Articles | Volume 14, issue 8
Research article 25 Apr 2014
Research article | 25 Apr 2014
Impacts of fire emissions and transport pathways on the interannual variation of CO in the tropical upper troposphere
L. Huang et al.
No articles found.
Sudip Chakraborty, Jonathon H. Jiang, Hui Su, and Rong Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Boreal autumn is the main wet season over the Congo basin. Thus, changes in its onset date have a significant impact on the rainforest. This study provides compelling evidence that the cooling effect of aerosols modifies the timing and strength of the Southern African Easterly Jet that is central to the boreal Autumn wet season over the Congo rainforest. A higher boreal summer aerosol concentration is positively correlated with the boreal autumn wet season onset timing.
Brigitte Rooney, Yuan Wang, Jonathan H. Jiang, Bin Zhao, Zhao-Cheng Zeng, and John H. Seinfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14597–14616,Short summary
Wildfires have become increasingly prevalent. Intense smoke consisting of particulate matter (PM) leads to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. The record-breaking Camp Fire ravaged Northern California for two weeks in 2018. Here, we employ a comprehensive chemical transport model along with ground-based and satellite observations to characterize the PM concentrations across Northern California and to investigate the pollution sensitivity predictions to key parameters of the model.
Jui-Lin Frank Li, Mark Richardson, Wei-Liang Lee, Eric Fetzer, Graeme Stephens, Jonathan Jiang, Yulan Hong, Yi-Hui Wang, Jia-Yuh Yu, and Yinghui Liu
The Cryosphere, 13, 969–980,Short summary
Observed summer Arctic sea ice retreat has been faster than simulated by the average CMIP5 models, most of which exclude falling ice particles from their radiative calculations. We use controlled CESM1-CAM5 simulations to show for the first time that snowflakes' radiative effects can accelerate sea ice retreat. September retreat rates are doubled above current CO2 levels, highlighting falling ice radiative effects as a high priority for inclusion in future modelling of the Arctic.
Jianping Guo, Huan Liu, Zhanqing Li, Daniel Rosenfeld, Mengjiao Jiang, Weixin Xu, Jonathan H. Jiang, Jing He, Dandan Chen, Min Min, and Panmao Zhai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13329–13343,Short summary
Objective analysis has been used to discriminate between the local- and synoptic-scale precipitations based on wind and pressure fields at 500 hPa. Aerosol is found to be linked with changes in the vertical structure of precipitation, depending on precipitation regimes. There has been some success in separating aerosol and meteorological influences on precipitation.
Bin Zhao, Jonathan H. Jiang, David J. Diner, Hui Su, Yu Gu, Kuo-Nan Liou, Zhe Jiang, Lei Huang, Yoshi Takano, Xuehua Fan, and Ali H. Omar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11247–11260,Short summary
We combine satellite-borne and ground-based observations to investigate the intra-annual variations of regional aerosol column loading, vertical distribution, and particle types. Column aerosol optical depth (AOD), as well as AOD > 800 m, peaks in summer/spring. However, AOD < 800 m and surface PM2.5 concentrations mostly peak in winter. The aerosol intra-annual variations differ significantly according to aerosol types characterized by different sizes, light absorption, and emission sources.
Pengfei Tian, Lei Zhang, Jianmin Ma, Kai Tang, Lili Xu, Yuan Wang, Xianjie Cao, Jiening Liang, Yuemeng Ji, Jonathan H. Jiang, Yuk L. Yung, and Renyi Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7815–7825,Short summary
The mixing of dust and anthropogenic pollution over East Asia plays a significant yet poorly quantified role in aerosol radiative effects. We have found that radiative absorption of the East Asian aerosol mixtures are significantly enhanced. Our results show that the interaction between dust and anthropogenic pollution not only represents a viable aerosol formation pathway but also results in unfavorable dispersion conditions, both exacerbating the regional air pollution in East Asia.
Longtao Wu, Yu Gu, Jonathan H. Jiang, Hui Su, Nanpeng Yu, Chun Zhao, Yun Qian, Bin Zhao, Kuo-Nan Liou, and Yong-Sang Choi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5529–5547,
Bin Zhao, Kuo-Nan Liou, Yu Gu, Jonathan H. Jiang, Qinbin Li, Rong Fu, Lei Huang, Xiaohong Liu, Xiangjun Shi, Hui Su, and Cenlin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1065–1078,Short summary
The interactions between aerosols and ice clouds represent one of the largest uncertainties among anthropogenic forcings on climate change. We find that the responses of ice crystal effective radius, a key parameter determining ice clouds' net radiative effect, to aerosol loadings are modulated by water vapor amount and vary from a significant negative correlation in moist conditions (consistent with the “Twomey effect” for liquid clouds) to a strong positive correlation in dry conditions.
Bin Zhao, Wenjing Wu, Shuxiao Wang, Jia Xing, Xing Chang, Kuo-Nan Liou, Jonathan H. Jiang, Yu Gu, Carey Jang, Joshua S. Fu, Yun Zhu, Jiandong Wang, Yan Lin, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12031–12050,Short summary
Using over 1000 chemical transport model simulations in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region, we find that the emissions of primary inorganic PM2.5 make the largest contribution to PM2.5 concentrations and thus should be prioritized in PM2.5 control strategies. Among the precursors, PM2.5 concentrations are primarily sensitive to the emissions of NH3, NMVOC+IVOC, and POA, and the sensitivities increase substantially for NH3 and NHx with the increase in emission reduction ratio.
Longtao Wu, Hui Su, Olga V. Kalashnikova, Jonathan H. Jiang, Chun Zhao, Michael J. Garay, James R. Campbell, and Nanpeng Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7291–7309,Short summary
The WRF-Chem simulation successfully captures aerosol variations in the cold season in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) but has poor performance in the warm season. High-resolution model simulation can better resolve nonhomogeneous distribution of anthropogenic emissions in urban areas, resulting in better simulation of aerosols in the cold season in the SJV. Poor performance of the WRF-Chem model in the warm season in the SJV is mainly due to misrepresentation of dust emission and vertical mixing.
Kai Zhang, Rong Fu, Tao Wang, and Yimin Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7825–7835,Short summary
Based on observations and trajectory model, we show that the geographic variation of dehydration center associated with that of convection has a significant influence on locations where air mass is dehydrated, and thus water vapor enters the lower stratosphere, in summer over the Asian monsoon region. Specifically, a westward shift of dehydration center toward the area of warmer tropopause temperatures tends to moisten the lower stratosphere.
Steven T. Massie, Julien Delanoë, Charles G. Bardeen, Jonathan H. Jiang, and Lei Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6091–6105,Short summary
Changes in cloud vertical structure (i.e. the shape of cloud ice water content (IWC) vertical structure) due to variations in aerosol, observed by three different satellite experiments (MODIS, OMI, and MLS) are calculated in the Tropics during 2007–2010. This topic is of interest because aerosol-cloud interactions are the largest source of uncertainty in climate models. Analysis of the effects of MODIS aerosol, OMI absorptive aerosol, and MLS CO (an absorptive aerosol proxy) upon deep convective
Lei Huang, Jonathan H. Jiang, Lee T. Murray, Megan R. Damon, Hui Su, and Nathaniel J. Livesey
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5641–5663,Short summary
This study evaluates the distribution and variation of carbon monoxide (CO) in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) during 2004–2012 on global and regional scales as simulated by two chemical transport models (GMI and GEOS-Chem), using the latest version (V4) of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) observations. The impacts of surface emissions and convection on CO concentrations in the UTLS over different regions are investigated, using both model simulations and MLS observations.
P. Vergados, A. J. Mannucci, C. O. Ao, J. H. Jiang, and H. Su
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1789–1797,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Research Activity: Remote Sensing | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Mapping the drivers of formaldehyde (HCHO) variability from 2015 to 2019 over eastern China: insights from Fourier transform infrared observation and GEOS-Chem model simulationThe impact of Los Angeles Basin pollution and stratospheric intrusions on the surrounding San Gabriel Mountains as seen by surface measurements, lidar, and numerical modelsSudden changes in nitrogen dioxide emissions over Greece due to lockdown after the outbreak of COVID-19Monitoring CO emissions of the metropolis Mexico City using TROPOMI CO observationsPollution trace gas distributions and their transport in the Asian monsoon upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere during the StratoClim campaign 2017Spatial distribution of enhanced BrO and its relation to meteorological parameters in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice regionsTrends of atmospheric water vapour in Switzerland from ground-based radiometry, FTIR and GNSS dataA Raman lidar tropospheric water vapour climatology and height-resolved trend analysis over Payerne, SwitzerlandThe potential of Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 data to reduce the uncertainties in CO2 surface fluxes over Australia using a variational assimilation schemeObserving carbon dioxide emissions over China's cities and industrial areas with the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2Observational evidence of moistening the lowermost stratosphere via isentropic mixing across the subtropical jetFourier transform infrared time series of tropospheric HCN in eastern China: seasonality, interannual variability, and source attributionNH3 emissions from large point sources derived from CrIS and IASI satellite observationsDiurnal cycle of short-term fluctuations of integrated water vapour above SwitzerlandRetrieval of total column and surface NO2 from Pandora zenith-sky measurementsMAX-DOAS measurements of tropospheric NO2 and HCHO in Nanjing and a comparison to ozone monitoring instrument observationsConsistency and representativeness of integrated water vapour from ground-based GPS observations and ERA-Interim reanalysisTowards monitoring localized CO2 emissions from space: co-located regional CO2 and NO2 enhancements observed by the OCO-2 and S5P satellitesVariability of bulk water vapor content in the marine cloudy boundary layers from microwave and near-infrared imageryTrends and trend reversal detection in 2 decades of tropospheric NO2 satellite observationsSatellite-derived sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from the 2014–2015 Holuhraun eruption (Iceland)Emissions of methane in Europe inferred by total column measurementsOn the interpretation of upper-tropospheric humidity based on a second-order retrieval from infrared radiancesCarbon monoxide air pollution on sub-city scales and along arterial roads detected by the Tropospheric Monitoring InstrumentGround-based MAX-DOAS observations of tropospheric formaldehyde VCDs and comparisons with the CAMS model at a rural site near Beijing during APEC 2014Trends in global tropospheric ozone inferred from a composite record of TOMS/OMI/MLS/OMPS satellite measurements and the MERRA-2 GMI simulationSpatial and temporal changes in SO2 regimes over China in the recent decade and the driving mechanismGlobal IWV trends and variability in atmospheric reanalyses and GPS observationsOzone seasonal evolution and photochemical production regime in the polluted troposphere in eastern China derived from high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometry (FTS) observationsAtmospheric CO and CH4 time series and seasonal variations on Reunion Island from ground-based in situ and FTIR (NDACC and TCCON) measurementsHarmonisation and trends of 20-year tropical tropospheric ozone dataCharacterizing biospheric carbon balance using CO2 observations from the OCO-2 satelliteDetection of O4 absorption around 328 and 419 nm in measured atmospheric absorption spectraInvestigations of temporal and spatial distribution of precursors SO2 and NO2 vertical columns in the North China Plain using mobile DOASQuantification of CO emissions from the city of Madrid using MOPITT satellite retrievals and WRF simulationsContributions of the troposphere and stratosphere to CH4 model biasesTypical meteorological conditions associated with extreme nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollution events over ScandinaviaTemporal characteristics of atmospheric ammonia and nitrogen dioxide over China based on emission data, satellite observations and atmospheric transport modeling since 1980OMI-measured increasing SO2 emissions due to energy industry expansion and relocation in northwestern ChinaComparisons of ground-based tropospheric NO2 MAX-DOAS measurements to satellite observations with the aid of an air quality model over the Thessaloniki area, GreeceTropospheric ozone maxima observed over the Arabian Sea during the pre-monsoonFast retrievals of tropospheric carbonyl sulfide with IASILidar detection of high concentrations of ozone and aerosol transported from northeastern Asia over Saga, JapanWhat are the greenhouse gas observing system requirements for reducing fundamental biogeochemical process uncertainty? Amazon wetland CH4 emissions as a case studyThe Zugspitze radiative closure experiment for quantifying water vapor absorption over the terrestrial and solar infrared – Part 1: Setup, uncertainty analysis, and assessment of far-infrared water vapor continuumThe Zugspitze radiative closure experiment for quantifying water vapor absorption over the terrestrial and solar infrared – Part 3: Quantification of the mid- and near-infrared water vapor continuum in the 2500 to 7800 cm−1 spectral range under atmospheric conditionsA global catalogue of large SO2 sources and emissions derived from the Ozone Monitoring InstrumentValidation and update of OMI Total Column Water Vapor productSeasonal variability of surface and column carbon monoxide over the megacity Paris, high-altitude Jungfraujoch and Southern Hemispheric Wollongong stationsCurrent challenges in modelling far-range air pollution induced by the 2014–2015 Bárðarbunga fissure eruption (Iceland)
Youwen Sun, Hao Yin, Cheng Liu, Lin Zhang, Yuan Cheng, Mathias Palm, Justus Notholt, Xiao Lu, Corinne Vigouroux, Bo Zheng, Wei Wang, Nicholas Jones, Changong Shan, Min Qin, Yuan Tian, Qihou Hu, Fanhao Meng, and Jianguo Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6365–6387,Short summary
This study mapped the drivers of HCHO variability from 2015 to 2019 over eastern China. Hydroxyl (OH) radical production rates from HCHO photolysis were evaluated. The relative contributions of emitted and photochemical sources to the observed HCHO abundance were analyzed. Contributions of various emission sources and geographical regions to the observed HCHO summertime enhancements were determined.
Fernando Chouza, Thierry Leblanc, Mark Brewer, Patrick Wang, Sabino Piazzolla, Gabriele Pfister, Rajesh Kumar, Carl Drews, Simone Tilmes, Louisa Emmons, and Matthew Johnson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6129–6153,Short summary
The tropospheric ozone lidar at the JPL Table Mountain Facility (TMF) was used to investigate the impact of Los Angeles (LA) Basin pollution transport and stratospheric intrusions in the planetary boundary layer on the San Gabriel Mountains. The results of this study indicate a dominant role of the LA Basin pollution on days when high ozone levels were observed at TMF (March–October period).
Maria-Elissavet Koukouli, Ioanna Skoulidou, Andreas Karavias, Isaak Parcharidis, Dimitris Balis, Astrid Manders, Arjo Segers, Henk Eskes, and Jos van Geffen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1759–1774,Short summary
In recent years, satellite observations have contributed to monitoring air quality. During the first COVID-19 lockdown, lower levels of nitrogen dioxide were observed over Greece by S5P/TROPOMI for March and April 2020 (than the preceding year) due to decreased transport emissions. Taking meteorology into account, using LOTOS-EUROS CTM simulations, the resulting decline due to the lockdown was estimated to range between 0 % and −37 % for the five largest Greek cities, with an average of ~ −10 %.
Tobias Borsdorff, Agustín García Reynoso, Gilberto Maldonado, Bertha Mar-Morales, Wolfgang Stremme, Michel Grutter, and Jochen Landgraf
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15761–15774,
Sören Johansson, Michael Höpfner, Oliver Kirner, Ingo Wohltmann, Silvia Bucci, Bernard Legras, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Norbert Glatthor, Erik Kretschmer, Jörn Ungermann, and Gerald Wetzel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14695–14715,Short summary
We present high-resolution measurements of pollutant trace gases (PAN, C2H2, and HCOOH) in the Asian monsoon UTLS from the airborne limb imager GLORIA during StratoClim 2017. Enhancements are observed up to 16 km altitude, and PAN and C2H2 even up to 18 km. Two atmospheric models, CAMS and EMAC, reproduce the pollutant's large-scale structures but not finer structures. Convection is investigated using backward trajectories of the models ATLAS and TRACZILLA with advanced detection of convection.
Sora Seo, Andreas Richter, Anne-Marlene Blechschmidt, Ilias Bougoudis, and John Philip Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12285–12312,Short summary
In this study, we present spatial distributions of occurrence frequency of enhanced total BrO column and various meteorological parameters affecting it in the Arctic and Antarctic sea ice regions by using 10 years of GOME-2 measurements and meteorological model data. Statistical analysis using the long-term dataset shows clear differences in the meteorological conditions between the mean field and the situation of enhanced total BrO columns in both polar sea ice regions.
Leonie Bernet, Elmar Brockmann, Thomas von Clarmann, Niklaus Kämpfer, Emmanuel Mahieu, Christian Mätzler, Gunter Stober, and Klemens Hocke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11223–11244,Short summary
With global warming, water vapour increases in the atmosphere. Water vapour is an important gas because it is a natural greenhouse gas and affects the formation of clouds, rain and snow. How much water vapour increases can vary in different regions of the world. To verify if it increases as expected on a regional scale, we analysed water vapour measurements in Switzerland. We found that water vapour generally increases as expected from temperature changes, except in winter.
Shannon Hicks-Jalali, Robert J. Sica, Giovanni Martucci, Eliane Maillard Barras, Jordan Voirin, and Alexander Haefele
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9619–9640,Short summary
We have calculated an 11.5-year water vapour climatology using the Raman Lidar for Meteorological Observations (RALMO), located in Payerne, Switzerland. The climatology shows that the highest water vapour concentrations are in the summer months and the lowest in the winter months. We present for the first time height-resolved water vapour trends, which show that water vapour increases specific humidity by between 5 % and 15 % per decade depending on the altitude.
Yohanna Villalobos, Peter Rayner, Steven Thomas, and Jeremy Silver
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8473–8500,Short summary
Estimated carbon fluxes for Australia are subject to considerable uncertainty. We ran simulation experiments over Australia to determine how much these uncertainties can be constrained using satellite data. We found that the satellite data has the potential to reduce these uncertainties up to 80 % across the whole continent. For 1 month, this percentage corresponds to 0.51 Pg C y-1 for Australia. This method could lead to significantly more accurate estimates of Australia's carbon budget.
Bo Zheng, Frédéric Chevallier, Philippe Ciais, Grégoire Broquet, Yilong Wang, Jinghui Lian, and Yuanhong Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8501–8510,Short summary
The Paris Climate Agreement requires all parties to report CO2 emissions regularly. Given the self-reporting nature of this system, it is critical to evaluate the emission reports with independent observation systems. Here we present the direct observations of city CO2 plumes from space and the quantification of CO2 emissions from these observations over the largest emitter country China. The emissions from 46 hot-spot regions representing 13 % of China's total emissions can be well constrained.
Jeffery Langille, Adam Bourassa, Laura L. Pan, Daniel Letros, Brian Solheim, Daniel Zawada, and Doug Degenstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5477–5486,Short summary
Water vapour (WV) is a highly variable and extremely important trace gas in Earth’s atmosphere. Due to its radiative and chemical properties, it is coupled to the climate in an extremely complex manner. This is especially true in the lowermost stratosphere (LMS). Despite its importance, the physical processes that control mixing and the distribution of WV in the LMS are poorly understood. This study provides observational evidence of moistening the LMS via mixing across the subtropical jet.
Youwen Sun, Cheng Liu, Lin Zhang, Mathias Palm, Justus Notholt, Hao Yin, Corinne Vigouroux, Erik Lutsch, Wei Wang, Changong Shan, Thomas Blumenstock, Tomoo Nagahama, Isamu Morino, Emmanuel Mahieu, Kimberly Strong, Bavo Langerock, Martine De Mazière, Qihou Hu, Huifang Zhang, Christof Petri, and Jianguo Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5437–5456,Short summary
We present multiyear time series of ground-based Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy measurements of HCN in densely populated eastern China. The seasonality and interannual variability of tropospheric HCN columns were investigated. The potential sources that drive the observed HCN seasonality and interannual variability were determined using a GEOS-Chem tagged CO simulation, global fire maps, and potential source contribution function values calculated using HYSPLIT back trajectories.
Enrico Dammers, Chris A. McLinden, Debora Griffin, Mark W. Shephard, Shelley Van Der Graaf, Erik Lutsch, Martijn Schaap, Yonatan Gainairu-Matz, Vitali Fioletov, Martin Van Damme, Simon Whitburn, Lieven Clarisse, Karen Cady-Pereira, Cathy Clerbaux, Pierre Francois Coheur, and Jan Willem Erisman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12261–12293,Short summary
Ammonia is an essential molecule in the environment, but at its current levels it is unsustainable. However, the emissions are highly uncertain. We explore the use of satellites to estimate the ammonia lifetime and emissions around point sources to help improve the budget. The same method applied to different satellite instruments shows consistent results. Comparison to the emission inventories shows that those are underestimating emissions of point sources by on average a factor of 2.5.
Klemens Hocke, Leonie Bernet, Jonas Hagen, Axel Murk, Matthias Renker, and Christian Mätzler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12083–12090,Short summary
The Tropospheric Water Radiometer (TROWARA) observed an enhanced intensity of short-term integrated water vapour (IWV) fluctuations during daytime in summer. These IWV fluctuations are possibly related to latent heat flux and thermal convective activity in the lower troposphere. The observed climatology and spectra of IWV fluctuations might be useful for modelling studies of water vapour convection in the atmospheric boundary layer at mid latitudes.
Xiaoyi Zhao, Debora Griffin, Vitali Fioletov, Chris McLinden, Jonathan Davies, Akira Ogyu, Sum Chi Lee, Alexandru Lupu, Michael D. Moran, Alexander Cede, Martin Tiefengraber, and Moritz Müller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10619–10642,Short summary
New nitrogen dioxide (NO2) retrieval algorithms are developed for Pandora zenith-sky measurements. A column-to-surface conversion look-up table was produced for the Pandora instruments; therefore, quick and practical Pandora-based surface NO2 concentration data can be obtained for air quality monitoring purposes. It is demonstrated that the surface NO2 concentration is controlled not only by the planetary boundary layer height but also by both boundary layer dynamics and photochemistry.
Ka Lok Chan, Zhuoru Wang, Aijun Ding, Klaus-Peter Heue, Yicheng Shen, Jing Wang, Feng Zhang, Yining Shi, Nan Hao, and Mark Wenig
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10051–10071,Short summary
The paper presents long-term observations of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and formaldehyde (HCHO) in Nanjing using a MAX-DOAS instrument. The measurements were performed from April 2013 to February 2017. The MAX-DOAS measurements of NO2 and HCHO are used to validate OMI satellite observations and to investigate the influences of region transport of air pollutants on the air quality in Nanjing.
Olivier Bock and Ana C. Parracho
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9453–9468,Short summary
We examine the consistency of global IWV data from ERA-Interim reanalysis and 16 years of GPS observations. Representativeness differences are found to be a dominant error source, with a strong dependence on geographic, topographic, and climatic features, which explain both average and extreme differences. A methodology for reducing the representativeness errors and detecting the extreme, outlying, cases is discussed.
Maximilian Reuter, Michael Buchwitz, Oliver Schneising, Sven Krautwurst, Christopher W. O'Dell, Andreas Richter, Heinrich Bovensmann, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9371–9383,Short summary
The quantification of anthropogenic emissions with current CO2 satellite sensors is difficult, but NO2 is co-emitted, making it a suitable tracer of recently emitted CO2. We analyze enhancements of CO2 and NO2 observed by OCO-2 and S5P and estimate the CO2 plume cross-sectional fluxes that we compare with emission databases. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of simultaneous satellite observations of CO2 and NO2 as envisaged for the European Copernicus anthropogenic CO2 monitoring mission
Luis F. Millán, Matthew D. Lebsock, and Joao Teixeira
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8491–8502,Short summary
The synergy of the collocated Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provides daily global estimates of marine boundary layer water vapor. AMSR provides the total column water vapor, while MODIS provides the water vapor above the cloud layers. The difference between the two gives the vapor between the surface and the cloud top, which may be interpreted as the boundary layer water vapor.
Aristeidis K. Georgoulias, Ronald J. van der A, Piet Stammes, K. Folkert Boersma, and Henk J. Eskes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6269–6294,Short summary
In this paper, a ∼21-year self-consistent global dataset from four different satellite sensors is compiled for the first time to study the long-term tropospheric NO2 patterns and trends. A novel method capable of detecting the year when a reversal of trends happened shows that tropospheric NO2 concentrations switched from positive to negative trends and vice versa over several regions around the globe during the last 2 decades.
Elisa Carboni, Tamsin A. Mather, Anja Schmidt, Roy G. Grainger, Melissa A. Pfeffer, Iolanda Ialongo, and Nicolas Theys
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4851–4862,Short summary
The 2014–2015 Holuhraun eruption was the largest in Iceland for 200 years, emitting huge quantities of gas into the troposphere, at times overwhelming European anthropogenic emissions. Infrared Atmospheric sounding Interferometer data are used to derive the first time series of daily sulfur dioxide mass and vertical distribution over the eruption period. A scheme is used to estimate sulfur dioxide fluxes, the total erupted mass, and how long the sulfur dioxide remains in the atmosphere.
Debra Wunch, Dylan B. A. Jones, Geoffrey C. Toon, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Frank Hase, Justus Notholt, Ralf Sussmann, Thorsten Warneke, Jeroen Kuenen, Hugo Denier van der Gon, Jenny A. Fisher, and Joannes D. Maasakkers
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3963–3980,Short summary
We used five atmospheric observatories in Europe measuring total column dry-air mole fractions of methane and carbon monoxide to infer methane emissions in the area between the observatories. We find that the methane emissions are overestimated by the state-of-the-art inventories, and that this is likely due, at least in part, to the inventory disaggregation. We find that there is significant uncertainty in the carbon monoxide inventories that requires further investigation.
Klaus Gierens and Kostas Eleftheratos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3733–3746,Short summary
We derive a new method to retrieve upper-tropospheric humidity (UTH) from High-resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) channel 12 brightness temperatures. With the new method we solve an old problem, namely that the wavelength change that occurred between HIRS 2 on NOAA 14 and HIRS 3 on NOAA 15 led to the retrieval of many more events with high UTH; that is, the time series shows strong jumps at high UTH values. This old problem is solved with the new retrieval.
Tobias Borsdorff, Joost aan de Brugh, Sudhanshu Pandey, Otto Hasekamp, Ilse Aben, Sander Houweling, and Jochen Landgraf
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3579–3588,Short summary
The Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) on the Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite provides carbon monoxide (CO) total column concentrations based on measurements in the 2.3 μm spectral range with a spatial resolution of 7 km x 7 km and daily global coverage. In this study, we analyzed local CO enhancements in an area around Iran from 1 November to 20 December 2017 using the WRF model and evaluated CO emissions from the cities of Tehran, Yerevan, Urmia, and Tabriz.
Xin Tian, Pinhua Xie, Jin Xu, Yang Wang, Ang Li, Fengcheng Wu, Zhaokun Hu, Cheng Liu, and Qiong Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3375–3393,Short summary
We used the MAX-DOAS instrument installed at the UCAS, Beijing, to evaluate effects on HCHO. The daily variation, transport, sources, and the effect of APEC emission control measures on HCHO were analyzed. Dependences of HCHO VCDs on wind fields indicated that the HCHO values were affected by the transport of pollutants from the south. The results from comparing the MAX-DOAS with the CAMS model indicate the CAMS model can simulate the effects of transport and the secondary sources of HCHO well.
Jerry R. Ziemke, Luke D. Oman, Sarah A. Strode, Anne R. Douglass, Mark A. Olsen, Richard D. McPeters, Pawan K. Bhartia, Lucien Froidevaux, Gordon J. Labow, Jacquie C. Witte, Anne M. Thompson, David P. Haffner, Natalya A. Kramarova, Stacey M. Frith, Liang-Kang Huang, Glen R. Jaross, Colin J. Seftor, Mathew T. Deland, and Steven L. Taylor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3257–3269,Short summary
Both a 38-year merged satellite record of tropospheric ozone from TOMS/OMI/MLS/OMPS and a MERRA-2 GMI model simulation show large increases of 6–7 Dobson units from the Near East to India–East Asia and eastward over the Pacific. These increases in tropospheric ozone are attributed to increases in pollution over the region over the last several decades. Secondary 38-year increases of 4–5 Dobson units with both GMI model and satellite measurements occur over central African–tropical Atlantic.
Ting Wang, Pucai Wang, Nicolas Theys, Dan Tong, François Hendrick, Qiang Zhang, and Michel Van Roozendael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 18063–18078,Short summary
In the last decade, four temporal regimes of SO2 in China have been identified. After an initial rise, SO2 undergoes two sharp drops in 2007–2008 and 2014–2016, during which 5-year rebounding is sustained. Different mechanisms are tied to North and South China. The industrial emission is responsible for SO2 variation in North China, while in South China the meteorological conditions make a large contribution. The result is crucial to the understanding of SO2 changes and future polices.
Ana C. Parracho, Olivier Bock, and Sophie Bastin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16213–16237,Short summary
Integrated water vapour from GPS observations and two modern atmospheric reanalyses were compared for 1995–2010. Means, variability and trend signs were in general good agreement. Regions and GPS stations with poor agreement were investigated further. Representativeness issues, uncertainties in reanalyses, and inhomogeneities in GPS were evidenced. Reanalyses were compared for an extended period, and a focus on north Africa and Australia highlighted the impact of dynamics on water vapour trends.
Youwen Sun, Cheng Liu, Mathias Palm, Corinne Vigouroux, Justus Notholt, Qihou Hu, Nicholas Jones, Wei Wang, Wenjing Su, Wenqiang Zhang, Changong Shan, Yuan Tian, Xingwei Xu, Martine De Mazière, Minqiang Zhou, and Jianguo Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14569–14583,Short summary
The seasonal evolution of O3 and its photochemical production regime in a polluted region of eastern China between 2014 and 2017 was investigated using FTS observations. We observed a broad summer O3 maximum in Hefei, China, and the ozone production is mainly NOx limited in spring and summer and is mainly VOC or mixed VOC–NOx limited in autumn and winter.
Minqiang Zhou, Bavo Langerock, Corinne Vigouroux, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Michel Ramonet, Marc Delmotte, Emmanuel Mahieu, Whitney Bader, Christian Hermans, Nicolas Kumps, Jean-Marc Metzger, Valentin Duflot, Zhiting Wang, Mathias Palm, and Martine De Mazière
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13881–13901,Short summary
This study focuses on atmospheric CO and CH4 time series and seasonal variations on Reunion Island based on in situ and FTIR measurements from two sites, Saint Denis and Maido. Ground-based in situ and FTIR (NDACC and TCCON) measurements are used to show their complementarity with regards to obtaining the CO and CH4 concentrations at the surface and in the troposphere and stratosphere. FLEXPART and GEOS-Chem models are applied to understand the seasonal variations of CO and CH4 at this site.
Elpida Leventidou, Mark Weber, Kai-Uwe Eichmann, John P. Burrows, Klaus-Peter Heue, Anne M. Thompson, and Bryan J. Johnson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9189–9205,Short summary
Three individual tropical tropospheric ozone (TTCO) datasets (1996–2015) retrieved with the convective-cloud differential method (Leventidou et al., 2016) have been harmonised in order to study the global and regional TTCO trends. The trends range between −4 to 4 DU per decade testing six different merging scenarios. No trend has been found for the global tropics using the preferred scenario. It is concluded that harmonisation is one of the major sources of uncertainty in the trend estimates.
Scot M. Miller, Anna M. Michalak, Vineet Yadav, and Jovan M. Tadić
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6785–6799,Short summary
NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2) satellite observes CO2 in the atmosphere globally. We evaluate the extent to which current OCO-2 observations can inform scientific understanding of the biospheric carbon balance. We find that current observations are best-equipped to constrain the biospheric carbon balance across continental or hemispheric regions and provide limited information on smaller regions.
Johannes Lampel, Johannes Zielcke, Stefan Schmitt, Denis Pöhler, Udo Frieß, Ulrich Platt, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1671–1683,Short summary
Previous publications on the absorptions of the oxygen dimer O2–O2 (or short: O4) list absorption peaks at 328 nm and 419 nm, for which no spectrally resolved literature cross sections are available. As these absorptions potentially influence the spectral retrieval of various other trace gases, their shape and magnitude need to be quantified. We approximate the absorption peaks at 328 nm and 419 nm by their respective neighboring absorption peaks to estimate their magnitude and peak wavelength.
Fengcheng Wu, Pinhua Xie, Ang Li, Fusheng Mou, Hao Chen, Yi Zhu, Tong Zhu, Jianguo Liu, and Wenqing Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1535–1554,Short summary
Investigating the temporal and spatial distribution of pollutants, emissions, and pollution transport is necessary to better understand the effect of various sources on air quality. We report on mobile differential optical absorption spectroscopy (mobile DOAS) observations of precursors SO2 and NO2 vertical columns in NCP in the summer of 2013 (from 11 June to 7 July) in this study.
Iris N. Dekker, Sander Houweling, Ilse Aben, Thomas Röckmann, Maarten Krol, Sara Martínez-Alonso, Merritt N. Deeter, and Helen M. Worden
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14675–14694,Short summary
This study estimates carbon monoxide emissions from the city of Madrid using MOPITT satellite data. There are two methods used and reviewed in this paper: a method that can only estimate a trend in the emission and a newly developed method that also includes model data from WRF to quantify the emissions. We find Madrid CO emissions to be lower by 48 % for 2002 and by 17 % for 2006 compared with the EdgarV4.2 emission inventory, but uncertainty (20 to 50 %) remains.
Zhiting Wang, Thorsten Warneke, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Justus Notholt, Ute Karstens, Marielle Saunois, Matthias Schneider, Ralf Sussmann, Harjinder Sembhi, David W. T. Griffith, Dave F. Pollard, Rigel Kivi, Christof Petri, Voltaire A. Velazco, Michel Ramonet, and Huilin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13283–13295,Short summary
In this paper we separate the biases of atmospheric methane models into stratospheric and tropospheric parts. It is observed in other studies that simulated total columns of atmospheric methane present a latitudinal bias compared to measurements. The latitudinal gradients are considered to be from the stratosphere. However, our results show that the latitudinal biases could come from the troposphere in two of three models evaluated in this study.
Manu Anna Thomas and Abhay Devasthale
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12071–12080,Short summary
Episodes of extreme pollution events of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) can seriously hamper air quality. But under which meteorological conditions do such extreme pollution events occur over Scandinavia? Using observational and reanalysis data it is shown that south-westerly winds (sustained for at least a few days) dominate during extreme events and cause an increase in humidity and clouds. South-easterly winds have the second largest contribution and the pollution transport is rapid when they prevail.
Lei Liu, Xiuying Zhang, Wen Xu, Xuejun Liu, Yi Li, Xuehe Lu, Yuehan Zhang, and Wuting Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9365–9378,Short summary
We conducted temporal trend analysis of atmospheric NH3 and NO2 in China since 1980 based on emission data (during 1980–2010), satellite observations (for NH3 since 2008 and for NO2 since 2005) and atmospheric chemistry transport modeling (during 2008–2015). Our findings provide an overall insight into the temporal trends in both NO2 and NH3 since 1980, and the multivariate data used in this study have implications for estimating long-term Nr deposition datasets.
Zaili Ling, Tao Huang, Yuan Zhao, Jixiang Li, Xiaodong Zhang, Jinxiang Wang, Lulu Lian, Xiaoxuan Mao, Hong Gao, and Jianmin Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9115–9131,Short summary
This paper assesses OMI-measured SO2 levels and emission burdens in northwestern China over the last decade. In contrast to widespread decline of SO2 in eastern and southern China, the OMI remote sensing data reveal increasing SO2 level and emissions in energy-abundant northwestern China under the national energy relocation strategy to this part of China, which are mostly from large-scale energy industry parks in northwestern China and pose a threat to the poor local ecological environment.
Theano Drosoglou, Alkiviadis F. Bais, Irene Zyrichidou, Natalia Kouremeti, Anastasia Poupkou, Natalia Liora, Christos Giannaros, Maria Elissavet Koukouli, Dimitris Balis, and Dimitrios Melas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5829–5849,Short summary
We present ground-based tropospheric NO2 measurements performed within the area of Thessaloniki, Greece. The comparisons with OMI/Aura, GOME-2A and GOME-2B data sets have shown a significant underestimation of the NO2 levels over the urban area by the satellite sensors. This finding can be attributed to the strong NO2 gradients. By applying adjustment factors, calculated using an air quality model, on the OMI/Aura observations, the comparison over the urban site has improved significantly.
Jia Jia, Annette Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, Xuewei Hou, Alexei Rozanov, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4915–4930,
R. Anthony Vincent and Anu Dudhia
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2981–3000,Short summary
A fast method to estimate trace gases using the IASI sensor is presented and applied to tropospheric carbonyl sulphide (OCS). This rapid approach neglects non-linear effects, which introduces an 11 % error on average when estimating OCS but is significantly faster than iterative methods. All of the IASI data from 2014 were analysed to show seasonal and spatial trends in OCS. These results were compared to ground samples taken from seven different NOAA sites across the globe.
Osamu Uchino, Tetsu Sakai, Toshiharu Izumi, Tomohiro Nagai, Isamu Morino, Akihiro Yamazaki, Makoto Deushi, Keiya Yumimoto, Takashi Maki, Taichu Y. Tanaka, Taiga Akaho, Hiroshi Okumura, Kohei Arai, Takahiro Nakatsuru, Tsuneo Matsunaga, and Tatsuya Yokota
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1865–1879,Short summary
To validate products of GOSAT, we observed vertical profiles of aerosols, thin cirrus clouds, and tropospheric ozone with a mobile lidar system that consisted of a two-wavelength (532 and 1064 nm) polarization lidar and tropospheric ozone differential absorption lidar (DIAL). We used these lidars to make continuous measurements over Saga (33.24° N, 130.29° E) during 20–31 March 2015. High ozone and high aerosol concentrations were observed almost simultaneously and impacted surface air quality.
A. Anthony Bloom, Thomas Lauvaux, John Worden, Vineet Yadav, Riley Duren, Stanley P. Sander, and David S. Schimel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15199–15218,Short summary
Understanding terrestrial carbon processes is a major challenge in climate science. We define the satellite system required to understand greenhouse gas biogeochemistry: our study is focused on Amazon wetland CH4 emissions. We find that future geostationary satellites will provide the CH4 measurements required to understand wetland CH4 processes. Low-earth orbit satellites will be unable to resolve wetland CH4 processes due to a low number of cloud-free CH4 measurements over the Amazon basin.
Ralf Sussmann, Andreas Reichert, and Markus Rettinger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11649–11669,Short summary
Quantitative knowledge of infrared absorption by water vapor is crucial for remote sensing and climate simulations. Under cold atmospheric conditions this information can only be attained via field experiments. Therefore, we set upa radiative closure study covering 1.28–25 µm at the Zugspitze (47° N, 2964 m a.s.l.). We describe the setup and elaborate on the radiance uncertainty budget. Water vapor continuum quantification in the far infrared shows consistency with the MT_CKD continuum model.
Andreas Reichert and Ralf Sussmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11671–11686,Short summary
Quantitative knowledge of water vapor infrared absorption is crucial for remote sensing and climate simulations. The water vapor continuum is a major contribution to atmospheric absorption in the near infrared (NIR), but recent laboratory studies show inconsistent results and cannot be transferred to atmospheric conditions. Therefore, we performed atmospheric measurements of the NIR continuum (2500–7800 cm−1) and found significant differences relative to the MT_CKD model and laboratory studies.
Vitali E. Fioletov, Chris A. McLinden, Nickolay Krotkov, Can Li, Joanna Joiner, Nicolas Theys, Simon Carn, and Mike D. Moran
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11497–11519,Short summary
We introduce the first space-based catalogue of SO2 emission sources seen by OMI. The inventory contains about 500 sources. They account for about a half of all SO2 emissions; the remaining half is likely related to sources emitting less than 30 kt yr−1 and not detected by OMI. The sources are grouped by type (volcanoes, power plants, oil- and gas-related sources, and smelters) and country. The catalogue presented herein can be used for verification of available SO2 emission inventories.
Huiqun Wang, Gonzalo Gonzalez Abad, Xiong Liu, and Kelly Chance
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11379–11393,Short summary
Water vapor is highly important. The OMI total column water vapor product retrieved using SAO's version 1.0 algorithm agrees well with other reference products over the land but has a low bias over the ocean. The updated OMI water vapor product retrieved using SAO's version 2.1 algorithm largely eliminates the low bias over the ocean, improving the land/ocean consistency and the overall data quality. This dataset can benefit a variety of scientific studies and practical applications.
Yao Té, Pascal Jeseck, Bruno Franco, Emmanuel Mahieu, Nicholas Jones, Clare Paton-Walsh, David W. T. Griffith, Rebecca R. Buchholz, Juliette Hadji-Lazaro, Daniel Hurtmans, and Christof Janssen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10911–10925,Short summary
This paper studies the seasonal variation of surface and column CO at three different sites (Paris, Jungfraujoch and Wollongong), with an emphasis on establishing a link between the CO vertical distribution and the nature of CO emission sources. We find the first evidence of a time lag between surface and free tropospheric CO seasonal variations in the Northern Hemisphere.
Marie Boichu, Isabelle Chiapello, Colette Brogniez, Jean-Christophe Péré, Francois Thieuleux, Benjamin Torres, Luc Blarel, Augustin Mortier, Thierry Podvin, Philippe Goloub, Nathalie Söhne, Lieven Clarisse, Sophie Bauduin, François Hendrick, Nicolas Theys, Michel Van Roozendael, and Didier Tanré
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10831–10845,Short summary
Bárðarbunga eruption emitted huge amounts of sulfur into the lower troposphere causing an unprecedented air pollution in the modern era. A wealth of remote sensing and in situ data allows us to jointly analyse the dynamics of volcanic SO2 and sulfate aerosols. Based on this panel of observations, success and challenges in simulating such volcanogenic long-range pollution events are exposed, focusing on the boundary layer dynamics.
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