Articles | Volume 19, issue 20
24 Oct 2019
Research article | 24 Oct 2019
Recent trends in climate variability at the local scale using 40 years of observations: the case of the Paris region of France
Justine Ringard et al.
Oscar Javier Rojas Muñoz, Marjolaine Chiriaco, Sophie Bastin, and Justine Ringard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15699–15723,Short summary
A method is developed and evaluated to quantify each process that affects hourly 2 m temperature variations on a local scale, based almost exclusively on observations retrieved from an observatory near the Paris region. Each term involved in surface temperature variations is estimated, and its contribution and importance are also assessed. It is found that clouds are the main modulator on hourly temperature variations for most hours of the day, and thus their characterization is addressed.
Assia Arouf, Hélène Chepfer, Thibault Vaillant de Guélis, Marjolaine Chiriaco, Matthew D. Shupe, Rodrigo Guzman, Artem Feofilov, Patrick Raberanto, Tristan S. L'Ecuyer, Seiji Kato, and Michael R. Gallagher
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3893–3923,Short summary
We proposed new estimates of the surface longwave (LW) cloud radiative effect (CRE) derived from observations collected by a space-based lidar on board the CALIPSO satellite and radiative transfer computations. Our estimate appropriately captures the surface LW CRE annual variability over bright polar surfaces, and it provides a dataset more than 13 years long.
Antoine Sobaga, Bertrand Decharme, Florence Habets, Christine Delire, Noële Enjelvin, Paul-Olivier Redon, Pierre Faure-Catteloin, and Patrick Le Moigne
Preprint archivedShort summary
Seven instrumented lysimeters are used to assess the simulation of the soil water dynamic in one land surface model. Three water potential and hydraulic conductivity closed-form equations including one mixed form are evaluated. The mixed form is more relevant to simulate drainage especially during intense drainage events. Soil profile heterogeneity of one parameter of the closed-form equations is shown to be important.
Artem G. Feofilov, Hélène Chepfer, Vincent Noël, Rodrigo Guzman, Cyprien Gindre, Po-Lun Ma, and Marjolaine Chiriaco
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1055–1074,Short summary
Space-borne lidars have been providing invaluable information of atmospheric optical properties since 2006, and new lidar missions are on the way to ensure continuous observations. In this work, we compare the clouds estimated from space-borne ALADIN and CALIOP lidar observations. The analysis of collocated data shows that the agreement between the retrieved clouds is good up to 3 km height. Above that, ALADIN detects 40 % less clouds than CALIOP, except for polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs).
Oscar Javier Rojas Muñoz, Marjolaine Chiriaco, Sophie Bastin, and Justine Ringard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15699–15723,Short summary
A method is developed and evaluated to quantify each process that affects hourly 2 m temperature variations on a local scale, based almost exclusively on observations retrieved from an observatory near the Paris region. Each term involved in surface temperature variations is estimated, and its contribution and importance are also assessed. It is found that clouds are the main modulator on hourly temperature variations for most hours of the day, and thus their characterization is addressed.
Patrick Le Moigne, François Besson, Eric Martin, Julien Boé, Aaron Boone, Bertrand Decharme, Pierre Etchevers, Stéphanie Faroux, Florence Habets, Matthieu Lafaysse, Delphine Leroux, and Fabienne Rousset-Regimbeau
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3925–3946,Short summary
The study describes how a hydrometeorological model, operational at Météo-France, has been improved. Particular emphasis is placed on the impact of climatic data, surface, and soil parametrizations on the model results. Model simulations and evaluations carried out on a variety of measurements of river flows and snow depths are presented. All improvements in climate, surface data, and model physics have a positive impact on system performance.
Rémy Bonnet, Julien Boé, and Florence Habets
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 1611–1631,Short summary
In this paper, the multidecadal variations of the Seine basin since the 1850s are investigated, based on a new hydrometeorological reconstruction derived from hydrological modeling. The hydrological and climatic mechanisms underlying these variations are highlighted. The analysis of the hydrometeorological reconstruction shows that high and low flows are influenced by these multidecadal hydroclimate variations.
Jean-Pierre Vergnes, Nicolas Roux, Florence Habets, Philippe Ackerer, Nadia Amraoui, François Besson, Yvan Caballero, Quentin Courtois, Jean-Raynald de Dreuzy, Pierre Etchevers, Nicolas Gallois, Delphine J. Leroux, Laurent Longuevergne, Patrick Le Moigne, Thierry Morel, Simon Munier, Fabienne Regimbeau, Dominique Thiéry, and Pascal Viennot
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 633–654,Short summary
The AquiFR hydrogeological modelling platform aims to provide short-term-to-seasonal hydrological forecasts over France for daily water management and long-term simulations for climate impact studies. The results described in this study confirm the feasibility of gathering independent groundwater models into the same numerical tool. This new tool encourages the development of groundwater modelling, and it has the potential to be valuable for many operational and research applications.
Marie Lothon, Paul Barnéoud, Omar Gabella, Fabienne Lohou, Solène Derrien, Sylvain Rondi, Marjolaine Chiriaco, Sophie Bastin, Jean-Charles Dupont, Martial Haeffelin, Jordi Badosa, Nicolas Pascal, and Nadège Montoux
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5519–5534,Short summary
In the context of an atmospheric network of instrumented sites equipped with sky cameras for cloud monitoring, we present an algorithm named ELIFAN, which aims to estimate the cloud cover amount from full-sky visible daytime images. ELIFAN is based on red-to-blue ratio thresholding applied on the image pixels and on the use of a blue-sky library. We present its principle and its performance and highlight the interest of combining several complementary instruments.
Lluís Fita, Jan Polcher, Theodore M. Giannaros, Torge Lorenz, Josipa Milovac, Giannis Sofiadis, Eleni Katragkou, and Sophie Bastin
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 1029–1066,Short summary
Regional climate experiments coordinated throughout CORDEX aim to study and provide high-quality climate data over a given region. The data are used in climate change mitigation and adaptation policy studies and by stakeholders. CORDEX requires a list of variables, most of which are not provided by atmospheric models. Aiming to help the community and to maximize the use of CORDEX exercises, we create a new module for WRF models to directly produce them by adding
Sophie Bastin, Philippe Drobinski, Marjolaine Chiriaco, Olivier Bock, Romain Roehrig, Clemente Gallardo, Dario Conte, Marta Domínguez Alonso, Laurent Li, Piero Lionello, and Ana C. Parracho
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1471–1490,Short summary
This paper uses colocated observations of temperature, precipitation and humidity to investigate the triggering of precipitation. It shows that there is a critical value of humidity above which precipitation picks up. This critical value depends on T and varies spatially. It also analyses how this dependency is reproduced in regional climate simulations over Europe. Models with too little and too light precipitation have both lower critical value of humidity and higher probability to exceed it.
Ana C. Parracho, Olivier Bock, and Sophie Bastin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16213–16237,Short summary
Integrated water vapour from GPS observations and two modern atmospheric reanalyses were compared for 1995–2010. Means, variability and trend signs were in general good agreement. Regions and GPS stations with poor agreement were investigated further. Representativeness issues, uncertainties in reanalyses, and inhomogeneities in GPS were evidenced. Reanalyses were compared for an extended period, and a focus on north Africa and Australia highlighted the impact of dynamics on water vapour trends.
Vincent Noel, Hélène Chepfer, Marjolaine Chiriaco, and John Yorks
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9457–9473,Short summary
From 3 years of observations from the CATS lidar on the International Space Station we document the daily cycle of the vertical distribution of clouds. This is the first time this is documented over several continents and oceans using finely resolved measurements on a near-global scale from a single instrument. We show that other instruments observing clouds from space, like CALIPSO, document extremes of the daily cycle over ocean and closer to the average over land.
Marjolaine Chiriaco, Jean-Charles Dupont, Sophie Bastin, Jordi Badosa, Julio Lopez, Martial Haeffelin, Helene Chepfer, and Rodrigo Guzman
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 919–940,Short summary
A scientific approach is presented to aggregate and harmonize a set of 60 geophysical variables at hourly scale over a decade, and to allow multiannual and multi-variable studies combining atmospheric dynamics and thermodynamics, radiation, clouds and aerosols from ground-based observations.
Geert Jan van Oldenborgh, Sjoukje Philip, Emma Aalbers, Robert Vautard, Friederike Otto, Karsten Haustein, Florence Habets, Roop Singh, and Heidi Cullen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
Extreme rain caused flooding in France and Germany at the end of May 2016. After such an event the question is always posed to what extent it can be attributed to anthropogenic climate change. Using observations and five model ensembles we give a first answer. For the 3-day precipitation extremes over the Seine and Loire basins that caused the flooding all methods agree that the probability has increased by a factor of about two. For 1-day precipitation extremes in Germany the methods disagree.
F. Habets, E. Philippe, E. Martin, C. H. David, and F. Leseur
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 4207–4222,
J. Boé and F. Habets
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 691–708,
V. Masson, P. Le Moigne, E. Martin, S. Faroux, A. Alias, R. Alkama, S. Belamari, A. Barbu, A. Boone, F. Bouyssel, P. Brousseau, E. Brun, J.-C. Calvet, D. Carrer, B. Decharme, C. Delire, S. Donier, K. Essaouini, A.-L. Gibelin, H. Giordani, F. Habets, M. Jidane, G. Kerdraon, E. Kourzeneva, M. Lafaysse, S. Lafont, C. Lebeaupin Brossier, A. Lemonsu, J.-F. Mahfouf, P. Marguinaud, M. Mokhtari, S. Morin, G. Pigeon, R. Salgado, Y. Seity, F. Taillefer, G. Tanguy, P. Tulet, B. Vincendon, V. Vionnet, and A. Voldoire
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 929–960,
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Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 345–353,Short summary
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Si Cheng, Jianguo Wang, Li Cai, Mi Zhou, Rui Su, Yijun Huang, and Quanxin Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10045–10059,Short summary
This paper helps to improve the recognition of severe thunderstorms in advance by giving a general understanding of how long the storm lasts, how fast the cluster moves and how much area the storm affects via information about the kinematic features of thunderstorms, which are the duration, valid area, the velocity, the direction and the farthest distance, and ideally to establish a foundation for future research that may contribute to the development of a new or improved prediction paradigm.
Hongyou Liu, Yanxiong Shi, and Xiaojing Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8787–8803,Short summary
The sandstorm, which is a common natural disaster, is mechanically characterized by a particle-laden flow experiencing wall turbulence. This work investigates a real sandstorm that was measured at the Qingtu Lake Observation Array through a lens of wall-turbulent flow dynamics. A non-stationary signal processing method is proposed based on the time-varying mean and adaptive segmented stationary method, and the evolution of turbulent kinetic energy during the entire sandstorm process is revealed.
Simon Kirschler, Christiane Voigt, Bruce Anderson, Ramon Campos Braga, Gao Chen, Andrea F. Corral, Ewan Crosbie, Hossein Dadashazar, Richard A. Ferrare, Valerian Hahn, Johannes Hendricks, Stefan Kaufmann, Richard Moore, Mira L. Pöhlker, Claire Robinson, Amy J. Scarino, Dominik Schollmayer, Michael A. Shook, K. Lee Thornhill, Edward Winstead, Luke D. Ziemba, and Armin Sorooshian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8299–8319,Short summary
In this study we show that the vertical velocity dominantly impacts the cloud droplet number concentration (NC) of low-level clouds over the western North Atlantic in the winter and summer season, while the cloud condensation nuclei concentration, aerosol size distribution and chemical composition impact NC within a season. The observational data presented in this study can evaluate and improve the representation of aerosol–cloud interactions for a wide range of conditions.
Klaus Gierens, Lena Wilhelm, Sina Hofer, and Susanne Rohs
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7699–7712,Short summary
We are interested in the prediction of condensation trails, in particular strong ones. For this we need a good forecast of temperature and humidity in the levels where aircraft cruise. Unfortunately, the humidity forecast is quite difficult for these levels, in particular the ice supersaturation, which is needed for long-lasting contrails. We are thus seeking proxy variables that help distinguish situations where strong contrails can form, for instance the lapse rate.
Ada Mariska Koning, Louise Nuijens, and Christian Mallaun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7373–7388,Short summary
Wind measurements from the mixed layer to cloud tops are scarce, causing a lack of knowledge on wind mixing between and within these layers. We use airborne observations of wind profiles and local wind at high frequency to study wind transport in cloud fields. A case with thick clouds had its maximum transport in the cloud layer, caused by eddies > 700 m, which was not expected from turbulence theory. In other cases large eddies undid transport of smaller eddies resulting in no net transport.
Markus Geldenhuys, Peter Preusse, Isabell Krisch, Christoph Zülicke, Jörn Ungermann, Manfred Ern, Felix Friedl-Vallon, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10393–10412,Short summary
A large-scale gravity wave (GW) was observed spanning the whole of Greenland. The GWs proposed in this paper come from a new jet–topography mechanism. The topography compresses the flow and triggers a change in u- and v-wind components. The jet becomes out of geostrophic balance and sheds energy in the form of GWs to restore the balance. This topography–jet interaction was not previously considered by the community, rendering the impact of the gravity waves largely unaccounted for.
Kristina Pistone, Paquita Zuidema, Robert Wood, Michael Diamond, Arlindo M. da Silva, Gonzalo Ferrada, Pablo E. Saide, Rei Ueyama, Ju-Mee Ryoo, Leonhard Pfister, James Podolske, David Noone, Ryan Bennett, Eric Stith, Gregory Carmichael, Jens Redemann, Connor Flynn, Samuel LeBlanc, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, and Yohei Shinozuka
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9643–9668,Short summary
Using aircraft-based measurements off the Atlantic coast of Africa, we found the springtime smoke plume was strongly correlated with the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere (more smoke indicated more humidity). We see the same general feature in satellite-assimilated and free-running models. Our analysis suggests this relationship is not caused by the burning but originates due to coincident continental meteorology plus fires. This air is transported over the ocean without further mixing.
Markku Kulmala, Tom V. Kokkonen, Juha Pekkanen, Sami Paatero, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8313–8322,Short summary
The eastern part of China as a whole is practically a gigacity with 650 million inhabitants. The gigacity, with its emissions, processes in the pollution cocktail and numerous feedbacks and interactions, has a crucial and big impact on regional air quality and on global climate. A large-scale research and innovation program is needed to meet the interlinked grand challenges in this gigacity and to serve as a platform for finding pathways for sustainable development of the globe.
Yunyan Jiang, Jinyuan Xin, Ying Wang, Guiqian Tang, Yuxin Zhao, Danjie Jia, Dandan Zhao, Meng Wang, Lindong Dai, Lili Wang, Tianxue Wen, and Fangkun Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6111–6128,Short summary
Multiscale-circulation coupling affects pollution by changing the planetary boundary layer (PBL) structure. The multilayer PBL under cyclonic circulation has no diurnal variation; the temperature inversion and zero-speed zone can reach 600–900 m with strong mountain winds. The monolayer PBL under southwestern circulation can reach 2000 m; the inversion is lower than nocturnal PBL (400 m) with strong ambient winds. The zonal winds' vertical shear produces the inversion under western circulation.
Dillon S. Dodson and Jennifer D. Small Griswold
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1937–1961,Short summary
The results here reinforce findings from previous in situ studies of the marine boundary layer. It is found that turbulence is maximized in the middle of the stratocumulus layer from latent heating effects. Precipitation acts to increase turbulence in the sub-cloud layer, while acting to stabilize the entire boundary layer after the evaporation of precipitation in the sub-cloud has stopped. A negative correlation is present between the boundary layer height and turbulence.
Ju Li, Zhaobin Sun, Donald H. Lenschow, Mingyu Zhou, Youjun Dou, Zhigang Cheng, Yaoting Wang, and Qingchun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15793–15809,Short summary
We analyzed a haze front event involving warm–dry downslope flow in December 2015 in Beijing, China. The haze front was formed by the collision between a clean warm–dry air mass flowing from a nearby mountainous region and a polluted cold–wet air mass over an urban area. We found that the polluted air advanced toward the clean air, resulting in a severe air pollution event. Our study highlights the need to further investigate the warm–dry downslope and its impacts on air pollution.
Sonja Gisinger, Johannes Wagner, and Benjamin Witschas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10091–10109,Short summary
Gravity waves are an important coupling mechanism in the atmosphere. Measurements by two research aircraft during a mountain wave event over Scandinavia in 2016 revealed changes of the horizontal scales in the vertical velocity field and of momentum fluxes in the vicinity of the tropopause inversion. Idealized simulations revealed the presence of interfacial waves. They are found downstream of the mountain peaks, meaning that they horizontally transport momentum/energy away from their source.
Rayonil G. Carneiro and Gilberto Fisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5547–5558,Short summary
The objective of this study was to conduct observational evaluations of the daily cycle of the height of the planetary boundary layer from data that were measured and/or estimated using instruments such as a radiosonde, sodar, ceilometer, wind profiler, lidar and microwave radiometer installed in the central Amazon during 2014 (considered a typical year) and 2015 during which an intense El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event predominated during the GoAmazon experiment.
Maurício I. Oliveira, Otávio C. Acevedo, Matthias Sörgel, Ernani L. Nascimento, Antonio O. Manzi, Pablo E. S. Oliveira, Daiane V. Brondani, Anywhere Tsokankunku, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15–27,Short summary
In this study, data collected during four deep convection events at the 80 m tower from the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory are analyzed. It provides a unique view on how such events affect the local boundary layer and how it recovers after their passage. Quantities analyzed include mean wind speed, virtual potential temperature, turbulent kinetic energy, sensible, and latent heat fluxes. A conceptual model for boundary layer structure along the passage of deep convection events is proposed.
Zhicong Yin, Bufan Cao, and Huijun Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13933–13943,Short summary
Ozone occurs both in the stratosphere and at ground level. Surface ozone is a man-made air pollutant and has harmful effects on people and the environment. Two dominant patterns of summer ozone pollution were determined. The most dominant pattern in 2017 and 2018 was different from that in previous years. The findings of this study help us to understand the features of surface ozone pollution in eastern China and their relationships with large-scale atmospheric circulations.
Karmen Babić, Norbert Kalthoff, Bianca Adler, Julian F. Quinting, Fabienne Lohou, Cheikh Dione, and Marie Lothon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13489–13506,Short summary
This study investigates differences in atmospheric conditions between nights with and without low-level stratus clouds (LLCs) over southern West Africa. We use high-quality observations collected during 2016 summer monsoon season and the ERA5 reanalysis data set. Our results show that the formation of LLCs depends on the interplay between the onset time and strength of the nocturnal low-level jet, horizontal cold-air advection, and the overall moisture level in the whole region.
Jesús Yus-Díez, Mireia Udina, Maria Rosa Soler, Marie Lothon, Erik Nilsson, Joan Bech, and Jielun Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9495–9514,Short summary
This study helps improve the understanding of the turbulence description and the interactions occurring in the lower part of the boundary layer. It is carried out at an orographically influenced site close to the Pyrenees to explore the hockey-stick transition (HOST) theory. HOST is seen to be strongly dependent on both the meteorological conditions and the orographic features. Examples of intermittent turbulence events that lead to transitions between the turbulence regimes are also identified.
Cheikh Dione, Fabienne Lohou, Marie Lothon, Bianca Adler, Karmen Babić, Norbert Kalthoff, Xabier Pedruzo-Bagazgoitia, Yannick Bezombes, and Omar Gabella
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8979–8997,Short summary
Low atmospheric dynamics and low-level cloud (LLC) macrophysical properties are analyzed using in situ and remote sensing data collected from 20 June to 30 July at Savè, Benin, during the DACCIWA field campaign in 2016. We find that the low-level jet (LLJ), LLCs, monsoon flow, and maritime inflow reveal a day-to-day variability. LLCs form at the same level as the jet core height. The cloud base height is stationary at night and remains below the jet. The cloud top height is found above the jet.
Dani J. Caputi, Ian Faloona, Justin Trousdell, Jeanelle Smoot, Nicholas Falk, and Stephen Conley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4721–4740,Short summary
This paper covers the importance of understanding ozone pollution in California’s southern San Joaquin Valley from the perspective of meteorological conditions that occur overnight. Our main finding is that stronger winds aloft allow ozone to be depleted overnight, leading to less ozone the following day. This finding has the potential to greatly improve ozone forecasts in the San Joaquin Valley. This study is primarily conducted with aircraft observations.
Jon Ander Arrillaga, Carlos Yagüe, Carlos Román-Cascón, Mariano Sastre, Maria Antonia Jiménez, Gregorio Maqueda, and Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4615–4635,Short summary
Thermally driven downslope winds develop in mountainous areas under a weak large-scale forcing and clear skies. In this work, we find that their onset time and intensity are closely connected with both the large-scale wind and soil moisture. We also show how the distinct downslope intensities shape the turbulent and thermal features of the nocturnal atmosphere. The analysis concludes that the downslope–turbulence interaction and the horizontal transport explain the important CO2 variability.
Étienne Vignon, Olivier Traullé, and Alexis Berne
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4659–4683,Short summary
The future sea-level rise will depend on how much the Antarctic ice sheet gain – via precipitation – or loose mass. The simulation of precipitation by numerical models used for projections depends on the representation of the atmospheric circulation over and around Antarctica. Using daily measurements from balloon soundings at nine Antarctic stations, this study characterizes the structure of the atmosphere over the Antarctic coast and its representation in atmospheric simulations.
Nicola Bodini, Julie K. Lundquist, Raghavendra Krishnamurthy, Mikhail Pekour, Larry K. Berg, and Aditya Choukulkar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4367–4382,Short summary
To improve the parameterization of the turbulence dissipation rate (ε) in numerical weather prediction models, we have assessed its temporal and spatial variability at various scales in the Columbia River Gorge during the WFIP2 field experiment. The turbulence dissipation rate shows large spatial variability, even at the microscale, with larger values in sites located downwind of complex orographic structures or in wind farm wakes. Distinct diurnal and seasonal cycles in ε have also been found.
Frederick Letson, Rebecca J. Barthelmie, Weifei Hu, and Sara C. Pryor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3797–3819,Short summary
Wind gusts are a key driver of aerodynamic loading, and common approximations used to describe wind gust behavior may not be appropriate in complex terrain at heights relevant to wind turbines and other structures. High-resolution observations from sonic anemometers and vertically pointing Doppler lidars collected in the Perdigão experiment are analyzed to provide a foundation for improved wind gust characterization in complex terrain.
Rohit Chakraborty, Madineni Venkat Ratnam, and Shaik Ghouse Basha
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3687–3705,Short summary
Intense convective phenomena are a common climatic feature in the Indian tropical region which occur during the pre-monsoon to post-monsoon seasons (April–October) and are generally accompanied by intense thunderstorms, lightning, and wind gusts with heavy rainfall. Here we show long-term trends of the parameters related to convection and instability obtained from 27 radiosonde stations across six subdivisions over the Indian region during the period 1980–2016.
Kunihiko Kodera, Nawo Eguchi, Rei Ueyama, Yuhji Kuroda, Chiaki Kobayashi, Beatriz M. Funatsu, and Chantal Claud
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2655–2669,Short summary
The recent cooling of the equatorial eastern Pacific Ocean occurred in conjunction with enhanced cross-equatorial southerlies associated with a strengthening of the boreal summer Hadley circulation. A combination of land surface warming and reduced static stability in the tropical tropopause layer due to stratospheric cooling is suggested to have caused the increase in the deep ascending branch of the Hadley circulation and related recent decadal change in the tropical troposphere and ocean.
Karmen Babić, Bianca Adler, Norbert Kalthoff, Hendrik Andersen, Cheikh Dione, Fabienne Lohou, Marie Lothon, and Xabier Pedruzo-Bagazgoitia
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1281–1299,Short summary
The first detailed observational analysis of the complete diurnal cycle of low-level clouds (LLC) and associated atmospheric processes over southern West Africa is performed using the data gathered within the DACCIWA (Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud-Interactions in West Africa) ground-based campaign. We find cooling related to the horizontal advection, which occurs in connection with the inflow of cool maritime air mass and a prominent low-level jet, to have the dominant role in LLC formation.
Bianca Adler, Karmen Babić, Norbert Kalthoff, Fabienne Lohou, Marie Lothon, Cheikh Dione, Xabier Pedruzo-Bagazgoitia, and Hendrik Andersen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 663–681,Short summary
This study deals with nocturnal stratiform low-level clouds that frequently form in the atmospheric boundary layer over southern West Africa. We use observational data from 11 nights to characterize the clouds and intranight variability of boundary layer conditions as well as to assess the physical processes relevant for cloud formation. We find that cooling is crucial to reach saturation and a large part of the cooling is related to horizontal advection of cool air from the Gulf of Guinea.
Jutta Vüllers, Georg J. Mayr, Ulrich Corsmeier, and Christoph Kottmeier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 18169–18186,Short summary
This paper investigates frequently occurring foehn at the Dead Sea, which strongly impacts the local climatic conditions, in particular temperature and humidity, as well as evaporation from the Dead Sea, the aerosol load, and visibility. A statistical classification exposes two types of foehn and first-time, high-resolution measurements reveal trigger mechanisms and relevant characteristics, such as wind velocities, affected air layers, and resulting phenomena such as hydraulic jumps and rotors.
Dan Li, Bärbel Vogel, Rolf Müller, Jianchun Bian, Gebhard Günther, Qian Li, Jinqiang Zhang, Zhixuan Bai, Holger Vömel, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17979–17994,Short summary
Balloon-borne measurements performed over Lhasa in August 2013 are investigated using CLaMS trajectory calculations. Here, we focus on high ozone mixing ratios in the free troposphere. Our findings demonstrate that both stratospheric intrusions and convective transport of air pollution play a major role in enhancing middle and upper tropospheric ozone.
Mikhail Varentsov, Pavel Konstantinov, Alexander Baklanov, Igor Esau, Victoria Miles, and Richard Davy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17573–17587,Short summary
This study reports on the urban heat island (UHI) in a typical Arctic city in winter. Using in situ observations, remote sensing data and modeling, we show that the urban temperature anomaly reaches up to 11 K with a mean value of 1.9 K. At least 50 % of this anomaly is caused by the UHI effect, driven mostly by heating. The rest is created by natural microclimatic variability over the hilly terrain. This is a strong argument in support of energy efficiency measures in the Arctic cities.
Mark Gordon, Paul A. Makar, Ralf M. Staebler, Junhua Zhang, Ayodeji Akingunola, Wanmin Gong, and Shao-Meng Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14695–14714,Short summary
This work uses aircraft-based measurements of smokestack plumes carried out in northern Alberta in 2013. These measurements are used to test equations used to predict how high in the air smokestack plumes rise. It is important to predict plume rise height accurately as it tells us how far downwind pollutants are carried and what air quality can be expected at the surface. We found that the equations that are typically used significantly underestimate the plume rise at this location.
Andrei Serafimovich, Stefan Metzger, Jörg Hartmann, Katrin Kohnert, Donatella Zona, and Torsten Sachs
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10007–10023,Short summary
In order to support the evaluation of coupled atmospheric–land-surface models we investigated spatial patterns of energy fluxes in relation to land-surface properties and upscaled airborne flux measurements to high resolution flux maps. A machine learning technique allows us to estimate environmental response functions between spatially and temporally resolved flux observations and corresponding biophysical and meteorological drivers.
Qianqian Huang, Xuhui Cai, Jian Wang, Yu Song, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7573–7593,Short summary
Air stagnation index is a vital meteorological measure of the atmosphere's ability to dilute air pollutants. We propose a Boundary-layer air Stagnation Index (BSI) based on daily maximal ventilation, real latent instability and precipitation. The BSI is positively correlated with API during 2000–2012, tracks the day-by-day variation of PM2.5 concentration during January 2013 in Beijing well, and successfully represents the improved air quality during November and December in 2017.
Zhiheng Liao, Jiaren Sun, Jialin Yao, Li Liu, Haowen Li, Jian Liu, Jielan Xie, Dui Wu, and Shaojia Fan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6771–6783,Short summary
This paper investigates the modulation effect of ABL meteorology on Beijing’s surface air quality based on self-organizing maps. The self-organized ABL types correspond to significantly distinct pollutant loadings and diurnal evolution, particularly in winter. Anomalous stable ABL conditions are estimated to contribute 58.3 %, 46.4 % and 73.3 % of the elevated PM2.5 concentrations in January 2013, December 2015 and December 2016.
Zhicong Yin and Huijun Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4753–4763,Short summary
In China, the haze pollution in December has become increasingly serious over recent decades. The relationship between the snow cover and the December haze days was analyzed. This relationship significantly strengthened after the mid-1990s, which is attributed to the effective connections between the snow cover and the Eurasian atmospheric circulations.
Ju Li, Jielun Sun, Mingyu Zhou, Zhigang Cheng, Qingchun Li, Xiaoyan Cao, and Jingjiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3919–3935,Short summary
A rapid increase in the PM2.5 concentration in Beijing, China, on 30 November 2015 was found to be transported from south of Beijing by both turbulent mixing and advection processes. The nighttime relatively clean air was from the downslope flow northwest of Beijing; the rapid increase in the PM2.5 concentration in the morning resulted from the downward convective turbulent transfer of the polluted air that was rapidly advected over the nighttime stable boundary layer.
William Neff, Jim Crawford, Marty Buhr, John Nicovich, Gao Chen, and Douglas Davis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3755–3778,Short summary
Our study examined the effect of the seasonal cycle in meteorology from November through December and the role of stratospheric ozone depletion in the photochemical production of nitrogen oxide (NO) from nitrate in the snow at the South Pole. We found that ozone depletion which now extends into late November–early December coincides with optimum meteorological conditions (clear skies, a stable shallow boundary layer, and light winds) for high concentrations of NO to accumulate at the surface.
Romy Heller, Christiane Voigt, Stuart Beaton, Andreas Dörnbrack, Andreas Giez, Stefan Kaufmann, Christian Mallaun, Hans Schlager, Johannes Wagner, Kate Young, and Markus Rapp
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14853–14869,
Gopa Dutta, Palla Vinay Kumar, and Salauddin Mohammad
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14811–14819,Short summary
Gravity wave stress is crucial for weather prediction purposes. It is found that proper filtering of the data is essential to reduce uncertainties in the popular hodograph method to delineate low-frequency gravity wave parameters. Our research helped in improving the estimates of gravity wave stress by reducing errors.
Florian Berkes, Patrick Neis, Martin G. Schultz, Ulrich Bundke, Susanne Rohs, Herman G. J. Smit, Andreas Wahner, Paul Konopka, Damien Boulanger, Philippe Nédélec, Valerie Thouret, and Andreas Petzold
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12495–12508,Short summary
This study highlights the importance of independent global measurements with high and long-term accuracy to quantify long-term changes, especially in the UTLS region, and to help identify inconsistencies between different data sets of observations and models. Here we investigated temperature trends over different regions within a climate-sensitive area of the atmosphere and demonstrated the value of the IAGOS temperature observations as an anchor point for the evaluation of reanalyses.
Peter Knippertz, Andreas H. Fink, Adrien Deroubaix, Eleanor Morris, Flore Tocquer, Mat J. Evans, Cyrille Flamant, Marco Gaetani, Christophe Lavaysse, Celine Mari, John H. Marsham, Rémi Meynadier, Abalo Affo-Dogo, Titike Bahaga, Fabien Brosse, Konrad Deetz, Ridha Guebsi, Issaou Latifou, Marlon Maranan, Philip D. Rosenberg, and Andreas Schlueter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10893–10918,Short summary
In June–July 2016 DACCIWA (Dynamics–Aerosol–Chemistry–Cloud Interactions in West Africa), a large, EU-funded European–African project, organised an international field campaign in densely populated southern West Africa, including measurements from ground sites, research aircraft, weather balloons and urban sites. This paper gives an overview of the atmospheric evolution during this period focusing on meteorological (precipitation, cloudiness, winds) and composition (gases, particles) aspects.
Andrea Mues, Maheswar Rupakheti, Christoph Münkel, Axel Lauer, Heiko Bozem, Peter Hoor, Tim Butler, and Mark G. Lawrence
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8157–8176,Short summary
Ceilometer measurements taken in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, were used to study the temporal and spatial evolution of the mixing layer height in the valley. This provides important information on the vertical structure of the atmosphere and can thus also help to understand the mixing of air pollutants (e.g. black carbon) in the valley. The seasonal and diurnal cycles of the mixing layer were found to be highly dependent on meteorology and mainly anticorrelated to black carbon concentrations.
Qianqian Huang, Xuhui Cai, Yu Song, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7793–7805,Short summary
Air stagnation is an important meteorological measure of unfavorable air conditions, and previous studies have found that stagnation events are usually related to air pollution episodes. China is currently experiencing heavy air pollution, but to our knowledge, little is known about air stagnation in the country. In this paper, we conducted a comprehensive investigation of air stagnation climatology in China based on sounding and surface observations across the country.
Jennie Bukowski, Derek J. Posselt, Jeffrey S. Reid, and Samuel A. Atwood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4611–4626,Short summary
The Maritime Continent (MC) exhibits tremendous meteorological variability. In this study, multiple years of atmospheric soundings over the MC are analyzed to identify key sources of variability in the region's temperature, water vapor, and wind structure. Coherent vertical structures are found among profiles sampled from different geographic locations. The results indicate that the complex meteorology of the region can be described using a few simple structure functions.
Sanjay Kumar Mehta, Madineni Venkat Ratnam, Sukumarapillai V. Sunilkumar, Daggumati Narayana Rao, and Boddapaty V. Krishna Murthy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 531–549,Short summary
Study of the diurnal variation of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) height is important for the knowledge of pollutant dispersion, crucial for all living beings. The most difficult part in the study of the diurnal variation is in identification of the stable boundary layer which occurs ~ 50% of times only and mostly during nighttime winter. Surface temperature and clouds directly affect the diurnal pattern of the ABL. Thus, stronger (weaker) diurnal variation found during pre-monsoon (winter).
Manisha Ganeshan and Dong L. Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13173–13184,Short summary
The amplified Arctic warming has seen a rapid decline in sea ice with serious implications for global climate. The loss of heat from the ocean to the atmosphere is considered important for the recovery of the diminishing sea ice. Yet there is little observational evidence regarding the efficiency of this process. In our study, we explore and quantify the ability of the open ocean to lose heat through sensible heat fluxes. It is found to depend on the prevailing cloud and wind regime.
Tjarda J. Roberts, Marina Dütsch, Lars R. Hole, and Paul B. Voss
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12383–12396,Short summary
We present Controlled Meteorological (CMET) balloon flights in the Arctic. CMETs are a novel balloon that can be controlled (by satellite link) to change altitude during the flight and remain in the troposphere up to several days. We performed automated repeated soundings in the Arctic boundary layer during the flight and compared the observations (temperature, humidity, wind) to output from two atmospheric models. CMETs are a valuable tool for probing the lower atmosphere in remote regions.
Narendra Singh, Raman Solanki, Narendra Ojha, Ruud H. H. Janssen, Andrea Pozzer, and Surendra K. Dhaka
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10559–10572,Short summary
Our study presents measurements and model simulations of boundary layer evolution over a mountain peak in the central Himalayas. The observations were made as a part of the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment. The implications of biases in model simulated boundary layer towards simulations of trace species is investigated.
Joan Cuxart, Burkhard Wrenger, Daniel Martínez-Villagrasa, Joachim Reuder, Marius O. Jonassen, Maria A. Jiménez, Marie Lothon, Fabienne Lohou, Oscar Hartogensis, Jens Dünnermann, Laura Conangla, and Anirban Garai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9489–9504,Short summary
Estimations of the effect of thermal advection in the surface energy budget are provided. Data from the experimental campaign BLLAST, held in Southern France in summer 2011, are used, including airborne data by drones and surface-based instrumentation. Model data outputs and satellite information are also inspected. Surface heterogeneities of the order of the kilometer or larger seem to have little effect on the budget, whereas hectometer-scale structures may contribute significantly to it.
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This study characterizes the changes observed at Paris urban scale and attempts to identify the surface–atmosphere feedbacks likely to explain the trends observed as a function of the different configurations of large-scale dynamics. This article is interested in several atmospheric parameters and their possible retroactions. Finally, to study urban environments, the analysis at the local scale is essential because it is very poorly represented in the model.
This study characterizes the changes observed at Paris urban scale and attempts to identify the...