Articles | Volume 15, issue 21
13 Nov 2015
Research article | 13 Nov 2015
The effects of global change upon United States air quality
R. Gonzalez-Abraham et al.
No articles found.
Yuxuan Wang, Nan Lin, Wei Li, Alex Guenther, Joey C. Y. Lam, Amos P. K. Tai, Mark J. Potosnak, and Roger Seco
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14189–14208,Short summary
Drought can cause large changes in biogenic isoprene emissions. In situ field observations of isoprene emissions during droughts are confined by spatial coverage and, thus, provide limited constraints. We derived a drought stress factor based on satellite HCHO data for MEGAN2.1 in the GEOS-Chem model using water stress and temperature. This factor reduces the overestimation of isoprene emissions during severe droughts and improves the simulated O3 and organic aerosol responses to droughts.
Lejish Vettikkat, Pasi Miettinen, Angela Buchholz, Pekka Rantala, Hao Yu, Simon Schallhart, Roger Seco, Elisa Männistö, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Alex B. Guenther, and Siegfried Schobesberger
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Wetlands cover a substantial fraction of the land mass in the northern latitudes: from Northern Europe to Siberia and Canada. Yet, terpene emissions from wetlands have remained understudied. For our study, we used a state-of-the-art measurement technique to quantify ecosystem emissions from a boreal wetland during an unusually warm spring/summer. We found that terpene emissions from this wetland were (a) stronger overall and (b) even more strongly dependent on temperature than commonly thought.
Elizabeth Klovenski, Yuxuan Wang, Susanne E. Bauer, Kostas Tsigaridis, Greg Faluvegi, Igor Aleinov, Nancy Y. Kiang, Alex Guenther, Xiaoyan Jiang, Wei Li, and Nan Lin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13303–13323,Short summary
Severe drought stresses vegetation and causes reduced emission of isoprene. We study the impact of including a new isoprene drought stress (yd) parameterization in NASA GISS ModelE called DroughtStress_ModelE, which is specifically tuned for ModelE. Inclusion of yd leads to better simulated isoprene emissions at the MOFLUX site during the severe drought of 2012, reduced overestimation of OMI satellite ΩHCHO (formaldehyde column), and improved simulated O3 (ozone) during drought.
Jason R. Schroeder, Chenxia Cai, Jin Xu, David Ridley, Jin Lu, Nancy Bui, Fang Yan, and Jeremy Avise
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12985–13000,Short summary
Ozone, a key component of smog, has plagued the Los Angeles (LA) region for decades. Ozone is created by complex chemical reactions that can be greatly impacted by anthropogenic emissions. This study makes use of the COVID-19 period to study the sensitivity of ozone chemistry in LA to certain anthropogenic emissions, notably from vehicles. We find that vehicular emissions of key pollutants dropped by up to 25 % during COVID-19, which caused a fundamental shift in ozone chemistry in the region.
Detlev Helmig, Alex Guenther, Jacques Hueber, Ryan Daly, Wei Wang, Jeong-Hoo Park, Anssi Liikanen, and Arnaud P. Praplan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5439–5454,Short summary
This research demonstrates a new method for determination of the chemical reactivity of volatile organic compounds that are emitted from the leaves and needles of trees. These measurements allow elucidating if and how much of these emissions and their associated reactivity are captured and quantified by currently applicable chemical analysis methods.
Erin Towler, Sydney S. Foks, Aubrey L. Dugger, Jesse E. Dickinson, Hedeff I. Essaid, David Gochis, Roland J. Viger, and Yongxin Zhang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for HESSShort summary
Models that have been developed to assess water availability and risks need to be evaluated for skill and utility. This study documents baseline performance for two hydrologic models that simulate streamflow across the continental United States. Both models show similar overall performance, and better performance at sites that are less disturbed by human activities. The models showed their biggest differences in their estimates of low streamflows.
Deanna C. Myers, Saewung Kim, Steven Sjostedt, Alex B. Guenther, Roger Seco, Oscar Vega Bustillos, Julio Tota, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, and James N. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10061–10076,Short summary
We present the first measurements of gas-phase sulfuric acid from the Amazon basin and evaluate the efficacy of existing sulfuric acid parameterizations in this understudied region. Sulfuric acid is produced during the daytime and nighttime, though current proxies underestimate nighttime production. These results illustrate the need for better parameterizations of sulfuric acid and its precursors that are informed by measurements across a broad range of locations.
Hélène Angot, Connor Davel, Christine Wiedinmyer, Gabrielle Pétron, Jashan Chopra, Jacques Hueber, Brendan Blanchard, Ilann Bourgeois, Isaac Vimont, Stephen A. Montzka, Ben R. Miller, James W. Elkins, and Detlev Helmig
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15153–15170,Short summary
After a multidecadal global decline in atmospheric abundance of ethane and propane (precursors of tropospheric ozone and aerosols), previous work showed a reversal of this trend in 2009–2015 in the Northern Hemisphere due to the growth in oil and natural gas production in North America. Here we show a temporary pause in the growth of atmospheric ethane and propane in 2015–2018 and highlight the critical need for additional top-down studies to further constrain ethane and propane emissions.
Chinmoy Sarkar, Gracie Wong, Anne Mielnik, Sanjeevi Nagalingam, Nicole Jenna Gross, Alex B. Guenther, Taehyoung Lee, Taehyun Park, Jihee Ban, Seokwon Kang, Jin-Soo Park, Joonyoung Ahn, Danbi Kim, Hyunjae Kim, Jinsoo Choi, Beom-Keun Seo, Jong-Ho Kim, Jeong-Ho Kim, Soo Bog Park, and Saewung Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11505–11518,Short summary
We present experimental proofs illustrating the emission of an unexplored volatile organic compound, tentatively assigned as ketene, in an industrial facility in South Korea. The emission of such a compound has rarely been reported, but our experimental data show that the emission rate is substantial. It potentially has tremendous implications for regional air quality and public health, as it is highly reactive and toxic at the same time.
Benjamin N. Murphy, Christopher G. Nolte, Fahim Sidi, Jesse O. Bash, K. Wyat Appel, Carey Jang, Daiwen Kang, James Kelly, Rohit Mathur, Sergey Napelenok, George Pouliot, and Havala O. T. Pye
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3407–3420,Short summary
The algorithms for applying air pollution emission rates in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model have been improved to better support users and developers. The new features accommodate emissions perturbation studies that are typical in atmospheric research and output a wealth of metadata for each model run so assumptions can be verified and documented. The new approach dramatically enhances the transparency and functionality of this critical aspect of atmospheric modeling.
Beata Opacka, Jean-François Müller, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, Maite Bauwens, Katerina Sindelarova, Jana Markova, and Alex B. Guenther
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8413–8436,Short summary
Isoprene is mainly emitted from plants, and about 80 % of its global emissions occur in the tropics. Current isoprene inventories are usually based on modelled vegetation maps, but high pressure on land use over the last decades has led to severe losses, especially in tropical forests, that are not considered by models. We provide a study on the present-day impact of spaceborne land cover changes on isoprene emissions and the first inventory based on high-resolution Landsat tree cover dataset.
K. Wyat Appel, Jesse O. Bash, Kathleen M. Fahey, Kristen M. Foley, Robert C. Gilliam, Christian Hogrefe, William T. Hutzell, Daiwen Kang, Rohit Mathur, Benjamin N. Murphy, Sergey L. Napelenok, Christopher G. Nolte, Jonathan E. Pleim, George A. Pouliot, Havala O. T. Pye, Limei Ran, Shawn J. Roselle, Golam Sarwar, Donna B. Schwede, Fahim I. Sidi, Tanya L. Spero, and David C. Wong
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2867–2897,Short summary
This paper details the scientific updates in the recently released CMAQ version 5.3 (and v5.3.1) and also includes operational and diagnostic evaluations of CMAQv5.3.1 against observations and the previous version of the CMAQ (v5.2.1). This work was done to improve the underlying science in CMAQ. This article is used to inform the CMAQ modeling community of the updates to the modeling system and the expected change in model performance from these updates (versus the previous model version).
Dianne Sanchez, Roger Seco, Dasa Gu, Alex Guenther, John Mak, Youngjae Lee, Danbi Kim, Joonyoung Ahn, Don Blake, Scott Herndon, Daun Jeong, John T. Sullivan, Thomas Mcgee, Rokjin Park, and Saewung Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6331–6345,Short summary
We present observations of total reactive gases in a suburban forest observatory in the Seoul metropolitan area. The quantitative comparison with speciated trace gas observations illustrated significant underestimation in atmospheric reactivity from the speciated trace gas observational dataset. We present scientific discussion about potential causes.
Hui Wang, Qizhong Wu, Alex B. Guenther, Xiaochun Yang, Lanning Wang, Tang Xiao, Jie Li, Jinming Feng, Qi Xu, and Huaqiong Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4825–4848,Short summary
We assessed the influence of the greening trend on BVOC emission in China. The comparison among different scenarios showed that vegetation changes resulting from land cover management are the main driver of BVOC emission change in China. Climate variability contributed significantly to interannual variations but not much to the long-term trend during the study period.
Chen Dayan, Erick Fredj, Pawel K. Misztal, Maor Gabay, Alex B. Guenther, and Eran Tas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12741–12759,Short summary
We studied the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds from both marine and terrestrial ecosystems in the Eastern Mediterranean Basin, a global warming hot spot. We focused on isoprene and dimethyl sulfide (DMS), which are well recognized for their effect on climate and strong impact on photochemical pollution by the former. We found high emissions of isoprene and a strong decadal decrease in the emission of DMS which can both be attributed to the strong increase in seawater temperature.
Archit Mehra, Jordan E. Krechmer, Andrew Lambe, Chinmoy Sarkar, Leah Williams, Farzaneh Khalaj, Alex Guenther, John Jayne, Hugh Coe, Douglas Worsnop, Celia Faiola, and Manjula Canagaratna
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10953–10965,Short summary
Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from plants are important for tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Real plant emissions are much more diverse than the few proxies widely used for studies of plant SOA. Here we present the first study of SOA from Californian sage plants and the oxygenated monoterpenes representing their major emissions. We identify SOA products and show the importance of the formation of highly oxygenated organic molecules and oligomers.
Chinmoy Sarkar, Alex B. Guenther, Jeong-Hoo Park, Roger Seco, Eliane Alves, Sarah Batalha, Raoni Santana, Saewung Kim, James Smith, Julio Tóta, and Oscar Vega
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7179–7191,Short summary
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are important components of the atmosphere due to their contribution to atmospheric chemistry and biogeochemical cycles. In this study, we report major BVOCs, e.g. isoprene and total monoterpene flux measurements with a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) using the eddy covariance (EC) method at a primary rainforest in eastern Amazonia. We used the measured data to evaluate the MEGAN2.1 model for the emission site.
Pablo E. Saide, Meng Gao, Zifeng Lu, Daniel L. Goldberg, David G. Streets, Jung-Hun Woo, Andreas Beyersdorf, Chelsea A. Corr, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Bruce Anderson, Johnathan W. Hair, Amin R. Nehrir, Glenn S. Diskin, Jose L. Jimenez, Benjamin A. Nault, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jack Dibb, Eric Heim, Kara D. Lamb, Joshua P. Schwarz, Anne E. Perring, Jhoon Kim, Myungje Choi, Brent Holben, Gabriele Pfister, Alma Hodzic, Gregory R. Carmichael, Louisa Emmons, and James H. Crawford
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6455–6478,Short summary
Air quality forecasts over the Korean Peninsula captured aerosol optical depth but largely overpredicted surface PM during a Chinese haze transport event. Model deficiency was related to the calculation of optical properties. In order to improve it, aerosol size representation needs to be refined in the calculations, and the representation of aerosol properties, such as size distribution, chemical composition, refractive index, hygroscopicity parameter, and density, needs to be improved.
Sam J. Silva, Colette L. Heald, and Alex B. Guenther
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 2569–2585,Short summary
Simulating the influence of the biosphere on atmospheric chemistry has traditionally been computationally intensive. We describe a surrogate canopy physics model parameterized using a statistical learning technique and specifically designed for use in large-scale chemical transport models. Our surrogate model reproduces a more detailed model to within 10 % without a large computational demand, improving the process representation of biosphere–atmosphere exchange.
Therese S. Carter, Colette L. Heald, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Yutaka Kondo, Nobuhiro Moteki, Joshua P. Schwarz, Christine Wiedinmyer, Anton S. Darmenov, Arlindo M. da Silva, and Johannes W. Kaiser
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2073–2097,Short summary
Fires and the smoke they emit impact air quality, health, and climate, but the abundance and properties of smoke remain uncertain and poorly constrained. To explore this, we compare model simulations driven by four commonly-used fire emission inventories with surface, aloft, and satellite observations. We show that across inventories smoke emissions differ by factors of 4 to 7 over North America, challenging our ability to accurately characterize the impact of smoke on air quality and climate.
Chi-Tsan Wang, Christine Wiedinmyer, Kirsti Ashworth, Peter C. Harley, John Ortega, Quazi Z. Rasool, and William Vizuete
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13973–13987,Short summary
The legal commercialization of cannabis has created a new and almost unregulated industry. Here we present the first inventory of volatile organic compound emissions from cannabis cultivation facilities (CCFs) for Colorado. When applied within a regulatory air quality model to predict regional ozone impacts, our inventory results in net ozone formation near CCFs with the largest increases in Denver County. However, our inventory is highly uncertain and we identify future critical data needs.
Daun Jeong, Roger Seco, Dasa Gu, Youngro Lee, Benjamin A. Nault, Christoph J. Knote, Tom Mcgee, John T. Sullivan, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Donald R. Blake, Dianne Sanchez, Alex B. Guenther, David Tanner, L. Gregory Huey, Russell Long, Bruce E. Anderson, Samuel R. Hall, Kirk Ullmann, Hye-jung Shin, Scott C. Herndon, Youngjae Lee, Danbi Kim, Joonyoung Ahn, and Saewung Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12779–12795,
Fang Li, Maria Val Martin, Meinrat O. Andreae, Almut Arneth, Stijn Hantson, Johannes W. Kaiser, Gitta Lasslop, Chao Yue, Dominique Bachelet, Matthew Forrest, Erik Kluzek, Xiaohong Liu, Stephane Mangeon, Joe R. Melton, Daniel S. Ward, Anton Darmenov, Thomas Hickler, Charles Ichoku, Brian I. Magi, Stephen Sitch, Guido R. van der Werf, Christine Wiedinmyer, and Sam S. Rabin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12545–12567,Short summary
Fire emissions are critical for atmospheric composition, climate, carbon cycle, and air quality. We provide the first global multi-model fire emission reconstructions for 1700–2012, including carbon and 33 species of trace gases and aerosols, based on the nine state-of-the-art global fire models that participated in FireMIP. We also provide information on the recent status and limitations of the model-based reconstructions and identify the main uncertainty sources in their long-term changes.
Emma L. D'Ambro, Siegfried Schobesberger, Cassandra J. Gaston, Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker, Ben H. Lee, Jiumeng Liu, Alla Zelenyuk, David Bell, Christopher D. Cappa, Taylor Helgestad, Ziyue Li, Alex Guenther, Jian Wang, Matthew Wise, Ryan Caylor, Jason D. Surratt, Theran Riedel, Noora Hyttinen, Vili-Taneli Salo, Galib Hasan, Theo Kurtén, John E. Shilling, and Joel A. Thornton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11253–11265,Short summary
Isoprene is the most abundantly emitted reactive organic gas globally, and thus it is important to understand its fate and role in aerosol formation and growth. A major product of its oxidation is an epoxydiol, IEPOX, which can be efficiently taken up by acidic aerosol to generate substantial amounts of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). We present chamber experiments exploring the properties of IEPOX SOA and reconcile discrepancies between field, laboratory, and model studies of this process.
Laura Kiely, Dominick V. Spracklen, Christine Wiedinmyer, Luke Conibear, Carly L. Reddington, Scott Archer-Nicholls, Douglas Lowe, Stephen R. Arnold, Christoph Knote, Md Firoz Khan, Mohd Talib Latif, Mikinori Kuwata, Sri Hapsari Budisulistiorini, and Lailan Syaufina
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11105–11121,Short summary
In 2015, a large fire episode occurred in Indonesia, reducing air quality. Fires occurred predominantly on peatland, where large uncertainties are associated with emissions. Current fire emissions datasets underestimate peat fire emissions. We created new fire emissions data, with data specific to Indonesian peat fires. Using these emissions in simulations of particulate matter and aerosol optical depth shows an improvement over simulations using current data, when compared with observations.
Karena A. McKinney, Daniel Wang, Jianhuai Ye, Jean-Baptiste de Fouchier, Patricia C. Guimarães, Carla E. Batista, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Eliane G. Alves, Dasa Gu, Alex B. Guenther, and Scot T. Martin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3123–3135,Short summary
Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions influence air quality and particulate distributions, particularly in major source regions such as the Amazon. A sampler for collecting VOCs from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is described. Field tests of its performance and an initial example data set collected in the Amazon are also presented. The low cost, ease of use, and maneuverability of UAVs give this method the potential to significantly advance knowledge of the spatial distribution of VOCs.
Moshe Shechner, Alex Guenther, Robert Rhew, Asher Wishkerman, Qian Li, Donald Blake, Gil Lerner, and Eran Tas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7667–7690,Short summary
Along with other recent studies, our findings point to strong emission of a suite of volatile halogenated organic compounds (VHOCs) from saline soils and salt lakes. Some emitted VHOCs were not known to be emitted from terrestrial sources, and our observations point to apparent new common controls for the emission of several VHOCs. These findings are an important milestone toward a more complete understanding of the effect of VHOCs on atmospheric ozone concentrations and oxidation capacity.
Daniel L. Goldberg, Pablo E. Saide, Lok N. Lamsal, Benjamin de Foy, Zifeng Lu, Jung-Hun Woo, Younha Kim, Jinseok Kim, Meng Gao, Gregory Carmichael, and David G. Streets
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1801–1818,Short summary
Using satellite data, we are able to estimate the emissions of NOx (NOx=NO+NO2), a toxic group of air pollutants, in the Seoul metropolitan area. We first develop an enhanced satellite product that better observes NO2 in urban regions. Using this new product, we derive NOx emissions to be twice as large as the emissions reported by the South Korean government. The implication is that the measures taken to reduce NOx emissions in South Korea have not been as effective as regulators have thought.
Christopher G. Nolte, Tanya L. Spero, Jared H. Bowden, Megan S. Mallard, and Patrick D. Dolwick
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15471–15489,Short summary
Changes in air pollution in the United States are simulated under three near-future climate scenarios. Widespread increases in average ozone levels are projected, with the largest increases during summer under the highest warming scenario. Increases are driven by higher temperatures and emissions from vegetation and are magnified at the upper end of the ozone distribution. The increases in ozone have potentially important implications for efforts to protect human health.
Fernando Santos, Karla Longo, Alex Guenther, Saewung Kim, Dasa Gu, Dave Oram, Grant Forster, James Lee, James Hopkins, Joel Brito, and Saulo Freitas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12715–12734,Short summary
We investigated the impact of biomass burning on the chemical composition of trace gases in the Amazon. The findings corroborate the influence of biomass burning activity not only on direct emissions of particulate matter but also on the oxidative capacity to produce secondary organic aerosol. The scientists plan to use this information to improve the numerical model simulation with a better representativeness of the chemical processes, which can impact on global climate prediction.
Anna L. Hodshire, Brett B. Palm, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Qijing Bian, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Eben S. Cross, Douglas A. Day, Suzane S. de Sá, Alex B. Guenther, Armin Hansel, James F. Hunter, Werner Jud, Thomas Karl, Saewung Kim, Jesse H. Kroll, Jeong-Hoo Park, Zhe Peng, Roger Seco, James N. Smith, Jose L. Jimenez, and Jeffrey R. Pierce
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12433–12460,Short summary
We investigate the nucleation and growth processes that shape the aerosol size distribution inside oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) that sampled ambient air from Colorado and the Amazon rainforest. Results indicate that organics are important for both nucleation and growth, vapor uptake was limited to accumulation-mode particles, fragmentation reactions were important to limit particle growth at higher OH exposures, and an H2SO4-organics nucleation mechanism captured new particle formation well.
Eliane G. Alves, Julio Tóta, Andrew Turnipseed, Alex B. Guenther, José Oscar W. Vega Bustillos, Raoni A. Santana, Glauber G. Cirino, Julia V. Tavares, Aline P. Lopes, Bruce W. Nelson, Rodrigo A. de Souza, Dasa Gu, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, David K. Adams, Jin Wu, Scott Saleska, and Antonio O. Manzi
Biogeosciences, 15, 4019–4032,Short summary
This study shows that leaf quantity and leaf age have an important effect on seasonal changes in isoprene emissions and that these could play an even more important role in regulating ecosystem isoprene fluxes than light and temperature at seasonal timescales in tropical forests. These results bring novelty and new insight for future research because in the past leaf phenology was not considered as an important factor that controls biological processes in the tropics.
Chunxiang Ye, Xianliang Zhou, Dennis Pu, Jochen Stutz, James Festa, Max Spolaor, Catalina Tsai, Christopher Cantrell, Roy L. Mauldin III, Andrew Weinheimer, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Eric C. Apel, Alex Guenther, Lisa Kaser, Bin Yuan, Thomas Karl, Julie Haggerty, Samuel Hall, Kirk Ullmann, James Smith, and John Ortega
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9107–9120,Short summary
Substantial levels of HONO existed during the day throughout the troposphere over the southeastern US during NOMADSS 2013. Particulate nitrate photolysis appeared to be the major volume HONO source, while NOx was an important HONO precursor only in industrial and urban plumes. HONO was not a significant OH radical precursor in the rural troposphere away from the ground surface; however, its production from particulate nitrate photolysis was an important renoxification pathway.
Maite Bauwens, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, Jean-François Müller, Bert Van Schaeybroeck, Lesley De Cruz, Rozemien De Troch, Olivier Giot, Rafiq Hamdi, Piet Termonia, Quentin Laffineur, Crist Amelynck, Niels Schoon, Bernard Heinesch, Thomas Holst, Almut Arneth, Reinhart Ceulemans, Arturo Sanchez-Lorenzo, and Alex Guenther
Biogeosciences, 15, 3673–3690,Short summary
Biogenic isoprene fluxes are simulated over Europe with the MEGAN–MOHYCAN model for the recent past and end-of-century climate at high spatiotemporal resolution (0.1°, 3 min). Due to climate change, fluxes increased by 40 % over 1979–2014. Climate scenarios for 2070–2099 suggest an increase by 83 % due to climate, and an even stronger increase when the potential impact of CO2 fertilization is considered (up to 141 %). Accounting for CO2 inhibition cancels out a large part of these increases.
Nan Li, Qingyang He, Jim Greenberg, Alex Guenther, Jingyi Li, Junji Cao, Jun Wang, Hong Liao, Qiyuan Wang, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7489–7507,Short summary
O3 pollution has been increasing in most Chinese cities in recent years. Our study reveals that the synergistic impact of individual source contributions to O3 formation should be considered in the formation of air pollution control strategies, especially for big cities in the vicinity of forests.
Pieternel F. Levelt, Joanna Joiner, Johanna Tamminen, J. Pepijn Veefkind, Pawan K. Bhartia, Deborah C. Stein Zweers, Bryan N. Duncan, David G. Streets, Henk Eskes, Ronald van der A, Chris McLinden, Vitali Fioletov, Simon Carn, Jos de Laat, Matthew DeLand, Sergey Marchenko, Richard McPeters, Jerald Ziemke, Dejian Fu, Xiong Liu, Kenneth Pickering, Arnoud Apituley, Gonzalo González Abad, Antti Arola, Folkert Boersma, Christopher Chan Miller, Kelly Chance, Martin de Graaf, Janne Hakkarainen, Seppo Hassinen, Iolanda Ialongo, Quintus Kleipool, Nickolay Krotkov, Can Li, Lok Lamsal, Paul Newman, Caroline Nowlan, Raid Suleiman, Lieuwe Gijsbert Tilstra, Omar Torres, Huiqun Wang, and Krzysztof Wargan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5699–5745,Short summary
The aim of this paper is to highlight the many successes of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) spanning more than 13 years. Data from OMI have been used in a wide range of applications. Due to its unprecedented spatial resolution, in combination with daily global coverage, OMI plays a unique role in measuring trace gases important for the ozone layer, air quality, and climate change. OMI data continue to be used for new research and applications.
Jingqiu Mao, Annmarie Carlton, Ronald C. Cohen, William H. Brune, Steven S. Brown, Glenn M. Wolfe, Jose L. Jimenez, Havala O. T. Pye, Nga Lee Ng, Lu Xu, V. Faye McNeill, Kostas Tsigaridis, Brian C. McDonald, Carsten Warneke, Alex Guenther, Matthew J. Alvarado, Joost de Gouw, Loretta J. Mickley, Eric M. Leibensperger, Rohit Mathur, Christopher G. Nolte, Robert W. Portmann, Nadine Unger, Mika Tosca, and Larry W. Horowitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2615–2651,Short summary
This paper is aimed at discussing progress in evaluating, diagnosing, and improving air quality and climate modeling using comparisons to SAS observations as a guide to thinking about improvements to mechanisms and parameterizations in models.
Brett B. Palm, Suzane S. de Sá, Douglas A. Day, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Weiwei Hu, Roger Seco, Steven J. Sjostedt, Jeong-Hoo Park, Alex B. Guenther, Saewung Kim, Joel Brito, Florian Wurm, Paulo Artaxo, Ryan Thalman, Jian Wang, Lindsay D. Yee, Rebecca Wernis, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Allen H. Goldstein, Yingjun Liu, Stephen R. Springston, Rodrigo Souza, Matt K. Newburn, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Scot T. Martin, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 467–493,Short summary
Ambient air was oxidized by OH or O3 in an oxidation flow reactor during both wet and dry seasons in the GoAmazon2014/5 campaign to study secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. We investigated how much biogenic, urban, and biomass burning sources contributed to the ambient concentrations of SOA precursor gases and how their contributions changed diurnally and seasonally. SOA yields and hygroscopicity of organic aerosol in the oxidation flow reactor were also studied.
Robert C. Rhew, Malte Julian Deventer, Andrew A. Turnipseed, Carsten Warneke, John Ortega, Steve Shen, Luis Martinez, Abigail Koss, Brian M. Lerner, Jessica B. Gilman, James N. Smith, Alex B. Guenther, and Joost A. de Gouw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13417–13438,Short summary
Alkenes emanate from both natural and anthropogenic sources and can contribute to atmospheric ozone production. This study measured
lightalkene (ethene, propene and butene) fluxes from a ponderosa pine forest using a novel relaxed eddy accumulation method, revealing much larger emissions than previously estimated and accounting for a significant fraction of OH reactivity. Emissions have a diurnal cycle related to sunlight and temperature, and the forest canopy appears to be the source.
Daniel L. Goldberg, Lok N. Lamsal, Christopher P. Loughner, William H. Swartz, Zifeng Lu, and David G. Streets
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11403–11421,Short summary
We developed a new satellite NO2 product using a high spatial resolution (1.33 × 1.33 km) model simulation constrained by aircraft observations. The high-resolution satellite product is now able to observe the spatial heterogeneities of NO2 pollution over a large area with more clarity. The satellite is now in better agreement with monitors at ground level observing the same pollution.
Min Huang, Gregory R. Carmichael, James H. Crawford, Armin Wisthaler, Xiwu Zhan, Christopher R. Hain, Pius Lee, and Alex B. Guenther
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 3085–3104,Short summary
Various sensitivity simulations during two airborne campaigns were performed to assess the impact of different initialization methods and model resolutions on NUWRF-modeled weather states, heat fluxes, and the follow-on MEGAN isoprene emission calculations. Proper land initialization is shown to be important to the coupled weather modeling and the follow-on emission modeling, which is also critical to accurately representing other processes in air quality modeling and data assimilation.
Meng Li, Qiang Zhang, Jun-ichi Kurokawa, Jung-Hun Woo, Kebin He, Zifeng Lu, Toshimasa Ohara, Yu Song, David G. Streets, Gregory R. Carmichael, Yafang Cheng, Chaopeng Hong, Hong Huo, Xujia Jiang, Sicong Kang, Fei Liu, Hang Su, and Bo Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 935–963,Short summary
An anthropogenic emission inventory for Asia is developed for the years 2008 and 2010 to support the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) and the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP) projects by a mosaic of up-to-date regional emission inventories. The total Asian emissions in 2010 are estimated as follows: 51.3 Tg SO2, 52.1 Tg NOx, 336.5 Tg CO, 67.0 Tg NMVOC, 28.7 Tg NH3, 31.7 Tg PM10, 22.7 Tg PM2.5, 3.5 Tg BC, 8.3 Tg OC, and 17.3 Pg CO2.
Kerneels Jaars, Pieter G. van Zyl, Johan P. Beukes, Heidi Hellén, Ville Vakkari, Micky Josipovic, Andrew D. Venter, Matti Räsänen, Leandra Knoetze, Dirk P. Cilliers, Stefan J. Siebert, Markku Kulmala, Janne Rinne, Alex Guenther, Lauri Laakso, and Hannele Hakola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15665–15688,Short summary
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) – important in tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol formation – were measured at a savannah grassland in South Africa. Results presented are the most extensive for this type of landscape. Compared to other parts of the world, monoterpene levels were similar, while very low isoprene levels led to significantly lower total BVOC levels. BVOC levels were an order of magnitude lower compared to anthropogenic VOC levels measured at Welgegund.
Kirsti Ashworth, Serena H. Chung, Karena A. McKinney, Ying Liu, J. William Munger, Scot T. Martin, and Allison L. Steiner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15461–15484,
Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Ben Poulter, Anna Peregon, Philippe Ciais, Josep G. Canadell, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Giuseppe Etiope, David Bastviken, Sander Houweling, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Francesco N. Tubiello, Simona Castaldi, Robert B. Jackson, Mihai Alexe, Vivek K. Arora, David J. Beerling, Peter Bergamaschi, Donald R. Blake, Gordon Brailsford, Victor Brovkin, Lori Bruhwiler, Cyril Crevoisier, Patrick Crill, Kristofer Covey, Charles Curry, Christian Frankenberg, Nicola Gedney, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Misa Ishizawa, Akihiko Ito, Fortunat Joos, Heon-Sook Kim, Thomas Kleinen, Paul Krummel, Jean-François Lamarque, Ray Langenfelds, Robin Locatelli, Toshinobu Machida, Shamil Maksyutov, Kyle C. McDonald, Julia Marshall, Joe R. Melton, Isamu Morino, Vaishali Naik, Simon O'Doherty, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Prabir K. Patra, Changhui Peng, Shushi Peng, Glen P. Peters, Isabelle Pison, Catherine Prigent, Ronald Prinn, Michel Ramonet, William J. Riley, Makoto Saito, Monia Santini, Ronny Schroeder, Isobel J. Simpson, Renato Spahni, Paul Steele, Atsushi Takizawa, Brett F. Thornton, Hanqin Tian, Yasunori Tohjima, Nicolas Viovy, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Michiel van Weele, Guido R. van der Werf, Ray Weiss, Christine Wiedinmyer, David J. Wilton, Andy Wiltshire, Doug Worthy, Debra Wunch, Xiyan Xu, Yukio Yoshida, Bowen Zhang, Zhen Zhang, and Qiuan Zhu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 697–751,Short summary
An accurate assessment of the methane budget is important to understand the atmospheric methane concentrations and trends and to provide realistic pathways for climate change mitigation. The various and diffuse sources of methane as well and its oxidation by a very short lifetime radical challenge this assessment. We quantify the methane sources and sinks as well as their uncertainties based on both bottom-up and top-down approaches provided by a broad international scientific community.
Ivan Kourtchev, Ricardo H. M. Godoi, Sarah Connors, James G. Levine, Alex T. Archibald, Ana F. L. Godoi, Sarah L. Paralovo, Cybelli G. G. Barbosa, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Antonio O. Manzi, Roger Seco, Steve Sjostedt, Jeong-Hoo Park, Alex Guenther, Saewung Kim, James Smith, Scot T. Martin, and Markus Kalberer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11899–11913,
Meng Gao, Gregory R. Carmichael, Pablo E. Saide, Zifeng Lu, Man Yu, David G. Streets, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11837–11851,Short summary
The WRF-Chem model was used to examine how the winter PM2.5 concentrations change in response to changes in emissions and meteorology in North China from 1960 to 2010. The discussions in this study indicate that dramatic changes in emissions are the main cause of increasing haze events in North China, and long-term trends in atmospheric circulations maybe another important cause. We also found aerosol feedbacks have been significantly enhanced from 1960 to 2010, due to higher aerosol loadings.
Weiwei Hu, Brett B. Palm, Douglas A. Day, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jordan E. Krechmer, Zhe Peng, Suzane S. de Sá, Scot T. Martin, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Karsten Baumann, Lina Hacker, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Abigail R. Koss, Joost A. de Gouw, Allen H. Goldstein, Roger Seco, Steven J. Sjostedt, Jeong-Hoo Park, Alex B. Guenther, Saewung Kim, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, William H. Brune, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11563–11580,Short summary
IEPOX-SOA is biogenically derived secondary organic aerosol under anthropogenic influence, which has been shown to comprise a substantial fraction of OA globally. We investigated the lifetime of ambient IEPOX-SOA in the SE US and Amazonia, with an oxidation flow reactor and thermodenuder coupled with MS-based instrumentation. The low volatility and long lifetime of IEPOX-SOA against OH radicals' oxidation (> 2 weeks) was observed, which can help to constrain OA impact on air quality and climate.
Maite Bauwens, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, Jean-François Müller, Isabelle De Smedt, Michel Van Roozendael, Guido R. van der Werf, Christine Wiedinmyer, Johannes W. Kaiser, Katerina Sindelarova, and Alex Guenther
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10133–10158,Short summary
Relying on a 9-year record of satellite observations of formaldehyde, we use inverse techniques to derive global top–down hydrocarbon fluxes over 2005–2013, infer seasonal and interannual variability, and detect emission trends. Our results suggest changes in fire seasonal patterns, a stronger contribution of agricultural burning, overestimated isoprene flux rates in the tropics, overly decreased isoprene emissions due to soil moisture stress in arid areas, and enhanced isoprene trends.
Pawel K. Misztal, Jeremy C. Avise, Thomas Karl, Klaus Scott, Haflidi H. Jonsson, Alex B. Guenther, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9611–9628,Short summary
In this study, for the first time regional BVOC models are compared with direct regional measurements of fluxes from aircraft, allowing assessment of model accuracy at scales relevant to air quality modeling. We directly assess modeled isoprene emission inventories which are important for regional air quality simulations of ozone and secondary particle concentrations.
Albert Rivas-Ubach, Yina Liu, Jordi Sardans, Malak M. Tfaily, Young-Mo Kim, Eric Bourrianne, Ljiljana Paša-Tolić, Josep Peñuelas, and Alex Guenther
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Lan Cuo, Yongxin Zhang, Shilong Piao, and Yanhong Gao
Biogeosciences, 13, 3533–3548,Short summary
The improved LPJ model was used to investigate plant functional type (PFT) changes in 1957–2009 and their responses to changes in root zone soil temperature, soil moisture, air temperature, precipitation, and CO2 concentrations. The results show spatially heterogeneous changes in PFTs in the northern Tibetan Plateau in 1957–2009. Dominant driver for PFT change is precipitation. The implications of the study are on the regional fresh water resources, onset, and intensity of monsoon circulations.
Kathryn M. Emmerson, Ian E. Galbally, Alex B. Guenther, Clare Paton-Walsh, Elise-Andree Guerette, Martin E. Cope, Melita D. Keywood, Sarah J. Lawson, Suzie B. Molloy, Erin Dunne, Marcus Thatcher, Thomas Karl, and Simin D. Maleknia
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6997–7011,Short summary
We have tested how a model using a global inventory of plant-based emissions compares with four sets of measurements made in southeast Australia. This region is known for its eucalypt species, which dominate the summertime global inventory. The Australian part of the inventory has been produced using measurements made on eucalypt saplings. The model could not match the measurements, and the inventory needs to be improved by taking measurements of a wider range of Australian plant types and ages.
John K. Kodros, Rachel Cucinotta, David A. Ridley, Christine Wiedinmyer, and Jeffrey R. Pierce
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6771–6784,Short summary
We provide a first estimate of the aerosol radiative effects from open, uncontrolled combustion of domestic waste. We find the direct and cloud-albedo indirect radiative effects are predominantly negative (cooling tendency) with regional forcings exceeding −0.4 W m−2; however, the magnitude of these effects depends on the assumed emitted aerosol size, mass, and optical properties.
Chun Zhao, Maoyi Huang, Jerome D. Fast, Larry K. Berg, Yun Qian, Alex Guenther, Dasa Gu, Manish Shrivastava, Ying Liu, Stacy Walters, Gabriele Pfister, Jiming Jin, John E. Shilling, and Carsten Warneke
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 1959–1976,Short summary
In this study, the latest version of MEGAN is coupled within CLM4 in WRF-Chem. In this implementation, MEGAN shares a consistent vegetation map with CLM4. This improved modeling framework is used to investigate the impact of two land surface schemes on BVOCs and examine the sensitivity of BVOCs to vegetation distributions in California. This study indicates that more effort is needed to obtain the most appropriate and accurate land cover data sets for climate and air quality models.
Natalie S. Wagenbrenner, Jason M. Forthofer, Brian K. Lamb, Kyle S. Shannon, and Bret W. Butler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5229–5241,Short summary
We investigated the ability of WindNinja to improve wind predictions in complex terrain. Predictions are compared with surface observations from a tall, isolated mountain. Results show that WindNinja is capable of capturing important local-scale flow features induced by mechanical and thermal effects of the underlying terrain and incorporating those terrain-driven flow features into coarse-scale weather forecasts in order to improve near-surface wind predictions in complex terrain.
Nickolay A. Krotkov, Chris A. McLinden, Can Li, Lok N. Lamsal, Edward A. Celarier, Sergey V. Marchenko, William H. Swartz, Eric J. Bucsela, Joanna Joiner, Bryan N. Duncan, K. Folkert Boersma, J. Pepijn Veefkind, Pieternel F. Levelt, Vitali E. Fioletov, Russell R. Dickerson, Hao He, Zifeng Lu, and David G. Streets
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4605–4629,Short summary
We examine changes in SO2 and NO2 over the world's most polluted regions during the first decade of Aura OMI observations. Over the eastern US, both NO2 and SO2 levels decreased by 40 % and 80 %, respectively. OMI confirmed large reductions in SO2 over eastern Europe's largest coal power plants. The North China Plain has the world's most severe SO2 pollution, but a decreasing trend been observed since 2011, with a 50 % reduction in 2012–2014. India's SO2 and NO2 levels are growing at a fast pace.
Eliane G. Alves, Kolby Jardine, Julio Tota, Angela Jardine, Ana Maria Yãnez-Serrano, Thomas Karl, Julia Tavares, Bruce Nelson, Dasa Gu, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, Scot Martin, Paulo Artaxo, Antonio Manzi, and Alex Guenther
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3903–3925,Short summary
For a long time, it was thought that tropical rainforests are evergreen forests and the processes involved in these ecosystems do not change all year long. However, some satellite retrievals have suggested that ecophysiological processes may present seasonal variations mainly due to variation in light and leaf phenology in Amazonia. These in situ measurements are the first showing of a seasonal trend of volatile organic compound emissions, correlating with light and leaf phenology in Amazonia.
K. Ashworth, S. H. Chung, R. J. Griffin, J. Chen, R. Forkel, A. M. Bryan, and A. L. Steiner
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3765–3784,Short summary
Volatile organic compounds released from forests into the atmosphere play a key role in governing atmospheric concentrations of trace gases and aerosol particles. We describe the development of a 1-D model that simulates the processes occurring within and above the forest canopy that regulate the transfer of these compounds and their products. We evaluate model performance by comparison of modelled concentrations against measurements from a field campaign at a northern Michigan forest site.
T. Stavrakou, J.-F. Müller, M. Bauwens, I. De Smedt, M. Van Roozendael, M. De Mazière, C. Vigouroux, F. Hendrick, M. George, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, and A. Guenther
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11861–11884,Short summary
Formaldehyde columns from two space sensors, GOME-2 and OMI, constrain by inverse modeling the global emissions of HCHO precursors in 2010. The resulting biogenic and pyrogenic fluxes from both optimizations show a very good degree of consistency. The isoprene fluxes are reduced globally by ca. 10%, and emissions from fires decrease by ca. 35%, compared to the prior. Anthropogenic emissions are weakly constrained except over China. Sensitivity inversions show robustness of the inferred fluxes.
F. Xiong, K. M. McAvey, K. A. Pratt, C. J. Groff, M. A. Hostetler, M. A. Lipton, T. K. Starn, J. V. Seeley, S. B. Bertman, A. P. Teng, J. D. Crounse, T. B. Nguyen, P. O. Wennberg, P. K. Misztal, A. H. Goldstein, A. B. Guenther, A. R. Koss, K. F. Olson, J. A. de Gouw, K. Baumann, E. S. Edgerton, P. A. Feiner, L. Zhang, D. O. Miller, W. H. Brune, and P. B. Shepson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11257–11272,Short summary
Hydroxynitrates from isoprene oxidation were quantified both in the laboratory and through field studies. The yield of hydroxynitrates 9(+4/-3)% derived from chamber experiments was applied in a zero-dimensional model to simulate the production and loss of isoprene hydroxynitrates in an ambient environment during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS). NOx was determined to be the limiting factor for the formation of isoprene hydroxynitrates during SOAS.
Z. Lu, D. G. Streets, B. de Foy, L. N. Lamsal, B. N. Duncan, and J. Xing
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10367–10383,Short summary
Using an exponentially modified Gaussian method and taking into account the effect of wind on NO2 distributions, we estimate 3-year moving-average emissions of summertime NOx from 35 US urban areas directly from NO2 retrievals of the OMI during 2005−2014. Total OMI-derived NOx emissions over US urban areas decreased by 49%, consistent with reductions of 43, 49, and 44% in the bottom-up NOx emissions, the weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens, and the averaged NO2 concentrations, respectively.
C. G. Nolte, K. W. Appel, J. T. Kelly, P. V. Bhave, K. M. Fahey, J. L. Collett Jr., L. Zhang, and J. O. Young
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2877–2892,Short summary
This study is the most comprehensive evaluation of CMAQ inorganic aerosol size-composition distributions conducted to date. We compare two methods of inferring PM2.5 concentrations from the model: (1) based on the sum of the masses in the fine aerosol modes, as is most commonly done in CMAQ model evaluation; and (2) computed using the simulated size distributions. Differences are generally less than 1 microgram/m3, and are largest over the eastern USA during the summer.
L. Zhou, R. Gierens, A. Sogachev, D. Mogensen, J. Ortega, J. N. Smith, P. C. Harley, A. J. Prenni, E. J. T. Levin, A. Turnipseed, A. Rusanen, S. Smolander, A. B. Guenther, M. Kulmala, T. Karl, and M. Boy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8643–8656,
G. Wohlfahrt, C. Amelynck, C. Ammann, A. Arneth, I. Bamberger, A. H. Goldstein, L. Gu, A. Guenther, A. Hansel, B. Heinesch, T. Holst, L. Hörtnagl, T. Karl, Q. Laffineur, A. Neftel, K. McKinney, J. W. Munger, S. G. Pallardy, G. W. Schade, R. Seco, and N. Schoon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7413–7427,Short summary
Methanol is the second most abundant volatile organic compound in the troposphere and plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. While there is consensus about the dominant role of plants as the major source and the reaction with OH as the major sink, global methanol budgets diverge considerably in terms of source/sink estimates. Here we present micrometeorological methanol flux data from eight sites in order to provide a first cross-site synthesis of the terrestrial methanol exchange.
L. Ran, D. H. Loughlin, D. Yang, Z. Adelman, B. H. Baek, and C. G. Nolte
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1775–1787,Short summary
We present and demonstrate Version 2.0 of the Emission Scenario Projection (ESP) method. This method produces multi-decadal air pollutant emission projections suitable for air quality modeling. The method focuses on energy-related emissions, including those from the electric sector, buildings, industry and transportation. ESP v2.0 enhances ESP v1.0 by taking population growth, migration and land use change into consideration.
R. Kumar, M. C. Barth, V. S. Nair, G. G. Pfister, S. Suresh Babu, S. K. Satheesh, K. Krishna Moorthy, G. R. Carmichael, Z. Lu, and D. G. Streets
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5415–5428,Short summary
We examine differences in the surface BC between the Bay of Bengal (BoB) and the Arabian Sea (AS) and identify dominant sources of BC in South Asia during ICARB. Anthropogenic emissions were the main source of BC during ICARB and had about 5 times stronger influence on the BoB compared to the AS. Regional-scale transport contributes up to 25% of BC mass concentrations in western and eastern India, suggesting that surface BC mass concentrations cannot be linked directly to the local emissions.
S. Kim, S.-Y. Kim, M. Lee, H. Shim, G. M. Wolfe, A. B. Guenther, A. He, Y. Hong, and J. Han
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4357–4371,
M. S. Mallard, C. G. Nolte, T. L. Spero, O. R. Bullock, K. Alapaty, J. A. Herwehe, J. Gula, and J. H. Bowden
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1085–1096,Short summary
Because global climate models (GCMs) are typically run at coarse spatial resolution, lakes are often poorly resolved in their global fields. When downscaling such GCMs using the Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) model, use of WRF’s default interpolation methods can result in unrealistic lake temperatures and ice cover, which can impact simulated air temperatures and precipitation. Here, alternative methods for setting lake variables in WRF downscaling applications are presented and compared.
B. W. Butler, N. S. Wagenbrenner, J. M. Forthofer, B. K. Lamb, K. S. Shannon, D. Finn, R. M. Eckman, K. Clawson, L. Bradshaw, P. Sopko, S. Beard, D. Jimenez, C. Wold, and M. Vosburgh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3785–3801,Short summary
Interest in numerical wind models continues to increase, especially for models that can simulate winds at relatively high spatial resolution (~100m). However, limited observational data exist for evaluation of model predictive performance. This study presents high-resolution surface wind data sets collected from an isolated mountain and a steep river canyon. The data are available to the public at http://www.firemodels.org/index.php/windninja-introduction/windninja-publications.
B. de Foy, Y. Y. Cui, J. J. Schauer, M. Janssen, J. R. Turner, and C. Wiedinmyer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2405–2427,Short summary
Elemental carbon and organic carbon are components of fine particulate matter that are harmful to health. We use computer simulations of wind patterns and pollution dispersion to analyze a year-long time series of hourly measurements made at the St. Louis-Midwest supersite. The inverse method produced improved estimates of emissions of these pollutants by different types of sources such as on-road and off-road emissions and open burning.
S. Kulkarni, N. Sobhani, J. P. Miller-Schulze, M. M. Shafer, J. J. Schauer, P. A. Solomon, P. E. Saide, S. N. Spak, Y. F. Cheng, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, Z. Lu, D. G. Streets, G. Janssens-Maenhout, C. Wiedinmyer, J. Lantz, M. Artamonova, B. Chen, S. Imashev, L. Sverdlik, J. T. Deminter, B. Adhikary, A. D'Allura, C. Wei, and G. R. Carmichael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1683–1705,Short summary
This study presents a regional-scale modeling analysis of aerosols in the Central Asia region including detailed characterization of seasonal source region and sector contributions along with the predicted changes in distribution of aerosols using 2030 future emission scenarios. The influence of long transport and impact of varied emission sources including dust, biomass burning, and anthropogenic sources on the regional aerosol distributions and the associated transport pathways are discussed.
F. L. Herron-Thorpe, G. H. Mount, L. K. Emmons, B. K. Lamb, D. A. Jaffe, N. L. Wigder, S. H. Chung, R. Zhang, M. D. Woelfle, and J. K. Vaughan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12533–12551,Short summary
Wildfire season simulations from an air quality forecast system for the Pacific Northwest were compared to surface monitor observations across the region and NASA Earth Observing System satellite retrievals of plume top, nitrogen dioxide, aerosol optical depth, and carbon monoxide. This study discusses why the Community Multi-scale Air Quality model predictions under-predicted secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production for events when fire emissions were transported large distances.
C. S. Brauer, T. A. Blake, A. B. Guenther, S. W. Sharpe, R. L. Sams, and T. J. Johnson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3839–3847,
Y. You, V. P. Kanawade, J. A. de Gouw, A. B. Guenther, S. Madronich, M. R. Sierra-Hernández, M. Lawler, J. N. Smith, S. Takahama, G. Ruggeri, A. Koss, K. Olson, K. Baumann, R. J. Weber, A. Nenes, H. Guo, E. S. Edgerton, L. Porcelli, W. H. Brune, A. H. Goldstein, and S.-H. Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12181–12194,Short summary
Amiens play important roles in atmospheric secondary aerosol formation and human health, but the fast response measurements of amines are lacking. Here we show measurements in a southeastern US forest and a moderately polluted midwestern site. Our results show that gas to particle conversion is an important process that controls ambient amine concentrations and that biomass burning is an important source of amines.
C. Zhao, Z. Hu, Y. Qian, L. Ruby Leung, J. Huang, M. Huang, J. Jin, M. G. Flanner, R. Zhang, H. Wang, H. Yan, Z. Lu, and D. G. Streets
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11475–11491,
P. K. Misztal, T. Karl, R. Weber, H. H. Jonsson, A. B. Guenther, and A. H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10631–10647,
S. Smolander, Q. He, D. Mogensen, L. Zhou, J. Bäck, T. Ruuskanen, S. Noe, A. Guenther, H. Aaltonen, M. Kulmala, and M. Boy
Biogeosciences, 11, 5425–5443,
T. Glotfelty, Y. Zhang, P. Karamchandani, and D. G. Streets
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9379–9402,
K. Sindelarova, C. Granier, I. Bouarar, A. Guenther, S. Tilmes, T. Stavrakou, J.-F. Müller, U. Kuhn, P. Stefani, and W. Knorr
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9317–9341,
R. J. Park, S. K. Hong, H.-A. Kwon, S. Kim, A. Guenther, J.-H. Woo, and C. P. Loughner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7929–7940,
E. A. Marais, D. J. Jacob, A. Guenther, K. Chance, T. P. Kurosu, J. G. Murphy, C. E. Reeves, and H. O. T. Pye
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7693–7703,
J. P. Greenberg, J. Peñuelas, A. Guenther, R. Seco, A. Turnipseed, X. Jiang, I. Filella, M. Estiarte, J. Sardans, R. Ogaya, J. Llusia, and F. Rapparini
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2263–2271,
K. Jaars, J. P. Beukes, P. G. van Zyl, A. D. Venter, M. Josipovic, J. J. Pienaar, V. Vakkari, H. Aaltonen, H. Laakso, M. Kulmala, P. Tiitta, A. Guenther, H. Hellén, L. Laakso, and H. Hakola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7075–7089,
C. He, Q. B. Li, K. N. Liou, J. Zhang, L. Qi, Y. Mao, M. Gao, Z. Lu, D. G. Streets, Q. Zhang, M. M. Sarin, and K. Ram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7091–7112,
J. Ortega, A. Turnipseed, A. B. Guenther, T. G. Karl, D. A. Day, D. Gochis, J. A. Huffman, A. J. Prenni, E. J. T. Levin, S. M. Kreidenweis, P. J. DeMott, Y. Tobo, E. G. Patton, A. Hodzic, Y. Y. Cui, P. C. Harley, R. S. Hornbrook, E. C. Apel, R. K. Monson, A. S. D. Eller, J. P. Greenberg, M. C. Barth, P. Campuzano-Jost, B. B. Palm, J. L. Jimenez, A. C. Aiken, M. K. Dubey, C. Geron, J. Offenberg, M. G. Ryan, P. J. Fornwalt, S. C. Pryor, F. N. Keutsch, J. P. DiGangi, A. W. H. Chan, A. H. Goldstein, G. M. Wolfe, S. Kim, L. Kaser, R. Schnitzhofer, A. Hansel, C. A. Cantrell, R. L. Mauldin, and J. N. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6345–6367,
F. Yan, E. Winijkul, D. G. Streets, Z. Lu, T. C. Bond, and Y. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5709–5733,
M. Li, Q. Zhang, D. G. Streets, K. B. He, Y. F. Cheng, L. K. Emmons, H. Huo, S. C. Kang, Z. Lu, M. Shao, H. Su, X. Yu, and Y. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5617–5638,
M. Liu, K. Rajagopalan, S. H. Chung, X. Jiang, J. Harrison, T. Nergui, A. Guenther, C. Miller, J. Reyes, C. Tague, J. Choate, E. P. Salathé, C. O. Stöckle, and J. C. Adam
Biogeosciences, 11, 2601–2622,
M. Chin, T. Diehl, Q. Tan, J. M. Prospero, R. A. Kahn, L. A. Remer, H. Yu, A. M. Sayer, H. Bian, I. V. Geogdzhayev, B. N. Holben, S. G. Howell, B. J. Huebert, N. C. Hsu, D. Kim, T. L. Kucsera, R. C. Levy, M. I. Mishchenko, X. Pan, P. K. Quinn, G. L. Schuster, D. G. Streets, S. A. Strode, O. Torres, and X.-P. Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3657–3690,
R. Zhang, T. Duhl, M. T. Salam, J. M. House, R. C. Flagan, E. L. Avol, F. D. Gilliland, A. Guenther, S. H. Chung, B. K. Lamb, and T. M. VanReken
Biogeosciences, 11, 1461–1478,
K. C. Barsanti, A. G. Carlton, and S. H. Chung
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12073–12088,
L. Kaser, T. Karl, A. Guenther, M. Graus, R. Schnitzhofer, A. Turnipseed, L. Fischer, P. Harley, M. Madronich, D. Gochis, F. N. Keutsch, and A. Hansel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11935–11947,
S. Situ, A. Guenther, X. Wang, X. Jiang, A. Turnipseed, Z. Wu, J. Bai, and X. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11803–11817,
N. Unger, K. Harper, Y. Zheng, N. Y. Kiang, I. Aleinov, A. Arneth, G. Schurgers, C. Amelynck, A. Goldstein, A. Guenther, B. Heinesch, C. N. Hewitt, T. Karl, Q. Laffineur, B. Langford, K. A. McKinney, P. Misztal, M. Potosnak, J. Rinne, S. Pressley, N. Schoon, and D. Serça
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10243–10269,
J. E. Mak, L. Su, A. Guenther, and T. Karl
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2703–2712,
Y. Xie, F. Paulot, W. P. L. Carter, C. G. Nolte, D. J. Luecken, W. T. Hutzell, P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Cohen, and R. W. Pinder
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8439–8455,
X. Jiang, M. C. Barth, C. Wiedinmyer, and S. T. Massie
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
M. Val Martin, C. L. Heald, B. Ford, A. J. Prenni, and C. Wiedinmyer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7429–7439,
X. Tie, F. Geng, A. Guenther, J. Cao, J. Greenberg, R. Zhang, E. Apel, G. Li, A. Weinheimer, J. Chen, and C. Cai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5655–5669,
T. R. Duhl, R. Zhang, A. Guenther, S. H. Chung, M. T. Salam, J. M. House, R. C. Flagan, E. L. Avol, F. D. Gilliland, B. K. Lamb, T. M. VanReken, Y. Zhang, and E. Salathé
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
L. Kaser, T. Karl, R. Schnitzhofer, M. Graus, I. S. Herdlinger-Blatt, J. P. DiGangi, B. Sive, A. Turnipseed, R. S. Hornbrook, W. Zheng, F. M. Flocke, A. Guenther, F. N. Keutsch, E. Apel, and A. Hansel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2893–2906,
T. R. Duhl, D. Gochis, A. Guenther, S. Ferrenberg, and E. Pendall
Biogeosciences, 10, 483–499,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Oligomer formation from the gas-phase reactions of Criegee intermediates with hydroperoxide esters: mechanism and kineticsModelling SO2 conversion into sulfates in the mid-troposphere with a 3D chemistry transport model: the case of Mount Etna's eruption on 12 April 2012Global distribution of Asian, Middle Eastern, and North African dust simulated by CESM1/CARMAOpinion: Coordinated development of emission inventories for climate forcers and air pollutantsSeasonal modeling analysis of nitrate formation pathways in Yangtze River Delta region, ChinaModeling radiative and climatic effects of brown carbon aerosols with the ARPEGE-Climat global climate modelNumerical simulation of the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on tropospheric composition and aerosol radiative forcing in EuropeEvaluation of the WRF and CHIMERE models for the simulation of PM2.5 in large East African urban conurbationsImpact of urban heat island on inorganic aerosol in the lower free troposphere: a case study in Hangzhou, ChinaStatistical and machine learning methods for evaluating trends in air quality under changing meteorological conditionsStrong particle production and condensational growth in the upper troposphere sustained by biogenic VOCs from the canopy of the Amazon BasinSimulating the radiative forcing of oceanic dimethylsulfide (DMS) in Asia based on machine learning estimatesQuantifying the effects of mixing state on aerosol optical propertiesSecondary organic aerosol formation via multiphase reaction of hydrocarbons in urban atmospheres using CAMx integrated with the UNIPAR modelContrasting source contributions of Arctic black carbon to atmospheric concentrations, deposition flux, and atmospheric and snow radiative effectsEffect of dust on rainfall over the Red Sea coast based on WRF-Chem model simulationsA new assessment of global and regional budgets, fluxes, and lifetimes of atmospheric reactive N and S gases and aerosolsObservation-Based Constraints on Modeled Aerosol Surface Area: Implications for Heterogeneous ChemistryLimitations in representation of physical processes prevent successful simulation of PM2.5 during KORUS-AQEurodelta multi-model simulated and observed particulate matter trends in Europe in the period of 1990–2010Elucidating the critical oligomeric steps in secondary organic aerosol and brown carbon formationFast climate responses to emission reductions in aerosol and ozone precursors in China during 2013–2017Secondary PM2.5 decreases significantly less than NO2 emission reductions during COVID lockdown in GermanyMolecular-level nucleation mechanism of iodic acid and methanesulfonic acidEstimation of secondary PM2.5 in China and the United States using a multi-tracer approachTwo-way coupled meteorology and air quality models in Asia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of impacts of aerosol feedbacks on meteorology and air qualityOCEANFILMS (Organic Compounds from Ecosystems to Aerosols: Natural Films and Interfaces via Langmuir Molecular Surfactants) sea spray organic aerosol emissions – implementation in a global climate model and impacts on cloudsThe pathway of impacts of aerosol direct effects on secondary inorganic aerosol formationThe impact of molecular self-organisation on the atmospheric fate of a cooking aerosol proxyThe formation and mitigation of nitrate pollution: comparison between urban and suburban environmentsImpacts of aerosol–photolysis interaction and aerosol–radiation feedback on surface-layer ozone in North China during multi-pollutant air pollution episodesReducing future air-pollution-related premature mortality over Europe by mitigating emissions from the energy sector: assessing an 80 % renewable energies scenarioThe impact of chlorine chemistry combined with heterogeneous N2O5 reactions on air quality in ChinaOH-initiated atmospheric degradation of hydroxyalkyl hydroperoxides: mechanism, kinetics, and structure–activity relationshipA predictive viscosity model for aqueous electrolytes and mixed organic–inorganic aerosol phasesThe role of organic acids in new particle formation from methanesulfonic acid and methylamineThe number fraction of iron-containing particles affects OH, HO2 and H2O2 budgets in the atmospheric aqueous phaseSource-resolved variability of fine particulate matter and human exposure in an urban areaThe impact of atmospheric blocking on the compounding effect of ozone pollution and temperature: a copula-based approachExploring dimethyl sulfide (DMS) oxidation and implications for global aerosol radiative forcingModelling changes in secondary inorganic aerosol formation and nitrogen deposition in Europe from 2005 to 2030Extension of the AIOMFAC model by iodine and carbonate species: applications for aerosol acidity and cloud droplet activationA numerical framework for simulating the atmospheric variability of supermicron marine biogenic ice nucleating particlesPrediction of secondary organic aerosol from the multiphase reaction of gasoline vapor by using volatility–reactivity base lumpingModelling the gas–particle partitioning and water uptake of isoprene-derived secondary organic aerosol at high and low relative humidityModeling secondary organic aerosol formation from volatile chemical productsWhy is the city's responsibility for its air pollution often underestimated? A focus on PM2.5Quantifying the structural uncertainty of the aerosol mixing state representation in a modal modelChanges in PM2.5 concentrations and their sources in the US from 1990 to 2010A predictive thermodynamic framework of cloud droplet activation for chemically unresolved aerosol mixtures, including surface tension, non-ideality, and bulk–surface partitioning
Long Chen, Yu Huang, Yonggang Xue, Zhihui Jia, and Wenliang Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14529–14546,Short summary
Quantum chemical methods are applied to gain insight into the oligomerization reaction mechanisms and kinetics of distinct stabilized Criegee intermediate (SCI) reactions with hydroperoxide esters, where calculations show that SCI addition reactions with hydroperoxide esters proceed through the successive insertion of SCIs to form oligomers that involve SCIs as the repeating unit. The saturated vapor pressure of the formed oligomers decreases monotonically with the increasing number of SCIs.
Mathieu Lachatre, Sylvain Mailler, Laurent Menut, Arineh Cholakian, Pasquale Sellitto, Guillaume Siour, Henda Guermazi, Giuseppe Salerno, and Salvatore Giammanco
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13861–13879,Short summary
In this study, we have evaluated the predominance of various pathways of volcanic SO2 conversion to sulfates in the upper troposphere. We show that the main conversion pathway was gaseous oxidation by OH, although the liquid pathways were expected to be predominant. These results are interesting with respect to a better understanding of sulfate formation in the middle and upper troposphere and are an important component to help evaluate particulate matter radiative forcing.
Siying Lian, Luxi Zhou, Daniel M. Murphy, Karl D. Froyd, Owen B. Toon, and Pengfei Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13659–13676,Short summary
Parameterizations of dust lifting and microphysical properties of dust in climate models are still subject to large uncertainty. Here we use a sectional aerosol climate model to investigate the global vertical distributions of the dust. Constrained by a suite of observations, the model suggests that, although North African dust dominates global dust mass loading at the surface, the relative contribution of Asian dust increases with altitude and becomes dominant in the upper troposphere.
Steven J. Smith, Erin E. McDuffie, and Molly Charles
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13201–13218,Short summary
Emissions into the atmosphere of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and air pollutants, quantified in emission inventories, impact human health, ecosystems, and the climate. We review how air pollutant and GHG inventory activities have historically been structured and their different uses and requirements. We discuss the benefits of increasing coordination between air pollutant and GHG inventory development efforts, but also caution that there are differences in appropriate methodologies and applications.
Jinjin Sun, Momei Qin, Xiaodong Xie, Wenxing Fu, Yang Qin, Li Sheng, Lin Li, Jingyi Li, Ishaq Dimeji Sulaymon, Lei Jiang, Lin Huang, Xingna Yu, and Jianlin Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12629–12646,Short summary
NO3- has become the dominant and the least reduced chemical component of fine particulate matter in China. NO3- formation is mostly in the NH3-rich regime in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD). OH + NO2 contributes 60 %–83 % of the TNO3 production rates, and the N2O5 heterogeneous pathway contributes 10 %–36 %. The N2O5 heterogeneous pathway becomes more important in cold seasons. Local emissions and regional transportation contribute 50 %–62 % and 38 %–50 % to YRD NO3- concentrations, respectively.
Thomas Drugé, Pierre Nabat, Marc Mallet, Martine Michou, Samuel Rémy, and Oleg Dubovik
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12167–12205,Short summary
This study presents the implementation of brown carbon in the atmospheric component of the CNRM global climate model and particularly in its aerosol scheme TACTIC. Several simulations were carried out with this climate model, over the period 2000–2014, to evaluate the model by comparison with different reference datasets (PARASOL-GRASP, OMI-OMAERUVd, MACv2, FMI_SAT, AERONET) and to analyze the brown carbon radiative and climatic effects.
Simon F. Reifenberg, Anna Martin, Matthias Kohl, Sara Bacer, Zaneta Hamryszczak, Ivan Tadic, Lenard Röder, Daniel J. Crowley, Horst Fischer, Katharina Kaiser, Johannes Schneider, Raphael Dörich, John N. Crowley, Laura Tomsche, Andreas Marsing, Christiane Voigt, Andreas Zahn, Christopher Pöhlker, Bruna A. Holanda, Ovid Krüger, Ulrich Pöschl, Mira Pöhlker, Patrick Jöckel, Marcel Dorf, Ulrich Schumann, Jonathan Williams, Birger Bohn, Joachim Curtius, Hardwig Harder, Hans Schlager, Jos Lelieveld, and Andrea Pozzer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10901–10917,Short summary
In this work we use a combination of observational data from an aircraft campaign and model results to investigate the effect of the European lockdown due to COVID-19 in spring 2020. Using model results, we show that the largest relative changes to the atmospheric composition caused by the reduced emissions are located in the upper troposphere around aircraft cruise altitude, while the largest absolute changes are present at the surface.
Andrea Mazzeo, Michael Burrow, Andrew Quinn, Eloise A. Marais, Ajit Singh, David Ng'ang'a, Michael J. Gatari, and Francis D. Pope
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10677–10701,Short summary
A modelling system for meteorology and chemistry transport processes, WRF–CHIMERE, has been tested and validated for three East African conurbations using the most up-to-date anthropogenic emissions available. Results show that the model is able to reproduce hourly and daily temporal variabilities in aerosol concentrations that are close to observations in both urban and rural environments, encouraging the adoption of numerical modelling as a tool for air quality management in East Africa.
Hanqing Kang, Bin Zhu, Gerrit de Leeuw, Bu Yu, Ronald J. van der A, and Wen Lu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10623–10634,Short summary
This study quantified the contribution of each urban-induced meteorological effect (temperature, humidity, and circulation) to aerosol concentration. We found that the urban heat island (UHI) circulation dominates the UHI effects on aerosol. The UHI circulation transports aerosol and its precursor gases from the warmer lower boundary layer to the colder lower free troposphere and promotes the secondary formation of ammonium nitrate aerosol in the cold atmosphere.
Minghao Qiu, Corwin Zigler, and Noelle E. Selin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10551–10566,Short summary
Evaluating impacts of emission changes on air quality requires accounting for meteorological variability. Many studies use simple regression methods to correct for meteorology, but little is known about their performance. Using cases in the US and China, we show that widely used regression models do not perform well and can lead to biased estimates of emission-driven trends. We propose a novel machine learning method with lower bias and provide recommendations to policymakers and researchers.
Yunfan Liu, Hang Su, Siwen Wang, Chao Wei, Wei Tao, Mira L. Pöhlker, Christopher Pöhlker, Bruna A. Holanda, Ovid O. Krüger, Thorsten Hoffmann, Manfred Wendisch, Paulo Artaxo, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
The origins of the abundant cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the upper troposphere (UT) of the Amazon remain unclear. With model developments of new secondary organic aerosol schemes and constrained by observation, we show that the UT aerosol formation triggered by biogenic organics shapes the UT aerosols, and organic condensation is key for UT CCN production. This UT CCN-producing mechanism may prevail over broader vegetation canopies and deserves emphasis in aerosol-climate feedback.
Junri Zhao, Weichun Ma, Kelsey R. Bilsback, Jeffrey R. Pierce, Shengqian Zhou, Ying Chen, Guipeng Yang, and Yan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9583–9600,Short summary
Marine dimethylsulfide (DMS) emissions play important roles in atmospheric sulfur cycle and climate effects. In this study, DMS emissions were estimated by using the machine learning method and drove the global 3D chemical transport model to simulate their climate effects. To our knowledge, this is the first study in the Asian region that quantifies the combined impacts of DMS on sulfate, particle number concentration, and radiative forcings.
Yu Yao, Jeffrey H. Curtis, Joseph Ching, Zhonghua Zheng, and Nicole Riemer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9265–9282,Short summary
Investigating the impacts of aerosol mixing state on aerosol optical properties has a long history from both the modeling and experimental perspective. In this study, we used particle-resolved simulations as a benchmark to determine the error in optical properties when using simplified aerosol representations. We found that errors in single scattering albedo due to the internal mixture assumptions can have substantial effects on calculating aerosol direct radiative forcing.
Zechen Yu, Myoseon Jang, Soontae Kim, Kyuwon Son, Sanghee Han, Azad Madhu, and Jinsoo Park
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9083–9098,Short summary
The UNIPAR model was incorporated into CAMx to predict the ambient concentration of organic matter in urban atmospheres during the KORUS-AQ campaign. CAMx–UNIPAR significantly improved the simulation of SOA formation under the wet aerosol condition through the consideration of aqueous reactions of reactive organic species and gas–aqueous partitioning into the wet inorganic aerosol.
Hitoshi Matsui, Tatsuhiro Mori, Sho Ohata, Nobuhiro Moteki, Naga Oshima, Kumiko Goto-Azuma, Makoto Koike, and Yutaka Kondo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8989–9009,Short summary
Using a global aerosol model, we find that the source contributions to radiative effects of black carbon (BC) in the Arctic are quite different from those to mass concentrations and deposition flux of BC in the Arctic. This is because microphysical properties (e.g., mixing state), altitudes, and seasonal variations of BC in the atmosphere differ among emissions sources. These differences need to be considered for accurate simulations of Arctic BC and its source contributions and climate impacts.
Sagar P. Parajuli, Georgiy L. Stenchikov, Alexander Ukhov, Suleiman Mostamandi, Paul A. Kucera, Duncan Axisa, William I. Gustafson Jr., and Yannian Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8659–8682,Short summary
Rainfall affects the distribution of surface- and groundwater resources, which are constantly declining over the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) due to overexploitation. Here, we explored the effects of dust on rainfall using WRF-Chem model simulations. Although dust is considered a nuisance from an air quality perspective, our results highlight the positive fundamental role of dust particles in modulating rainfall formation and distribution, which has implications for cloud seeding.
Yao Ge, Massimo Vieno, David S. Stevenson, Peter Wind, and Mathew R. Heal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8343–8368,Short summary
Reactive N and S gases and aerosols are critical determinants of air quality. We report a comprehensive analysis of the concentrations, wet and dry deposition, fluxes, and lifetimes of these species globally as well as for 10 world regions. We used the EMEP MSC-W model coupled with WRF meteorology and 2015 global emissions. Our work demonstrates the substantial regional variation in these quantities and the need for modelling to simulate atmospheric responses to precursor emissions.
Rachel A. Bergin, Monica Harkey, Alicia Hoffman, Richard H. Moore, Bruce Anderson, Andreas Beyersdorf, Luke Ziemba, Lee Thornhill, Edward Winstead, Tracey Holloway, and Timothy H. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Correctly predicting aerosol surface area concentrations is important for determining the rate of heterogeneous reactions in chemical transport models. Here, we compare aircraft measurements of aerosol surface area with a regional model. In polluted air masses, we show that the model under predicts aerosol surface area by a factor of two. Despite this disagreement, the representation of heterogeneous chemistry still dominates the overall uncertainty in the loss rate of molecules such as N2O5.
Katherine R. Travis, James H. Crawford, Gao Chen, Carolyn E. Jordan, Benjamin A. Nault, Hwajin Kim, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jack E. Dibb, Jung-Hun Woo, Younha Kim, Shixian Zhai, Xuan Wang, Erin E. McDuffie, Gan Luo, Fangqun Yu, Saewung Kim, Isobel J. Simpson, Donald R. Blake, Limseok Chang, and Michelle J. Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7933–7958,Short summary
The 2016 Korea–United States Air Quality (KORUS-AQ) field campaign provided a unique set of observations to improve our understanding of PM2.5 pollution in South Korea. Models typically have errors in simulating PM2.5 in this region, which is of concern for the development of control measures. We use KORUS-AQ observations to improve our understanding of the mechanisms driving PM2.5 and the implications of model errors for determining PM2.5 that is attributable to local or foreign sources.
Svetlana Tsyro, Wenche Aas, Augustin Colette, Camilla Andersson, Bertrand Bessagnet, Giancarlo Ciarelli, Florian Couvidat, Kees Cuvelier, Astrid Manders, Kathleen Mar, Mihaela Mircea, Noelia Otero, Maria-Teresa Pay, Valentin Raffort, Yelva Roustan, Mark R. Theobald, Marta G. Vivanco, Hilde Fagerli, Peter Wind, Gino Briganti, Andrea Cappelletti, Massimo D'Isidoro, and Mario Adani
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7207–7257,Short summary
Particulate matter (PM) air pollution causes adverse health effects. In Europe, the emissions caused by anthropogenic activities have been reduced in the last decades. To assess the efficiency of emission reductions in improving air quality, we have studied the evolution of PM pollution in Europe. Simulations with six air quality models and observational data indicate a decrease in PM concentrations by 10 % to 30 % across Europe from 2000 to 2010, which is mainly a result of emission reductions.
Yuemeng Ji, Qiuju Shi, Xiaohui Ma, Lei Gao, Jiaxin Wang, Yixin Li, Yanpeng Gao, Guiying Li, Renyi Zhang, and Taicheng An
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7259–7271,Short summary
The formation mechanisms of secondary organic aerosol and brown carbon from small α-carbonyls are still unclear. Thus, the mechanisms and kinetics of aqueous-phase reactions of glyoxal were investigated using quantum chemical and kinetic rate calculations. Several essential isomeric processes were identified, including protonation to yield diol/tetrol and carbenium ions as well as nucleophilic addition of carbenium ions to diol/tetrol and free methylamine/ammonia.
Jiyuan Gao, Yang Yang, Hailong Wang, Pinya Wang, Huimin Li, Mengyun Li, Lili Ren, Xu Yue, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7131–7142,Short summary
China has been implementing a sequence of policies for clean air since the year 2013. The aerosol decline produced a 0.09 ± 0.10°C warming during 2013–2017 estimated in this study, and the increase in ozone in the lower troposphere during this time period accelerated the warming, leading to a total 0.16 ± 0.15°C temperature increase in eastern China. Residential emission reductions led to a cooling effect because of a substantial decrease in light-absorbing aerosols.
Vigneshkumar Balamurugan, Jia Chen, Zhen Qu, Xiao Bi, and Frank N. Keutsch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7105–7129,Short summary
In this study, we investigated the response of secondary pollutants to changes in precursor emissions, focusing on the formation of secondary PM, during the COVID-19 lockdown period. We show that, due to the decrease in primary NOx emissions, atmospheric oxidizing capacity is increased. The nighttime increase in ozone, caused by less NO titration, results in higher NO3 radicals, which contribute significantly to the formation of PM nitrates. O3 should be limited in order to control PM pollution.
An Ning, Ling Liu, Lin Ji, and Xiuhui Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6103–6114,Short summary
Iodic acid (IA) and methanesulfonic acid (MSA) were previously proved to be significant nucleation precursors in marine areas. However, the nucleation process involved in IA and MSA remains unclear. We show the enhancement of MSA on IA cluster formation and reveal the IAM-SA nucleating mechanism using a theoretical approach. This study helps to understand the clustering process in which marine sulfur- and iodine-containing species are jointly involved and its impact on new particle formation.
Haoran Zhang, Nan Li, Keqin Tang, Hong Liao, Chong Shi, Cheng Huang, Hongli Wang, Song Guo, Min Hu, Xinlei Ge, Mindong Chen, Zhenxin Liu, Huan Yu, and Jianlin Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5495–5514,Short summary
We developed a new algorithm with low economic/technique costs to identify primary and secondary components of PM2.5. Our model was shown to be reliable by comparison with different observation datasets. We systematically explored the patterns and changes in the secondary PM2.5 pollution in China at large spatial and time scales. We believe that this method is a promising tool for efficiently estimating primary and secondary PM2.5, and has huge potential for future PM mitigation.
Chao Gao, Aijun Xiu, Xuelei Zhang, Qingqing Tong, Hongmei Zhao, Shichun Zhang, Guangyi Yang, and Mengduo Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5265–5329,Short summary
With ever-growing applications of two-way coupled meteorology and air quality models in Asia over the past decade, this paper summarizes the current status and research focuses, as well as how aerosol effects impact model performance, meteorology, and air quality. These models enable investigations of ARI and ACI effects induced by natural and anthropogenic aerosols in Asia, which has serious air pollution problems. The current gaps and perspectives are also presented and discussed.
Susannah M. Burrows, Richard C. Easter, Xiaohong Liu, Po-Lun Ma, Hailong Wang, Scott M. Elliott, Balwinder Singh, Kai Zhang, and Philip J. Rasch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5223–5251,Short summary
Sea spray particles are composed of a mixture of salts and organic substances from oceanic microorganisms. In prior work, our team developed an approach connecting sea spray chemistry to ocean biology, called OCEANFILMS. Here we describe its implementation within an Earth system model, E3SM. We show that simulated sea spray chemistry is consistent with observed seasonal cycles and that sunlight reflected by simulated Southern Ocean clouds increases, consistent with analysis of satellite data.
Jiandong Wang, Jia Xing, Shuxiao Wang, Rohit Mathur, Jiaping Wang, Yuqiang Zhang, Chao Liu, Jonathan Pleim, Dian Ding, Xing Chang, Jingkun Jiang, Peng Zhao, Shovan Kumar Sahu, Yuzhi Jin, David C. Wong, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5147–5156,Short summary
Aerosols reduce surface solar radiation and change the photolysis rate and planetary boundary layer stability. In this study, the online coupled meteorological and chemistry model was used to explore the detailed pathway of how aerosol direct effects affect secondary inorganic aerosol. The effects through the dynamics pathway act as an equally or even more important route compared with the photolysis pathway in affecting secondary aerosol concentration in both summer and winter.
Adam Milsom, Adam M. Squires, Andrew D. Ward, and Christian Pfrang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4895–4907,Short summary
Cooking emissions can self-organise into nanostructured lamellar bilayers, and this can influence reaction kinetics. We developed a kinetic multi-layer model-based description of decay data we obtained from laboratory experiments of the ozonolysis of coated films of such a self-organised system, demonstrating a decreased diffusivity for both oleic acid and ozone. Nanostructure formation can thus increase the reactive half-life of oleic acid by days under typical indoor and outdoor conditions.
Suxia Yang, Bin Yuan, Yuwen Peng, Shan Huang, Wei Chen, Weiwei Hu, Chenglei Pei, Jun Zhou, David D. Parrish, Wenjie Wang, Xianjun He, Chunlei Cheng, Xiao-Bing Li, Xiaoyun Yang, Yu Song, Haichao Wang, Jipeng Qi, Baolin Wang, Chen Wang, Chaomin Wang, Zelong Wang, Tiange Li, E Zheng, Sihang Wang, Caihong Wu, Mingfu Cai, Chenshuo Ye, Wei Song, Peng Cheng, Duohong Chen, Xinming Wang, Zhanyi Zhang, Xuemei Wang, Junyu Zheng, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4539–4556,Short summary
We use a model constrained using observations to study the formation of nitrate aerosol in and downwind of a representative megacity. We found different contributions of various chemical reactions to ground-level nitrate concentrations between urban and suburban regions. We also show that controlling VOC emissions are effective for decreasing nitrate formation in both urban and regional environments, although VOCs are not direct precursors of nitrate aerosol.
Hao Yang, Lei Chen, Hong Liao, Jia Zhu, Wenjie Wang, and Xin Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4101–4116,Short summary
Aerosols can influence O3 through aerosol–radiation interactions, including aerosol–photolysis interaction (API) and aerosol–radiation feedback (ARF). The weakened photolysis rates and changed meteorological conditions reduce surface-layer O3 concentrations by up to 9.3–11.4 ppb, with API and ARF contributing 74.6 %–90.0 % and 10.0 %–25.4 % of the O3 decrease in three episodes, respectively, which indicates that API is the dominant way for O3 reduction related to aerosol–radiation interactions.
Patricia Tarín-Carrasco, Ulas Im, Camilla Geels, Laura Palacios-Peña, and Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3945–3965,Short summary
The evidence of the effects of atmospheric pollution (and particularly fine particulate matter, PM2.5) on human mortality is now unquestionable. Here, 895 000 annual premature deaths (PD) are estimated for the present (1991–2010), which increases to 1 540 000 in the year 2050 due to the ageing of the European population. The implementation of a mitigation scenario (80 % of the energy production in Europe from renewable sources) could lead to a decrease of over 60 000 annual PD for the year 2050.
Xiajie Yang, Qiaoqiao Wang, Nan Ma, Weiwei Hu, Yang Gao, Zhijiong Huang, Junyu Zheng, Bin Yuan, Ning Yang, Jiangchuan Tao, Juan Hong, Yafang Cheng, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3743–3762,Short summary
We use the GEOS-Chem model with additional anthropogenic and biomass burning chlorine emissions combined with updated parameterizations for N2O5 ＋ Cl chemistry to investigate the impacts of chlorine chemistry on air quality in China. Our study not only significantly improves the model's performance but also demonstrates the importance of non-sea-salt chlorine sources as well as an appropriate parameterization for N2O5 ＋ Cl chemistry to the impact of chlorine chemistry in China.
Long Chen, Yu Huang, Yonggang Xue, Zhihui Jia, and Wenliang Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3693–3711,Short summary
Quantum chemical methods are applied to gain insight into the detailed mechanisms of OH-initiated oxidation of distinct HHPs. The dominant pathway is H-abstraction from the -OOH group in the initiation reactions of the OH radical with HOCH2OOH and HOC(CH3)2OOH. H-abstraction from -CH group is competitive with that from the -OOH group in the reaction of the OH radical with HOCH(CH3)OOH. The barrier of H-abstraction from the -OOH group is slightly increased as the methyl group number increases.
Joseph Lilek and Andreas Zuend
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3203–3233,Short summary
Depending on temperature and chemical makeup, certain aerosols can be highly viscous or glassy, with atmospheric implications. We have therefore implemented two major upgrades to the predictive viscosity model AIOMFAC-VISC. First, we created a new viscosity model for aqueous electrolyte solutions containing an arbitrary number of ion species. Second, we integrated the electrolyte model within the existing AIOMFAC-VISC framework to enable viscosity predictions for organic–inorganic mixtures.
Rongjie Zhang, Jiewen Shen, Hong-Bin Xie, Jingwen Chen, and Jonas Elm
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2639–2650,Short summary
Formic acid is screened out as the species that can effectively catalyze the new particle formation (NPF) of the methanesulfonic acid (MSA)–methylamine system, indicating organic acids might be required to facilitate MSA-driven NPF in the atmosphere. The results are significant to comprehensively understand the MSA-driven NPF and expand current knowledge of the contribution of OAs to NPF.
Amina Khaled, Minghui Zhang, and Barbara Ervens
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1989–2009,Short summary
Chemical reactions with iron in clouds and aerosol form and cycle reactive oxygen species (ROS). Previous model studies assumed that all cloud droplets (particles) contain iron, while single-particle analyses showed otherwise. By means of a model, we explore the bias in predicted ROS budgets by distributing a given iron mass to either all or only a few droplets (particles). Implications for oxidation potential, radical loss and iron oxidation state are discussed.
Pablo Garcia Rivera, Brian T. Dinkelacker, Ioannis Kioutsioukis, Peter J. Adams, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2011–2027,Short summary
The contribution of various pollution sources to the variability of fine PM in an urban area was examined using as an example the city of Pittsburgh. Biomass burning aerosol shows the largest variability during the winter with local maxima within the city and in the suburbs. During both periods the largest contributing source to the average PM2.5 is particles from outside the modeling domain. The average population-weighted PM2.5 concentration does not change significantly with resolution.
Noelia Otero, Oscar E. Jurado, Tim Butler, and Henning W. Rust
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1905–1919,Short summary
Surface ozone and temperature are strongly dependent and their extremes might be exacerbated by underlying climatological drivers, such as atmospheric blocking. Using an observational data set, we measure the dependence structure between ozone and temperature under the influence of atmospheric blocking. Blocks enhanced the probability of occurrence of compound ozone and temperature extremes over northwestern and central Europe, leading to greater health risks.
Ka Ming Fung, Colette L. Heald, Jesse H. Kroll, Siyuan Wang, Duseong S. Jo, Andrew Gettelman, Zheng Lu, Xiaohong Liu, Rahul A. Zaveri, Eric C. Apel, Donald R. Blake, Jose-Luis Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Patrick R. Veres, Timothy S. Bates, John E. Shilling, and Maria Zawadowicz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1549–1573,Short summary
Understanding the natural aerosol burden in the preindustrial era is crucial for us to assess how atmospheric aerosols affect the Earth's radiative budgets. Our study explores how a detailed description of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) oxidation (implemented in the Community Atmospheric Model version 6 with chemistry, CAM6-chem) could help us better estimate the present-day and preindustrial concentrations of sulfate and other relevant chemicals, as well as the resulting aerosol radiative impacts.
Jan Eiof Jonson, Hilde Fagerli, Thomas Scheuschner, and Svetlana Tsyro
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1311–1331,Short summary
Ammonia emissions are expected to decrease less than SOx and NOx emissions between 2005 and 2030. As the formation of PM2.5 particles from ammonia depends on the ratio between ammonia on one hand and sulfate (from SOx) and HNO3 (from NOx) on the other hand, the efficiency of particle formation from ammonia is decreasing. Depositions of reduced nitrogen are decreasing much less than oxidized nitrogen. The critical loads for nitrogen deposition will also be exceeded in much of Europe in 2030.
Hang Yin, Jing Dou, Liviana Klein, Ulrich K. Krieger, Alison Bain, Brandon J. Wallace, Thomas C. Preston, and Andreas Zuend
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 973–1013,Short summary
Iodine and carbonate species are important components in marine and dust aerosols, respectively. We introduce an extended version of the AIOMFAC thermodynamic mixing model, which includes the ions I−, IO3−, HCO3−, CO32−, OH−, and CO2(aq) as new species, and we discuss two methods for solving the carbonate dissociation equilibria numerically. We also present new experimental water activity data for aqueous iodide and iodate systems.
Isabelle Steinke, Paul J. DeMott, Grant B. Deane, Thomas C. J. Hill, Mathew Maltrud, Aishwarya Raman, and Susannah M. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 847–859,Short summary
Over the oceans, sea spray aerosol is an important source of particles that may initiate the formation of cloud ice, which then has implications for the radiative properties of marine clouds. In our study, we focus on marine biogenic particles that are emitted episodically and develop a numerical framework to describe these emissions. We find that further cloud-resolving model studies and targeted observations are needed to fully understand the climate impacts from marine biogenic particles.
Sanghee Han and Myoseon Jang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 625–639,Short summary
The gasoline SOA formation potential was simulated by using the UNIPAR model coupled with CB6r3 mechanism under varying NOx levels, aerosol acidity, humidity, temperature, and concentrations of aqueous salts and gasoline vapor. The model predicts SOA formation via multiphase reactions in the absence of wall bias. The simulation shows that both heterogeneous reactions in the aqueous phase and the implementation of model parameters corrected for GWP are critical to accurately predict SOA mass.
Dalrin Ampritta Amaladhasan, Claudia Heyn, Christopher R. Hoyle, Imad El Haddad, Miriam Elser, Simone M. Pieber, Jay G. Slowik, Antonio Amorim, Jonathan Duplissy, Sebastian Ehrhart, Vladimir Makhmutov, Ugo Molteni, Matti Rissanen, Yuri Stozhkov, Robert Wagner, Armin Hansel, Jasper Kirkby, Neil M. Donahue, Rainer Volkamer, Urs Baltensperger, Martin Gysel-Beer, and Andreas Zuend
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 215–244,Short summary
We use a combination of models for gas-phase chemical reactions and equilibrium gas–particle partitioning of isoprene-derived secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) informed by dark ozonolysis experiments conducted in the CLOUD chamber. Our predictions cover high to low relative humidities (RHs) and quantify how SOA mass yields are enhanced at high RH as well as the impact of inorganic seeds of distinct hygroscopicities and acidities on the coupled partitioning of water and semi-volatile organics.
Elyse A. Pennington, Karl M. Seltzer, Benjamin N. Murphy, Momei Qin, John H. Seinfeld, and Havala O. T. Pye
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18247–18261,Short summary
Volatile chemical products (VCPs) are commonly used consumer and industrial items that contribute to the formation of atmospheric aerosol. We implemented the emissions and chemistry of VCPs in a regional-scale model and compared predictions with measurements made in Los Angeles. Our results reduced model bias and suggest that VCPs may contribute up to half of anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol in Los Angeles and are an important source of human-influenced particular matter in urban areas.
Philippe Thunis, Alain Clappier, Alexander de Meij, Enrico Pisoni, Bertrand Bessagnet, and Leonor Tarrason
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18195–18212,Short summary
Air pollution's origin in cities is still a point of discussion, and approaches to assess the city's responsibility for its pollution are not harmonized and thus not comparable, resulting in sometimes contradicting interpretations. We show that methodological choices can easily lead to differences of a factor of 2 in terms of responsibility outcome and stress that methodological choices and assumptions most often lead to a systematic and important underestimation of the city's responsibility.
Zhonghua Zheng, Matthew West, Lei Zhao, Po-Lun Ma, Xiaohong Liu, and Nicole Riemer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17727–17741,Short summary
Aerosol mixing state is an important emergent property that affects aerosol radiative forcing and aerosol–cloud interactions, but it has not been easy to constrain this property globally. We present a framework for evaluating the error in aerosol mixing state induced by aerosol representation assumptions, which is one of the important contributors to structural uncertainty in aerosol models. Our study provides insights into potential improvements to model process representation for aerosols.
Ksakousti Skyllakou, Pablo Garcia Rivera, Brian Dinkelacker, Eleni Karnezi, Ioannis Kioutsioukis, Carlos Hernandez, Peter J. Adams, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17115–17132,Short summary
Significant reductions in pollutant emissions took place in the US from 1990 to 2010. The reductions in sulfur dioxide emissions from electric-generating units have dominated the reductions in fine particle mass. The reductions in transportation emissions have led to a 30 % reduction of elemental concentrations and of organic particulate matter by a factor of 3. On the other hand, changes in biomass burning and biogenic secondary organic aerosol have been modest.
Nønne L. Prisle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16387–16411,Short summary
A mass-based Gibbs adsorption model is presented to enable predictive Köhler calculations of droplet growth and activation with considerations of surface partitioning, surface tension, and non-ideal water activity for chemically complex and unresolved surface active aerosol mixtures, including actual atmospheric samples. The model is used to calculate cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity of aerosol particles comprising strongly surface-active model atmospheric humic-like substances (HULIS).
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