Articles | Volume 18, issue 17
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12859–12875, 2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Research article 06 Sep 2018
Research article | 06 Sep 2018
Concentration, temporal variation, and sources of black carbon in the Mt. Everest region retrieved by real-time observation and simulation
Xintong Chen et al.
No articles found.
Jinlei Chen, Shichang Kang, Wentao Du, Junming Guo, Min Xu, Xinyue Zhong, Wei Zhang, and Jizu Chen
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint under review for TCShort summary
Sea ice was retreating with rapid warming in the Arctic. It will continue and approach to the worst predicted pathway released by IPCC. The irreversible tipping point might show around 2060 when the oldest ice is completely disappeared. It has huge impacts on human's production. Ordinary merchant ships will capable of passing the Northeast Passage and Northwest Passage in the midcentury, and the opening time will advance to the next ten years for icebreaker with moderate ice strengthening.
Kun Wang, Shohei Hattori, Mang Lin, Sakiko Ishino, Becky Alexander, Kazuki Kamezaki, Naohiro Yoshida, and Shichang Kang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Sulfate aerosols play an important climatic role and exert adverse effects on the ecological environment and human health. In this study, we present the triple oxygen isotopic composition of sulfate from the Mt. Everest region, southern Tibetan Plateau, and deciphered the formation mechanisms of atmospheric sulfate in this pristine environment. The results indicate the important role of the S(IV) + O3 pathway in atmospheric sulfate formation promoted by high cloud water pH conditions.
Cunbo Han, Yaoming Ma, Binbin Wang, Lei Zhong, Weiqiang Ma, Xuelong Chen, and Zhongbo Su
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESSDShort summary
Terrestrial actual evapotranspiration (ETa) is a key parameter controlling the land-atmosphere interaction processes and the water cycle. However, the spatial distribution and temporal changes of ETa over the Tibetan Plateau remain very uncertain. Here we estimate the multiyear (2001–2018) monthly ETa and its spatial distribution on the TP by a combination of meteorological data and satellite products. Results have been validated at six eddy-covariance monitoring sites and show high accuracy.
Yongkang Xue, Tandong Yao, Aaron A. Boone, Ismaila Diallo, Ye Liu, Xubin Zeng, William K.-M. Lau, Shiori Sugimoto, Qi Tang, Xiaoduo Pan, Peter J. van Oevelen, Daniel Klocke, Myung-Seo Koo, Zhaohui Lin, Yuhei Takaya, Tomonori Sato, Constantin Ardilouze, Subodh K. Saha, Mei Zhao, Xin-Zhong Liang, Frederic Vitart, Xin Li, Ping Zhao, David Neelin, Weidong Guo, Miao Yu, Yun Qian, Samuel S. P. Shen, Yang Zhang, Kun Yang, Ruby Leung, Jing Yang, Yuan Qiu, Michael A. Brunke, Sin Chan Chou, Michael Ek, Tianyi Fan, Hong Guan, Hai Lin, Shunlin Liang, Stefano Materia, Tetsu Nakamura, Xin Qi, Retish Senan, Chunxiang Shi, Hailan Wang, Helin Wei, Shaocheng Xie, Haoran Xu, Hongliang Zhang, Yanling Zhan, Weiping Li, Xueli Shi, Paulo Nobre, Yi Qin, Jeff Dozier, Craig R. Ferguson, Gianpaolo Balsamo, Qing Bao, Jinming Feng, Jinkyu Hong, Songyou Hong, Huilin Huang, Duoying Ji, Zhenming Ji, Shichang Kang, Yanluan Lin, Weiguang Liu, Ryan Muncaster, Yan Pan, Daniele Peano, Patricia de Rosnay, Hiroshi G. Takahashi, Jianping Tang, Guiling Wang, Shuyu Wang, Weicai Wang, Xu Zhou, and Yuejian Zhu
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for GMDShort summary
This paper overviews the history and research objectives of the Global Energy and Water Exchanges (GEWEX) initiative called
Impact of initialized Land Surface temperature and Snowpack on Sub-seasonal to Seasonal Prediction(LS4P) and provides the first phase experimental protocol (LS4P-I). The LS4P introduces spring land surface temperature/subsurface temperature anomalies over high mountain areas as a crucial factor that can lead to significant improvement in summer precipitation prediction.
Ziyu Huang, Lei Zhong, Yaoming Ma, and Yunfei Fu
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for GMDShort summary
Spectral nudging is an effective dynamical downscaling method used to improve precipitation simulations of regional climate models (RCMs). However, the biases of the reference fields over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) would possibly introduce extra biases when spectral nudging is applied. Results show that the precipitation simulations were significantly improved when limiting the application of spectral nudging towards the potential temperature and water vapor mixing ratio over the TP.
Genhou Sun, Zeyong Hu, Yaoming Ma, Zhipeng Xie, Jiemin Wang, and Song Yang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 5937–5951,Short summary
We investigate the influence of soil conditions on the planetary boundary layer (PBL) thermodynamics and convective cloud formations over a typical underlying surface, based on a series of simulations on a sunny day in the Tibetan Plateau, using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The real-case simulation and sensitivity simulations indicate that the soil moisture could have a strong impact on PBL thermodynamics, which may be favorable for the convective cloud formations.
Yaoming Ma, Zeyong Hu, Zhipeng Xie, Weiqiang Ma, Binbin Wang, Xuelong Chen, Maoshan Li, Lei Zhong, Fanglin Sun, Lianglei Gu, Cunbo Han, Lang Zhang, Xin Liu, Zhangwei Ding, Genhou Sun, Shujin Wang, Yongjie Wang, and Zhongyan Wang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2937–2957,Short summary
In comparison with other terrestrial regions of the world, meteorological observations are scarce over the Tibetan Plateau. This has limited our understanding of the mechanisms underlying complex interactions between the different earth spheres with heterogeneous land surface conditions. The release of this continuous and long-term dataset with high temporal resolution is expected to facilitate broad multidisciplinary communities in understanding key processes on the
Third Pole of the world.
Yikun Yang, Chuanfeng Zhao, Quan Wang, Zhiyuan Cong, Xingchuan Yang, and Hao Fan
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This study investigates the aerosol properties over the pristine regions including the Arctic, Antarctic, and Tibetan Plateau using 13 years CALIPSO aerosol profile products. It shows distinct differences in spatio-temporal variations of AOD and aerosol types over the three study regions. The Arctic and TP are vulnerable to surrounding pollutants, with clear seasonal variations in the transport paths. The results are helpful to understand aerosol radiative forcing and aerosol-cloud interaction.
Felix Nieberding, Christian Wille, Gerardo Fratini, Magnus O. Asmussen, Yuyang Wang, Yaoming Ma, and Torsten Sachs
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2705–2724,Short summary
We present the first long-term eddy covariance CO2 and H2O flux measurements from the large but underrepresented alpine steppe ecosystem on the central Tibetan Plateau. We applied careful corrections and rigorous quality filtering and analyzed the turbulent flow regime to provide meaningful fluxes. This comprehensive data set allows potential users to put the gas flux dynamics into context with ecosystem properties and potential flux drivers and allows for comparisons with other data sets.
Maoshan Li, Lei Shu, Xiaoran Liu, Shucheng Yin, Lingzhi Wang, Wei Fu, Yaoming Ma, and Fanglin Sun
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for HESSShort summary
In this study, using the MODIS satellite data and station atmospheric turbulence observation data in Nagqu area of northern Tibetan plateau, with the Massman retrieved model and an independent method to determine aerodynamic surface roughness, the temporal and spatial variation characteristics of the surface roughness was analyzed. The result is feasible, it can be applied to improve the model parameters of land surface model parameters and the accuracy of model simulation in the future work.
Shuang Yi, Chunqiao Song, Kosuke Heki, Shichang Kang, Qiuyu Wang, and Le Chang
The Cryosphere, 14, 2267–2281,Short summary
High-Asia glaciers have been observed to be retreating the fastest in the southeastern Tibeten Plateau, where vast amounts of glacier and snow feed the streamflow of the Brahmaputra. Here, we provide the first monthly glacier and snow mass balance during 2002–2017 based on satellite gravimetry. The results confirm previous long-term decreases but reveal strong seasonal variations. This work helps resolve previous divergent model estimates and underlines the importance of meltwater.
Yanbin Lei, Tandong Yao, Kun Yang, Lazhu, Yaoming Ma, and Broxton W. Bird
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for HESSShort summary
Lake evaporation and its impact on seasonal lake level changes at Paiku Co, central Himalayas, were investigated. There was ~5 month lag between maximum lake evaporation and net radiation. The seasonal pattern of lake evaporation explains the significant lake level decrease during the post-monsoon season while a slight decrease during the pre-monsoon season. This study may have implications for the different amplitudes of lake level seasonality between deep and shallow lakes.
Meixin Zhang, Chun Zhao, Zhiyuan Cong, Qiuyan Du, Mingyue Xu, Yu Chen, Ming Chen, Rui Li, Yunfei Fu, Lei Zhong, Shichang Kang, Delong Zhao, and Yan Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5923–5943,Short summary
Analysis of multiple numerical experiments over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (TP) shows that the complex topography results in 50 % stronger overall cross-Himalayan transport during the pre-monsoon season primarily due to the strengthened efficiency of near-surface meridional transport towards the TP, enhanced wind speed in some valleys and deeper valley channels associated with larger transported BC mass volume, which leads to 30–50 % stronger BC radiative heating over the TP.
Jun Zhu, Xiangao Xia, Huizheng Che, Jun Wang, Zhiyuan Cong, Tianliang Zhao, Shichang Kang, Xuelei Zhang, Xingna Yu, and Yanlin Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14637–14656,Short summary
The long-term temporal–spatial variations of the aerosol optical properties over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) based on the multiple ground-based sun photometer sites and the MODIS product are presented. Besides, the aerosol pollution and aerosol transport processes over the TP are also analyzed by the observations and models. The results in this region could help reduce the assessment uncertainties of aerosol radiative forcing and provide more information on aerosol transportation.
Yanbin Lei, Tandong Yao, Kun Yang, Zhu La, Yaoming Ma, and Broxton W. Bird
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Y. K. Xiao, Z. M. Ji, C. S. Fu, W. T. Du, J. H. Yang, and W. J. Dong
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-3-W9, 187–194,
Xinghua Zhang, Jianzhong Xu, Shichang Kang, Qi Zhang, and Junying Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7897–7911,Short summary
Highly time resolved chemistry and sources of PM1 were measured by an Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS at Waliguan Baseline Observatory, a high-altitude background station at the northeastern edge of Qinghai–Tibet Plateau (QTP), during summer 2017. Relatively higher mass concentration of PM1 and dominant sulfate contribution were observed in this site compared to those at other high-elevation sites in the southern or central QTP, indicating the different aerosol sources between them.
X. Chen, Z. Su, and Y. Ma
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-2-W13, 1729–1733,
Lei Zhong, Yaoming Ma, Zeyong Hu, Yunfei Fu, Yuanyuan Hu, Xian Wang, Meilin Cheng, and Nan Ge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5529–5541,Short summary
Fine-temporal-resolution turbulent heat fluxes at the plateau scale have significant importance for studying diurnal variation characteristics of atmospheric boundary and weather systems in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and its surroundings. Time series of land surface heat fluxes with high temporal resolution over the entire TP were derived. The derived surface heat fluxes proved to be in good agreement with in situ measurements and were superior to GLDAS flux products.
Xin Wan, Shichang Kang, Maheswar Rupakheti, Qianggong Zhang, Lekhendra Tripathee, Junming Guo, Pengfei Chen, Dipesh Rupakheti, Arnico K. Panday, Mark G. Lawrence, Kimitaka Kawamura, and Zhiyuan Cong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2725–2747,Short summary
The sources of primary and secondary aerosols in the Hindu Kush–Himalayan–Tibetan Plateau region are not well known. Organic molecular tracers are useful for aerosol source apportionment. The characterization of molecular tracers were first systemically investigated and the contribution from primary and secondary sources to carbonaceous aerosols was estimated in the Kathmandu Valley. Our results demonstrate that biomass burning contributed a significant fraction to OC in the Kathmandu Valley.
Yanqing An, Jianzhong Xu, Lin Feng, Xinghua Zhang, Yanmei Liu, Shichang Kang, Bin Jiang, and Yuhong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1115–1128,Short summary
Detailed molecular chemical composition of water-soluble organic matter in the Himalayas was characterized by positive electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry for the first time. Many products formed from biogenic volatile organic compounds and biomass-burning-emitted compounds were found in the organic compounds, suggesting the important contribution of these two sources in the Himalayas.
Zhiwen Dong, Shichang Kang, Dahe Qin, Yaping Shao, Sven Ulbrich, and Xiang Qin
The Cryosphere, 12, 3877–3890,Short summary
This study aimed to provide a first and unique record of physicochemical properties and mixing states of LAPs at the glacier and atmosphere interface over the northeastern Tibetan Plateau to determine the individual LAPs' structure aging and mixing state changes through the atmospheric deposition process from atmosphere to glacier–snowpack surface, thereby helping to characterize the LAPs' radiative forcing and climate effects in the cryosphere region.
Zhiyuan Cong, Shaopeng Gao, Wancang Zhao, Xin Wang, Guangming Wu, Yulan Zhang, Shichang Kang, Yongqin Liu, and Junfeng Ji
The Cryosphere, 12, 3177–3186,Short summary
Cryoconites from glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding area were studied for iron oxides. We found that goethite is the predominant iron oxide form. Using the abundance, speciation and optical properties of iron oxides, the total light absorption was quantitatively attributed to goethite, hematite, black carbon and organic matter. Such findings are essential to understand the relative significance of anthropogenic and natural impacts.
Cenlin He, Mark G. Flanner, Fei Chen, Michael Barlage, Kuo-Nan Liou, Shichang Kang, Jing Ming, and Yun Qian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11507–11527,Short summary
Snow albedo plays a key role in the Earth and climate system. It can be affected by impurities and snow properties. This study implements new parameterizations into a widely used snow model to account for effects of snow shape and black carbon–snow mixing state on snow albedo reduction in the Tibetan Plateau. This study points toward an imperative need for extensive measurements and improved model characterization of snow grain shape and aerosol–snow mixing state in Tibet and elsewhere.
Xiufeng Yin, Shichang Kang, Benjamin de Foy, Yaoming Ma, Yindong Tong, Wei Zhang, Xuejun Wang, Guoshuai Zhang, and Qianggong Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10557–10574,Short summary
Total gaseous mercury concentrations were measured at Nam Co Station on the inland Tibetan Plateau for ~ 3 years. The mean concentration of TGM during the entire monitoring period was 1.33 ± 0.24 ngm-3, ranking it the lowest in China and indicating the pristine atmospheric environment of the inland Tibetan Plateau. Variation of TGM at Nam Co was affected by regional surface reemission, vertical mixing and long-range transported atmospheric mercury, which was associated with the Indian monsoon.
Zirui Liu, Wenkang Gao, Yangchun Yu, Bo Hu, Jinyuan Xin, Yang Sun, Lili Wang, Gehui Wang, Xinhui Bi, Guohua Zhang, Honghui Xu, Zhiyuan Cong, Jun He, Jingsha Xu, and Yuesi Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8849–8871,Short summary
We have established a national-level network (CARE-China) that conducted continuous monitoring of PM2.5 and its chemical compositions in China. Our analysis reveals the spatial and seasonal variabilities of the urban and background aerosol species and their contributions to the PM2.5 budget. The integration of data provided an extensive spatial coverage of fine-particle concentrations and could be used to validate model results and implement effective air pollution control strategies.
Hewen Niu, Shichang Kang, Hailong Wang, Rudong Zhang, Xixi Lu, Yun Qian, Rukumesh Paudyal, Shijin Wang, Xiaofei Shi, and Xingguo Yan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6441–6460,Short summary
Deposition of light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosol on the surface of glaciers can greatly alter the energy fluxes of glaciers. Two years of continuous observations of carbonaceous aerosols in a glacierized region are analyzed. We mainly studied the light absorption properties of carbonaceous aerosol and have employed a global aerosol–climate model to estimate source attributions of atmospheric black carbon.
D. Rupakheti, S. Kang, Z. Cong, M. Rupakheti, L. Tripathee, A. K. Panday, and B. Holben
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-3, 1493–1497,
Chaman Gul, Siva Praveen Puppala, Shichang Kang, Bhupesh Adhikary, Yulan Zhang, Shaukat Ali, Yang Li, and Xiaofei Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4981–5000,Short summary
Snow and ice samples were collected from six glaciers and multiple mountain valleys from northern Pakistan. Samples were analyzed for black carbon and water-insoluble organic carbon. Relatively high concentrations of black carbon, organic carbon, and dust were reported. Snow albedo and radiative forcing were estimated for the snow samples. Possible source regions of pollutants were identified through various techniques.
Xinghua Zhang, Jianzhong Xu, Shichang Kang, Yanmei Liu, and Qi Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4617–4638,Short summary
Highly time and chemically resolved submicron aerosol properties were characterized online for the first time in a high-altitude site (Qomolangma station, 4276 m a.s.l.) in the northern Himalayas by using the Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS. Biomass burning plumes were frequently observed and the dynamic processes (emissions, transport, and chemical processing) were characterized. The source and chemical composition of organic aerosol were further elucidated using positive matrix factorization analysis.
Haipeng Wang, Jianhui Chen, Shengda Zhang, David D. Zhang, Zongli Wang, Qinghai Xu, Shengqian Chen, Shijin Wang, Shichang Kang, and Fahu Chen
Clim. Past, 14, 383–396,Short summary
The chironomid-inferred temperature record from Gonghai Lake exhibits a stepwise decreasing trend since 4 ka. A cold event in the Era of Disunity, the Sui-Tang Warm Period, the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age can all be recognized in our record, as well as in many other temperature reconstructions in China. Local wars in Shanxi Province, documented in the historical literature during the past 2700 years, are statistically significantly correlated with changes in temperature.
Yulan Zhang, Shichang Kang, Michael Sprenger, Zhiyuan Cong, Tanguang Gao, Chaoliu Li, Shu Tao, Xiaofei Li, Xinyue Zhong, Min Xu, Wenjun Meng, Bigyan Neupane, Xiang Qin, and Mika Sillanpää
The Cryosphere, 12, 413–431,Short summary
Light-absorbing impurities deposited on snow can reduce surface albedo and contribute to the near-worldwide melting of snowpack and ice. This study focused on the black carbon and mineral dust in snow cover on the Tibetan Plateau. We discussed their concentrations, distributions, possible sources, and albedo reduction and radiative forcing. Findings indicated that the impacts of black carbon and mineral dust need to be properly accounted for in future regional climate projections.
Xinyue Zhong, Tingjun Zhang, Shichang Kang, Kang Wang, Lei Zheng, Yuantao Hu, and Huijuan Wang
The Cryosphere, 12, 227–245,
Jianzhong Xu, Qi Zhang, Jinsen Shi, Xinlei Ge, Conghui Xie, Junfeng Wang, Shichang Kang, Ruixiong Zhang, and Yuhang Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 427–443,Short summary
This manuscript presents results from a comprehensive field study using an HR-AMS coupled with a suite of other instruments in central Tibetan Plateau. The study discusses the chemical composition, sources, and processes of submicron aerosol during the transition from pre-monsoon to monsoon. Organic aerosol was overall highly oxidized during the entire study with higher O / C ratios during the pre-monsoon period. Sensitivity of air pollution transport with synoptic process was also evaluated.
Lin Feng, Yanqing An, Jianzhong Xu, Shichang Kang, Xiaofei Li, Yongqiang Zhou, Yunlin Zhang, Bin Jiang, and Yuhong Liao
Revised manuscript not accepted
Chaoliu Li, Fangping Yan, Shichang Kang, Pengfei Chen, Xiaowen Han, Zhaofu Hu, Guoshuai Zhang, Ye Hong, Shaopeng Gao, Bin Qu, Zhejing Zhu, Jiwei Li, Bing Chen, and Mika Sillanpää
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11899–11912,Short summary
In this study, we found, due to contribution of carbonates, previously reported BC concentration in atmosphere of the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (HTP) were overestimated by around 39–52 %. Meanwhile, we found BC deposition of lake cores overestimated the atmospheric deposition of BC in the HTP; BC depositions of glacier region reflected actual values of 17.9 ± 5.3 mg m−2 a−1. The above results are critical for studying atmospheric distribution and chemical transport of BC in and around the HTP.
Xiufeng Yin, Shichang Kang, Benjamin de Foy, Zhiyuan Cong, Jiali Luo, Lang Zhang, Yaoming Ma, Guoshuai Zhang, Dipesh Rupakheti, and Qianggong Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11293–11311,Short summary
We presented 5-year surface ozone measurements at Nam Co in the inland Tibetan Plateau and made a synthesis comparison of diurnal and seasonal patterns on regional and hemispheric scales. Surface ozone at Nam Co is mainly dominated by natural processes and is less influenced by stratospheric intrusions and human activities than on the rim of the Tibetan Plateau. Ozone at Nam Co is representative of background that is valuable for studying ozone-related effects on large scales.
Dipesh Rupakheti, Bhupesh Adhikary, Puppala Siva Praveen, Maheswar Rupakheti, Shichang Kang, Khadak Singh Mahata, Manish Naja, Qianggong Zhang, Arnico Kumar Panday, and Mark G. Lawrence
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11041–11063,Short summary
For the first time, atmospheric composition was monitored during pre-monsoon season of 2013 at Lumbini (UNESCO world heritage site as birthplace of the Buddha). PM and O3 frequently exceeded WHO guidelines. Pollution concentration, diurnal characteristics and influence of open burning on air quality in Lumbini were investigated. Potential source regions were also identified. Results show that air pollution at this site is of a great concern, requiring prompt attention for mitigation.
Xin Wan, Shichang Kang, Quanlian Li, Dipesh Rupakheti, Qianggong Zhang, Junming Guo, Pengfei Chen, Lekhendra Tripathee, Maheswar Rupakheti, Arnico K. Panday, Wu Wang, Kimitaka Kawamura, Shaopeng Gao, Guangming Wu, and Zhiyuan Cong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8867–8885,Short summary
Biomass burning (BB) tracers in the aerosols in Lumbini, northern IGP, were studied for the first time. The levoglucosan was the predominant tracer and BB significantly contributed to the air quality in Lumbini. Mixed crop residues and hardwood were main burning materials. BB emissions constituted large fraction of OC, especially during the post-monsoon season. The sources of BB aerosols in Lumbini varies seasonally due to the influence of local emissions and long-range transport.
Bin Liu, Zhiyuan Cong, Yuesi Wang, Jinyuan Xin, Xin Wan, Yuepeng Pan, Zirui Liu, Yonghong Wang, Guoshuai Zhang, Zhongyan Wang, Yongjie Wang, and Shichang Kang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 449–463,Short summary
The first observation net of background atmospheric aerosols of the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau were conducted in 2011–2013, and the aerosol mass loadings were especially illustrated in this paper. Consequently, these terrestrial aerosol masses were strongly ecosystem-dependent, with various seasonality and diurnal cycles at these sites. These findings implicate that regional characteristics and fine-particle emissions need to be treated sensitively when assessing their climatic effects.
Jianzhong Xu, Jinsen Shi, Qi Zhang, Xinlei Ge, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Matthias Vonwiller, Sönke Szidat, Jinming Ge, Jianmin Ma, Yanqing An, Shichang Kang, and Dahe Qin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14937–14957,Short summary
This study deployed an AMS field study in Lanzhou, a city in northwestern China, evaluating the chemical composition, sources, and processes of urban aerosols during wintertime. In comparison with the results during summer in Lanzhou, the air pollution during winter was more severe and the sources were more complex. In addition, this paper estimates the contributions of fossil and non-fossil sources of organic carbon to primary and secondary organic carbon using the carbon isotopic method.
Fangping Yan, Shichang Kang, Chaoliu Li, Yulan Zhang, Xiang Qin, Yang Li, Xiaopeng Zhang, Zhaofu Hu, Pengfei Chen, Xiaofei Li, Bin Qu, and Mika Sillanpää
The Cryosphere, 10, 2611–2621,Short summary
DOC release of Laohugou Glacier No. 12 was 192 kg km−2 yr−1, of which 43.2 % could be decomposed and return to atmosphere as CO2 within 28 days, producing positive feedback in the warming process and influencing downstream ecosystems. Radiative forcing of snow pit DOC was calculated to be 0.43 W m−2, accounting for about 10 % of the radiative forcing caused by BC. Therefore, DOC is also a light-absorbing agent in glacierized regions, influencing the albedo of glacier surface and glacier melting.
Jian Peng, Alexander Loew, Xuelong Chen, Yaoming Ma, and Zhongbo Su
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3167–3182,Short summary
The Tibetan Plateau plays a major role in regional and global climate. The knowledge of latent heat flux can help to better describe the complex interactions between land and atmosphere. The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed cross-comparison of existing latent heat flux products over the TP. The results highlight the recently developed latent heat product – High Resolution Land Surface Parameters from Space (HOLAPS).
Shengyun Chen, Wenjie Liu, Qian Zhao, Lin Zhao, Qingbai Wu, Xingjie Lu, Shichang Kang, Xiang Qin, Shilong Chen, Jiawen Ren, and Dahe Qin
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Experimental warming was manipulated using open top chambers in alpine grassland ecosystem in the permafrost regions of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The results revealed variations of earlier thawing, later freezing and longer freezing-thawing periods in shallow soil. Further, the estimated permafrost table declined under the warming scenarios. The work will be helpful to evaluate the stability of Qinghai-Tibet Railway/Highway and estimate the release of carbon under the future climate warming.
Yang Li, Jizu Chen, Shichang Kang, Chaoliu Li, Bin Qu, Lekhendra Tripathee, Fangping Yan, Yulan Zhang, Junmin Guo, Chaman Gul, and Xiang Qin
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
To our knowledge, this study constitutes the first quantitative dataset of the impacts of light absorbing particles (LAPs) on glacier ablation estimated directly from the northeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau (TP).The average concentrations of black carbon (BC) and mineral dust (MD) in surface snow and ice at Laohugou Glacier No. 12 (LHG) were much higher than those detected in snow pits and ice cores in TP and Tien Shan mountains.
C. Xu, Y. M. Ma, C. You, and Z. K. Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12065–12078,Short summary
Different monthly variation patterns of aerosol optical depth are observed over the southern and northern Tibetan Plateau (TP). A dividing line of higher dust occurrence in the northern TP and lower dust occurrence in the southern TP can be observed clearly at an altitude of 6-8km. The different seasonal variation patterns between the northern and southern TP are due to many factors, including the emission sources, high-altitude terrain and atmospheric circulation.
T. Gerken, W. Babel, M. Herzog, K. Fuchs, F. Sun, Y. Ma, T. Foken, and H.-F. Graf
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 4023–4040,Short summary
Surface moisture is an important control for the development of clouds and precipitation on the Tibetan Plateau. While dry surface conditions do not provided enough water for the development of precipitation and convection, wet surface conditions lead to increased cloud cover and a decrease in solar irradiation, which also reduces convection development. It was found that intermediate soil moistures are associated with the strongest convection.
W. Yu, L. Tian, Y. Ma, B. Xu, and D. Qu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10251–10262,
R.-Q. Shen, X. Ding, Q.-F. He, Z.-Y. Cong, Q.-Q. Yu, and X.-M. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8781–8793,Short summary
1) Seasonal trends of SOA tracers and origins were studied in the remote TP for the first time. 2) Seasonal variation of isoprene SOA tracers was mainly influenced by emission. 3) Due to the transport of air pollutants from the Indian subcontinent, aromatics SOA tracer presented relatively higher levels in the summer and elevated mass fractions in the winter. 4) Biogenic SOC dominated over anthropogenic SOC in the remote TP.
S. Song, N. E. Selin, A. L. Soerensen, H. Angot, R. Artz, S. Brooks, E.-G. Brunke, G. Conley, A. Dommergue, R. Ebinghaus, T. M. Holsen, D. A. Jaffe, S. Kang, P. Kelley, W. T. Luke, O. Magand, K. Marumoto, K. A. Pfaffhuber, X. Ren, G.-R. Sheu, F. Slemr, T. Warneke, A. Weigelt, P. Weiss-Penzias, D. C. Wip, and Q. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7103–7125,Short summary
A better knowledge of mercury (Hg) emission fluxes into the global atmosphere is important for assessing its human health impacts and evaluating the effectiveness of corresponding policy actions. We for the first time apply a top-down approach at a global scale to quantitatively estimate present-day mercury emission sources as well as key parameters in a chemical transport model, in order to better constrain the global biogeochemical cycle of mercury.
F. Salerno, N. Guyennon, S. Thakuri, G. Viviano, E. Romano, E. Vuillermoz, P. Cristofanelli, P. Stocchi, G. Agrillo, Y. Ma, and G. Tartari
The Cryosphere, 9, 1229–1247,Short summary
Climate-trends data in Himalaya are completely absent at high elevation. We explore the south slopes of Mt Everest though time series reconstructed from 7 stations (2660-5600m) during 1994-2013. The main increase in temp is concentrated outside of the monsoon, minimum temp increased far more than maximum, while we note a precipitation weakening. We contribute to change the perspective on which climatic drivers (temperature vs. precipitation) led mainly the glacier responses in the last 20 yr.
S. Kang, F. Wang, U. Morgenstern, Y. Zhang, B. Grigholm, S. Kaspari, M. Schwikowski, J. Ren, T. Yao, D. Qin, and P. A. Mayewski
The Cryosphere, 9, 1213–1222,
Z. Cong, S. Kang, K. Kawamura, B. Liu, X. Wan, Z. Wang, S. Gao, and P. Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1573–1584,
X. Chen, Z. Su, Y. Ma, S. Liu, Q. Yu, and Z. Xu
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Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Elemental and water-insoluble organic carbon in Svalbard snow: a synthesis of observations during 2007–2018Deposition of light-absorbing particles in glacier snow of the Sunderdhunga Valley, the southern forefront of the central HimalayasInfluence of vegetation on occurrence and time distributions of regional new aerosol particle formation and growthDominant synoptic patterns associated with the decay process of PM2.5 pollution episodes around BeijingValidation of aerosol backscatter profiles from Raman lidar and ceilometer using balloon-borne measurementsImpacts of coagulation on the appearance time method for new particle growth rate evaluation and their correctionsPM2.5 surface concentrations in southern West African urban areas based on sun photometer and satellite observationsObservations on aerosol optical properties and scavenging during cloud eventsAssessing the vertical structure of Arctic aerosols using balloon-borne measurementsAn overview of the ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS) project: aerosol–cloud–radiation interactions in the southeast Atlantic basinMeasurement report: aerosol hygroscopic properties extended to 600 nm in the urban environmentSpatiotemporal variation and trends in equivalent black carbon in the Helsinki metropolitan area in FinlandCharacteristics of sub-10 nm particle emissions from in-use commercial aircraft observed at Narita International AirportThe CLoud–Aerosol–Radiation Interaction and Forcing: Year 2017 (CLARIFY-2017) measurement campaignMeasurement report: quantifying source contribution of fossil fuels and biomass-burning black carbon aerosol in the southeastern margin of the Tibetan PlateauThe electrical activity of Saharan dust as perceived from surface electric field observationsLong-term measurement of sub-3 nm particles and their precursor gases in the boreal forestVariability in the mass absorption cross section of black carbon (BC) aerosols is driven by BC internal mixing state at a central European background site (Melpitz, Germany) in winterOptical and hygroscopic properties of black carbon influenced by particle microphysics at the top of the anthropogenically polluted boundary layerMeasurement report: Properties of aerosol and gases in the vertical profile during the LAPSE-RATE campaignAircraft vertical profiles during summertime regional and Saharan dust scenarios over the north-western Mediterranean basin: aerosol optical and physical propertiesAfrican dust particles over the western Caribbean – Part I: Impact on air quality over the Yucatán PeninsulaDirect measurements of black carbon fluxes in central Beijing using the eddy covariance methodMeasurements to determine the mixing state of black carbon emitted from the 2017–2018 California wildfires and urban Los AngelesWhat can we learn about urban air quality with regard to the first outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic? A case study from central EuropeMeasurement report: Source and mixing state of black carbon aerosol in the North China Plain: implications for radiative effectThe potential role of organics in new particle formation and initial growth in the remote tropical upper troposphereImpacts of long-range transport of aerosols on marine-boundary-layer clouds in the eastern North AtlanticQuantifying bioaerosol concentrations in dust clouds through online UV-LIF and mass spectrometry measurements at the Cape Verde Atmospheric ObservatoryNew particle formation at urban and high-altitude remote sites in the south-eastern Iberian PeninsulaCharacterization of submicron organic particles in Beijing during summertime: comparison between SP-AMS and HR-AMSThe characterization of Taklamakan dust properties using a multiwavelength Raman polarization lidar in Kashi, ChinaFrom a polar to a marine environment: has the changing Arctic led to a shift in aerosol light scattering properties?Atmospheric new particle formation characteristics in the Arctic as measured at Mount Zeppelin, Svalbard, from 2016 to 2018Rapid evolution of aerosol particles and their optical properties downwind of wildfires in the western USDistinct aerosol effects on cloud-to-ground lightning in the plateau and basin regions of Sichuan, Southwest ChinaSpatial and temporal representativeness of point measurements for nitrogen dioxide pollution levels in citiesVertical variability of the properties of highly aged biomass burning aerosol transported over the southeast Atlantic during CLARIFY-2017Large contribution of organics to condensational growth and formation of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the remote marine boundary layerENSO Effect on Interannual Variability of Spring Aerosols over East AsiaDecennial time trends and diurnal patterns of particle number concentrations in a central European city between 2008 and 2018Roles of climate variability on the rapid increases of early winter haze pollution in North China after 2010Drivers of cloud droplet number variability in the summertime in the southeastern United StatesRoll vortices induce new particle formation bursts in the planetary boundary layerLarge-scale ion generation for precipitation of atmospheric aerosolsAerosol light absorption and the role of extremely low volatility organic compoundsSize-resolved particle number emissions in Beijing determined from measured particle size distributionsEffects of marine fuel sulfur restrictions on particle number concentrations and size distributions in ship plumes at the Baltic SeaDaytime aerosol optical depth above low-level clouds is similar to that in adjacent clear skies at the same heights: airborne observation above the southeast AtlanticAbsorption closure in highly aged biomass burning smoke
Christian Zdanowicz, Jean-Charles Gallet, Mats P. Björkman, Catherine Larose, Thomas Schuler, Bartłomiej Luks, Krystyna Koziol, Andrea Spolaor, Elena Barbaro, Tõnu Martma, Ward van Pelt, Ulla Wideqvist, and Johan Ström
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3035–3057,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) aerosols are soot-like particles which, when transported to the Arctic, darken snow surfaces, thus indirectly affecting climate. Information on BC in Arctic snow is needed to measure their impact and monitor the efficacy of pollution-reduction policies. This paper presents a large new set of BC measurements in snow in Svalbard collected between 2007 and 2018. It describes how BC in snow varies across the archipelago and explores some factors controlling these variations.
Jonas Svensson, Johan Ström, Henri Honkanen, Eija Asmi, Nathaniel B. Dkhar, Shresth Tayal, Ved P. Sharma, Rakesh Hooda, Matti Leppäranta, Hans-Werner Jacobi, Heikki Lihavainen, and Antti Hyvärinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2931–2943,Short summary
Light-absorbing particles specifically affect snowmelt in the Himalayas. Through measurements of the constituents in glacier snow pits from the Indian Himalayas our investigations show that different snow layers display striking similarities. These similarities can be characterized by a deposition constant. Our results further indicate that mineral dust can be responsible for the majority of light absorption in the snow in this part of the Himalayas.
Imre Salma, Wanda Thén, Pasi Aalto, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Anikó Kern, Zoltán Barcza, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2861–2880,Short summary
The distribution of the monthly mean nucleation frequency possessed a characteristic pattern. Its shape was compared to those of environmental variables, including vegetation-derived properties. The spring maximum in the occurrence frequency often overlapped with the positive T anomaly. The link between the heat stress and the occurrence minimum in summer could not be proven, whereas an association between the occurrence frequency and vegetation growth dynamics was clearly identified in spring.
Xiaoyan Wang, Renhe Zhang, Yanke Tan, and Wei Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2491–2508,Short summary
The physical mechanisms of synoptic patterns affecting the decay process of air pollution episodes are investigated in this work. Three dominant circulation patterns are identified, which usually decrease the ambient PM2.5 concentrations by 27%–41% after they arrive around Beijing. Emission reductions led to a 4.3–5.7 μg (m3 yr-1)-1 decrease in PM2.5 concentrations around Beijing during 2014 to 2020.
Simone Brunamonti, Giovanni Martucci, Gonzague Romanens, Yann Poltera, Frank G. Wienhold, Maxime Hervo, Alexander Haefele, and Francisco Navas-Guzmán
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2267–2285,Short summary
Lidar (light detection and ranging) is a class of remote-sensing instruments that are widely used for the monitoring of aerosol properties in the lower levels of the atmosphere, yet their measurements are affected by several sources of uncertainty. Here we present the first comparison of two lidar systems against a fully independent instrument carried by meteorological balloons. We show that both lidars achieve a good agreement with the high-precision balloon measurements up to 6 km altitude.
Runlong Cai, Chenxi Li, Xu-Cheng He, Chenjuan Deng, Yiqun Lu, Rujing Yin, Chao Yan, Lin Wang, Jingkun Jiang, Markku Kulmala, and Juha Kangasluoma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2287–2304,Short summary
Growth rate determines the survival probability of atmospheric new particles and hence their impacts. We clarify the impacts of coagulation on the values retrieved by the appearance time method, which is widely used for growth rate evaluation. A new formula with coagulation correction is proposed based on derivation and tested using both models and atmospheric data. We show that the sub-3 nm particle growth rate in polluted environments may be overestimated without the coagulation correction.
Jean-François Léon, Aristide Barthélémy Akpo, Mouhamadou Bedou, Julien Djossou, Marleine Bodjrenou, Véronique Yoboué, and Cathy Liousse
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1815–1834,Short summary
We have investigated the aerosol optical depth (AOD) and its relation to PM2.5 surface concentrations in southern West Africa based on in situ observations (2015–2017 period) and MODIS satellite data (2003–2019). MODIS AODs are validated using a regional network of handheld and automatic sun photometers. Satellite-derived PM2.5 shows an increasing trend during the short dry period that is possibly linked to the increase in anthropogenic emission over this area.
Antti Ruuskanen, Sami Romakkaniemi, Harri Kokkola, Antti Arola, Santtu Mikkonen, Harri Portin, Annele Virtanen, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, Mika Komppula, and Ari Leskinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1683–1695,Short summary
The study focuses mainly on cloud-scavenging efficiency of absorbing particulate matter (mainly black carbon) but additionally covers cloud-scavenging efficiency of scattering particles and statistics of cloud condensation nuclei. The main findings give insight into how black carbon is distributed in different particle sizes and the sensitivity to cloud scavenged. The main findings are useful for large-scale modelling for evaluating cloud scavenging.
Jessie M. Creamean, Gijs de Boer, Hagen Telg, Fan Mei, Darielle Dexheimer, Matthew D. Shupe, Amy Solomon, and Allison McComiskey
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1737–1757,Short summary
Arctic clouds play a role in modulating sea ice extent. Importantly, aerosols facilitate cloud formation, and thus it is crucial to understand the interactions between aerosols and clouds. Vertical measurements of aerosols and clouds are needed to tackle this issue. We present results from balloon-borne measurements of aerosols and clouds over the course of 2 years in northern Alaska. These data shed light onto the vertical distributions of aerosols relative to clouds spanning multiple seasons.
Jens Redemann, Robert Wood, Paquita Zuidema, Sarah J. Doherty, Bernadette Luna, Samuel E. LeBlanc, Michael S. Diamond, Yohei Shinozuka, Ian Y. Chang, Rei Ueyama, Leonhard Pfister, Ju-Mee Ryoo, Amie N. Dobracki, Arlindo M. da Silva, Karla M. Longo, Meloë S. Kacenelenbogen, Connor J. Flynn, Kristina Pistone, Nichola M. Knox, Stuart J. Piketh, James M. Haywood, Paola Formenti, Marc Mallet, Philip Stier, Andrew S. Ackerman, Susanne E. Bauer, Ann M. Fridlind, Gregory R. Carmichael, Pablo E. Saide, Gonzalo A. Ferrada, Steven G. Howell, Steffen Freitag, Brian Cairns, Brent N. Holben, Kirk D. Knobelspiesse, Simone Tanelli, Tristan S. L'Ecuyer, Andrew M. Dzambo, Ousmane O. Sy, Greg M. McFarquhar, Michael R. Poellot, Siddhant Gupta, Joseph R. O'Brien, Athanasios Nenes, Mary Kacarab, Jenny P. S. Wong, Jennifer D. Small-Griswold, Kenneth L. Thornhill, David Noone, James R. Podolske, K. Sebastian Schmidt, Peter Pilewskie, Hong Chen, Sabrina P. Cochrane, Arthur J. Sedlacek, Timothy J. Lang, Eric Stith, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, Richard A. Ferrare, Sharon P. Burton, Chris A. Hostetler, David J. Diner, Felix C. Seidel, Steven E. Platnick, Jeffrey S. Myers, Kerry G. Meyer, Douglas A. Spangenberg, Hal Maring, and Lan Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1507–1563,Short summary
Southern Africa produces significant biomass burning emissions whose impacts on regional and global climate are poorly understood. ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS) is a 5-year NASA investigation designed to study the key processes that determine these climate impacts. The main purpose of this paper is to familiarize the broader scientific community with the ORACLES project, the dataset it produced, and the most important initial findings.
Chuanyang Shen, Gang Zhao, Weilun Zhao, Ping Tian, and Chunsheng Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1375–1388,Short summary
Submicron particles larger than 300 nm dominate the aerosol light extinction and mass concentration in the urban environment. Aerosol hygroscopic properties extended to 600 nm were investigated at an urban site. Our results find that there exists a large fraction of a less hygroscopic group above 300 nm, and the hygroscopicity in this size range is enhanced significantly with the development of pollution levels. The hygroscopicity variation contributes greatly to the low visibility.
Krista Luoma, Jarkko V. Niemi, Minna Aurela, Pak Lun Fung, Aku Helin, Tareq Hussein, Leena Kangas, Anu Kousa, Topi Rönkkö, Hilkka Timonen, Aki Virkkula, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1173–1189,Short summary
This study combined black carbon measurements from 15 Finnish sites that represented different environments (traffic, detached housing area, urban background, and regional background). The seasonal and diurnal variations in the black carbon concentration were associated with local emissions from traffic and residential wood burning. The study observed decreasing trends in the black carbon concentration and associated them with decreases in traffic emissions.
Nobuyuki Takegawa, Yoshiko Murashima, Akihiro Fushimi, Kentaro Misawa, Yuji Fujitani, Katsumi Saitoh, and Hiromu Sakurai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1085–1104,Short summary
The characterization of particle emissions from aircraft is important for the assessment of the aviation impacts on climate and human health. We conducted field observations of aerosols near a runway at Narita International Airport in February 2018. We investigated particle number emissions from in-use commercial aircraft under real-world operating conditions, and we found the significance of sub-10 nm size ranges in take-off plumes for both total and non-volatile particles.
Jim M. Haywood, Steven J. Abel, Paul A. Barrett, Nicolas Bellouin, Alan Blyth, Keith N. Bower, Melissa Brooks, Ken Carslaw, Haochi Che, Hugh Coe, Michael I. Cotterell, Ian Crawford, Zhiqiang Cui, Nicholas Davies, Beth Dingley, Paul Field, Paola Formenti, Hamish Gordon, Martin de Graaf, Ross Herbert, Ben Johnson, Anthony C. Jones, Justin M. Langridge, Florent Malavelle, Daniel G. Partridge, Fanny Peers, Jens Redemann, Philip Stier, Kate Szpek, Jonathan W. Taylor, Duncan Watson-Parris, Robert Wood, Huihui Wu, and Paquita Zuidema
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1049–1084,Short summary
Every year, the seasonal cycle of biomass burning from agricultural practices in Africa creates a huge plume of smoke that travels many thousands of kilometres over the Atlantic Ocean. This study provides an overview of a measurement campaign called the cloud–aerosol–radiation interaction and forcing for year 2017 (CLARIFY-2017) and documents the rationale, deployment strategy, observations, and key results from the campaign which utilized the heavily equipped FAAM atmospheric research aircraft.
Huikun Liu, Qiyuan Wang, Li Xing, Yong Zhang, Ting Zhang, Weikang Ran, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 973–987,Short summary
We conducted black carbon (BC) source apportionment on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau (TP) by an improved aethalometer model with the site-dependent Ångström exponent and BC mass absorption cross section (MAC). The result shows that the biomass-burning BC on the TP is slightly higher than fossil fuel BC, mainly from cross-border transportation instead of the local region, and the BC radiative effect is lower than that in the southwestern Himalaya but higher than that on the northeastern TP.
Vasiliki Daskalopoulou, Sotirios A. Mallios, Zbigniew Ulanowski, George Hloupis, Anna Gialitaki, Ioanna Tsikoudi, Konstantinos Tassis, and Vassilis Amiridis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 927–949,Short summary
This research highlights the detection of charged Saharan dust in Greece and provides indications of charge separation in the plumes through the first-ever co-located ground electric field measurements and sophisticated lidar observations. We provide a robust methodology for the extraction of a fair-weather proxy field used to assess the effect of lofted dust particles to the electric field and insert a realistic modelling aspect to the charge accumulation areas within electrically active dust.
Juha Sulo, Nina Sarnela, Jenni Kontkanen, Lauri Ahonen, Pauli Paasonen, Tiia Laurila, Tuija Jokinen, Juha Kangasluoma, Heikki Junninen, Mikko Sipilä, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Katrianne Lehtipalo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 695–715,Short summary
In this study, we analyzed over 5 years of sub-3 nm particle concentrations and their precursor vapors, identifying atmoshperic vapors important to the formation of these particles in the boreal forest. We also observed seasonal differences in both particle and precursor vapor concentrations and the formation pathways of these particles. Our results confirm the importance of organic vapors in atmospheric aerosol formation and highlight key seasonal differences that require further study.
Jinfeng Yuan, Robin Lewis Modini, Marco Zanatta, Andreas B. Herber, Thomas Müller, Birgit Wehner, Laurent Poulain, Thomas Tuch, Urs Baltensperger, and Martin Gysel-Beer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 635–655,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) aerosols contribute substantially to climate warming due to their unique light absorption capabilities. We performed field measurements at a central European background site in winter and found that variability in the absorption efficiency of BC particles is driven mainly by their internal mixing state. Our results suggest that, at this site, knowing the BC mixing state is sufficient to describe BC light absorption enhancements due to the lensing effect in good approximation.
Shuo Ding, Dantong Liu, Kang Hu, Delong Zhao, Ping Tian, Fei Wang, Ruijie Li, Yichen Chen, Hui He, Mengyu Huang, and Deping Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 681–694,Short summary
In this study, we for the first time characterized the detailed black carbon (BC) microphysics at a mountain site located at the top of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) influenced by surface emission over the North China Plain. We investigated the optical and hygroscopic properties of BC at this level as influenced by microphysical properties. Such information will constrain the impacts of BC in influencing the PBL dynamics and low-level cloud formation over anthropogenically polluted regions.
David Brus, Jani Gustafsson, Ville Vakkari, Osku Kemppinen, Gijs de Boer, and Anne Hirsikko
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 517–533,Short summary
This paper summarizes Finnish Meteorological Institute and Kansas State University unmanned aerial vehicle measurements during the summer 2018 Lower Atmospheric Process Studies at Elevation – a Remotely-piloted Aircraft Team Experiment (LAPSE-RATE) campaign in the San Luis Valley, providing an overview of the rotorcraft deployed, payloads, scientific goals and flight strategies and presenting observations of atmospheric thermodynamics and aerosol and gas parameters in the vertical column.
Jesús Yus-Díez, Marina Ealo, Marco Pandolfi, Noemí Perez, Gloria Titos, Griša Močnik, Xavier Querol, and Andrés Alastuey
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 431–455,Short summary
Here we describe the vertical profiles of extensive (scattering and absorption) and intensive (e.g. albedo and asymmetry parameter) aerosol optical properties from coupling ground-based measurements from two sites in north-eastern Spain and airborne measurements performed with an aircraft. We analyse different aerosol layers along the vertical profile for a regional pollution episode and a Saharan dust intrusion. The results show a change with height depending on the different measured layers.
Carolina Ramírez-Romero, Alejandro Jaramillo, María F. Córdoba, Graciela B. Raga, Javier Miranda, Harry Alvarez-Ospina, Daniel Rosas, Talib Amador, Jong Sung Kim, Jacqueline Yakobi-Hancock, Darrel Baumgardner, and Luis A. Ladino
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 239–253,Short summary
Field measurements were conducted to confirm the arrival of African dust on the Yucatàn Peninsula. Aerosol particles were monitored at ground level by different online and off-line sensors. Several particulate matter peaks were observed with a relative increase in their levels of up to 500 % with respect to background conditions. Based on the chemical composition, back trajectories, vertical profiles, reanalysis, and satellite images, it was found that the peaks are linked to African dust.
Rutambhara Joshi, Dantong Liu, Eiko Nemitz, Ben Langford, Neil Mullinger, Freya Squires, James Lee, Yunfei Wu, Xiaole Pan, Pingqing Fu, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Qiang Zhang, Ruili Wu, Oliver Wild, Michael Flynn, Hugh Coe, and James Allan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 147–162,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) is a component of particulate matter which has significant effects on climate and human health. Sources of BC include biomass burning, transport, industry and domestic cooking and heating. In this study, we measured BC emissions in Beijing, finding a dominance of traffic emissions over all other sources. The quantitative method presented here has benefits for revising widely used emissions inventories and for understanding BC sources with impacts on air quality and climate.
Joseph Ko, Trevor Krasowsky, and George Ban-Weiss
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15635–15664,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) is the second strongest climate forcing pollutant in the atmosphere, after carbon dioxide. Here, we seek to understand how BC microphysical properties vary with atmospheric contexts, as these properties can influence its radiative forcing. Consistent with previous studies, we found that biomass burning BC had thicker coatings and larger core diameters than fossil fuel BC. We also present evidence to show that atmospheric aging also increases BC coating thickness.
Imre Salma, Máté Vörösmarty, András Zénó Gyöngyösi, Wanda Thén, and Tamás Weidinger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15725–15742,Short summary
Motor vehicle road traffic in Budapest was reduced by approximately 50% of its ordinary level due to COVID-19. In parallel, concentrations of most criteria air pollutants declined by 30–60%. Change rates of NO and NO2 with relative change in traffic intensity were the largest, total particle number concentration showed considerable dependency, while particulate matter mass concentrations did not appear to be related to urban traffic. Concentrations of O3 showed an increasing tendency.
Qiyuan Wang, Li Li, Jiamao Zhou, Jianhuai Ye, Wenting Dai, Huikun Liu, Yong Zhang, Renjian Zhang, Jie Tian, Yang Chen, Yunfei Wu, Weikang Ran, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15427–15442,Short summary
Recently, China has promulgated a series of regulations to reduce air pollutants. The decreased black carbon (BC) and co-emitted pollutants could affect the interactions between BC and other aerosols, which in turn results in changes in BC. Herein, we re-assessed the characteristics of BC of a representative pollution site in northern China in the final year of the Chinese
Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Air Pollution.
Agnieszka Kupc, Christina J. Williamson, Anna L. Hodshire, Jan Kazil, Eric Ray, T. Paul Bui, Maximilian Dollner, Karl D. Froyd, Kathryn McKain, Andrew Rollins, Gregory P. Schill, Alexander Thames, Bernadett B. Weinzierl, Jeffrey R. Pierce, and Charles A. Brock
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15037–15060,Short summary
Tropical upper troposphere over the Atlantic and Pacific oceans is a major source region of new particles. These particles are associated with the outflow from deep convection. We investigate the processes that govern the formation of these particles and their initial growth and show that none of the formation schemes commonly used in global models are consistent with observations. Using newer schemes indicates that organic compounds are likely important as nucleating and initial growth agents.
Yuan Wang, Xiaojian Zheng, Xiquan Dong, Baike Xi, Peng Wu, Timothy Logan, and Yuk L. Yung
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14741–14755,Short summary
A recent aircraft field campaign near the Azores in the summer of 2017 provides ample observations of aerosols and clouds with detailed vertical information. This study utilizes those observational data in combination with the aerosol-aware large-eddy simulations and aerosol reanalysis data to examine the significance of the long-range-transported aerosol effect on marine-boundary-layer clouds. It is the first time that the ACE-ENA aircraft campaign data are used for this topic.
Douglas Morrison, Ian Crawford, Nicholas Marsden, Michael Flynn, Katie Read, Luis Neves, Virginia Foot, Paul Kaye, Warren Stanley, Hugh Coe, David Topping, and Martin Gallagher
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14473–14490,Short summary
We provide conservative estimates of the concentrations of bacteria within transatlantic dust clouds, originating from the African continent. We observe significant seasonal differences in the overall concentrations of particles but no seasonal variation in the ratio between bacteria and dust. With bacteria contributing to ice formation at warmer temperatures than dust, our observations should improve the accuracy of climate models.
Juan Andrés Casquero-Vera, Hassan Lyamani, Lubna Dada, Simo Hakala, Pauli Paasonen, Roberto Román, Roberto Fraile, Tuukka Petäjä, Francisco José Olmo-Reyes, and Lucas Alados-Arboledas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14253–14271,Short summary
New particle formation was investigated at two stations located close to each other but at different altitudes: urban and high-altitude sites. Results show that sulfuric acid is able to explain a minimal fraction contribution to the observed growth rates and point to the availability of volatile organic compounds as the main factor controlling NPF events at both sites. A closer analysis of the NPF events that were observed at high-altitude sites during a Saharan dust episode was carried out.
Junfeng Wang, Jianhuai Ye, Dantong Liu, Yangzhou Wu, Jian Zhao, Weiqi Xu, Conghui Xie, Fuzhen Shen, Jie Zhang, Paul E. Ohno, Yiming Qin, Xiuyong Zhao, Scot T. Martin, Alex K. Y. Lee, Pingqing Fu, Daniel J. Jacob, Qi Zhang, Yele Sun, Mindong Chen, and Xinlei Ge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14091–14102,Short summary
We compared the organics in total submicron matter and those coated on BC cores during summertime in Beijing and found large differences between them. Traffic-related OA was associated significantly with BC, while cooking-related OA did not coat BC. In addition, a factor likely originated from primary biomass burning OA was only identified in BC-containing particles. Such a unique BBOA requires further field and laboratory studies to verify its presence and elucidate its properties and impacts.
Qiaoyun Hu, Haofei Wang, Philippe Goloub, Zhengqiang Li, Igor Veselovskii, Thierry Podvin, Kaitao Li, and Mikhail Korenskiy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13817–13834,Short summary
This study presents the characteristics of Taklamakan dust particles derived from lidar measurements collected in the dust aerosol observation field campaign. It provides comprehensive parameters for Taklamakan dust properties and vertical distributions of Taklamakan dust. This paper also points out the importance of polluted dust which was frequently observed in the field campaign. The results contribute to improving knowledge about dust and reducing uncertainties in the climatic model.
Dominic Heslin-Rees, Maria Burgos, Hans-Christen Hansson, Radovan Krejci, Johan Ström, Peter Tunved, and Paul Zieger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13671–13686,Short summary
Aerosol particles are one important key player in the Arctic climate. Using long-term measurements of particle light scattering from an observatory on Svalbard, this study investigates the reasons behind an observed shift towards larger particles seen in the last 2 decades. We find that increases in sea spray are the most likely cause. Air masses from the south-west have increased significantly, suggestive of a potential mechanism, whilst the retreat in sea ice has a marginal influence.
Haebum Lee, Kwangyul Lee, Chris Rene Lunder, Radovan Krejci, Wenche Aas, Jiyeon Park, Ki-Tae Park, Bang Yong Lee, Young Jun Yoon, and Kihong Park
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13425–13441,Short summary
New particle formation (NPF) contributes to enhance the number of particles in the ambient atmosphere, affecting local air quality and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration. This study investigated NPF characteristics in the Arctic and showed that although formation and growth rates of nanoparticles were much lower than those in continental areas, NPF occurrence frequency was comparable and marine biogenic sources played important roles in production of condensing vapors for NPF.
Lawrence I. Kleinman, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, Kouji Adachi, Peter R. Buseck, Sonya Collier, Manvendra K. Dubey, Anna L. Hodshire, Ernie Lewis, Timothy B. Onasch, Jeffery R. Pierce, John Shilling, Stephen R. Springston, Jian Wang, Qi Zhang, Shan Zhou, and Robert J. Yokelson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13319–13341,Short summary
Aerosols from wildfires affect the Earth's temperature by absorbing light or reflecting it back into space. This study investigates time-dependent chemical, microphysical, and optical properties of aerosols generated by wildfires in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Wildfire smoke plumes were traversed by an instrumented aircraft at locations near the fire and up to 3.5 h travel time downwind. Although there was no net aerosol production, aerosol particles grew and became more efficient scatters.
Pengguo Zhao, Zhanqing Li, Hui Xiao, Fang Wu, Youtong Zheng, Maureen C. Cribb, Xiaoai Jin, and Yunjun Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13379–13397,Short summary
We discussed the different aerosol effects on lightning in plateau and basin regions of Sichuan, southwestern China. In the plateau area, the aerosol concentration is low, and aerosols (via microphysical effects) inhibit the process of warm rain and stimulate convection and lightning activity. In the basin region, however, aerosols tend to show a significant radiative effect (reducing the solar radiation reaching the surface by absorbing and scattering) and inhibit the lightning.
Ying Zhu, Jia Chen, Xiao Bi, Gerrit Kuhlmann, Ka Lok Chan, Florian Dietrich, Dominik Brunner, Sheng Ye, and Mark Wenig
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13241–13251,Short summary
Average NO2 concentration of on-street mobile measurements (MMs) near the monitoring stations (MSs) was found to be considerably higher than the MSs data. The common measurement height (H) and distance (D) of the MSs result in 27 % lower average concentrations in total than the concentration of our MMs. Another 21 % difference remained after correcting the influence of the measuring H and D. This result makes our city-wide measurements for capturing the full range of concentrations necessary.
Huihui Wu, Jonathan W. Taylor, Kate Szpek, Justin M. Langridge, Paul I. Williams, Michael Flynn, James D. Allan, Steven J. Abel, Joseph Pitt, Michael I. Cotterell, Cathryn Fox, Nicholas W. Davies, Jim Haywood, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12697–12719,Short summary
Airborne measurements of highly aged biomass burning aerosols (BBAs) over the remote southeast Atlantic provide unique aerosol parameters for climate models. Our observations demonstrate the persistence of strongly absorbing BBAs across wide regions of the South Atlantic. We also found significant vertical variation in the single-scattering albedo of these BBAs, as a function of relative chemical composition and size. Aerosol properties in the marine BL are suggested to be separated from the FT.
Guangjie Zheng, Chongai Kuang, Janek Uin, Thomas Watson, and Jian Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12515–12525,Short summary
Condensational growth of Aitken-mode particles is a major source of cloud condensation nuclei in the remote marine boundary layer. It has been long thought that over remote oceans, condensation growth is dominated by sulfate that derives from ocean-emitted dimethyl sulfide. In this study, we present the first long-term observational evidence that, contrary to conventional thinking, organics play an even more important role than sulfate in particle growth over remote oceans throughout the year.
Anbao Zhu, Haiming Xu, Jiechun Deng, Jing Ma, and Shuhui Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACP
Santtu Mikkonen, Zoltán Németh, Veronika Varga, Tamás Weidinger, Ville Leinonen, Taina Yli-Juuti, and Imre Salma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12247–12263,Short summary
We determined decennial statistical time trends and diurnal statistical patterns of atmospheric particle number concentrations in various relevant size fractions in the city centre of Budapest in an interval of 2008–2018. The mean overall decrease rate of particles in different size fractions was approximately −5 % scaled for the 10-year measurement interval. The decline can be interpreted as a consequence of the decreased anthropogenic emissions in the city.
Yijia Zhang, Zhicong Yin, and Huijun Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12211–12221,Short summary
Haze events in early winter in North China exhibited rapid growth after 2010, which was completely different from the slow decline observed before 2010. However, global warming and anthropogenic emissions could not explain this trend reversal well, which was puzzling. Our study found that four climate factors, exhibiting completely opposite trends before and after 2010, effectively drove the trend reversal of the haze pollution in North China.
Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Athanasios Nenes, Jack J. Lin, Charles A. Brock, Joost A. de Gouw, Jin Liao, Ann M. Middlebrook, and André Welti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12163–12176,Short summary
The number concentration of droplets in clouds in the summertime in the southeastern United States is influenced by aerosol variations but limited by the strong competition for supersaturated water vapor. Concurrent variations in vertical velocity magnify the response of cloud droplet number to aerosol increases by up to a factor of 5. Omitting the covariance of vertical velocity with aerosol number may therefore bias estimates of the cloud albedo effect from aerosols.
Janne Lampilahti, Hanna Elina Manninen, Katri Leino, Riikka Väänänen, Antti Manninen, Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Tuomo Nieminen, Matti Leskinen, Joonas Enroth, Marja Bister, Sergej Zilitinkevich, Juha Kangasluoma, Heikki Järvinen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11841–11854,Short summary
In this work, by using co-located airborne and ground-based measurements, we show that counter-rotating horizontal circulations in the planetary boundary layer (roll vortices) frequently enhance regional new particle formation or induce localized bursts of new particle formation. These observations can be explained by the ability of the rolls to efficiently lift low-volatile vapors emitted from the surface to the top of the boundary layer where new particle formation is more favorable.
Shaoxiang Ma, He Cheng, Jiacheng Li, Maoyuan Xu, Dawei Liu, and Kostya Ostrikov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11717–11727,Short summary
Our work suggests that a large corona discharge system is an efficient and possibly economically sustainable way to increase the ion density in the open air and control the precipitation of atmospheric aerosols. Once the system is installed on a mountaintop, it will generate lots of charged nuclei, which may trigger water precipitation or fog elimination within a certain region in the downwind directions.
Antonios Tasoglou, Evangelos Louvaris, Kalliopi Florou, Aikaterini Liangou, Eleni Karnezi, Christos Kaltsonoudis, Ningxin Wang, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11625–11637,Short summary
A month-long set of summertime measurements in a remote area in the Mediterranean is used to quantify aerosol absorption. The measured light absorption was two or more times higher than that of fresh black carbon. The absorption enhancement due to the coating of black carbon cores by other aerosol components could explain only part of this absorption enhancement. The rest was due to brown carbon, mostly in the form of extremely low volatility organic compounds.
Jenni Kontkanen, Chenjuan Deng, Yueyun Fu, Lubna Dada, Ying Zhou, Jing Cai, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Simo Hakala, Tom V. Kokkonen, Zhuohui Lin, Yongchun Liu, Yonghong Wang, Chao Yan, Tuukka Petäjä, Jingkun Jiang, Markku Kulmala, and Pauli Paasonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11329–11348,Short summary
To estimate the impacts of atmospheric aerosol particles on air quality, knowledge of size distributions of particles emitted from anthropogenic sources is needed. We introduce a new method for determining size-resolved particle number emissions from measured particle size distributions. We apply our method to data measured in Beijing, China. We find that particle number emissions at our site are dominated by emissions of particles smaller than 30 nm, originating mainly from traffic.
Sami Seppälä, Joel Kuula, Antti-Pekka Hyvärinen, Sanna Saarikoski, Topi Rönkkö, Jorma Keskinen, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, and Hilkka Timonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Effects of fuel sulfur content restrictions implemented by the International Maritime Organization at the Baltic Sea, in July 2010 and January 2015, on the particle properties of ship exhaust plumes and ambient aerosol were studied. The restrictions reduced the particle number concentrations and median particle size in plumes and number concentrations in the ambient aerosol. These changes may improve human health in coastal areas and decrease the cooling effect of the exhaust emissions of ships.
Yohei Shinozuka, Meloë S. Kacenelenbogen, Sharon P. Burton, Steven G. Howell, Paquita Zuidema, Richard A. Ferrare, Samuel E. LeBlanc, Kristina Pistone, Stephen Broccardo, Jens Redemann, K. Sebastian Schmidt, Sabrina P. Cochrane, Marta Fenn, Steffen Freitag, Amie Dobracki, Michal Segal-Rosenheimer, and Connor J. Flynn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11275–11285,Short summary
To help satellite retrieval of aerosols and studies of their radiative effects, we demonstrate that daytime aerosol optical depth over low-level clouds is similar to that in neighboring clear skies at the same heights. Based on recent airborne lidar and sun photometer observations above the southeast Atlantic, the mean AOD difference at 532 nm is between 0 and -0.01, when comparing the cloudy and clear sides of cloud edges, with each up to 20 km wide.
Jonathan W. Taylor, Huihui Wu, Kate Szpek, Keith Bower, Ian Crawford, Michael J. Flynn, Paul I. Williams, James Dorsey, Justin M. Langridge, Michael I. Cotterell, Cathryn Fox, Nicholas W. Davies, Jim M. Haywood, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11201–11221,Short summary
Every year, huge plumes of smoke hundreds of miles wide travel over the south Atlantic Ocean from fires in central and southern Africa. These plumes absorb the sun’s energy and warm the climate. We used airborne optical instrumentation to determine how absorbing the smoke was as well as the relative importance of black and brown carbon. We also tested different ways of simulating these properties that could be used in a climate model.
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To understand the impact of transboundary atmospheric black carbon on the Mt. Everest region and depict the transport pathways in different spatiotemporal scales, we first investigated the concentration level, temporal variation, and sources of black carbon based on high-resolution (2-year) measurements at Qomolangma (Mt. Everest) Station (4276 m a.s.l.). Next, the WRF-Chem simulations were used to reveal the transport mechanisms of black carbon from southern Asia to the Mt. Everest region.
To understand the impact of transboundary atmospheric black carbon on the Mt. Everest region and...