruments have recently been used to investigate ice nucleation, but these instruments are typically made out of a polymer that contributes to droplet instability over extended timescales and relatively high temperature uncertainty. To address these drawbacks, we develop and validate a new microfluidic instrument that uses fluoropolymer tubing to extend droplet stability and improve temperature accuracy.
Clare E. Singer, Benjamin W. Clouser, Sergey M. Khaykin, Martina Krämer, Francesco Cairo, Thomas Peter, Alexey Lykov, Christian Rolf, Nicole Spelten, Armin Afchine, Simone Brunamonti, and Elisabeth J. Moyer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4767–4783,Short summary
In situ measurements of water vapor in the upper troposphere are necessary to study cloud formation and hydration of the stratosphere but challenging due to cold–dry conditions. We compare measurements from three water vapor instruments from the StratoClim campaign in 2017. In clear sky (clouds), point-by-point differences were <1.5±8 % (<1±8 %). This excellent agreement allows detection of fine-scale structures required to understand the impact of convection on stratospheric water vapor.
Rani Jeong, Joseph Lilek, Andreas Zuend, Rongshuang Xu, Man Nin Chan, Dohyun Kim, Hi Gyu Moon, and Mijung Song
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8805–8817,Short summary
In this study, the viscosities of particles of sucrose–H2O, AS–H2O, and sucrose–AS–H2O for OIRs of 4:1, 1:1, and 1:4 for decreasing RH, were quantified by poke-and-flow and bead-mobility techniques at 293 ± 1 K. Based on the viscosity results, the particles of binary and ternary systems ranged from liquid to semisolid, and even the solid state depending on the RH. Moreover, we compared the measured viscosities of ternary systems to the predicted viscosities with excellent agreement.
Yu Wang, Aristeidis Voliotis, Dawei Hu, Yunqi Shao, Mao Du, Ying Chen, Judith Kleinheins, Claudia Marcolli, M. Rami Alfarra, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4149–4166,Short summary
Aerosol water uptake plays a key role in atmospheric physicochemical processes. We designed chamber experiments on aerosol water uptake of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from mixed biogenic and anthropogenic precursors with inorganic seed. Our results highlight this chemical composition influences the reconciliation of the sub- and super-saturated water uptake, providing laboratory evidence for understanding the chemical controls of water uptake of the multi-component aerosol.
Kristian Klumpp, Claudia Marcolli, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3655–3673,Short summary
Surface interactions with solutes can significantly alter the ice nucleation activity of mineral dust. Past studies revealed the sensitivity of microcline, one of the most ice-active types of dust in the atmosphere, to inorganic solutes. This study focuses on the interaction of microcline with bio-organic substances and the resulting effects on its ice nucleation activity. We observe strongly hampered ice nucleation activity due to the presence of carboxylic and amino acids but not for polyols.
Joseph Lilek and Andreas Zuend
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3203–3233,Short summary
Depending on temperature and chemical makeup, certain aerosols can be highly viscous or glassy, with atmospheric implications. We have therefore implemented two major upgrades to the predictive viscosity model AIOMFAC-VISC. First, we created a new viscosity model for aqueous electrolyte solutions containing an arbitrary number of ion species. Second, we integrated the electrolyte model within the existing AIOMFAC-VISC framework to enable viscosity predictions for organic–inorganic mixtures.
Debra K. Weisenstein, Daniele Visioni, Henning Franke, Ulrike Niemeier, Sandro Vattioni, Gabriel Chiodo, Thomas Peter, and David W. Keith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2955–2973,Short summary
This paper explores a potential method of geoengineering that could be used to slow the rate of change of climate over decadal scales. We use three climate models to explore how injections of accumulation-mode sulfuric acid aerosol change the large-scale stratospheric particle size distribution and radiative forcing response for the chosen scenarios. Radiative forcing per unit sulfur injected and relative to the change in aerosol burden is larger with particulate than with SO2 injections.
Hang Yin, Jing Dou, Liviana Klein, Ulrich K. Krieger, Alison Bain, Brandon J. Wallace, Thomas C. Preston, and Andreas Zuend
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 973–1013,Short summary
Iodine and carbonate species are important components in marine and dust aerosols, respectively. We introduce an extended version of the AIOMFAC thermodynamic mixing model, which includes the ions I−, IO3−, HCO3−, CO32−, OH−, and CO2(aq) as new species, and we discuss two methods for solving the carbonate dissociation equilibria numerically. We also present new experimental water activity data for aqueous iodide and iodate systems.
Dalrin Ampritta Amaladhasan, Claudia Heyn, Christopher R. Hoyle, Imad El Haddad, Miriam Elser, Simone M. Pieber, Jay G. Slowik, Antonio Amorim, Jonathan Duplissy, Sebastian Ehrhart, Vladimir Makhmutov, Ugo Molteni, Matti Rissanen, Yuri Stozhkov, Robert Wagner, Armin Hansel, Jasper Kirkby, Neil M. Donahue, Rainer Volkamer, Urs Baltensperger, Martin Gysel-Beer, and Andreas Zuend
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 215–244,Short summary
We use a combination of models for gas-phase chemical reactions and equilibrium gas–particle partitioning of isoprene-derived secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) informed by dark ozonolysis experiments conducted in the CLOUD chamber. Our predictions cover high to low relative humidities (RHs) and quantify how SOA mass yields are enhanced at high RH as well as the impact of inorganic seeds of distinct hygroscopicities and acidities on the coupled partitioning of water and semi-volatile organics.
Arseniy Karagodin-Doyennel, Eugene Rozanov, Timofei Sukhodolov, Tatiana Egorova, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Carlos A. Cuevas, Rafael P. Fernandez, Tomás Sherwen, Rainer Volkamer, Theodore K. Koenig, Tanguy Giroud, and Thomas Peter
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 6623–6645,Short summary
Here, we present the iodine chemistry module in the SOCOL-AERv2 model. The obtained iodine distribution demonstrated a good agreement when validated against other simulations and available observations. We also estimated the iodine influence on ozone in the case of present-day iodine emissions, the sensitivity of ozone to doubled iodine emissions, and when considering only organic or inorganic iodine sources. The new model can be used as a tool for further studies of iodine effects on ozone.
Bernd Kärcher and Claudia Marcolli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15213–15220,Short summary
Aerosol–cloud interactions play an important role in climate change. Simulations of the competition between homogeneous solution droplet freezing and heterogeneous ice nucleation can be compromised by the misapplication of ice-active particle fractions frequently derived from laboratory measurements or parametrizations. Our study frames the problem and establishes a solution that is easy to implement in cloud models.
Timofei Sukhodolov, Tatiana Egorova, Andrea Stenke, William T. Ball, Christina Brodowsky, Gabriel Chiodo, Aryeh Feinberg, Marina Friedel, Arseniy Karagodin-Doyennel, Thomas Peter, Jan Sedlacek, Sandro Vattioni, and Eugene Rozanov
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5525–5560,Short summary
This paper features the new atmosphere–ocean–aerosol–chemistry–climate model SOCOLv4.0 and its validation. The model performance is evaluated against reanalysis products and observations of atmospheric circulation and trace gas distribution, with a focus on stratospheric processes. Although we identified some problems to be addressed in further model upgrades, we demonstrated that SOCOLv4.0 is already well suited for studies related to chemistry–climate–aerosol interactions.
Young-Chul Song, Joseph Lilek, Jae Bong Lee, Man Nin Chan, Zhijun Wu, Andreas Zuend, and Mijung Song
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10215–10228,Short summary
We report viscosity of binary mixtures of organic material / H2O and inorganic salts / H2O, as well as ternary mixtures of organic material / inorganic salts/ H2O, over the atmospheric relative humidity (RH) range. The viscosity measurements indicate that the studied mixed organic–inorganic particles range in phase state from liquid to semi-solid or even solid across the atmospheric RH range at a temperature of 293 K.
Claudia Marcolli, Fabian Mahrt, and Bernd Kärcher
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7791–7843,Short summary
Pores are aerosol particle features that trigger ice nucleation, as they take up water by capillary condensation below water saturation that freezes at low temperatures. The pore ice can then grow into macroscopic ice crystals making up cirrus clouds. Here, we investigate the pores in soot aggregates responsible for pore condensation and freezing (PCF). Moreover, we present a framework to parameterize soot PCF that is able to predict the ice nucleation activity based on soot properties.
Manuel Graf, Philipp Scheidegger, André Kupferschmid, Herbert Looser, Thomas Peter, Ruud Dirksen, Lukas Emmenegger, and Béla Tuzson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1365–1378,Short summary
Water vapor is the most important natural greenhouse gas. The accurate and frequent measurement of its abundance, especially in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), is technically challenging. We developed and characterized a mid-IR absorption spectrometer for highly accurate water vapor measurements in the UTLS. The instrument is sufficiently small and lightweight (3.9 kg) to be carried by meteorological balloons, which enables frequent and cost-effective soundings.
Weigang Wang, Ting Lei, Andreas Zuend, Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, Yajun Shi, Maofa Ge, and Mingyuan Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2179–2190,Short summary
Aerosol mixing state regulates the interactions between water molecules and particles and thus controls aerosol activation and hygroscopic growth, which thereby influences visibility degradation, cloud formation, and its radiative forcing. However, there are few studies attempting to investigate their interactions with water molecules. Here, we investigated the effect of organic coatings on the hygroscopic behavior of the inorganic core.
Michael Steiner, Beiping Luo, Thomas Peter, Michael C. Pitts, and Andrea Stenke
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 935–959,Short summary
We evaluate polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) as simulated by the chemistry–climate model (CCM) SOCOLv3.1 in comparison with measurements by the CALIPSO satellite. A cold bias results in an overestimated PSC area and mountain-wave ice is underestimated, but we find overall good temporal and spatial agreement of PSC occurrence and composition. This work confirms previous studies indicating that simplified PSC schemes may also achieve good approximations of the fundamental properties of PSCs.
Hoi Ki Lam, Rongshuang Xu, Jack Choczynski, James F. Davies, Dongwan Ham, Mijung Song, Andreas Zuend, Wentao Li, Ying-Lung Steve Tse, and Man Nin Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2053–2066,Short summary
This work demonstrates that organic compounds present at or near the surface of aerosols can be subjected to oxidation initiated by gas-phase oxidants, such as hydroxyl radicals (OH). The heterogeneous reactivity is sensitive to their surface concentrations, which are determined by the phase separation behavior. This results of this work emphasize the effects of phase separation and potentially distinct aerosol morphologies on the chemical transformation of atmospheric aerosols.
Teresa Jorge, Simone Brunamonti, Yann Poltera, Frank G. Wienhold, Bei P. Luo, Peter Oelsner, Sreeharsha Hanumanthu, Bhupendra B. Singh, Susanne Körner, Ruud Dirksen, Manish Naja, Suvarna Fadnavis, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 239–268,Short summary
Balloon-borne frost point hygrometers are crucial for the monitoring of water vapour in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. We found that when traversing a mixed-phase cloud with big supercooled droplets, the intake tube of the instrument collects on its inner surface a high percentage of these droplets. The newly formed ice layer will sublimate at higher levels and contaminate the measurement. The balloon is also a source of contamination, but only at higher levels during the ascent.
Jing Dou, Peter A. Alpert, Pablo Corral Arroyo, Beiping Luo, Frederic Schneider, Jacinta Xto, Thomas Huthwelker, Camelia N. Borca, Katja D. Henzler, Jörg Raabe, Benjamin Watts, Hartmut Herrmann, Thomas Peter, Markus Ammann, and Ulrich K. Krieger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 315–338,Short summary
Photochemistry of iron(III) complexes plays an important role in aerosol aging, especially in the lower troposphere. Ensuing radical chemistry leads to decarboxylation, and the production of peroxides, and oxygenated volatile compounds, resulting in particle mass loss due to release of the volatile products to the gas phase. We investigated kinetic transport limitations due to high particle viscosity under low relative humidity conditions. For quantification a numerical model was developed.
Arseniy Karagodin-Doyennel, Eugene Rozanov, Ales Kuchar, William Ball, Pavle Arsenovic, Ellis Remsberg, Patrick Jöckel, Markus Kunze, David A. Plummer, Andrea Stenke, Daniel Marsh, Doug Kinnison, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 201–216,Short summary
The solar signal in the mesospheric H2O and CO was extracted from the CCMI-1 model simulations and satellite observations using multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis. MLR analysis shows a pronounced and statistically robust solar signal in both H2O and CO. The model results show a general agreement with observations reproducing a negative/positive solar signal in H2O/CO. The pattern of the solar signal varies among the considered models, reflecting some differences in the model setup.
Sreeharsha Hanumanthu, Bärbel Vogel, Rolf Müller, Simone Brunamonti, Suvarna Fadnavis, Dan Li, Peter Ölsner, Manish Naja, Bhupendra Bahadur Singh, Kunchala Ravi Kumar, Sunil Sonbawne, Hannu Jauhiainen, Holger Vömel, Beiping Luo, Teresa Jorge, Frank G. Wienhold, Ruud Dirkson, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14273–14302,Short summary
During boreal summer, anthropogenic sources yield the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL), found in Asia between about 13 and 18 km altitude. Balloon-borne measurements of the ATAL conducted in northern India in 2016 show the strong variability of the ATAL. To explain its observed variability, model simulations are performed to deduce the origin of air masses on the Earth's surface, which is important to develop recommendations for regulations of anthropogenic surface emissions of the ATAL.
Robert O. David, Jonas Fahrni, Claudia Marcolli, Fabian Mahrt, Dominik Brühwiler, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9419–9440,Short summary
Ice crystal formation plays an important role in controlling the Earth's climate. However, the mechanisms responsible for ice formation in the atmosphere are still uncertain. Here we use surrogates for atmospherically relevant porous particles to determine the role of pore diameter and wettability on the ability of porous particles to nucleate ice in the atmosphere. Our results are consistent with the pore condensation and freeing mechanism.
Nir Bluvshtein, Ulrich K. Krieger, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3191–3203,Short summary
Light-absorbing organic particles undergo transformations during their exposure in the atmosphere. The role these particles play in the global radiative balance is uncertain. This study describes high-sensitivity and high-precision measurements of light absorption by a single particle levitated in an electrodynamic balance. This high level of sensitivity enables future studies to explore the major processes responsible for changes to the particle's light absorptivity.
Havala O. T. Pye, Athanasios Nenes, Becky Alexander, Andrew P. Ault, Mary C. Barth, Simon L. Clegg, Jeffrey L. Collett Jr., Kathleen M. Fahey, Christopher J. Hennigan, Hartmut Herrmann, Maria Kanakidou, James T. Kelly, I-Ting Ku, V. Faye McNeill, Nicole Riemer, Thomas Schaefer, Guoliang Shi, Andreas Tilgner, John T. Walker, Tao Wang, Rodney Weber, Jia Xing, Rahul A. Zaveri, and Andreas Zuend
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4809–4888,Short summary
Acid rain is recognized for its impacts on human health and ecosystems, and programs to mitigate these effects have had implications for atmospheric acidity. Historical measurements indicate that cloud and fog droplet acidity has changed in recent decades in response to controls on emissions from human activity, while the limited trend data for suspended particles indicate acidity may be relatively constant. This review synthesizes knowledge on the acidity of atmospheric particles and clouds.
María Cascajo-Castresana, Robert O. David, Maiara A. Iriarte-Alonso, Alexander M. Bittner, and Claudia Marcolli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3291–3315,Short summary
Atmospheric ice-nucleating particles are rare but relevant for cloud glaciation. A source of particles that nucleate ice above −15 °C is biological material including some proteins. Here we show that proteins of very diverse functions and structures can nucleate ice. Among these, the iron storage protein apoferritin stands out, with activity up to −4 °C. We show that its activity does not stem from correctly assembled proteins but from misfolded protein monomers or oligomers and aggregates.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3209–3230,Short summary
Pore condensation and freezing (PCF) is an ice nucleation mechanism explaining ice formation at low ice supersaturation. It is assumed that liquid water condenses in pores of solid aerosol particles below water saturation followed by ice nucleation within the pores. This study discusses conditions of pore filling, homogeneous ice nucleation within the volume of porewater, and growth of ice out of the pores, taking the effect of negative pressure within pores below water saturation into account.
Natalie R. Gervasi, David O. Topping, and Andreas Zuend
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2987–3008,Short summary
Organic aerosols have been shown to exist often in a semi-solid or amorphous, glassy state. Highly viscous particles behave differently than their well-mixed liquid analogues with consequences for a variety of aerosol processes. Here, we introduce a new predictive mixture viscosity model called AIOMFAC-VISC. It enables us to predict the viscosity of aqueous organic mixtures as a function of temperature and chemical composition, covering the full range of liquid, semi-solid, and glassy states.
Aryeh Feinberg, Moustapha Maliki, Andrea Stenke, Bruno Sudret, Thomas Peter, and Lenny H. E. Winkel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1363–1390,Short summary
The amount of the micronutrient selenium in food largely depends on the amount and form of selenium in soil. The atmosphere acts as a source of selenium to soils through deposition, yet little information is available about atmospheric selenium cycling. Therefore, we built the first global atmospheric selenium model. Through sensitivity and uncertainty analysis we determine that selenium can be transported thousands of kilometers and that measurements of selenium emissions should be prioritized.
Robert O. David, Maria Cascajo-Castresana, Killian P. Brennan, Michael Rösch, Nora Els, Julia Werz, Vera Weichlinger, Lin S. Boynton, Sophie Bogler, Nadine Borduas-Dedekind, Claudia Marcolli, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6865–6888,Short summary
Here we present the development and applicability of the DRoplet Ice Nuclei Counter Zurich (DRINCZ). DRINCZ allows for ice nuclei in the immersion mode to be quantified between 0 and -25 °C with an uncertainty of ±0.9 °C. Furthermore, we present a new method for assessing biases in drop-freezing apparatuses and cumulative ice-nucleating-particle concentrations from snow samples collected in the Austrian Alps at the Sonnblick Observatory.
Kyle Gorkowski, Thomas C. Preston, and Andreas Zuend
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13383–13407,Short summary
We present the new Binary Activity Thermodynamics (BAT) model, which is a water-sensitive reduced-complexity organic aerosol thermodynamics model. It can use bulk properties like O : C, molar mass, and RH to predict organic activity coefficients and water uptake behavior. We show applications in RH-dependent organic co-condensation, liquid–liquid phase separation, and Kohler curve predictions, and we validate the BAT model against laboratory measurements.
William T. Ball, Justin Alsing, Johannes Staehelin, Sean M. Davis, Lucien Froidevaux, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12731–12748,Short summary
We analyse long-term stratospheric ozone (60° S–60° N) trends over the 1985–2018 period. Previous work has suggested that lower stratosphere ozone declined over 1998–2016. We demonstrate that a large ozone upsurge in 2017 is likely related to QBO variability, but that lower stratospheric ozone trends likely remain lower in 2018 than in 1998. Tropical stratospheric ozone (30° S–30° N) shows highly probable decreases in both the lower stratosphere and in the integrated stratospheric ozone layer.
Aryeh Feinberg, Timofei Sukhodolov, Bei-Ping Luo, Eugene Rozanov, Lenny H. E. Winkel, Thomas Peter, and Andrea Stenke
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 3863–3887,Short summary
We have improved several aspects of atmospheric sulfur cycling in SOCOL-AER, an aerosol–chemistry–climate model. The newly implemented features in SOCOL-AERv2 include interactive deposition schemes, improved sulfur mass conservation, and expanded tropospheric chemistry. SOCOL-AERv2 shows better agreement with stratospheric aerosol observations and sulfur deposition networks compared to SOCOL-AERv1. SOCOL-AERv2 can be used to study impacts of sulfate aerosol on climate, chemistry, and ecosystems.
Hoi Ki Lam, Sze Man Shum, James F. Davies, Mijung Song, Andreas Zuend, and Man Nin Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9581–9593,Short summary
We show the presence of dissolved inorganic salts could reduce the overall heterogeneous reactivity of organic compounds with gas–phase OH radicals at the surface by lowering the surface concentration of organic compounds. Until recently, the kinetic parameters reported in the literature were mostly measured based on experiments with pure organic particles. The lifetime of organic compounds or chemical tracers against heterogeneous OH reaction in the atmosphere could be longer than expected.
Pavle Arsenovic, Alessandro Damiani, Eugene Rozanov, Bernd Funke, Andrea Stenke, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9485–9494,Short summary
Low-energy electrons (LEE) are the dominant source of odd nitrogen, which destroys ozone, in the mesosphere and stratosphere in polar winter in the geomagnetically active periods. However, the observed stratospheric ozone anomalies can be reproduced only when accounting for both low- and middle-range energy electrons (MEE) in the chemistry-climate model. Ozone changes may induce further dynamical and thermal changes in the atmosphere. We recommend including both LEE and MEE in climate models.
Anand Kumar, Claudia Marcolli, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6035–6058,Short summary
This paper not only interests the atmospheric science community but has a potential to cater to a broader audience. We discuss both long- and short-term effects of various
atmospherically relevantchemical species on a fairly abundant mineral surface
Quartz. We of course discuss these chemical interactions from the perspective of fate of airborne mineral dust but the same interactions could be interesting for studies on minerals at the ground level.
Anand Kumar, Claudia Marcolli, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6059–6084,Short summary
This paper not only interests the Atmospheric Science community but has a potential to cater to a broader audience. We discuss both long- and short-term effects of various
atmospherically relevantchemical species on fairly abundant mineral surfaces like feldspars and clays. We of course discuss these chemical interactions from the perspective of fate of airborne mineral dust but the same interactions could be interesting for studies on minerals at the ground level.
Sandro Vattioni, Debra Weisenstein, David Keith, Aryeh Feinberg, Thomas Peter, and Andrea Stenke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4877–4897,Short summary
This study is among the first modeling studies on stratospheric sulfate geoengineering that interactively couple a size-resolved sectional aerosol module to well-described stratospheric chemistry and radiation schemes in a global 3-D chemistry–climate model. We found that compared with SO2 injection, the direct emission of aerosols results in more effective radiative forcing and that sensitivities to different injection strategies vary for different forms of injected sulfur.
James F. Davies, Andreas Zuend, and Kevin R. Wilson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2933–2946,Short summary
The formation of cloud droplets involves the condensation of water onto preexisting particles in the atmosphere. The efficiency of this process depends on the nature of the particles, and recent work has shown that organic-rich particles may exhibit a suppressed surface tension that promotes the formation of cloud droplets. In this technical note, we discuss the mechanism for this and highlight the evolution of surface tension as the key factor in the extent of surface effects.
Laura E. Revell, Andrea Stenke, Fiona Tummon, Aryeh Feinberg, Eugene Rozanov, Thomas Peter, N. Luke Abraham, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Alexander T. Archibald, Neal Butchart, Makoto Deushi, Patrick Jöckel, Douglas Kinnison, Martine Michou, Olaf Morgenstern, Fiona M. O'Connor, Luke D. Oman, Giovanni Pitari, David A. Plummer, Robyn Schofield, Kane Stone, Simone Tilmes, Daniele Visioni, Yousuke Yamashita, and Guang Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16155–16172,Short summary
Global models such as those participating in the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI) consistently simulate biases in tropospheric ozone compared with observations. We performed an advanced statistical analysis with one of the CCMI models to understand the cause of the bias. We found that emissions of ozone precursor gases are the dominant driver of the bias, implying either that the emissions are too large, or that the way in which the model handles emissions needs to be improved.
Simone Brunamonti, Teresa Jorge, Peter Oelsner, Sreeharsha Hanumanthu, Bhupendra B. Singh, K. Ravi Kumar, Sunil Sonbawne, Susanne Meier, Deepak Singh, Frank G. Wienhold, Bei Ping Luo, Maxi Boettcher, Yann Poltera, Hannu Jauhiainen, Rijan Kayastha, Jagadishwor Karmacharya, Ruud Dirksen, Manish Naja, Markus Rex, Suvarna Fadnavis, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15937–15957,Short summary
Based on balloon-borne measurements performed in India and Nepal in 2016–2017, we infer the vertical distributions of water vapor, ozone and aerosols in the atmosphere, from the surface to 30 km altitude. Our measurements show that the atmospheric dynamics of the Asian summer monsoon system over the polluted Indian subcontinent lead to increased concentrations of water vapor and aerosols in the high atmosphere (approximately 14–20 km altitude), which can have an important effect on climate.
Mehrnoush M. Fard, Ulrich K. Krieger, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13511–13530,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosol particles may undergo liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS) when exposed to varying relative humidity, with an aqueous organic phase enclosing an aqueous inorganic phase below a threshold of relative humidity. Brown carbon (BrC) compounds will redistribute to the organic phase upon LLPS. We use numerical modeling to study the shortwave radiative impact of LLPS containing BrC and conclude that it is not significant for atmospheric aerosol.
Fabian Mahrt, Claudia Marcolli, Robert O. David, Philippe Grönquist, Eszter J. Barthazy Meier, Ulrike Lohmann, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13363–13392,Short summary
The ice nucleation ability of different soot particles in the cirrus and mixed-phase cloud temperature regime is presented. The impact of aerosol particle size, particle morphology, organic matter and hydrophilicity on ice nucleation is examined. We propose ice nucleation proceeds via a pore condensation freezing mechanism for soot particles with the necessary physicochemical properties that nucleated ice well below water saturation.
Timofei Sukhodolov, Jian-Xiong Sheng, Aryeh Feinberg, Bei-Ping Luo, Thomas Peter, Laura Revell, Andrea Stenke, Debra K. Weisenstein, and Eugene Rozanov
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 2633–2647,Short summary
The Pinatubo eruption in 1991 is the strongest directly observed volcanic event. In a series of experiments, we simulate its influence on the stratospheric aerosol layer using a state-of-the-art aerosol–chemistry–climate model, SOCOL-AERv1.0, and compare our results to observations. We show that SOCOL-AER reproduces the most important atmospheric effects and can therefore be used to study the climate effects of future volcanic eruptions and geoengineering by artificial sulfate aerosol.
Anand Kumar, Claudia Marcolli, Beiping Luo, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7057–7079,Short summary
We have performed immersion freezing experiments with microcline (most active ice nucleation, IN, K-feldspar polymorph) and investigated the effect of ammonium and non-ammonium solutes on its IN efficiency. We report increased IN efficiency of microcline in dilute ammonia- or ammonium-containing solutions, which opens up a pathway for condensation freezing occurring at a warmer temperature than immersion freezing.
Fabian Schoenenberger, Stephan Henne, Matthias Hill, Martin K. Vollmer, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Simon O'Doherty, Michela Maione, Lukas Emmenegger, Thomas Peter, and Stefan Reimann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4069–4092,Short summary
Anthropogenic halocarbon emissions contribute to stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. We measured atmospheric halocarbons for 6 months on Crete to extend the coverage of the existing observation network to the Eastern Mediterranean. The derived emission estimates showed a contribution of 16.8 % (13.6–23.3 %) and 53.2 % (38.1–84.2 %) of this region to the total HFC and HCFC emissions of the analyzed European domain and a reduction of the underlying uncertainties by 40–80 %.
Larry W. Thomason, Nicholas Ernest, Luis Millán, Landon Rieger, Adam Bourassa, Jean-Paul Vernier, Gloria Manney, Beiping Luo, Florian Arfeuille, and Thomas Peter
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 469–492,Short summary
We describe the construction of a continuous 38-year record of stratospheric aerosol optical properties. The Global Space-based Stratospheric Aerosol Climatology, or GloSSAC, provided the input data to the construction of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project stratospheric aerosol forcing data set (1979 to 2014) and is now extended through 2016. GloSSAC focuses on the the SAGE series of instruments through mid-2005 and on OSIRIS and CALIPSO after that time.
Pavle Arsenovic, Eugene Rozanov, Julien Anet, Andrea Stenke, Werner Schmutz, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3469–3483,Short summary
Global warming will persist in the 21st century, even if the solar activity undergoes an unusually strong and long decline. Decreased ozone production caused by reduction of solar activity and change of atmospheric dynamics due to the global warming might result in further thinning of the tropical ozone layer. Globally, total ozone would not recover to the pre-ozone hole values as long as the decline of solar activity lasts. This may let more ultra-violet radiation reach the Earth's surface.
William T. Ball, Justin Alsing, Daniel J. Mortlock, Johannes Staehelin, Joanna D. Haigh, Thomas Peter, Fiona Tummon, Rene Stübi, Andrea Stenke, John Anderson, Adam Bourassa, Sean M. Davis, Doug Degenstein, Stacey Frith, Lucien Froidevaux, Chris Roth, Viktoria Sofieva, Ray Wang, Jeannette Wild, Pengfei Yu, Jerald R. Ziemke, and Eugene V. Rozanov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1379–1394,Short summary
Using a robust analysis, with artefact-corrected ozone data, we confirm upper stratospheric ozone is recovering following the Montreal Protocol, but that lower stratospheric ozone (50° S–50° N) has continued to decrease since 1998, and the ozone layer as a whole (60° S–60° N) may be lower today than in 1998. No change in total column ozone may be due to increasing tropospheric ozone. State-of-the-art models do not reproduce lower stratospheric ozone decreases.
Ting Lei, Andreas Zuend, Yafang Cheng, Hang Su, Weigang Wang, and Maofa Ge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1045–1064,Short summary
Measurements and thermodynamic equilibrium predictions for organic–inorganic aerosols related to components from biomass burning emissions demonstrate a diversity of hygroscopic growth and shrinking behavior, which we observed using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). Controlled laboratory experiments with single solutes and/or with mixed organic–inorganic systems of known phase state will be useful to constrain model parameters of thermodynamic equilibrium models.
Havala O. T. Pye, Andreas Zuend, Juliane L. Fry, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Shannon L. Capps, K. Wyat Appel, Hosein Foroutan, Lu Xu, Nga L. Ng, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 357–370,Short summary
Thermodynamic modeling revealed that some but not all measurements of ammonium-to-sulfate ratios are consistent with theory. The measurement diversity likely explains the previously reported range of results regarding the suitability of thermodynamic modeling. Despite particles being predominantly phase separated, organic–inorganic interactions resulted in increased aerosol pH and partitioning towards the particle phase for highly oxygenated organic compounds compared to traditional methods.
Ulrich K. Krieger, Franziska Siegrist, Claudia Marcolli, Eva U. Emanuelsson, Freya M. Gøbel, Merete Bilde, Aleksandra Marsh, Jonathan P. Reid, Andrew J. Huisman, Ilona Riipinen, Noora Hyttinen, Nanna Myllys, Theo Kurtén, Thomas Bannan, Carl J. Percival, and David Topping
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 49–63,Short summary
Vapor pressures of low-volatility organic molecules at atmospheric temperatures reported in the literature often differ by several orders of magnitude between measurement techniques. These discrepancies exceed the stated uncertainty of each technique, which is generally reported to be smaller than a factor of 2. We determined saturation vapor pressures for the homologous series of polyethylene glycols ranging in vapor pressure at 298 K from 1E−7 Pa to 5E−2 Pa as a reference set.
Man Mei Chim, Chiu Tung Cheng, James F. Davies, Thomas Berkemeier, Manabu Shiraiwa, Andreas Zuend, and Man Nin Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14415–14431,Short summary
In this work, we report that methyl-substituted succinic acid present at or near the surface of aqueous organic droplets can be efficiently oxidized by gas-phase OH radicals. The alkoxy radical chemistry appears to be an important reaction pathway. In addition, our model simulations reveal the relative importance of functionalization and fragmentation processes, alongside volatilization, in the evolution of the particle-phase reaction, which is largely dependent on the extent of oxidation.
Laura E. Revell, Andrea Stenke, Beiping Luo, Stefanie Kremser, Eugene Rozanov, Timofei Sukhodolov, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13139–13150,Short summary
Compiling stratospheric aerosol data sets after a major volcanic eruption is difficult as the stratosphere becomes too optically opaque for satellite instruments to measure accurately. We performed ensemble chemistry–climate model simulations with two stratospheric aerosol data sets compiled for two international modelling activities and compared the simulated volcanic aerosol-induced effects from the 1991 Mt Pinatubo eruption on tropical stratospheric temperature and ozone with observations.
Sandra Bastelberger, Ulrich K. Krieger, Beiping Luo, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8453–8471,Short summary
We present quantitative condensed-phase diffusivity measurements of a volatile organic (tetraethylene glycol) in highly viscous single aerosol particles (aqueous sucrose). The condensed-phase diffusivity exhibits a strong temperature and humidity dependence. Our results suggest that diffusion limitations of volatile organics in highly viscous organic aerosol may severely impact gas–particle partitioning under cold and dry conditions.
Thomas Berkemeier, Markus Ammann, Ulrich K. Krieger, Thomas Peter, Peter Spichtinger, Ulrich Pöschl, Manabu Shiraiwa, and Andrew J. Huisman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8021–8029,Short summary
Kinetic process models are efficient tools used to unravel the mechanisms governing chemical and physical transformation in multiphase atmospheric chemistry. However, determination of kinetic parameters such as reaction rate or diffusion coefficients from multiple data sets is often difficult or ambiguous. This study presents a novel optimization algorithm and framework to determine these parameters in an automated fashion and to gain information about parameter uncertainty and uniqueness.
Lisa Stirnweis, Claudia Marcolli, Josef Dommen, Peter Barmet, Carla Frege, Stephen M. Platt, Emily A. Bruns, Manuel Krapf, Jay G. Slowik, Robert Wolf, Andre S. H. Prévôt, Urs Baltensperger, and Imad El-Haddad
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5035–5061,
Lukas Kaufmann, Claudia Marcolli, Beiping Luo, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3525–3552,Short summary
To improve the understanding of heterogeneous ice nucleation, we have subjected different ice nuclei to repeated freezing cycles and evaluated the freezing temperatures with different parameterizations of classical nucleation theory. It was found that two fit parameters were necessary to describe the temperature dependence of the nucleation rate.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1595–1622,Short summary
Laboratory studies from the last century have shown that some types of particles are susceptible to pre-activation, i.e. they are able to develop macroscopic ice at warmer temperatures or lower relative humidities after they had been involved in an ice nucleation event before. This review analyses these works under the presumption that pre-activation occurs by ice preserved in pores, and it discusses atmospheric scenarios for which pre-activation might be important.
William T. Ball, Aleš Kuchař, Eugene V. Rozanov, Johannes Staehelin, Fiona Tummon, Anne K. Smith, Timofei Sukhodolov, Andrea Stenke, Laura Revell, Ancelin Coulon, Werner Schmutz, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15485–15500,Short summary
We find monthly, mid-latitude temperature changes above 40 km are related to ozone and temperature variations throughout the middle atmosphere. We develop an index to represent this atmospheric variability. In statistical analysis, the index can account for up to 60 % of variability in tropical temperature and ozone above 27 km. The uncertainties can be reduced by up to 35 % and 20 % in temperature and ozone, respectively. This index is an important tool to quantify current and future ozone recovery.
Laura E. Revell, Andrea Stenke, Eugene Rozanov, William Ball, Stefan Lossow, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13067–13080,Short summary
Water vapour in the stratosphere plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry and the Earth's radiative balance. We have analysed trends in stratospheric water vapour through the 21st century as simulated by a coupled chemistry–climate model following a range of greenhouse gas emission scenarios. We have also quantified the contribution that methane oxidation in the stratosphere makes to projected water vapour trends.
Natasha Hodas, Andreas Zuend, Katherine Schilling, Thomas Berkemeier, Manabu Shiraiwa, Richard C. Flagan, and John H. Seinfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12767–12792,Short summary
Discontinuities in apparent hygroscopicity below and above water saturation have been observed for organic and mixed organic-inorganic aerosol particles in both laboratory studies and in the ambient atmosphere. This work explores the extent to which such discontinuities are influenced by organic component molecular mass and viscosity, non-ideal thermodynamic interactions between aerosol components, and the combination of these factors.
Lukas Kaufmann, Claudia Marcolli, Julian Hofer, Valeria Pinti, Christopher R. Hoyle, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11177–11206,Short summary
We investigated dust samples from dust source regions all over the globe with respect to their ice nucleation activity and their mineralogical composition. Stones of reference minerals were milled and investigated the same way as the natural dust samples. We found that the mineralogical composition is a major determinant of ice nucleation ability. Natural samples consist of mixtures of minerals with remarkably similar ice nucleation ability.
Baban Nagare, Claudia Marcolli, André Welti, Olaf Stetzer, and Ulrike Lohmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8899–8914,Short summary
The relative importance of contact freezing and immersion freezing at mixed-phase cloud temperatures is the subject of debate. We performed experiments using continuous-flow diffusion chambers to compare the freezing efficiency of ice-nucleating particles for both these nucleation modes. Silver iodide, kaolinite and Arizona Test Dust were used as ice-nucleating particles. We could not confirm the dominance of contact freezing over immersion freezing for our experimental conditions.
Claudia Marcolli, Baban Nagare, André Welti, and Ulrike Lohmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8915–8937,Short summary
Silver iodide is one of the best-investigated ice nuclei. It has relevance for the atmosphere since it is used for glaciogenic cloud seeding. Nevertheless, many open questions remain. This paper gives an overview of silver iodide as an ice nucleus and tries to identify the factors that influence the ice nucleation ability of silver iodide.
Lindsay Renbaum-Wolff, Mijung Song, Claudia Marcolli, Yue Zhang, Pengfei F. Liu, James W. Grayson, Franz M. Geiger, Scot T. Martin, and Allan K. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7969–7979,
Erika Kienast-Sjögren, Christian Rolf, Patric Seifert, Ulrich K. Krieger, Bei P. Luo, Martina Krämer, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7605–7621,Short summary
We present a climatology of mid-latitude cirrus cloud properties based on 13 000 hours of automatically analyzed lidar measurements at three different sites. Jungfraujoch, situated at 3580 m a.s.l., is found to be ideal to measure high and optically thin cirrus. We use our retrieved optical properties together with a radiation model and estimate the radiative forcing by mid-latitude cirrus. All cirrus clouds detected here have a positive net radiative effect.
B. Nagare, C. Marcolli, O. Stetzer, and U. Lohmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13759–13776,Short summary
We determined collision efficiencies of cloud droplets with aerosol particles experimentally and found that they were around 1 order of magnitude higher than theoretical formulations that include Brownian diffusion, impaction, interception, thermophoretic, diffusiophoretic and electric forces. This is most probably due to uncertainties and inaccuracies in the theoretical formulations of thermophoretic and diffusiophoretic processes.
D. M. Lienhard, A. J. Huisman, U. K. Krieger, Y. Rudich, C. Marcolli, B. P. Luo, D. L. Bones, J. P. Reid, A. T. Lambe, M. R. Canagaratna, P. Davidovits, T. B. Onasch, D. R. Worsnop, S. S. Steimer, T. Koop, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13599–13613,Short summary
New data of water diffusivity in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) material and organic/inorganic model mixtures is presented over an extensive temperature range. Our data suggest that water diffusion in SOA is sufficiently fast so that it is unlikely to have significant consequences on the direct climatic effect under tropospheric conditions. Glass formation in SOA is unlikely to restrict homogeneous ice nucleation.
J.-X. Sheng, D. K. Weisenstein, B.-P. Luo, E. Rozanov, F. Arfeuille, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11501–11512,Short summary
We have conducted a perturbed parameter model ensemble to investigate Mt. Pinatubo's 1991 initial sulfur mass emission. Our results suggest that (a) the initial mass loading of the Pinatubo eruption is ~14 Mt of SO2; (b) the injection vertical distribution is strongly skewed towards the lower stratosphere, leading to a peak mass sulfur injection at 18-21 km; (c) the injection magnitude and height affect early southward transport of the volcanic cloud observed by SAGE II.
E. Hammer, N. Bukowiecki, B. P. Luo, U. Lohmann, C. Marcolli, E. Weingartner, U. Baltensperger, and C. R. Hoyle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10309–10323,Short summary
An important quantity which determines aerosol activation and cloud formation is the effective peak supersaturation. The box model ZOMM was used to simulate the effective peak supersaturation experienced by an air parcel approaching a high-alpine research station in Switzerland. With the box model the sensitivity of the effective peak supersaturation to key aerosol and dynamical parameters was investigated.
E. Kienast-Sjögren, A. K. Miltenberger, B. P. Luo, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7429–7447,Short summary
Sensitivities of Lagrangian cirrus modelling on input data uncertainties have been examined. We found a strong dependence on the temporal resolution of the trajectories and underlying numerical weather prediction (NWP) data as well as on the specific moisture content. Furthermore, we found a large day-to-day variability in the vertical wind spectrum, demonstrating the necessity to apply NWP models with high spatial and temporal resolution for Lagrangian cirrus modelling.
S. S. Steimer, U. K. Krieger, Y.-F. Te, D. M. Lienhard, A. J. Huisman, B. P. Luo, M. Ammann, and T. Peter
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2397–2408,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosol is often subject to supersaturated or supercooled conditions where bulk measurements are not possible. Here we demonstrate how measurements using single particle electrodynamic levitation combined with light scattering spectroscopy allow the retrieval of thermodynamic data, optical properties and water diffusivity of such metastable particles even when auxiliary bulk data are not available due to lack of sufficient amounts of sample.
L. E. Revell, F. Tummon, A. Stenke, T. Sukhodolov, A. Coulon, E. Rozanov, H. Garny, V. Grewe, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5887–5902,Short summary
We have examined the effects of ozone precursor emissions and climate change on the tropospheric ozone budget. Under RCP 6.0, ozone in the future is governed primarily by changes in nitrogen oxides (NOx). Methane is also important, and induces an increase in tropospheric ozone that is approximately one-third of that caused by NOx. This study highlights the critical role that emission policies globally have to play in determining tropospheric ozone evolution through the 21st century.
N. Hodas, A. Zuend, W. Mui, R. C. Flagan, and J. H. Seinfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5027–5045,
T. Sukhodolov, E. Rozanov, A. I. Shapiro, J. Anet, C. Cagnazzo, T. Peter, and W. Schmutz
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2859–2866,Short summary
The performance of the main generations of the ECHAM shortwave radiation schemes is analysed in terms of the representation of the solar signal in the heating rates. The way to correct missing or underrepresented spectral intervals in the solar signal in the heating rates is suggested using the example of ECHAM6 and six-band ECHAM5 schemes. The suggested method is computationally fast and suitable for any other radiation scheme.
S. Pandey Deolal, S. Henne, L. Ries, S. Gilge, U. Weers, M. Steinbacher, J. Staehelin, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12553–12571,Short summary
Mixing ratios of Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) at Jungfraujoch (Switzerland) and Zugspitze (Germany) show a seasonal variation with maxima in spring, typical for remote sites in the lower atmosphere in northern mid-latitudes. The detailed analysis of PAN measurements of May 2008 indicates that PAN at these high mountain sites is dominated by photochemical formation in the relatively cold polluted European planetary boundary layer rather than formation in the free troposphere.
T. Lei, A. Zuend, W. G. Wang, Y. H. Zhang, and M. F. Ge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11165–11183,
D. W. Fahey, R.-S. Gao, O. Möhler, H. Saathoff, C. Schiller, V. Ebert, M. Krämer, T. Peter, N. Amarouche, L. M. Avallone, R. Bauer, Z. Bozóki, L. E. Christensen, S. M. Davis, G. Durry, C. Dyroff, R. L. Herman, S. Hunsmann, S. M. Khaykin, P. Mackrodt, J. Meyer, J. B. Smith, N. Spelten, R. F. Troy, H. Vömel, S. Wagner, and F. G. Wienhold
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3177–3213,
S. Muthers, J. G. Anet, A. Stenke, C. C. Raible, E. Rozanov, S. Brönnimann, T. Peter, F. X. Arfeuille, A. I. Shapiro, J. Beer, F. Steinhilber, Y. Brugnara, and W. Schmutz
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2157–2179,
G. Ganbavale, C. Marcolli, U. K. Krieger, A. Zuend, G. Stratmann, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9993–10012,
A. Cirisan, B. P. Luo, I. Engel, F. G. Wienhold, M. Sprenger, U. K. Krieger, U. Weers, G. Romanens, G. Levrat, P. Jeannet, D. Ruffieux, R. Philipona, B. Calpini, P. Spichtinger, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7341–7365,
I. Suter, R. Zech, J. G. Anet, and T. Peter
Clim. Past, 10, 1183–1194,
J. G. Anet, S. Muthers, E. V. Rozanov, C. C. Raible, A. Stenke, A. I. Shapiro, S. Brönnimann, F. Arfeuille, Y. Brugnara, J. Beer, F. Steinhilber, W. Schmutz, and T. Peter
Clim. Past, 10, 921–938,
I. Engel, B. P. Luo, S. M. Khaykin, F. G. Wienhold, H. Vömel, R. Kivi, C. R. Hoyle, J.-U. Grooß, M. C. Pitts, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3231–3246,
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2071–2104,
F. Arfeuille, D. Weisenstein, H. Mack, E. Rozanov, T. Peter, and S. Brönnimann
Clim. Past, 10, 359–375,
J.-U. Grooß, I. Engel, S. Borrmann, W. Frey, G. Günther, C. R. Hoyle, R. Kivi, B. P. Luo, S. Molleker, T. Peter, M. C. Pitts, H. Schlager, G. Stiller, H. Vömel, K. A. Walker, and R. Müller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1055–1073,
J. Staufer, J. Staehelin, R. Stübi, T. Peter, F. Tummon, and V. Thouret
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 241–266,
J. Staufer, J. Staehelin, R. Stübi, T. Peter, F. Tummon, and V. Thouret
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 3393–3406,
S. M. Khaykin, I. Engel, H. Vömel, I. M. Formanyuk, R. Kivi, L. I. Korshunov, M. Krämer, A. D. Lykov, S. Meier, T. Naebert, M. C. Pitts, M. L. Santee, N. Spelten, F. G. Wienhold, V. A. Yushkov, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11503–11517,
F. Arfeuille, B. P. Luo, P. Heckendorn, D. Weisenstein, J. X. Sheng, E. Rozanov, M. Schraner, S. Brönnimann, L. W. Thomason, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11221–11234,
J. G. Anet, S. Muthers, E. Rozanov, C. C. Raible, T. Peter, A. Stenke, A. I. Shapiro, J. Beer, F. Steinhilber, S. Brönnimann, F. Arfeuille, Y. Brugnara, and W. Schmutz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10951–10967,
I. Engel, B. P. Luo, M. C. Pitts, L. R. Poole, C. R. Hoyle, J.-U. Grooß, A. Dörnbrack, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10769–10785,
A. Stenke, C. R. Hoyle, B. Luo, E. Rozanov, J. Gröbner, L. Maag, S. Brönnimann, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9713–9729,
C. R. Hoyle, I. Engel, B. P. Luo, M. C. Pitts, L. R. Poole, J.-U. Grooß, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9577–9595,
M. von Hobe, S. Bekki, S. Borrmann, F. Cairo, F. D'Amato, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ebersoldt, M. Ebert, C. Emde, I. Engel, M. Ern, W. Frey, S. Genco, S. Griessbach, J.-U. Grooß, T. Gulde, G. Günther, E. Hösen, L. Hoffmann, V. Homonnai, C. R. Hoyle, I. S. A. Isaksen, D. R. Jackson, I. M. Jánosi, R. L. Jones, K. Kandler, C. Kalicinsky, A. Keil, S. M. Khaykin, F. Khosrawi, R. Kivi, J. Kuttippurath, J. C. Laube, F. Lefèvre, R. Lehmann, S. Ludmann, B. P. Luo, M. Marchand, J. Meyer, V. Mitev, S. Molleker, R. Müller, H. Oelhaf, F. Olschewski, Y. Orsolini, T. Peter, K. Pfeilsticker, C. Piesch, M. C. Pitts, L. R. Poole, F. D. Pope, F. Ravegnani, M. Rex, M. Riese, T. Röckmann, B. Rognerud, A. Roiger, C. Rolf, M. L. Santee, M. Scheibe, C. Schiller, H. Schlager, M. Siciliani de Cumis, N. Sitnikov, O. A. Søvde, R. Spang, N. Spelten, F. Stordal, O. Sumińska-Ebersoldt, A. Ulanovski, J. Ungermann, S. Viciani, C. M. Volk, M. vom Scheidt, P. von der Gathen, K. Walker, T. Wegner, R. Weigel, S. Weinbruch, G. Wetzel, F. G. Wienhold, I. Wohltmann, W. Woiwode, I. A. K. Young, V. Yushkov, B. Zobrist, and F. Stroh
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A. Stenke, M. Schraner, E. Rozanov, T. Egorova, B. Luo, and T. Peter
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 1407–1427,
A. J. Huisman, U. K. Krieger, A. Zuend, C. Marcolli, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6647–6662,
F. Hasebe, Y. Inai, M. Shiotani, M. Fujiwara, H. Vömel, N. Nishi, S.-Y. Ogino, T. Shibata, S. Iwasaki, N. Komala, T. Peter, and S. J. Oltmans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4393–4411,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling and Data Analysis | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Effects of simulated secondary organic aerosol water on PM1 levels and composition over the USReactive organic carbon air emissions from mobile sources in the United StatesDevelopment and evaluation of processes affecting simulation of diel fine particulate matter variation in the GEOS-Chem modelSubstantially positive contributions of new particle formation to cloud condensation nuclei under low supersaturation in China based on numerical model improvementsEvolution of atmospheric age of particles and its implications for the formation of a severe haze event in eastern ChinaA multimodel evaluation of the potential impact of shipping on particle species in the Mediterranean SeaHow does tropospheric VOC chemistry affect climate? An investigation of preindustrial control simulations using the Community Earth System Model version 2Anthropogenic amplification of biogenic secondary organic aerosol productionA dynamic parameterization of sulfuric acid–dimethylamine nucleation and its application in three-dimensional modelingModeling dust mineralogical composition: sensitivity to soil mineralogy atlases and their expected climate impactsAssessment of the impacts of cloud chemistry on surface SO2 and sulfate levels in typical regions of ChinaImpact of Landes forest fires on air quality in France during the 2022 summerGlobal nitrogen and sulfur deposition mapping using a measurement–model fusion approachComprehensive simulations of new particle formation events in Beijing with a cluster dynamics–multicomponent sectional modelImplications of differences between recent anthropogenic aerosol emission inventories for diagnosed AOD and radiative forcing from 1990 to 2019Unbalanced emission reductions of different species and sectors in China during COVID-19 lockdown derived by multi-species surface observation assimilationSimulating organic aerosol in Delhi with WRF-Chem using the volatility-basis-set approach: exploring model uncertainty with a Gaussian process emulatorModelling wintertime sea-spray aerosols under Arctic haze conditionsImpact of solar geoengineering on wildfires in the 21st century in CESM2/WACCM6Linking gas, particulate, and toxic endpoints to air emissions in the Community Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Multiphase Mechanism (CRACMM)An Updated Modeling Framework to Simulate Los Angeles Air Quality. Part 1: Model Development, Evaluation, and Source ApportionmentDynamics-based estimates of decline trend with fine temporal variations in China's PM2.5 emissionsContribution of regional aerosol nucleation to low-level CCN in an Amazonian deep convective environment: results from a regionally nested global modelDevelopment of an integrated model framework for multi-air-pollutant exposure assessments in high-density cities and the implications for epidemiological researchCoarse particulate matter air quality in East Asia: implications for fine particulate nitrateThe Emissions Model Intercomparison Project (Emissions-MIP): quantifying model sensitivity to emission characteristicsForeign emissions exacerbate PM2.5 pollution in China through nitrate chemistryAnalysis of new particle formation events and comparisons to simulations of particle number concentrations based on GEOS-Chem–advanced particle microphysics in Beijing, ChinaSimulation of organic aerosol, its precursors, and related oxidants in the Landes pine forest in southwestern France: accounting for domain-specific land use and physical conditionsModelling the European wind-blown dust emissions and their impact on particulate matter (PM) concentrationsImpacts of estimated plume rise on PM2.5 exceedance prediction during extreme wildfire events: a comparison of three schemes (Briggs, Freitas, and Sofiev)CAMx-UNIPAR Simulation of SOA Mass Formed from Multiphase Reactions of Hydrocarbons under the Central Valley Urban Atmospheres of CaliforniaStrong particle production and condensational growth in the upper troposphere sustained by biogenic VOCs from the canopy of the Amazon BasinSources of organic aerosols in eastern China: a modeling study with high-resolution intermediate-volatility and semivolatile organic compound emissionsComposited analyses of the chemical and physical characteristics of co-polluted days by ozone and PM2.5 over 2013–2020 in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei regionObservation-based constraints on modeled aerosol surface area: implications for heterogeneous chemistryOligomer formation from the gas-phase reactions of Criegee intermediates with hydroperoxide esters: mechanism and kineticsModelling SO2 conversion into sulfates in the mid-troposphere with a 3D chemistry transport model: the case of Mount Etna's eruption on 12 April 2012Global distribution of Asian, Middle Eastern, and North African dust simulated by CESM1/CARMAOpinion: Coordinated development of emission inventories for climate forcers and air pollutantsSeasonal modeling analysis of nitrate formation pathways in Yangtze River Delta region, ChinaModeling radiative and climatic effects of brown carbon aerosols with the ARPEGE-Climat global climate modelNumerical simulation of the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on tropospheric composition and aerosol radiative forcing in EuropeEvaluation of the WRF and CHIMERE models for the simulation of PM2.5 in large East African urban conurbationsImpact of urban heat island on inorganic aerosol in the lower free troposphere: a case study in Hangzhou, ChinaStatistical and machine learning methods for evaluating trends in air quality under changing meteorological conditionsSimulating the radiative forcing of oceanic dimethylsulfide (DMS) in Asia based on machine learning estimatesQuantifying the effects of mixing state on aerosol optical propertiesSecondary organic aerosol formation via multiphase reaction of hydrocarbons in urban atmospheres using CAMx integrated with the UNIPAR modelContrasting source contributions of Arctic black carbon to atmospheric concentrations, deposition flux, and atmospheric and snow radiative effects
Stylianos Kakavas, Spyros N. Pandis, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13555–13564,Short summary
Water uptake from organic species in aerosol can affect the partitioning of semi-volatile inorganic compounds but are not considered in global and chemical transport models. We address this with a version of the PM-CAMx model that considers such organic water effects and use it to carry out 1-year aerosol simulations over the continental US. We show that such organic water impacts can increase dry PM1 levels by up to 2 μg m-3 when RH levels and PM1 concentrations are high.
Benjamin N. Murphy, Darrell Sonntag, Karl M. Seltzer, Havala O. T. Pye, Christine Allen, Evan Murray, Claudia Toro, Drew R. Gentner, Cheng Huang, Shantanu Jathar, Li Li, Andrew A. May, and Allen L. Robinson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13469–13483,Short summary
We update methods for calculating organic particle and vapor emissions from mobile sources in the USA. Conventionally, particulate matter (PM) and volatile organic carbon (VOC) are speciated without consideration of primary semivolatile emissions. Our methods integrate state-of-the-science speciation profiles and correct for common artifacts when sampling emissions in a laboratory. We quantify impacts of the emission updates on ambient pollution with the Community Multiscale Air Quality model.
Yanshun Li, Randall V. Martin, Chi Li, Brian L. Boys, Aaron van Donkelaar, Jun Meng, and Jeffrey R. Pierce
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 12525–12543,Short summary
We developed and evaluated processes affecting within-day (diel) variability in PM2.5 concentrations in a chemical transport model over the contiguous US. Diel variability in PM2.5 for the contiguous US is driven by early-morning accumulation into a shallow mixed layer, decreases from mid-morning through afternoon with mixed-layer growth, increases from mid-afternoon through evening as the mixed-layer collapses, and decreases overnight as emissions decrease.
Chupeng Zhang, Shangfei Hai, Yang Gao, Yuhang Wang, Shaoqing Zhang, Lifang Sheng, Bin Zhao, Shuxiao Wang, Jingkun Jiang, Xin Huang, Xiaojing Shen, Junying Sun, Aura Lupascu, Manish Shrivastava, Jerome D. Fast, Wenxuan Cheng, Xiuwen Guo, Ming Chu, Nan Ma, Juan Hong, Qiaoqiao Wang, Xiaohong Yao, and Huiwang Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10713–10730,Short summary
New particle formation is an important source of atmospheric particles, exerting critical influences on global climate. Numerical models are vital tools to understanding atmospheric particle evolution, which, however, suffer from large biases in simulating particle numbers. Here we improve the model chemical processes governing particle sizes and compositions. The improved model reveals substantial contributions of newly formed particles to climate through effects on cloud condensation nuclei.
Xiaodong Xie, Jianlin Hu, Momei Qin, Song Guo, Min Hu, Dongsheng Ji, Hongli Wang, Shengrong Lou, Cheng Huang, Chong Liu, Hongliang Zhang, Qi Ying, Hong Liao, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10563–10578,Short summary
The atmospheric age of particles reflects how long particles have been formed and suspended in the atmosphere, which is closely associated with the evolution processes of particles. An analysis of the atmospheric age of PM2.5 provides a unique perspective on the evolution processes of different PM2.5 components. The results also shed lights on how to design effective emission control actions under unfavorable meteorological conditions.
Lea Fink, Matthias Karl, Volker Matthias, Sonia Oppo, Richard Kranenburg, Jeroen Kuenen, Sara Jutterström, Jana Moldanova, Elisa Majamäki, and Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10163–10189,Short summary
The Mediterranean Sea is a heavily trafficked shipping area, and air quality monitoring stations in numerous cities along the Mediterranean coast have detected high levels of air pollutants originating from shipping emissions. The current study investigates how existing restrictions on shipping-related emissions to the atmosphere ensure compliance with legislation. Focus was laid on fine particles and particle species, which were simulated with five different chemical transport models.
Noah A. Stanton and Neil F. Tandon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9191–9216,Short summary
Chemistry in Earth’s atmosphere has a potentially strong but very uncertain impact on climate. Past attempts to fully model chemistry in Earth’s troposphere (the lowest layer of the atmosphere) typically simplified the representation of Earth’s surface, which in turn limited the ability to simulate changes in climate. The cutting-edge model that we use in this study does not require such simplification, and we use it to examine the climate effects of chemical interactions in the troposphere.
Yiqi Zheng, Larry W. Horowitz, Raymond Menzel, David J. Paynter, Vaishali Naik, Jingyi Li, and Jingqiu Mao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8993–9007,Short summary
Biogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) account for a large fraction of fine aerosol at the global scale. Using long-term measurements and a climate model, we investigate anthropogenic impacts on biogenic SOA at both decadal and centennial timescales. Results show that despite reductions in biogenic precursor emissions, SOA has been strongly amplified by anthropogenic emissions since the preindustrial era and exerts a cooling radiative forcing.
Yuyang Li, Jiewen Shen, Bin Zhao, Runlong Cai, Shuxiao Wang, Yang Gao, Manish Shrivastava, Da Gao, Jun Zheng, Markku Kulmala, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8789–8804,Short summary
We set up a new parameterization for 1.4 nm particle formation rates from sulfuric acid–dimethylamine (SA–DMA) nucleation, fully including the effects of coagulation scavenging and cluster stability. Incorporating the new parameterization into 3-D chemical transport models, we achieved better consistencies between simulation results and observation data. This new parameterization provides new insights into atmospheric nucleation simulations and its effects on atmospheric pollution or health.
María Gonçalves Ageitos, Vincenzo Obiso, Ron L. Miller, Oriol Jorba, Martina Klose, Matt Dawson, Yves Balkanski, Jan Perlwitz, Sara Basart, Enza Di Tomaso, Jerónimo Escribano, Francesca Macchia, Gilbert Montané, Natalie M. Mahowald, Robert O. Green, David R. Thompson, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8623–8657,Short summary
Dust aerosols affect our climate differently depending on their mineral composition. We include dust mineralogy in an atmospheric model considering two existing soil maps, which still have large associated uncertainties. The soil data and the distribution of the minerals in different aerosol sizes are key to our model performance. We find significant regional variations in climate-relevant variables, which supports including mineralogy in our current models and the need for improved soil maps.
Jianyan Lu, Sunling Gong, Jian Zhang, Jianmin Chen, Lei Zhang, and Chunhong Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8021–8037,Short summary
WRF/CUACE was used to assess the cloud chemistry contribution in China. Firstly, the CUACE cloud chemistry scheme was found to reproduce well the cloud processing and consumption of H2O2, O3, and SO2, as well as the increase of sulfate. Secondly, during cloud availability in December under a heavy pollution episode, sulfate production increased 60–95 % and SO2 was reduced by over 80 %. This study provides a way to analyze the phenomenon of overestimation of SO2 in many chemical transport models.
Laurent Menut, Arineh Cholakian, Guillaume Siour, Rémy Lapere, Romain Pennel, Sylvain Mailler, and Bertrand Bessagnet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7281–7296,Short summary
This study is about the wildfires occurring in France during the summer 2022. We study the forest fires that took place in the Landes during the summer of 2022. We show the direct impact of these fires on the air quality, especially downstream of the smoke plume towards the Paris region. We quantify the impact of these fires on the pollutants peak concentrations and the possible exceedance of thresholds.
Hannah J. Rubin, Joshua S. Fu, Frank Dentener, Rui Li, Kan Huang, and Hongbo Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7091–7102,Short summary
We update the 2010 global deposition budget for nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) with new regional wet deposition measurements, improving the ensemble results of 11 global chemistry transport models from HTAP II. Our study demonstrates that a global measurement–model fusion approach can substantially improve N and S deposition model estimates at a regional scale and represents a step forward toward the WMO goal of global fusion products for accurately mapping harmful air pollution.
Chenxi Li, Yuyang Li, Xiaoxiao Li, Runlong Cai, Yaxin Fan, Xiaohui Qiao, Rujing Yin, Chao Yan, Yishuo Guo, Yongchun Liu, Jun Zheng, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Markku Kulmala, Huayun Xiao, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6879–6896,Short summary
New particle formation and growth in polluted environments are not fully understood despite intensive research. We applied a cluster dynamics–multicomponent sectional model to simulate the new particle formation events observed in Beijing, China. The simulation approximately captures how the events evolve. Further diagnosis shows that the oxygenated organic molecules may have been under-detected, and modulating their abundance leads to significantly improved simulation–observation agreement.
Marianne Tronstad Lund, Gunnar Myhre, Ragnhild Bieltvedt Skeie, Bjørn Hallvard Samset, and Zbigniew Klimont
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6647–6662,Short summary
Here we show that differences, in magnitude and trend, between recent global anthropogenic emission inventories have a notable influence on simulated regional abundances of anthropogenic aerosol over the 1990–2019 period. This, in turn, affects estimates of radiative forcing. Our findings form a basis for comparing existing and upcoming studies on anthropogenic aerosols using different emission inventories.
Lei Kong, Xiao Tang, Jiang Zhu, Zifa Wang, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, Meng Gao, Huangjian Wu, Miaomiao Lu, Qian Wu, Shuyuan Huang, Wenxuan Sui, Jie Li, Xiaole Pan, Lin Wu, Hajime Akimoto, and Gregory R. Carmichael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6217–6240,Short summary
A multi-air-pollutant inversion system has been developed in this study to estimate emission changes in China during COVID-19 lockdown. The results demonstrate that the lockdown is largely a nationwide road traffic control measure with NOx emissions decreasing by ~40 %. Emissions of other species only decreased by ~10 % due to smaller effects of lockdown on other sectors. Assessment results further indicate that the lockdown only had limited effects on the control of PM2.5 and O3 in China.
Ernesto Reyes-Villegas, Douglas Lowe, Jill S. Johnson, Kenneth S. Carslaw, Eoghan Darbyshire, Michael Flynn, James D. Allan, Hugh Coe, Ying Chen, Oliver Wild, Scott Archer-Nicholls, Alex Archibald, Siddhartha Singh, Manish Shrivastava, Rahul A. Zaveri, Vikas Singh, Gufran Beig, Ranjeet Sokhi, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5763–5782,Short summary
Organic aerosols (OAs), their sources and their processes remain poorly understood. The volatility basis set (VBS) approach, implemented in air quality models such as WRF-Chem, can be a useful tool to describe primary OA (POA) production and aging. However, the main disadvantage is its complexity. We used a Gaussian process simulator to reproduce model results and to estimate the sources of model uncertainty. We do this by comparing the outputs with OA observations made at Delhi, India, in 2018.
Eleftherios Ioannidis, Kathy S. Law, Jean-Christophe Raut, Louis Marelle, Tatsuo Onishi, Rachel M. Kirpes, Lucia M. Upchurch, Thomas Tuch, Alfred Wiedensohler, Andreas Massling, Henrik Skov, Patricia K. Quinn, and Kerri A. Pratt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5641–5678,Short summary
Remote and local anthropogenic emissions contribute to wintertime Arctic haze, with enhanced aerosol concentrations, but natural sources, which also contribute, are less well studied. Here, modelled wintertime sea-spray aerosols are improved in WRF-Chem over the wider Arctic by including updated wind speed and temperature-dependent treatments. As a result, anthropogenic nitrate aerosols are also improved. Open leads are confirmed to be the main source of sea-spray aerosols over northern Alaska.
Wenfu Tang, Simone Tilmes, David M. Lawrence, Fang Li, Cenlin He, Louisa K. Emmons, Rebecca R. Buchholz, and Lili Xia
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5467–5486,Short summary
Globally, total wildfire burned area is projected to increase over the 21st century under scenarios without geoengineering and decrease under the two geoengineering scenarios. Geoengineering reduces fire by decreasing surface temperature and wind speed and increasing relative humidity and soil water. However, geoengineering also yields reductions in precipitation, which offset some of the fire reduction.
Havala O. T. Pye, Bryan K. Place, Benjamin N. Murphy, Karl M. Seltzer, Emma L. D'Ambro, Christine Allen, Ivan R. Piletic, Sara Farrell, Rebecca H. Schwantes, Matthew M. Coggon, Emily Saunders, Lu Xu, Golam Sarwar, William T. Hutzell, Kristen M. Foley, George Pouliot, Jesse Bash, and William R. Stockwell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5043–5099,Short summary
Chemical mechanisms describe how emissions from vehicles, vegetation, and other sources are chemically transformed in the atmosphere to secondary products including criteria and hazardous air pollutants. The Community Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Multiphase Mechanism integrates gas-phase radical chemistry with pathways to fine-particle mass. New species were implemented, resulting in a bottom-up representation of organic aerosol, which is required for accurate source attribution of pollutants.
Elyse A. Pennington, Yuan Wang, Benjamin C. Schulze, Karl M. Seltzer, Jiani Yang, Bin Zhao, Zhe Jiang, Hongru Shi, Melissa Venecek, Daniel Chau, Benjamin N. Murphy, Christopher M. Kenseth, Ryan X. Ward, Havala O. T. Pye, and John H. Seinfeld
To assess the ozone and particulate matter pollution in LA, we improved the CMAQ model by employing dynamic traffic emissions and new secondary organic aerosol (SOA) schemes to represent volatile chemical products (VCP). Source apportionment demonstrates that the urban areas of the LA Basin and vicinity are NOx-saturated with the largest sensitivity of O3 to changes in VOC in the urban core. The improvement and remaining issues shed light on the future direction of the model development.
Zhen Peng, Lili Lei, Zhe-Min Tan, Meigen Zhang, Aijun Ding, and Xingxia Kou
Annual PM2.5 emission in China consistently decreases about 3 % to 5 % from 2017 to 2020 with spatial variations and seasonal dependences. High temporal-resolution and dynamics-based PM2.5 emission estimates provide quantitative diurnal variations for each season. Significant reduction of PM2.5 emissions in the north China plain and northeast of China in 2020 are caused by COVID-19.
Xuemei Wang, Hamish Gordon, Daniel P. Grosvenor, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Ken S. Carslaw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4431–4461,Short summary
New particle formation in the upper troposphere is important for the global boundary layer aerosol population, and they can be transported downward in Amazonia. We use a global and a regional model to quantify the number of aerosols that are formed at high altitude and transported downward in a 1000 km region. We find that the majority of the aerosols are from outside the region. This suggests that the 1000 km region is unlikely to be a
closed loopfor aerosol formation, transport and growth.
Zhiyuan Li, Kin-Fai Ho, Harry Fung Lee, and Steve Hung Lam Yim
This study developed an integrated model framework for accurate multi-air-pollutant exposure assessments in high-density and high-rise cities. Following the proposed integrated model framework, we established multi-air-pollutant exposure models for four major PM10 chemical species as well as four criteria air pollutants with R2 values ranging from 0.73 to 0.93. The proposed framework serves an important tool for combined exposure assessment and the corresponding epidemiological studies.
Shixian Zhai, Daniel J. Jacob, Drew C. Pendergrass, Nadia K. Colombi, Viral Shah, Laura Hyesung Yang, Qiang Zhang, Shuxiao Wang, Hwajin Kim, Yele Sun, Jin-Soo Choi, Jin-Soo Park, Gan Luo, Fangqun Yu, Jung-Hun Woo, Younha Kim, Jack E. Dibb, Taehyoung Lee, Jin-Seok Han, Bruce E. Anderson, Ke Li, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4271–4281,Short summary
Anthropogenic fugitive dust in East Asia not only causes severe coarse particulate matter air pollution problems, but also affects fine particulate nitrate. Due to emission control efforts, coarse PM decreased steadily. We find that the decrease of coarse PM is a major driver for a lack of decrease of fine particulate nitrate, as it allows more nitric acid to form fine particulate nitrate. The continuing decrease of coarse PM requires more stringent ammonia and nitrogen oxides emission controls.
Hamza Ahsan, Hailong Wang, Jingbo Wu, Mingxuan Wu, Steven J. Smith, Susanne Bauer, Harrison Suchyta, Dirk Olivié, Gunnar Myhre, Hitoshi Matsui, Huisheng Bian, Jean-François Lamarque, Ken Carslaw, Larry Horowitz, Leighton Regayre, Mian Chin, Michael Schulz, Ragnhild Bieltvedt Skeie, Toshihiko Takemura, and Vaishali Naik
We examine the impact of the assumed effective height of SO2 injection, SO2 and BC emissions seasonality, and the assumed fraction of SO2 emissions injected as SO4 on climate and chemistry model results. We find that the SO2 injection height has a large impact on surface SO2 concentrations and, in some models, radiative flux. These assumptions are a “hidden” source of inter-model variability and may be leading to bias in some climate model results.
Jun-Wei Xu, Jintai Lin, Gan Luo, Jamiu Adeniran, and Hao Kong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4149–4163,Short summary
Research on the sources of Chinese PM2.5 pollution has focused on the contributions of China’s domestic emissions. However, the impact of foreign anthropogenic emissions has typically been simplified or neglected. Here we find that foreign anthropogenic emissions play an important role in Chinese PM2.5 pollution through chemical interactions between foreign-transported pollutants and China’s local emissions. Thus, foreign emission reductions are essential for improving Chinese air quality.
Kun Wang, Xiaoyan Ma, Rong Tian, and Fangqun Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4091–4104,Short summary
From 12 March to 6 April 2016 in Beijing, there were 11 typical new particle formation days, 13 non-event days, and 2 undefined days. We first analyzed the favorable background of new particle formation in Beijing and then conducted the simulations using four nucleation schemes based on a global chemistry transport model (GEOS-Chem) to understand the nucleation mechanism.
Arineh Cholakian, Matthias Beekmann, Guillaume Siour, Isabelle Coll, Manuela Cirtog, Elena Ormeño, Pierre-Marie Flaud, Emilie Perraudin, and Eric Villenave
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3679–3706,Short summary
This article revolves around the simulation of biogenic secondary organic aerosols in the Landes forest (southwestern France). Several sensitivity cases involving biogenic emission factors, land cover data, anthropogenic emissions, and physical or meteorological parameters were performed and each compared to measurements both in the forest canopy and around the forest. The chemistry behind the formation of these aerosols and their production and transport in the forest canopy is discussed.
Marina Liaskoni, Peter Huszar, Lukáš Bartík, Alvaro Patricio Prieto Perez, Jan Karlický, and Ondřej Vlček
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3629–3654,Short summary
Wind-blown dust (WBD) emissions emitted from European soils are estimated for the 2007–2016 period, and their impact on the total particulate matter (PM) concentration is calculated. We found a considerable increase in PM concentrations due to such emissions, especially on selected days (rather than on a seasonal average). We also found that WBD emissions are strongest over western Europe, and the highest impacts on PM are calculated for this region.
Yunyao Li, Daniel Tong, Siqi Ma, Saulo R. Freitas, Ravan Ahmadov, Mikhail Sofiev, Xiaoyang Zhang, Shobha Kondragunta, Ralph Kahn, Youhua Tang, Barry Baker, Patrick Campbell, Rick Saylor, Georg Grell, and Fangjun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3083–3101,Short summary
Plume height is important in wildfire smoke dispersion and affects air quality and human health. We assess the impact of plume height on wildfire smoke dispersion and the exceedances of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. A higher plume height predicts lower pollution near the source region, but higher pollution in downwind regions, due to the faster spread of the smoke once ejected, affects pollution exceedance forecasts and the early warning of extreme air pollution events.
Yujin Jo, Myoseon Jang, Sanghee Han, Azad Madhu, Bonyoung Koo, Yiqin Jia, Zechen Yu, Soontae Kim, and Jinsoo Park
The CAMx-UNIPAR model simulated the SOA budget formed via multiphase reactions of hydrocarbons and the impact of emissions and climate on SOA characteristics under California’s urban environments during winter 2018. SOA growth was dominated by daytime oxidation of long-chain alkanes and nighttime terpene oxidation with O3 and NO3 radicals. The spatial distributions of anthropogenic SOA were affected by the northwesterly wind whereas those of biogenic SOA were insensitive to wind directions.
Yunfan Liu, Hang Su, Siwen Wang, Chao Wei, Wei Tao, Mira L. Pöhlker, Christopher Pöhlker, Bruna A. Holanda, Ovid O. Krüger, Thorsten Hoffmann, Manfred Wendisch, Paulo Artaxo, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 251–272,Short summary
The origins of the abundant cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the upper troposphere (UT) of the Amazon remain unclear. With model developments of new secondary organic aerosol schemes and constrained by observation, we show that strong aerosol nucleation and condensation in the UT is triggered by biogenic organics, and organic condensation is key for UT CCN production. This UT CCN-producing mechanism may prevail over broader vegetation canopies and deserves emphasis in aerosol–climate feedback.
Jingyu An, Cheng Huang, Dandan Huang, Momei Qin, Huan Liu, Rusha Yan, Liping Qiao, Min Zhou, Yingjie Li, Shuhui Zhu, Qian Wang, and Hongli Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 323–344,Short summary
This paper aims to build up an approach to establish a high-resolution emission inventory of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds in city-scale and detailed source categories and incorporate it into the CMAQ model. We believe this approach can be widely applied to improve the simulation of secondary organic aerosol and its source contributions.
Huibin Dai, Hong Liao, Ke Li, Xu Yue, Yang Yang, Jia Zhu, Jianbing Jin, Baojie Li, and Xingwen Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 23–39,Short summary
We apply the 3-D global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to simulate co-polluted days by O3 and PM2.5 (O3–PM2.5PDs) in Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei in 2013–2020 and investigate the chemical and physical characteristics of O3–PM2.5PDs by composited analyses of such days that are captured by both the observations and the model. We report for the first time the unique features in vertical distributions of aerosols during O3–PM2.5PDs and the physical and chemical characteristics of O3–PM2.5PDs.
Rachel A. Bergin, Monica Harkey, Alicia Hoffman, Richard H. Moore, Bruce Anderson, Andreas Beyersdorf, Luke Ziemba, Lee Thornhill, Edward Winstead, Tracey Holloway, and Timothy H. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15449–15468,Short summary
Correctly predicting aerosol surface area concentrations is important for determining the rate of heterogeneous reactions in chemical transport models. Here, we compare aircraft measurements of aerosol surface area with a regional model. In polluted air masses, we show that the model underpredicts aerosol surface area by a factor of 2. Despite this disagreement, the representation of heterogeneous chemistry still dominates the overall uncertainty in the loss rate of molecules such as N2O5.
Long Chen, Yu Huang, Yonggang Xue, Zhihui Jia, and Wenliang Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14529–14546,Short summary
Quantum chemical methods are applied to gain insight into the oligomerization reaction mechanisms and kinetics of distinct stabilized Criegee intermediate (SCI) reactions with hydroperoxide esters, where calculations show that SCI addition reactions with hydroperoxide esters proceed through the successive insertion of SCIs to form oligomers that involve SCIs as the repeating unit. The saturated vapor pressure of the formed oligomers decreases monotonically with the increasing number of SCIs.
Mathieu Lachatre, Sylvain Mailler, Laurent Menut, Arineh Cholakian, Pasquale Sellitto, Guillaume Siour, Henda Guermazi, Giuseppe Salerno, and Salvatore Giammanco
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13861–13879,Short summary
In this study, we have evaluated the predominance of various pathways of volcanic SO2 conversion to sulfates in the upper troposphere. We show that the main conversion pathway was gaseous oxidation by OH, although the liquid pathways were expected to be predominant. These results are interesting with respect to a better understanding of sulfate formation in the middle and upper troposphere and are an important component to help evaluate particulate matter radiative forcing.
Siying Lian, Luxi Zhou, Daniel M. Murphy, Karl D. Froyd, Owen B. Toon, and Pengfei Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13659–13676,Short summary
Parameterizations of dust lifting and microphysical properties of dust in climate models are still subject to large uncertainty. Here we use a sectional aerosol climate model to investigate the global vertical distributions of the dust. Constrained by a suite of observations, the model suggests that, although North African dust dominates global dust mass loading at the surface, the relative contribution of Asian dust increases with altitude and becomes dominant in the upper troposphere.
Steven J. Smith, Erin E. McDuffie, and Molly Charles
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13201–13218,Short summary
Emissions into the atmosphere of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and air pollutants, quantified in emission inventories, impact human health, ecosystems, and the climate. We review how air pollutant and GHG inventory activities have historically been structured and their different uses and requirements. We discuss the benefits of increasing coordination between air pollutant and GHG inventory development efforts, but also caution that there are differences in appropriate methodologies and applications.
Jinjin Sun, Momei Qin, Xiaodong Xie, Wenxing Fu, Yang Qin, Li Sheng, Lin Li, Jingyi Li, Ishaq Dimeji Sulaymon, Lei Jiang, Lin Huang, Xingna Yu, and Jianlin Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12629–12646,Short summary
NO3- has become the dominant and the least reduced chemical component of fine particulate matter in China. NO3- formation is mostly in the NH3-rich regime in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD). OH + NO2 contributes 60 %–83 % of the TNO3 production rates, and the N2O5 heterogeneous pathway contributes 10 %–36 %. The N2O5 heterogeneous pathway becomes more important in cold seasons. Local emissions and regional transportation contribute 50 %–62 % and 38 %–50 % to YRD NO3- concentrations, respectively.
Thomas Drugé, Pierre Nabat, Marc Mallet, Martine Michou, Samuel Rémy, and Oleg Dubovik
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12167–12205,Short summary
This study presents the implementation of brown carbon in the atmospheric component of the CNRM global climate model and particularly in its aerosol scheme TACTIC. Several simulations were carried out with this climate model, over the period 2000–2014, to evaluate the model by comparison with different reference datasets (PARASOL-GRASP, OMI-OMAERUVd, MACv2, FMI_SAT, AERONET) and to analyze the brown carbon radiative and climatic effects.
Simon F. Reifenberg, Anna Martin, Matthias Kohl, Sara Bacer, Zaneta Hamryszczak, Ivan Tadic, Lenard Röder, Daniel J. Crowley, Horst Fischer, Katharina Kaiser, Johannes Schneider, Raphael Dörich, John N. Crowley, Laura Tomsche, Andreas Marsing, Christiane Voigt, Andreas Zahn, Christopher Pöhlker, Bruna A. Holanda, Ovid Krüger, Ulrich Pöschl, Mira Pöhlker, Patrick Jöckel, Marcel Dorf, Ulrich Schumann, Jonathan Williams, Birger Bohn, Joachim Curtius, Hardwig Harder, Hans Schlager, Jos Lelieveld, and Andrea Pozzer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10901–10917,Short summary
In this work we use a combination of observational data from an aircraft campaign and model results to investigate the effect of the European lockdown due to COVID-19 in spring 2020. Using model results, we show that the largest relative changes to the atmospheric composition caused by the reduced emissions are located in the upper troposphere around aircraft cruise altitude, while the largest absolute changes are present at the surface.
Andrea Mazzeo, Michael Burrow, Andrew Quinn, Eloise A. Marais, Ajit Singh, David Ng'ang'a, Michael J. Gatari, and Francis D. Pope
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10677–10701,Short summary
A modelling system for meteorology and chemistry transport processes, WRF–CHIMERE, has been tested and validated for three East African conurbations using the most up-to-date anthropogenic emissions available. Results show that the model is able to reproduce hourly and daily temporal variabilities in aerosol concentrations that are close to observations in both urban and rural environments, encouraging the adoption of numerical modelling as a tool for air quality management in East Africa.
Hanqing Kang, Bin Zhu, Gerrit de Leeuw, Bu Yu, Ronald J. van der A, and Wen Lu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10623–10634,Short summary
This study quantified the contribution of each urban-induced meteorological effect (temperature, humidity, and circulation) to aerosol concentration. We found that the urban heat island (UHI) circulation dominates the UHI effects on aerosol. The UHI circulation transports aerosol and its precursor gases from the warmer lower boundary layer to the colder lower free troposphere and promotes the secondary formation of ammonium nitrate aerosol in the cold atmosphere.
Minghao Qiu, Corwin Zigler, and Noelle E. Selin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10551–10566,Short summary
Evaluating impacts of emission changes on air quality requires accounting for meteorological variability. Many studies use simple regression methods to correct for meteorology, but little is known about their performance. Using cases in the US and China, we show that widely used regression models do not perform well and can lead to biased estimates of emission-driven trends. We propose a novel machine learning method with lower bias and provide recommendations to policymakers and researchers.
Junri Zhao, Weichun Ma, Kelsey R. Bilsback, Jeffrey R. Pierce, Shengqian Zhou, Ying Chen, Guipeng Yang, and Yan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9583–9600,Short summary
Marine dimethylsulfide (DMS) emissions play important roles in atmospheric sulfur cycle and climate effects. In this study, DMS emissions were estimated by using the machine learning method and drove the global 3D chemical transport model to simulate their climate effects. To our knowledge, this is the first study in the Asian region that quantifies the combined impacts of DMS on sulfate, particle number concentration, and radiative forcings.
Yu Yao, Jeffrey H. Curtis, Joseph Ching, Zhonghua Zheng, and Nicole Riemer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9265–9282,Short summary
Investigating the impacts of aerosol mixing state on aerosol optical properties has a long history from both the modeling and experimental perspective. In this study, we used particle-resolved simulations as a benchmark to determine the error in optical properties when using simplified aerosol representations. We found that errors in single scattering albedo due to the internal mixture assumptions can have substantial effects on calculating aerosol direct radiative forcing.
Zechen Yu, Myoseon Jang, Soontae Kim, Kyuwon Son, Sanghee Han, Azad Madhu, and Jinsoo Park
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9083–9098,Short summary
The UNIPAR model was incorporated into CAMx to predict the ambient concentration of organic matter in urban atmospheres during the KORUS-AQ campaign. CAMx–UNIPAR significantly improved the simulation of SOA formation under the wet aerosol condition through the consideration of aqueous reactions of reactive organic species and gas–aqueous partitioning into the wet inorganic aerosol.
Hitoshi Matsui, Tatsuhiro Mori, Sho Ohata, Nobuhiro Moteki, Naga Oshima, Kumiko Goto-Azuma, Makoto Koike, and Yutaka Kondo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8989–9009,Short summary
Using a global aerosol model, we find that the source contributions to radiative effects of black carbon (BC) in the Arctic are quite different from those to mass concentrations and deposition flux of BC in the Arctic. This is because microphysical properties (e.g., mixing state), altitudes, and seasonal variations of BC in the atmosphere differ among emissions sources. These differences need to be considered for accurate simulations of Arctic BC and its source contributions and climate impacts.
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This study presents a new, improved parameterisation of the temperature dependence of activity coefficients implemented in the AIOMFAC group-contribution model. The AIOMFAC model with the improved parameterisation is applicable for a large variety of aqueous organic as well as water-free organic solutions of relevance for atmospheric aerosols. The new model parameters were determined based on published and new thermodynamic equilibrium data covering a temperature range from ~190 to 440 K.
This study presents a new, improved parameterisation of the temperature dependence of activity...