Articles | Volume 22, issue 24
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Combining short-range dispersion simulations with fine-scale meteorological ensembles: probabilistic indicators and evaluation during a 85Kr field campaign
CNRM, University of Toulouse, Météo-France, CNRS, 31057, Toulouse, France
Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PSE-SANTE/SESUC/BMCA, 92260, Fontenay-aux-Roses, France
Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PSE-SANTE/SESUC/BMCA, 92260, Fontenay-aux-Roses, France
CNRM, University of Toulouse, Météo-France, CNRS, 31057, Toulouse, France
Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PSE-ENV/SRTE/LRC, 50130, Cherbourg-En-Cotentin, France
CNRM, University of Toulouse, Météo-France, CNRS, 31057, Toulouse, France
CNRM, University of Toulouse, Météo-France, CNRS, 31057, Toulouse, France
No articles found.
Matthieu Plu, Guillaume Bigeard, Bojan Sič, Emanuele Emili, Luca Bugliaro, Laaziz El Amraoui, Jonathan Guth, Beatrice Josse, Lucia Mona, and Dennis Piontek
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3731–3747,Short summary
Volcanic eruptions that spread out ash over large areas, like Eyjafjallajökull in 2010, may have huge economic consequences due to flight cancellations. In this article, we demonstrate the benefits of source term improvement and of data assimilation for quantifying volcanic ash concentrations. The work, which was supported by the EUNADICS-AV project, is the first one, to our knowledge, that demonstrates the benefit of the assimilation of ground-based lidar data over Europe during an eruption.
Hugues Brenot, Nicolas Theys, Lieven Clarisse, Jeroen van Gent, Daniel R. Hurtmans, Sophie Vandenbussche, Nikolaos Papagiannopoulos, Lucia Mona, Timo Virtanen, Andreas Uppstu, Mikhail Sofiev, Luca Bugliaro, Margarita Vázquez-Navarro, Pascal Hedelt, Michelle Maree Parks, Sara Barsotti, Mauro Coltelli, William Moreland, Simona Scollo, Giuseppe Salerno, Delia Arnold-Arias, Marcus Hirtl, Tuomas Peltonen, Juhani Lahtinen, Klaus Sievers, Florian Lipok, Rolf Rüfenacht, Alexander Haefele, Maxime Hervo, Saskia Wagenaar, Wim Som de Cerff, Jos de Laat, Arnoud Apituley, Piet Stammes, Quentin Laffineur, Andy Delcloo, Robertson Lennart, Carl-Herbert Rokitansky, Arturo Vargas, Markus Kerschbaum, Christian Resch, Raimund Zopp, Matthieu Plu, Vincent-Henri Peuch, Michel Van Roozendael, and Gerhard Wotawa
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3367–3405,Short summary
The purpose of the EUNADICS-AV (European Natural Airborne Disaster Information and Coordination System for Aviation) prototype early warning system (EWS) is to develop the combined use of harmonised data products from satellite, ground-based and in situ instruments to produce alerts of airborne hazards (volcanic, dust, smoke and radionuclide clouds), satisfying the requirement of aviation air traffic management (ATM) stakeholders (https://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/723986).
Matthieu Plu, Barbara Scherllin-Pirscher, Delia Arnold Arias, Rocio Baro, Guillaume Bigeard, Luca Bugliaro, Ana Carvalho, Laaziz El Amraoui, Kurt Eschbacher, Marcus Hirtl, Christian Maurer, Marie D. Mulder, Dennis Piontek, Lennart Robertson, Carl-Herbert Rokitansky, Fritz Zobl, and Raimund Zopp
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 2973–2992,Short summary
Past volcanic eruptions that spread out ash over large areas, like Eyjafjallajökull in 2010, forced the cancellation of thousands of flights and had huge economic consequences. In this article, an international team in the H2020 EU-funded EUNADICS-AV project has designed a probabilistic model approach to quantify ash concentrations. This approach is evaluated against measurements, and its potential use to mitigate the impact of future large-scale eruptions is discussed.
Olivier Pannekoucke, Richard Ménard, Mohammad El Aabaribaoune, and Matthieu Plu
Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 28, 1–22,Short summary
Numerical weather prediction involves numerically solving the mathematical equations, which describe the geophysical flow, by transforming them so that they can be computed. Through this transformation, it appears that the equations actually solved by the machine are then a modified version of the original equations, introducing an error that contributes to the model error. This work helps to characterize the covariance of the model error that is due to this modification of the equations.
Christian Keil, Lucie Chabert, Olivier Nuissier, and Laure Raynaud
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15851–15865,Short summary
During strong synoptic control, which dominates the weather on 80 % of the days in the 2-month HyMeX-SOP1 period, the domain-integrated precipitation predictability assessed with the normalized ensemble standard deviation is above average, the wet bias is smaller and the forecast quality is generally better. In contrast, the spatial forecast quality of the most intense precipitation in the afternoon, as quantified with its 95th percentile, is superior during weakly forced synoptic regimes.
Marcus Hirtl, Delia Arnold, Rocio Baro, Hugues Brenot, Mauro Coltelli, Kurt Eschbacher, Helmut Hard-Stremayer, Florian Lipok, Christian Maurer, Dieter Meinhard, Lucia Mona, Marie D. Mulder, Nikolaos Papagiannopoulos, Michael Pernsteiner, Matthieu Plu, Lennart Robertson, Carl-Herbert Rokitansky, Barbara Scherllin-Pirscher, Klaus Sievers, Mikhail Sofiev, Wim Som de Cerff, Martin Steinheimer, Martin Stuefer, Nicolas Theys, Andreas Uppstu, Saskia Wagenaar, Roland Winkler, Gerhard Wotawa, Fritz Zobl, and Raimund Zopp
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1719–1739,Short summary
The paper summarizes the set-up and outcome of a volcanic-hazard demonstration exercise, with the goals of assessing and mitigating the impacts of volcanic ash clouds on civil and military aviation. Experts in the field simulated the sequence of procedures for an artificial eruption of the Etna volcano in Italy. The scope of the exercise ranged from the detection of the assumed event to the issuance of early warnings and optimized rerouting of flights.
Matteo Ponzano, Bruno Joly, Laurent Descamps, and Philippe Arbogast
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1369–1389,Short summary
We assess a methodology to evaluate and improve intense precipitation forecasting in the southeastern French region. This methodology is based on the use of a 30-year dataset of past forecasts which are analysed using a spatial verification approach. We found that precipitation forecasting is qualitatively driven by the deep-convection parametrization. Locally the model is able to reproduce the distribution of spatially integrated rainfall patterns of the most intense precipitation.
Anne-Marlene Blechschmidt, Joaquim Arteta, Adriana Coman, Lyana Curier, Henk Eskes, Gilles Foret, Clio Gielen, Francois Hendrick, Virginie Marécal, Frédérik Meleux, Jonathan Parmentier, Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, Ankie J. M. Piters, Matthieu Plu, Andreas Richter, Arjo Segers, Mikhail Sofiev, Álvaro M. Valdebenito, Michel Van Roozendael, Julius Vira, Tim Vlemmix, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2795–2823,Short summary
MAX-DOAS tropospheric NO2 vertical column retrievals from a set of European measurement stations are compared to regional air quality models which contribute to the operational Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS). Correlations are on the order of 35 %–75 %; large differences occur for individual pollution plumes. The results demonstrate that future model development needs to concentrate on improving representation of diurnal cycles and associated temporal scalings.
Lucie Rottner, Philippe Arbogast, Mayeul Destouches, Yamina Hamidi, and Laure Raynaud
Adv. Sci. Res., 16, 209–213,
Maxence Descheemaecker, Matthieu Plu, Virginie Marécal, Marine Claeyman, Francis Olivier, Youva Aoun, Philippe Blanc, Lucien Wald, Jonathan Guth, Bojan Sič, Jérôme Vidot, Andrea Piacentini, and Béatrice Josse
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1251–1275,Short summary
The future Flexible Combined Imager (FCI) on board MeteoSat Third Generation is expected to improve the detection and the quantification of aerosols. The study assesses the potential of FCI/VIS04 channel for monitoring air pollution in Europe. An observing system simulation experiment in MOCAGE is developed, and they show a large positive impact of the assimilation over a 4-month period and particularly during a severe pollution episode. The added value of geostationary data is also assessed.
Dimitris Akritidis, Eleni Katragkou, Prodromos Zanis, Ioannis Pytharoulis, Dimitris Melas, Johannes Flemming, Antje Inness, Hannah Clark, Matthieu Plu, and Henk Eskes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15515–15534,Short summary
Analysis and evaluation of the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) global and regional forecast systems during a deep stratosphere-to-troposphere ozone transport event over Europe in January 2017. Radiosondes, satellite images, ozonesondes and aircraft measurements were used to investigate the folding of the tropopause at several European sites and the induced presence of dry and ozone-rich air in the troposphere.
Mikhail Sofiev, Olga Ritenberga, Roberto Albertini, Joaquim Arteta, Jordina Belmonte, Carmi Geller Bernstein, Maira Bonini, Sevcan Celenk, Athanasios Damialis, John Douros, Hendrik Elbern, Elmar Friese, Carmen Galan, Gilles Oliver, Ivana Hrga, Rostislav Kouznetsov, Kai Krajsek, Donat Magyar, Jonathan Parmentier, Matthieu Plu, Marje Prank, Lennart Robertson, Birthe Marie Steensen, Michel Thibaudon, Arjo Segers, Barbara Stepanovich, Alvaro M. Valdebenito, Julius Vira, and Despoina Vokou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12341–12360,Short summary
This work presents the features and evaluates the quality of the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service forecasts of olive pollen distribution in Europe. It is shown that the models can predict the main features of the observed pollen distribution but have more difficulties in capturing the season start and end, which appeared shifted by a few days. We also demonstrated that the combined use of model predictions with up-to-date measurements (data fusion) can strongly improve the results.
V. Marécal, V.-H. Peuch, C. Andersson, S. Andersson, J. Arteta, M. Beekmann, A. Benedictow, R. Bergström, B. Bessagnet, A. Cansado, F. Chéroux, A. Colette, A. Coman, R. L. Curier, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, A. Drouin, H. Elbern, E. Emili, R. J. Engelen, H. J. Eskes, G. Foret, E. Friese, M. Gauss, C. Giannaros, J. Guth, M. Joly, E. Jaumouillé, B. Josse, N. Kadygrov, J. W. Kaiser, K. Krajsek, J. Kuenen, U. Kumar, N. Liora, E. Lopez, L. Malherbe, I. Martinez, D. Melas, F. Meleux, L. Menut, P. Moinat, T. Morales, J. Parmentier, A. Piacentini, M. Plu, A. Poupkou, S. Queguiner, L. Robertson, L. Rouïl, M. Schaap, A. Segers, M. Sofiev, L. Tarasson, M. Thomas, R. Timmermans, Á. Valdebenito, P. van Velthoven, R. van Versendaal, J. Vira, and A. Ung
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2777–2813,Short summary
This paper describes the air quality forecasting system over Europe put in place in the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate projects. It provides daily and 4-day forecasts and analyses for the previous day for major gas and particulate pollutants and their main precursors. These products are based on a multi-model approach using seven state-of-the-art models developed in Europe. An evaluation of the performance of the system is discussed in the paper.
J. Guerbette, M. Plu, C. Barthe, and J.-F. Mahfouf
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
Active phases of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) are known to favour the formation of tropical cyclones in the South-West Indian Ocean. A meso-scale numerical simulation of a tropical cyclogenesis during such an event is investigated. A large-scale Equatorial jet that is associated with the active phase of the MJO is shown to play a major role on the early stage of the cyclogenesis, through a transfer of kinetic energy from the jet to the cyclone.
A. Réchou, T. Narayana Rao, O. Bousquet, M. Plu, and R. Decoupes
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 409–418,
N. Yu, C. Barthe, and M. Plu
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 20, 793–801,
Related subject area
Subject: Radiation | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling and Data Analysis | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Comparison of methods to estimate aerosol effective radiative forcings in climate modelsMontreal Protocol's impact on the ozone layer and climateOpinion: The scientific and community-building roles of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) – past, present, and futureImpacts of reductions in non-methane short-lived climate forcers on future climate extremes and the resulting population exposure risks in eastern and southern AsiaInvestigating the radiative effect of Arctic cirrus measured in situ during the winter 2015–2016Constraints on simulated past Arctic amplification and lapse-rate feedback from observationsDependence of strategic solar climate intervention on background scenario and model physicsClimate consequences of hydrogen emissionsInvestigating the impact of Saharan dust aerosols on analyses and forecasts of African easterly waves by constraining aerosol effects in radiance data assimilationDistinct surface response to black carbon aerosolsEstimating the potential cooling effect of cirrus thinning achieved via the seeding approachImpacts of multi-layer overlap on contrail radiative forcingBias in CMIP6 models as compared to observed regional dimming and brighteningA test of the ability of current bulk optical models to represent the radiative properties of cirrus cloud across the mid- and far-infraredThe incorporation of the Tripleclouds concept into the δ-Eddington two-stream radiation scheme: solver characterization and its application to shallow cumulus cloudsRadiative heating rate profiles over the southeast Atlantic Ocean during the 2016 and 2017 biomass burning seasonsEffective radiative forcing and adjustments in CMIP6 modelsResponse of surface shortwave cloud radiative effect to greenhouse gases and aerosols and its impact on summer maximum temperatureCombining atmospheric and snow radiative transfer models to assess the solar radiative effects of black carbon in the ArcticAccurate 3-D radiative transfer simulation of spectral solar irradiance during the total solar eclipse of 21 August 2017Quantifying the bias of radiative heating rates in numerical weather prediction models for shallow cumulus cloudsThe climate effects of increasing ocean albedo: an idealized representation of solar geoengineeringChanges in clouds and thermodynamics under solar geoengineering and implications for required solar reductionRadiative impact of an extreme Arctic biomass-burning eventContrails and their impact on shortwave radiation and photovoltaic power production – a regional model studyThe influence of internal variability on Earth's energy balance framework and implications for estimating climate sensitivityInsights into the diurnal cycle of global Earth outgoing radiation using a numerical weather prediction modelDetermining the infrared radiative effects of Saharan dust: a radiative transfer modelling study based on vertically resolved measurements at LampedusaThe early summertime Saharan heat low: sensitivity of the radiation budget and atmospheric heating to water vapour and dust aerosolThe role of 1-D and 3-D radiative heating in the organization of shallow cumulus convection and the formation of cloud streetsModeling the erythemal surface diffuse irradiance fraction for Badajoz, SpainDisk and circumsolar radiances in the presence of ice cloudsEffects of 3-D thermal radiation on the development of a shallow cumulus cloud fieldRegional and seasonal radiative forcing by perturbations to aerosol and ozone precursor emissionsThe spectral signature of cloud spatial structure in shortwave irradianceEffects of urban agglomeration on surface-UV doses: a comparison of Brewer measurements in Warsaw and Belsk, Poland, for the period 2013–2015Global and regional radiative forcing from 20 % reductions in BC, OC and SO4 – an HTAP2 multi-model studyA new parameterization of the UV irradiance altitude dependence for clear-sky conditions and its application in the on-line UV tool over Northern EurasiaImplementation of Bessel's method for solar eclipses prediction in the WRF-ARW modelImpact of buildings on surface solar radiation over urban BeijingEvaluating the spatio-temporal performance of sky-imager-based solar irradiance analysis and forecastsOn the ability of RegCM4 regional climate model to simulate surface solar radiation patterns over Europe: an assessment using satellite-based observationsAn investigation of how radiation may cause accelerated rates of tropical cyclogenesis and diurnal cycles of convective activityThe impact of parameterising light penetration into snow on the photochemical production of NOx and OH radicals in snowA global model simulation for 3-D radiative transfer impact on surface hydrology over the Sierra Nevada and Rocky MountainsRadiative forcing and climate metrics for ozone precursor emissions: the impact of multi-model averagingErythemal ultraviolet irradiation trends in the Iberian Peninsula from 1950 to 2011Regional climate model assessment of the urban land-surface forcing over central EuropeImpact of cirrus clouds heterogeneities on top-of-atmosphere thermal infrared radiationSummer Arctic sea ice albedo in CMIP5 models
Mark D. Zelinka, Christopher J. Smith, Yi Qin, and Karl E. Taylor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8879–8898,Short summary
The primary uncertainty in how strongly Earth's climate has been perturbed by human activities comes from the unknown radiative impact of aerosol changes. Accurately quantifying these forcings – and their sub-components – in climate models is crucial for understanding the past and future simulated climate. In this study we describe biases in previously published estimates of aerosol radiative forcing in climate models and provide corrected estimates along with code for users to compute them.
Tatiana Egorova, Jan Sedlacek, Timofei Sukhodolov, Arseniy Karagodin-Doyennel, Franziska Zilker, and Eugene Rozanov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5135–5147,Short summary
This paper describes the climate and atmosphere benefits of the Montreal Protocol, simulated with the state-of-the-art Earth system model SOCOLv4.0. We have added to and confirmed the previous studies by showing that without the Montreal Protocol by the end of the 21st century there would be a dramatic reduction in the ozone layer as well as substantial perturbation of the essential climate variables in the troposphere caused by the warming from increasing ozone-depleting substances.
Daniele Visioni, Ben Kravitz, Alan Robock, Simone Tilmes, Jim Haywood, Olivier Boucher, Mark Lawrence, Peter Irvine, Ulrike Niemeier, Lili Xia, Gabriel Chiodo, Chris Lennard, Shingo Watanabe, John C. Moore, and Helene Muri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5149–5176,Short summary
Geoengineering indicates methods aiming to reduce the temperature of the planet by means of reflecting back a part of the incoming radiation before it reaches the surface or allowing more of the planetary radiation to escape into space. It aims to produce modelling experiments that are easy to reproduce and compare with different climate models, in order to understand the potential impacts of these techniques. Here we assess its past successes and failures and talk about its future.
Yingfang Li, Zhili Wang, Yadong Lei, Huizheng Che, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2499–2523,Short summary
Since few studies have assessed the impacts of future combined reductions in aerosols, ozone, and their precursors on future climate change, we use models with an interactive representation of tropospheric aerosols and atmospheric chemistry schemes to quantify the impact of their reductions on the Asian climate. Our results suggest that their reductions will exacerbate the warming effect caused by greenhouse gases, increasing future climate extremes and associated population exposure risk.
Andreas Marsing, Ralf Meerkötter, Romy Heller, Stefan Kaufmann, Tina Jurkat-Witschas, Martina Krämer, Christian Rolf, and Christiane Voigt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 587–609,Short summary
We employ highly resolved aircraft measurements of profiles of the ice water content (IWC) in Arctic cirrus clouds in winter and spring, when solar irradiation is low. Using radiation transfer calculations, we assess the cloud radiative effect over different surfaces like snow or ocean. The variability in the IWC of the clouds affects their overall radiative effect and drives internal processes. This helps understand the role of cirrus in a rapidly changing Arctic environment.
Olivia Linke, Johannes Quaas, Finja Baumer, Sebastian Becker, Jan Chylik, Sandro Dahlke, André Ehrlich, Dörthe Handorf, Christoph Jacobi, Heike Kalesse-Los, Luca Lelli, Sina Mehrdad, Roel A. J. Neggers, Johannes Riebold, Pablo Saavedra Garfias, Niklas Schnierstein, Matthew D. Shupe, Chris Smith, Gunnar Spreen, Baptiste Verneuil, Kameswara S. Vinjamuri, Marco Vountas, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The lapse-rate feedback (LRF) is a major driver of the "Arctic amplification" of climate change. It arises since the warming is more pronounced at the surface than aloft. There are several processes mediating the LRF in the Arctic, for instance the omnipresent temperature inversion. Here, we compare multi-model climate simulations to Arctic-based observations from a large research consortium to broaden our understanding of these processes, find synergy among them, and constrain the Arctic LRF.
John T. Fasullo and Jadwiga H. Richter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 163–182,Short summary
The continued high levels of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions increase the likelihood that key climate warming thresholds will be exceeded in the coming decades. Here we examine a recently proposed geoengineering approach using two recently produced climate model experiments. We find the associated latitudinal distribution of aerosol mass to exhibit substantial uncertainty, suggesting the need for significant flexibility in the location and amount of aerosol delivery, if implemented.
Ilissa B. Ocko and Steven P. Hamburg
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9349–9368,Short summary
Hydrogen is considered a key strategy to decarbonize the global economy. However, hydrogen is also a short-lived indirect greenhouse gas that can easily leak into the atmosphere. Given that the climate impacts from hydrogen emissions are not well understood, especially in the near term, we assess impacts over all timescales for plausible emissions rates. We find that hydrogen leakage can cause more warming than widely perceived; thus, attention is needed to minimize emissions.
Dustin Francis Phillip Grogan, Cheng-Hsuan Lu, Shih-Wei Wei, and Sheng-Po Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2385–2398,Short summary
This study shows that incorporating aerosols into satellite radiance calculations affects the representation of African easterly waves (AEWs), and their environment, over North Africa and the eastern Atlantic in a numerical weather model. These changes are driven by radiative effects of Saharan dust captured by the aerosol-affected radiances, which modify the initial fields and can improve the forecasting of AEWs.
Tao Tang, Drew Shindell, Yuqiang Zhang, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Gunnar Myhre, Gregory Faluvegi, Bjørn H. Samset, Timothy Andrews, Dirk Olivié, Toshihiko Takemura, and Xuhui Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13797–13809,Short summary
Previous studies showed that black carbon (BC) could warm the surface with decreased incoming radiation. With climate models, we found that the surface energy redistribution plays a more crucial role in surface temperature compared with other forcing agents. Though BC could reduce the surface heating, the energy dissipates less efficiently, which is manifested by reduced convective and evaporative cooling, thereby warming the surface.
Jiaojiao Liu and Xiangjun Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10609–10624,Short summary
Cirrus thinning, which reduces the warming effect of cirrus clouds, has been investigated as a new geoengineering approach. In this study, a flexible seeding method is used to exploit the potential cooling effect of cirrus thinning. Simulation results show that the seeding method is essential for estimating the cooling effect. Cirrus thinning with the flexible seeding method could produce a considerable cooling effect, which is much stronger than the fixed seeding method.
Inés Sanz-Morère, Sebastian D. Eastham, Florian Allroggen, Raymond L. Speth, and Steven R. H. Barrett
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1649–1681,Short summary
Contrails cause ~50 % of aviation climate impacts, but this is highly uncertain. This is partly due to the effect of overlap between contrails and other cloud layers. We developed a model to quantify this effect, finding that overlap with natural clouds increased contrails' radiative forcing in 2015. This suggests that cloud avoidance may help in reducing aviation's climate impacts. We also find that contrail–contrail overlap reduces impacts by ~3 %, increasing non-linearly with optical depth.
Kine Onsum Moseid, Michael Schulz, Trude Storelvmo, Ingeborg Rian Julsrud, Dirk Olivié, Pierre Nabat, Martin Wild, Jason N. S. Cole, Toshihiko Takemura, Naga Oshima, Susanne E. Bauer, and Guillaume Gastineau
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 16023–16040,Short summary
In this study we compare solar radiation at the surface from observations and Earth system models from 1961 to 2014. We find that the models do not reproduce the so-called
global dimmingas found in observations. Only model experiments with anthropogenic aerosol emissions display any dimming at all. The discrepancies between observations and models are largest in China, which we suggest is in part due to erroneous aerosol precursor emission inventories in the emission dataset used for CMIP6.
Richard J. Bantges, Helen E. Brindley, Jonathan E. Murray, Alan E. Last, Jacqueline E. Russell, Cathryn Fox, Stuart Fox, Chawn Harlow, Sebastian J. O'Shea, Keith N. Bower, Bryan A. Baum, Ping Yang, Hilke Oetjen, and Juliet C. Pickering
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12889–12903,Short summary
Understanding how ice clouds influence the Earth's energy balance remains a key challenge for predicting the future climate. These clouds are ubiquitous and are composed of ice crystals that have complex shapes that are incredibly difficult to model. This work exploits new measurements of the Earth's emitted thermal energy made from instruments flown on board an aircraft to test how well the latest ice cloud models can represent these clouds. Results indicate further developments are required.
Nina Črnivec and Bernhard Mayer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10733–10755,Short summary
Unresolved interaction between clouds and atmospheric radiation is a source of uncertainty in weather and climate models. The present study highlights the potential of the state-of-the-art Tripleclouds radiative solver for shallow cumulus clouds, exposing the significance of properly representing subgrid cloud horizontal heterogeneity. The Tripleclouds concept was thereby incorporated in the widely employed δ-Eddington two-stream radiation scheme within the comprehensive libRadtran library.
Allison B. Marquardt Collow, Mark A. Miller, Lynne C. Trabachino, Michael P. Jensen, and Meng Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10073–10090,Short summary
Uncertainties in marine boundary layer clouds arise in the presence of biomass burning aerosol, as is the case over the southeast Atlantic Ocean. Heating due to this aerosol has the potential to alter the thermodynamic profile as the aerosol is transported across the Atlantic Ocean. Radiation transfer experiments indicate local shortwave aerosol heating is ~2–8 K d−1; however uncertainties in this quantity exist due to the single-scattering albedo and back trajectories of the aerosol plume.
Christopher J. Smith, Ryan J. Kramer, Gunnar Myhre, Kari Alterskjær, William Collins, Adriana Sima, Olivier Boucher, Jean-Louis Dufresne, Pierre Nabat, Martine Michou, Seiji Yukimoto, Jason Cole, David Paynter, Hideo Shiogama, Fiona M. O'Connor, Eddy Robertson, Andy Wiltshire, Timothy Andrews, Cécile Hannay, Ron Miller, Larissa Nazarenko, Alf Kirkevåg, Dirk Olivié, Stephanie Fiedler, Anna Lewinschal, Chloe Mackallah, Martin Dix, Robert Pincus, and Piers M. Forster
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9591–9618,Short summary
The spread in effective radiative forcing for both CO2 and aerosols is narrower in the latest CMIP6 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project) generation than in CMIP5. For the case of CO2 it is likely that model radiation parameterisations have improved. Tropospheric and stratospheric radiative adjustments to the forcing behave differently for different forcing agents, and there is still significant diversity in how clouds respond to forcings, particularly for total anthropogenic forcing.
Tao Tang, Drew Shindell, Yuqiang Zhang, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Gunnar Myhre, Camilla W. Stjern, Gregory Faluvegi, and Bjørn H. Samset
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8251–8266,Short summary
By using climate simulations, we found that both CO2 and black carbon aerosols could reduce low-level cloud cover, which is mainly due to changes in relative humidity, cloud water, dynamics, and stability. Because the impact of cloud on solar radiation is in effect only during daytime, such cloud reduction could enhance solar heating, thereby raising the daily maximum temperature by 10–50 %, varying by region, which has great implications for extreme climate events and socioeconomic activity.
Tobias Donth, Evelyn Jäkel, André Ehrlich, Bernd Heinold, Jacob Schacht, Andreas Herber, Marco Zanatta, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8139–8156,Short summary
Solar radiative effects of Arctic black carbon (BC) particles (suspended in the atmosphere and in the surface snowpack) were quantified under cloudless and cloudy conditions. An atmospheric and a snow radiative transfer model were coupled to account for radiative interactions between both compartments. It was found that (i) the warming effect of BC in the snowpack overcompensates for the atmospheric BC cooling effect, and (ii) clouds tend to reduce the atmospheric BC cooling and snow BC warming.
Paul Ockenfuß, Claudia Emde, Bernhard Mayer, and Germar Bernhard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1961–1976,Short summary
We model solar radiation as it would be measured on the Earth's surface in the core shadow of a total solar eclipse. Subsequently, we compare our results to observations during the total eclipse 2017 for ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Moreover, we analyze the effect of the surface reflectance, the ozone profile, aerosol and the topography and give a visualization of the prevailing photons paths in the atmosphere during the eclipse.
Nina Črnivec and Bernhard Mayer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8083–8100,Short summary
The interaction between radiation and clouds represents a source of uncertainty in numerical weather prediction (NWP), due to both intrinsic problems of one-dimensional radiation schemes and poor representation of clouds. The underlying question addressed in this study is how large the bias is of radiative heating rates in NWP models for shallow cumulus clouds and how it scales with various parameters, such as solar zenith angle, surface albedo, cloud cover and liquid water path.
Ben Kravitz, Philip J. Rasch, Hailong Wang, Alan Robock, Corey Gabriel, Olivier Boucher, Jason N. S. Cole, Jim Haywood, Duoying Ji, Andy Jones, Andrew Lenton, John C. Moore, Helene Muri, Ulrike Niemeier, Steven Phipps, Hauke Schmidt, Shingo Watanabe, Shuting Yang, and Jin-Ho Yoon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13097–13113,Short summary
Marine cloud brightening has been proposed as a means of geoengineering/climate intervention, or deliberately altering the climate system to offset anthropogenic climate change. In idealized simulations that highlight contrasts between land and ocean, we find that the globe warms, including the ocean due to transport of heat from land. This study reinforces that no net energy input into the Earth system does not mean that temperature will necessarily remain unchanged.
Rick D. Russotto and Thomas P. Ackerman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11905–11925,Short summary
In simulations with different climate models in which the strength of the Sun is reduced to cancel the surface warming from a quadrupling of atmospheric carbon dioxide, low cloud cover decreases, high cloud cover increases, the upper troposphere and stratosphere cool, and water vapor concentration decreases. The stratospheric cooling and low cloud reduction result in more sunlight reduction being needed than originally thought.
Justyna Lisok, Anna Rozwadowska, Jesper G. Pedersen, Krzysztof M. Markowicz, Christoph Ritter, Jacek W. Kaminski, Joanna Struzewska, Mauro Mazzola, Roberto Udisti, Silvia Becagli, and Izabela Gorecka
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8829–8848,Short summary
The aim of the presented study was to investigate the impact on the radiation budget and atmospheric dynamics of a biomass-burning plume, transported from Alaska to the High Arctic region of Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, in early July 2015. We found that the smoke plume may significantly alter radiative properties of the atmosphere. Furthermore, the simulations of atmospheric dynamics indicated a vertical positive displacement and broadening of the plume with time.
Simon Gruber, Simon Unterstrasser, Jan Bechtold, Heike Vogel, Martin Jung, Henry Pak, and Bernhard Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6393–6411,Short summary
A numerical model also used for operational weather forecast was applied to investigate the impact of contrails and contrail cirrus on the radiative fluxes at the earth's surface. Accounting for contrails produced by aircraft enables the model to simulate high clouds that are otherwise missing. In a case study, we find that the effect of these extra clouds is to reduce the incoming shortwave radiation at the surface as well as the production of photovoltaic power by up to 10 %.
Andrew E. Dessler, Thorsten Mauritsen, and Bjorn Stevens
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5147–5155,Short summary
One of the most important parameters in climate science is the equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS). Estimates of this quantity based on 20th-century observations suggest low values of ECS (below 2 °C). We show that these calculations may be significantly in error. Together with other recent work on this problem, it seems probable that the ECS is larger than suggested by the 20th-century observations.
Jake J. Gristey, J. Christine Chiu, Robert J. Gurney, Cyril J. Morcrette, Peter G. Hill, Jacqueline E. Russell, and Helen E. Brindley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5129–5145,
Daniela Meloni, Alcide di Sarra, Gérard Brogniez, Cyrielle Denjean, Lorenzo De Silvestri, Tatiana Di Iorio, Paola Formenti, José L. Gómez-Amo, Julian Gröbner, Natalia Kouremeti, Giuliano Liuzzi, Marc Mallet, Giandomenico Pace, and Damiano M. Sferlazzo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4377–4401,Short summary
This study examines how different aerosol optical properties determine the dust longwave radiative effects at the surface, in the atmosphere and at the top of the atmosphere, based on the combination of remote sensing and in situ observations from the ground, from airborne sensors, and from space, by means of radiative transfer modelling. The closure experiment is based on longwave irradiances and spectral brightness temperatures measured during the 2013 ChArMEx–ADRIMED campaign at Lampedusa.
Netsanet K. Alamirew, Martin C. Todd, Claire L. Ryder, John H. Marsham, and Yi Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1241–1262,Short summary
This paper quantifies the radiative effects of dust and water vapour in the Saharan heat low. Dust has a warming effect at the top of the atmosphere while cooling the surface. Water vapour has a warming effect both at the top of atmosphere and the surface. We find dust and water vapour have similar effects in driving the variability in the top-of-atmosphere radiative budget, while dust has a stronger effect than water vapour in controlling day-to-day variability of the surface radiative budget.
Fabian Jakub and Bernhard Mayer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13317–13327,Short summary
The formation of shallow cumulus cloud streets was historically attributed primarily to dynamics. Here, we focus on the interaction between radiatively induced surface heterogeneities and the resulting patterns in the flow. Our results suggest that solar radiative heating has the potential to organize clouds perpendicular to the sun's incidence angle.
Guadalupe Sanchez, Antonio Serrano, and María Luisa Cancillo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12697–12708,Short summary
This study proposes models to estimate the UVER diffuse irradiance, which means, at least, 40 % of the ultraviolet solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface at mid-latitudes. These models are inspired by expressions originally used to estimate total diffuse fraction and rely on variables commonly available to favor their applicability. The best model in this paper performs better than previous approaches and no additional information about the cloud or aerosol layer is needed.
Päivi Haapanala, Petri Räisänen, Greg M. McFarquhar, Jussi Tiira, Andreas Macke, Michael Kahnert, John DeVore, and Timo Nousiainen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6865–6882,Short summary
The dependence of solar-disk and circumsolar radiances on ice cloud properties is studied with a Monte Carlo radiative transfer model. Ice crystal roughness (or more generally, non-ideality) is found to be the most important parameter influencing the circumsolar radiance, and ice crystal sizes and shapes also play significant roles. When comparing with radiances measured with the SAM instrument, rough ice crystals reproduce the measurements better than idealized smooth ice crystals do.
Carolin Klinger, Bernhard Mayer, Fabian Jakub, Tobias Zinner, Seung-Bu Park, and Pierre Gentine
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5477–5500,Short summary
Radiation is driving weather and climate. Yet, the effect of radiation on clouds is not fully understood and often only poorly represented in models. Better understanding and better parameterizations of the radiation–cloud interaction are therefore essential. Using our newly developed fast
neighboring column approximationfor 3-D thermal heating and cooling rates, we show that thermal radiation changes cloud circulation and causes organization and a deepening of the clouds.
Nicolas Bellouin, Laura Baker, Øivind Hodnebrog, Dirk Olivié, Ribu Cherian, Claire Macintosh, Bjørn Samset, Anna Esteve, Borgar Aamaas, Johannes Quaas, and Gunnar Myhre
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13885–13910,Short summary
This study uses global climate models to quantify how strongly man-made emissions of selected pollutants modify the energy budget of the Earth. The pollutants studied interact directly and indirectly with sunlight and terrestrial radiation and remain a relatively short time in the atmosphere, leading to regional and seasonal variations in their impacts. This new data set is useful to compare the potential climate impacts of different pollutants in support of policies to reduce climate change.
Shi Song, K. Sebastian Schmidt, Peter Pilewskie, Michael D. King, Andrew K. Heidinger, Andi Walther, Hironobu Iwabuchi, Gala Wind, and Odele M. Coddington
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13791–13806,Short summary
The radiative effects of spatially complex cloud fields are notoriously difficult to estimate and are afflicted with errors up to ±50 % of the incident solar radiation. We find that horizontal photon transport, the leading cause for these three-dimensional effects, manifests itself through a spectral fingerprint – a new observable that holds promise for reducing the errors associated with spatial complexity by moving the problem to the spectral dimension.
Agnieszka E. Czerwińska, Janusz W. Krzyścin, Janusz Jarosławski, and Michał Posyniak
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13641–13651,Short summary
This article presents a comparison between the two surface-UV dose series, measured with Brewer spectrophotometers working simultaneously at two different sites in Poland: in a large city agglomeration and in the suburbs. We consider whether the city of Warsaw acts as a shield from ultraviolet overexposure. Our study proves that the UV level in Warsaw is slightly lower than that found in cleaner suburbs of the city.
Camilla Weum Stjern, Bjørn Hallvard Samset, Gunnar Myhre, Huisheng Bian, Mian Chin, Yanko Davila, Frank Dentener, Louisa Emmons, Johannes Flemming, Amund Søvde Haslerud, Daven Henze, Jan Eiof Jonson, Tom Kucsera, Marianne Tronstad Lund, Michael Schulz, Kengo Sudo, Toshihiko Takemura, and Simone Tilmes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13579–13599,Short summary
Air pollution can reach distant regions through intercontinental transport. Here we first present results from the Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution Phase 2 exercise, where many models performed the same set of coordinated emission-reduction experiments. We find that mitigations have considerable extra-regional effects, and show that this is particularly true for black carbon emissions, as long-range transport elevates aerosols to higher levels where their radiative influence is stronger.
Nataly Chubarova, Yekaterina Zhdanova, and Yelena Nezval
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11867–11881,Short summary
Biologically active ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an important environmental factor, which affect human health and nature. UV radiation has a significant increase with the altitude. We propose a new method for calculating the altitude UV dependence for different types of biologically active UV radiation. The proposed method was implemented in the on-line UV tool (http://momsu.ru/uv/) for Northern Eurasia. The possible UV effects on human health were considered over Alpine zone.
Alex Montornès, Bernat Codina, John W. Zack, and Yolanda Sola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5949–5967,Short summary
This paper documents a new package for the Weather Research and Forecasting--Advanced Research WRF (WRF-ARW) model that can simulate any partial, total or hybrid solar eclipse for the period 1950–2050 and is also extensible to a longer period. First, a description of the implementation together with a validation for the period 1950–2050 of all solar eclipse trajectories is presented. Second, the model response is analyzed in four total solar eclipse episodes. Global horizontal irradiance (GHI) outcomes are validated with respect to ground-based measurements.
Bin Zhao, Kuo-Nan Liou, Yu Gu, Cenlin He, Wee-Liang Lee, Xing Chang, Qinbin Li, Shuxiao Wang, Hsien-Liang R. Tseng, Lai-Yung R. Leung, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5841–5852,Short summary
We examine the impact of buildings on surface solar fluxes in Beijing by accounting for their 3-D structures. We find that inclusion of buildings changes surface solar fluxes by within ±1 W m−2, ±1–10 W m−2, and up to ±100 W m−2 at grid resolutions of 4 km, 800 m, and 90 m, respectively. We can resolve pairs of positive-negative flux deviations on different sides of buildings at ≤ 800 m resolutions. We should treat building-effect on solar fluxes differently in models with different resolutions.
Thomas Schmidt, John Kalisch, Elke Lorenz, and Detlev Heinemann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3399–3412,Short summary
We performed an irradiance forecast experiment based on analysis of hemispheric sky images and evaluated results on a large data set of 99 pyranometers distributed over 10 × 12 km. We developed a surface irradiance retrieval from cloud information derived from the images. Very high resolution forecasts were processed up to 25 min. A main finding is that forecast skill is enhanced in complex cloud conditions leading to high variability in surface irradiance.
G. Alexandri, A. K. Georgoulias, P. Zanis, E. Katragkou, A. Tsikerdekis, K. Kourtidis, and C. Meleti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13195–13216,Short summary
It is shown here that RegCM4 regional climate model adequately simulates surface solar radiation (SSR) over Europe but significantly over/underestimates several parameters that determine the transmission of solar radiation in the atmosphere. The agreement between RegCM4 and satellite-based SSR observations is actually a result of the conflicting effect of these parameters. We suggest that there should be a reassessment of the way these parameters are represented within this and other models.
M. E. Nicholls
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9003–9029,
H. G. Chan, M. D. King, and M. M. Frey
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7913–7927,
W.-L. Lee, Y. Gu, K. N. Liou, L. R. Leung, and H.-H. Hsu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5405–5413,Short summary
This paper investigates 3-D mountain effects on solar flux distributions and their impact on surface hydrology over the western United States, specifically the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada, using the global CCSM4 (CAM4/CLM4) with a 0.23°×0.31° resolution for simulations over 6 years. We show that deviations in the net surface fluxes are not only affected by 3-D mountains but also influenced by feedbacks of cloud and snow in association with the long-term simulations.
C. R. MacIntosh, K. P. Shine, and W. J. Collins
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3957–3969,Short summary
This study examines quantitatively the impact of methodological choices, in particular of averaging of multi-model ensembles, on climate metrics for ozone precursors. Estimates of the standard deviation of radiative forcing (RF), global warming and temperature potential (GWP, GTP) from ensemble-mean input fields generally overestimate the true value. The multi-model average fields are appropriate for calculating mean metrics, but are not a reliable method for calculating the uncertainty.
R. Román, J. Bilbao, and A. de Miguel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 375–391,Short summary
This paper develops two models for the reconstruction of ultraviolet erythemal radiation (UVER). The models are based on shortwave radiation (SW) and sunshine duration measurements. Both models are used to reconstruct UVER irradiation at nine Spanish places from 1950 to 2011. The trends of UVER are calculated at different periods. UVER presented a brightening phenomenon, but not dimming, due to the ozone depletion until the mid-1990s.
P. Huszar, T. Halenka, M. Belda, M. Zak, K. Sindelarova, and J. Miksovsky
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12393–12413,Short summary
The impact of cities and urban surfaces on climate of central Europe is examined using a regional climate model coupled to a single-layer urban canopy model. Results show a significant impact on temperature (up to 1.5K increase in summer), the boundary layer height, surface wind with a winter decrease and precipitation (a summer decrease). Applying the urban canopy model, the regional climate model exhibits a decreased model bias when compared to observations.
T. Fauchez, C. Cornet, F Szczap, P. Dubuisson, and T. Rosambert
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5599–5615,
T. Koenigk, A. Devasthale, and K.-G. Karlsson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1987–1998,
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This work investigates the potential value of using fine-scale meteorological ensembles to represent the inherent meteorological uncertainties in atmospheric dispersion model outputs. Probabilistic scores were used to evaluate the probabilistic performance of dispersion ensembles, using an original dataset of new continuous 85Kr air concentration measurements and a well-known source term. The results show that the ensemble dispersion simulations perform better than deterministic ones.
This work investigates the potential value of using fine-scale meteorological ensembles to...