Articles | Volume 13, issue 13
05 Jul 2013
Research article | 05 Jul 2013
Could aerosol emissions be used for regional heat wave mitigation?
D. N. Bernstein et al.
No articles found.
Yongkang Xue, Tandong Yao, Aaron A. Boone, Ismaila Diallo, Ye Liu, Xubin Zeng, William K. M. Lau, Shiori Sugimoto, Qi Tang, Xiaoduo Pan, Peter J. van Oevelen, Daniel Klocke, Myung-Seo Koo, Tomonori Sato, Zhaohui Lin, Yuhei Takaya, Constantin Ardilouze, Stefano Materia, Subodh K. Saha, Retish Senan, Tetsu Nakamura, Hailan Wang, Jing Yang, Hongliang Zhang, Mei Zhao, Xin-Zhong Liang, J. David Neelin, Frederic Vitart, Xin Li, Ping Zhao, Chunxiang Shi, Weidong Guo, Jianping Tang, Miao Yu, Yun Qian, Samuel S. P. Shen, Yang Zhang, Kun Yang, Ruby Leung, Yuan Qiu, Daniele Peano, Xin Qi, Yanling Zhan, Michael A. Brunke, Sin Chan Chou, Michael Ek, Tianyi Fan, Hong Guan, Hai Lin, Shunlin Liang, Helin Wei, Shaocheng Xie, Haoran Xu, Weiping Li, Xueli Shi, Paulo Nobre, Yan Pan, Yi Qin, Jeff Dozier, Craig R. Ferguson, Gianpaolo Balsamo, Qing Bao, Jinming Feng, Jinkyu Hong, Songyou Hong, Huilin Huang, Duoying Ji, Zhenming Ji, Shichang Kang, Yanluan Lin, Weiguang Liu, Ryan Muncaster, Patricia de Rosnay, Hiroshi G. Takahashi, Guiling Wang, Shuyu Wang, Weicai Wang, Xu Zhou, and Yuejian Zhu
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4465–4494,Short summary
The subseasonal prediction of extreme hydroclimate events such as droughts/floods has remained stubbornly low for years. This paper presents a new international initiative which, for the first time, introduces spring land surface temperature anomalies over high mountains to improve precipitation prediction through remote effects of land–atmosphere interactions. More than 40 institutions worldwide are participating in this effort. The experimental protocol and preliminary results are presented.
Ying Wei, Xueshun Chen, Huansheng Chen, Yele Sun, Wenyi Yang, Huiyun Du, Qizhong Wu, Dan Chen, Xiujuan Zhao, Jie Li, and Zifa Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4411–4428,Short summary
The sub-grid particle formation (SGPF) in plumes plays an important role in air pollution and climate. We coupled an SGPF scheme to a chemical transport model with an aerosol microphysics module and applied it to investigate the SGPF impact over China. The scheme clearly improved the model performance in simulating aerosol components and particle number at typical sites influenced by point sources. The results indicate the significant effects of SGPF on aerosol particles in industrial areas.
Yang Yang, Min Chen, Xiujuan Zhao, Dan Chen, Shuiyong Fan, Jianping Guo, and Shaukat Ali
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12527–12547,Short summary
This study analyzed the impacts of aerosol–radiation interaction on radiation and meteorological forecasts using the offline coupling of WRF and high-frequency updated AOD simulated by WRF-Chem. The results revealed that aerosol–radiation interaction had a positive influence on the improvement of predictive accuracy, including 2 m temperature (~ 73.9 %) and horizontal wind speed (~ 7.8 %), showing potential prospects for its application in regional numerical weather prediction in northern China.
Wei Sun, Zhiquan Liu, Dan Chen, Pusheng Zhao, and Min Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9311–9329,Short summary
A new aerosol and gas pollutant assimilation capability is developed within the WRFDA system with the 3D variational algorithm and MOSAIC (Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry) aerosol scheme. By assimilating surface PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, O3, and CO, it improves 24 h air quality forecasting. Based on this system, model deficiencies are explored. Parameterization in the newly added inorganic aerosol heterogeneous reactions should be adjusted and verified by data assimilation.
Dan Chen, Zhiquan Liu, Junmei Ban, and Min Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8619–8650,Short summary
We updated the WRF/Chem-EnKF DA system to quantitatively estimate SO2 emissions using hourly surface observations as constraints. The 2010 MEIC prior emissions were used to generate January 2015 and 2016 analyzed emissions, which revealed inhomogeneous SO2 emission changes for northern, western, and southern China. These changes were related to facts in reality, indicating that the updated DA system was capable of detecting emission deficiencies and optimizing emissions.
Dan Chen, Zhiquan Liu, Junmei Ban, Pusheng Zhao, and Min Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7409–7427,Short summary
To better characterize the anthropogenic emission-relevant aerosol species, the GSI-WRF/Chem data assimilation system was updated from GOCART to MOSAIC-4BIN scheme. Wintertime 2015–2017 (January) surface PM2.5 observations from more than 1600 sites were assimilated hourly. The observations and reanalysis data from the assimilation experiment were used to investigate year-to-year changes. Roles of emission and meteorology in driving the changes were also distinguished and quantitatively assessed.
Zhen Peng, Lili Lei, Zhiquan Liu, Jianning Sun, Aijun Ding, Junmei Ban, Dan Chen, Xingxia Kou, and Kekuan Chu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17387–17404,Short summary
An EnKF system was developed to simultaneously assimilate multiple surface measurements, including PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, O3, and CO, via the joint adjustment of ICs and source emissions. Large improvements were achieved in the first 24 h forecast for PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and CO during an extreme haze episode that occurred in early October 2014 over the North China Plain, but no improvements were achieved for NO2 and O3.
Sudip Chakraborty, Kathleen A. Schiro, Rong Fu, and J. David Neelin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11135–11148,Short summary
This study shows the observational evidence of the role of humidity and associations from wind shear and aerosol concentrations on the evolution of deep convective clouds from shallow clouds. This study shows how humidity, wind shear, and aerosols influence a parcel's buoyancy before the clouds form.
Kathleen A. Schiro and J. David Neelin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1997–2010,Short summary
Downdraft processes in climate models are poorly constrained, largely due to a lack of robust, statistical relationships describing them. Using multi-instrument data from the GoAmazon2014/5 campaign, downdraft properties of mesoscale-organized and unorganized systems are compared and such statistics are presented. Both vertical velocity retrievals and thermodynamic arguments are consistent in suggesting a spectrum of downdraft mass origin levels throughout the lowest few kilometers.
Bin Zhao, Kuo-Nan Liou, Yu Gu, Jonathan H. Jiang, Qinbin Li, Rong Fu, Lei Huang, Xiaohong Liu, Xiangjun Shi, Hui Su, and Cenlin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1065–1078,Short summary
The interactions between aerosols and ice clouds represent one of the largest uncertainties among anthropogenic forcings on climate change. We find that the responses of ice crystal effective radius, a key parameter determining ice clouds' net radiative effect, to aerosol loadings are modulated by water vapor amount and vary from a significant negative correlation in moist conditions (consistent with the “Twomey effect” for liquid clouds) to a strong positive correlation in dry conditions.
Ling Qi, Qinbin Li, Daven K. Henze, Hsien-Liang Tseng, and Cenlin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9697–9716,Short summary
We find that Asian anthropogenic sources are the largest contributors (~ 40 %) to surface BC in spring in the Arctic, inconsistent with previous studies which repeatedly identified sources of surface BC as anthropogenic emissions from Europe and Russia. It takes 12–17 days for Asian anthropogenic emissions to be transported to the Arctic surface. Additionally, a large fraction (40–65 %) of Asian contribution is in the form of chronic pollution on 1- to 2-month timescales.
Dan Chen, Zhiquan Liu, Chris Davis, and Yu Gu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7917–7939,Short summary
Saharan dust influences Atlantic TC genesis, but the relationship and mechanisms are not fully understood. This study investigated the dust radiative effects on atmospheric thermodynamics and tropical cyclogenesis over the Atlantic Ocean using WRF-Chem coupled with an aerosol data assimilation system. Both statistics and a case study revealed that low-altitude (high-altitude) dust inhibits (favors) convection owing to changes in convective inhibition. Semi-direct effects were also noted.
Ling Qi, Qinbin Li, Cenlin He, Xin Wang, and Jianping Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7459–7479,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) is the second only to CO2 in heating the planet, but the simulation of BC is associated with large uncertainties. BC burden is largely underestimated over land and overestimated over ocean. Our study finds that a missing process in current Wegener–Bergeron–Findeisen models largely explains the discrepancy in BC simulation over land. We call for more observations of BC in mixed-phase clouds to understand this process and improve the simulation of global BC.
Zhen Peng, Zhiquan Liu, Dan Chen, and Junmei Ban
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4837–4855,Short summary
In order to improve the forecasting of atmospheric aerosols over China, the ensemble square root filter algorithm was extended to simultaneously optimize the chemical initial conditions and primary and precursor emissions. This system was applied to assimilate hourly surface PM2.5 measurements. The forecasts with the optimized initial conditions and emissions typically outperformed those from the control experiment without data assimilation.
Ling Qi, Qinbin Li, Yinrui Li, and Cenlin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1037–1059,Short summary
The Arctic is the most vulnerable region for climate change. Black carbon (BC) in air and deposited on snow and ice warms the Arctic substantially, but simulations of BC climate effects are associated with large uncertainties. To reduce this uncertainty, it is imperative to improve the simulation of BC distribution in the Arctic. We evaluate the effects of controlling factors (emissions, dry and wet deposition) on BC distribution and call for more observations to constrain these processes.
Dan Chen, Zhiquan Liu, Jerome Fast, and Junmei Ban
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10707–10724,Short summary
Extreme haze events occurred frequently over China recently, and adequately predicting peak PM2.5 concentrations is still challenging. In this study, the sulfate–nitrate–ammonium relevant heterogeneous reactions were parameterized for the first time in the WRF-Chem model. We evaluated the performance of WRF-Chem and used the model to investigate the sensitivity of heterogeneous reactions on simulated peak sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium concentrations in the vicinity of Beijing during October 2014.
Bin Zhao, Kuo-Nan Liou, Yu Gu, Cenlin He, Wee-Liang Lee, Xing Chang, Qinbin Li, Shuxiao Wang, Hsien-Liang R. Tseng, Lai-Yung R. Leung, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5841–5852,Short summary
We examine the impact of buildings on surface solar fluxes in Beijing by accounting for their 3-D structures. We find that inclusion of buildings changes surface solar fluxes by within ±1 W m−2, ±1–10 W m−2, and up to ±100 W m−2 at grid resolutions of 4 km, 800 m, and 90 m, respectively. We can resolve pairs of positive-negative flux deviations on different sides of buildings at ≤ 800 m resolutions. We should treat building-effect on solar fluxes differently in models with different resolutions.
Cenlin He, Qinbin Li, Kuo-Nan Liou, Ling Qi, Shu Tao, and Joshua P. Schwarz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3077–3098,Short summary
Blarck carbon aging significantly affects its global distribution and thus climatic effects. This study develops a microphysics-based BC aging scheme in a global model, which substantially improves model simulations of BC over the remote Pacific. The microphysical scheme shows fast aging over source regions and much slower aging in remote regions. The microphysical aging significantly reduces global BC burden and lifetime, showing important implications for the estimate of BC radiative effects.
C. He, K.-N. Liou, Y. Takano, R. Zhang, M. Levy Zamora, P. Yang, Q. Li, and L. R. Leung
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11967–11980,
Y. H. Mao, Q. B. Li, D. K. Henze, Z. Jiang, D. B. A. Jones, M. Kopacz, C. He, L. Qi, M. Gao, W.-M. Hao, and K.-N. Liou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7685–7702,
Y. H. Mao, Q. B. Li, D. Chen, L. Zhang, W.-M. Hao, and K.-N. Liou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7195–7211,
C. He, Q. B. Li, K. N. Liou, J. Zhang, L. Qi, Y. Mao, M. Gao, Z. Lu, D. G. Streets, Q. Zhang, M. M. Sarin, and K. Ram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7091–7112,
A. Kumar, S. Wu, M. F. Weise, R. Honrath, R. C. Owen, D. Helmig, L. Kramer, M. Val Martin, and Q. Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12537–12547,
A. Bracco, J. D. Neelin, H. Luo, J. C. McWilliams, and J. E. Meyerson
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 1673–1687,
L. Zhang, Q. B. Li, Y. Gu, K. N. Liou, and B. Meland
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7097–7114,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling | Altitude Range: Stratosphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Assessing the consequences of including aerosol absorption in potential stratospheric aerosol injection climate intervention strategiesAn approach to sulfate geoengineering with surface emissions of carbonyl sulfideOnline treatment of eruption dynamics improves the volcanic ash and SO2 dispersion forecast: case of the 2019 Raikoke eruptionThe impact of stratospheric aerosol intervention on the North Atlantic and Quasi-Biennial Oscillations in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) G6sulfur experimentAn interactive stratospheric aerosol model intercomparison of solar geoengineering by stratospheric injection of SO2 or accumulation-mode sulfuric acid aerosolsLimitations of assuming internal mixing between different aerosol species: a case study with sulfate geoengineering simulationsDependency of the impacts of geoengineering on the stratospheric sulfur injection strategy – Part 1: Intercomparison of modal and sectional aerosol modulesThe long-term transport and radiative impacts of the 2017 British Columbia pyrocumulonimbus smoke aerosols in the stratosphereIdentifying the sources of uncertainty in climate model simulations of solar radiation modification with the G6sulfur and G6solar Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) simulationsHarnessing stratospheric diffusion barriers for enhanced climate geoengineeringComparing different generations of idealized solar geoengineering simulations in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)Model physics and chemistry causing intermodel disagreement within the VolMIP-Tambora Interactive Stratospheric Aerosol ensembleNorth Atlantic Oscillation response in GeoMIP experiments G6solar and G6sulfur: why detailed modelling is needed for understanding regional implications of solar radiation managementScant evidence for a volcanically forced winter warming over Eurasia following the Krakatau eruption of August 1883Differing responses of the quasi-biennial oscillation to artificial SO2 injections in two global modelsRevisiting the Agung 1963 volcanic forcing – impact of one or two eruptionsNorthern Hemisphere continental winter warming following the 1991 Mt. Pinatubo eruption: reconciling models and observationsUpper tropospheric ice sensitivity to sulfate geoengineeringStratospheric aerosol radiative forcing simulated by the chemistry climate model EMAC using Aerosol CCI satellite dataDynamical response of Mediterranean precipitation to greenhouse gases and aerosolsGlobal radiative effects of solid fuel cookstove aerosol emissionsModel simulations of the chemical and aerosol microphysical evolution of the Sarychev Peak 2009 eruption cloud compared to in situ and satellite observationsSensitivity of the radiative forcing by stratospheric sulfur geoengineering to the amount and strategy of the SO2injection studied with the LMDZ-S3A modelSulfur deposition changes under sulfate geoengineering conditions: quasi-biennial oscillation effects on the transport and lifetime of stratospheric aerosolsChanging transport processes in the stratosphere by radiative heating of sulfate aerosolsEquatorward dispersion of a high-latitude volcanic plume and its relation to the Asian summer monsoon: a case study of the Sarychev eruption in 2009Sulfate geoengineering impact on methane transport and lifetime: results from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)Nucleation modeling of the Antarctic stratospheric CN layer and derivation of sulfuric acid profilesRadiative and climate effects of stratospheric sulfur geoengineering using seasonally varying injection areasVolcanic ash modeling with the online NMMB-MONARCH-ASH v1.0 model: model description, case simulation, and evaluationSulfate geoengineering: a review of the factors controlling the needed injection of sulfur dioxideClimatic impacts of stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate, black carbon and titania injectionRadiative and climate impacts of a large volcanic eruption during stratospheric sulfur geoengineeringClimate extremes in multi-model simulations of stratospheric aerosol and marine cloud brightening climate engineeringWhat is the limit of climate engineering by stratospheric injection of SO2?Quasi-biennial oscillation of the tropical stratospheric aerosol layerThe impact of volcanic aerosol on the Northern Hemisphere stratospheric polar vortex: mechanisms and sensitivity to forcing structureModeling the stratospheric warming following the Mt. Pinatubo eruption: uncertainties in aerosol extinctionsTransport of aerosols into the UTLS and their impact on the Asian monsoon region as seen in a global model simulationThe influence of eruption season on the global aerosol evolution and radiative impact of tropical volcanic eruptionsMicrophysical simulations of new particle formation in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphereInitial fate of fine ash and sulfur from large volcanic eruptions
Jim M. Haywood, Andy Jones, Ben T. Johnson, and William McFarlane Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6135–6150,Short summary
Simulations are presented investigating the influence of moderately absorbing aerosol in the stratosphere to combat the impacts of climate change. A number of detrimental impacts are noted compared to sulfate aerosol, including (i) reduced cooling efficiency, (ii) increased deficits in global precipitation, (iii) delays in the recovery of the stratospheric ozone hole, and (iv) disruption of the stratospheric circulation and the wintertime storm tracks that impact European precipitation.
Ilaria Quaglia, Daniele Visioni, Giovanni Pitari, and Ben Kravitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5757–5773,Short summary
Carbonyl sulfide is a gas that mixes very well in the atmosphere and can reach the stratosphere, where it reacts with sunlight and produces aerosol. Here we propose that, by increasing surface fluxes by an order of magnitude, the number of stratospheric aerosols produced may be enough to partially offset the warming produced by greenhouse gases. We explore what effect this would have on the atmospheric composition.
Julia Bruckert, Gholam Ali Hoshyaripour, Ákos Horváth, Lukas O. Muser, Fred J. Prata, Corinna Hoose, and Bernhard Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3535–3552,Short summary
Volcanic emissions endanger aviation and public health and also influence weather and climate. Forecasting the volcanic-plume dispersion is therefore a critical yet sophisticated task. Here, we show that explicit treatment of volcanic-plume dynamics and eruption source parameters significantly improves volcanic-plume dispersion forecasts. We further demonstrate the lofting of the SO2 due to a heating of volcanic particles by sunlight with major implications for volcanic aerosol research.
Andy Jones, Jim M. Haywood, Adam A. Scaife, Olivier Boucher, Matthew Henry, Ben Kravitz, Thibaut Lurton, Pierre Nabat, Ulrike Niemeier, Roland Séférian, Simone Tilmes, and Daniele Visioni
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2999–3016,Short summary
Simulations by six Earth-system models of geoengineering by introducing sulfuric acid aerosols into the tropical stratosphere are compared. A robust impact on the northern wintertime North Atlantic Oscillation is found, exacerbating precipitation reduction over parts of southern Europe. In contrast, the models show no consistency with regard to impacts on the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation, although results do indicate a risk that the oscillation could become locked into a permanent westerly phase.
Debra K. Weisenstein, Daniele Visioni, Henning Franke, Ulrike Niemeier, Sandro Vattioni, Gabriel Chiodo, Thomas Peter, and David W. Keith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2955–2973,Short summary
This paper explores a potential method of geoengineering that could be used to slow the rate of change of climate over decadal scales. We use three climate models to explore how injections of accumulation-mode sulfuric acid aerosol change the large-scale stratospheric particle size distribution and radiative forcing response for the chosen scenarios. Radiative forcing per unit sulfur injected and relative to the change in aerosol burden is larger with particulate than with SO2 injections.
Daniele Visioni, Simone Tilmes, Charles Bardeen, Michael Mills, Douglas G. MacMartin, Ben Kravitz, and Jadwiga H. Richter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1739–1756,Short summary
Aerosols are simulated in a simplified way in climate models: in the model analyzed here, they are represented in every grid as described by three simple logarithmic distributions, mixing all different species together. The size can evolve when new particles are formed, particles merge together to create a larger one or particles are deposited to the surface. This approximation normally works fairly well. Here we show however that when large amounts of sulfate are simulated, there are problems.
Anton Laakso, Ulrike Niemeier, Daniele Visioni, Simone Tilmes, and Harri Kokkola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 93–118,Short summary
The use of different spatio-temporal sulfur injection strategies with different magnitudes to create an artificial reflective aerosol layer to cool the climate is studied using sectional and modal aerosol schemes in a climate model. There are significant differences in the results depending on the aerosol microphysical module used. Different spatio-temporal injection strategies have a significant impact on the magnitude and zonal distribution of radiative forcing and atmospheric dynamics.
Sampa Das, Peter R. Colarco, Luke D. Oman, Ghassan Taha, and Omar Torres
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12069–12090,Short summary
Interactions of extreme fires with weather systems can produce towering smoke plumes that inject aerosols at very high altitudes (> 10 km). Three such major injections, largest at the time in terms of emitted aerosol mass, took place over British Columbia, Canada, in August 2017. We model the transport and impacts of injected aerosols on the radiation balance of the atmosphere. Our model results match the satellite-observed plume transport and residence time at these high altitudes very closely.
Daniele Visioni, Douglas G. MacMartin, Ben Kravitz, Olivier Boucher, Andy Jones, Thibaut Lurton, Michou Martine, Michael J. Mills, Pierre Nabat, Ulrike Niemeier, Roland Séférian, and Simone Tilmes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10039–10063,Short summary
A new set of simulations is used to investigate commonalities, differences and sources of uncertainty when simulating the injection of SO2 in the stratosphere in order to mitigate the effects of climate change (solar geoengineering). The models differ in how they simulate the aerosols and how they spread around the stratosphere, resulting in differences in projected regional impacts. Overall, however, the models agree that aerosols have the potential to mitigate the warming produced by GHGs.
Nikolas O. Aksamit, Ben Kravitz, Douglas G. MacMartin, and George Haller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8845–8861,Short summary
There exist robust and influential material features evolving within turbulent fluids that behave as the skeleton for fluid transport pathways. Recent developments in applied mathematics have made the identification of these time-varying structures more rigorous and insightful than ever. Using short-range wind forecasts, we detail how and why these material features can be exploited in an effort to optimize the spread of aerosols in the stratosphere for climate geoengineering.
Ben Kravitz, Douglas G. MacMartin, Daniele Visioni, Olivier Boucher, Jason N. S. Cole, Jim Haywood, Andy Jones, Thibaut Lurton, Pierre Nabat, Ulrike Niemeier, Alan Robock, Roland Séférian, and Simone Tilmes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4231–4247,Short summary
This study investigates multi-model response to idealized geoengineering (high CO2 with solar reduction) across two different generations of climate models. We find that, with the exception of a few cases, the results are unchanged between the different generations. This gives us confidence that broad conclusions about the response to idealized geoengineering are robust.
Margot Clyne, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Michael J. Mills, Myriam Khodri, William Ball, Slimane Bekki, Sandip S. Dhomse, Nicolas Lebas, Graham Mann, Lauren Marshall, Ulrike Niemeier, Virginie Poulain, Alan Robock, Eugene Rozanov, Anja Schmidt, Andrea Stenke, Timofei Sukhodolov, Claudia Timmreck, Matthew Toohey, Fiona Tummon, Davide Zanchettin, Yunqian Zhu, and Owen B. Toon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3317–3343,Short summary
This study finds how and why five state-of-the-art global climate models with interactive stratospheric aerosols differ when simulating the aftermath of large volcanic injections as part of the Model Intercomparison Project on the climatic response to Volcanic forcing (VolMIP). We identify and explain the consequences of significant disparities in the underlying physics and chemistry currently in some of the models, which are problems likely not unique to the models participating in this study.
Andy Jones, Jim M. Haywood, Anthony C. Jones, Simone Tilmes, Ben Kravitz, and Alan Robock
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1287–1304,Short summary
Two different methods of simulating a geoengineering scenario are compared using data from two different Earth system models. One method is very idealised while the other includes details of a plausible mechanism. The results from both models agree that the idealised approach does not capture an impact found when detailed modelling is included, namely that geoengineering induces a positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation which leads to warmer, wetter winters in northern Europe.
Lorenzo M. Polvani and Suzana J. Camargo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13687–13700,Short summary
On the basis of questionable early studies, it is widely believed that low-latitude volcanic eruptions cause winter warming over Eurasia. However, we here demonstrate that the winter warming over Eurasia following the 1883 Krakatau eruption was unremarkable and, in all likelihood, unrelated to that eruption. Confirming similar findings for the 1991 Pinatubo eruption, the new research demonstrates that no detectable Eurasian winter warming is to be expected after eruptions of similar magnitude.
Ulrike Niemeier, Jadwiga H. Richter, and Simone Tilmes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8975–8987,Short summary
Artificial injections of SO2 into the tropical stratosphere show an impact on the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). Different numerical models show only qualitatively but not quantitatively consistent impacts. We show for two models that the response of the QBO is similar when a similar stratospheric heating rate is induced by SO2 injections of different amounts. The reason is very different vertical advection in the two models resulting in different aerosol burden and heating of the aerosols.
Ulrike Niemeier, Claudia Timmreck, and Kirstin Krüger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10379–10390,Short summary
In 1963 Mt. Agung, Indonesia, showed unrest for several months. During this period, two medium-sized eruptions injected SO2 into the stratosphere. Recent volcanic emission datasets include only one large eruption phase. Therefore, we compared model experiments, with (a) one larger eruption and (b) two eruptions as observed. The evolution of the volcanic cloud differs significantly between the two experiments. Both climatic eruptions should be taken into account.
Lorenzo M. Polvani, Antara Banerjee, and Anja Schmidt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6351–6366,Short summary
This study provides compelling new evidence that the surface winter warming observed over the Northern Hemisphere continents following the 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo was, very likely, completely unrelated to the eruption. This result has implications for earlier eruptions, as the evidence presented here demonstrates that the surface signal of even the very largest known eruptions may be swamped by the internal variability at high latitudes.
Daniele Visioni, Giovanni Pitari, Glauco di Genova, Simone Tilmes, and Irene Cionni
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14867–14887,Short summary
Many side effects of sulfate geoengineering have to be analyzed before the world can even consider deploying this method of solar radiation management. In particular, we show that ice clouds in the upper troposphere are modified by a sulfate injection, producing a change that (by allowing for more planetary radiation to escape to space) would produce a further cooling. This might be important when considering the necessary amount of sulfate that needs to be injected to achieve a certain target.
Christoph Brühl, Jennifer Schallock, Klaus Klingmüller, Charles Robert, Christine Bingen, Lieven Clarisse, Andreas Heckel, Peter North, and Landon Rieger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12845–12857,Short summary
Use of multi-instrument satellite data is important to get consistent simulations of aerosol radiative forcing by a complex chemistry climate model, here with a main focus on the lower stratosphere. The satellite data at different wavelengths together with the patterns in the simulated size distribution point to a significant contribution from moist mineral dust lifted to the tropopause region by the Asian summer monsoon.
Tao Tang, Drew Shindell, Bjørn H. Samset, Oliviér Boucher, Piers M. Forster, Øivind Hodnebrog, Gunnar Myhre, Jana Sillmann, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Timothy Andrews, Gregory Faluvegi, Dagmar Fläschner, Trond Iversen, Matthew Kasoar, Viatcheslav Kharin, Alf Kirkevåg, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Dirk Olivié, Thomas Richardson, Camilla W. Stjern, and Toshihiko Takemura
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8439–8452,
Yaoxian Huang, Nadine Unger, Trude Storelvmo, Kandice Harper, Yiqi Zheng, and Chris Heyes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5219–5233,Short summary
We apply a global 3-D climate model to quantify the climate impacts of carbonaceous aerosols from solid fuel cookstove emissions. Without black carbon (BC) serving as ice nuclei (IN), global and Indian solid fuel cookstove aerosol emissions have net global cooling impacts. However, when BC acts as IN, the net sign of radiative impacts of carbonaceous aerosols from solid fuel cookstove emissions varies with the choice of maximum freezing efficiency of BC during ice cloud formation.
Thibaut Lurton, Fabrice Jégou, Gwenaël Berthet, Jean-Baptiste Renard, Lieven Clarisse, Anja Schmidt, Colette Brogniez, and Tjarda J. Roberts
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3223–3247,Short summary
We quantify the chemical and microphysical effects of volcanic SO2 and HCl from the June 2009 Sarychev Peak eruption using a comprehensive aerosol–chemistry model combined with in situ measurements and satellite retrievals. Our results suggest that previous studies underestimated the eruption's atmospheric and climatic impact, mainly because previous model-to-satellite comparisons had to make assumptions about the aerosol size distribution and were based on biased satellite retrievals of AOD.
Christoph Kleinschmitt, Olivier Boucher, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2769–2786,Short summary
We use a state-of-the-art stratospheric aerosol model to study geoengineering through stratospheric sulfur injections. We find that the efficiency may decrease more drastically for larger injections than previously estimated and that injections at higher altitude are not more effective. This study may provide additional evidence that this proposed geoengineering technique is still more complicated, probably less effective, and may implicate stronger side effects than initially thought.
Daniele Visioni, Giovanni Pitari, Paolo Tuccella, and Gabriele Curci
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2787–2808,Short summary
Sulfate geoengineering is a proposed technique that would mimic explosive volcanic eruptions by injecting sulfur dioxide (SO2) into the stratosphere to counteract global warming produced by greenhouse gases by reflecting part of the incoming solar radiation. In this study we use two models to simulate how the injected aerosols would react to dynamical changes in the stratosphere (due to the quasi-biennial oscillation - QBO) and how this would affect the deposition of sulfate at the surface.
Ulrike Niemeier and Hauke Schmidt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14871–14886,Short summary
An artificial stratospheric sulfur layer heats the lower stratosphere which impacts stratospheric dynamics and transport. The quasi-biennial oscillation shuts down due to the heated sulfur layer which impacts the meridional transport of the sulfate aerosols. The tropical confinement of the sulfate is stronger and the radiative forcing efficiency of the aerosol layer decreases compared to previous studies, as does the forcing when increasing the injection height.
Xue Wu, Sabine Griessbach, and Lars Hoffmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13439–13455,Short summary
This study is focused on the Sarychev eruption in 2009. Based on Lagrangian model simulations and satellite data, the equatorward transport of the plume and aerosol from the Sarychev eruption is confirmed, and the transport is facilitated by the Asian summer monsoon anticyclonic circulations. The aerosol transported to the tropics remained for months and dispersed upward, which could make the Sarychev eruption have a similar global climate impact as a tropical volcanic eruption.
Daniele Visioni, Giovanni Pitari, Valentina Aquila, Simone Tilmes, Irene Cionni, Glauco Di Genova, and Eva Mancini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11209–11226,Short summary
Sulfate geoengineering (SG), the sustained injection of SO2 in the lower stratosphere, is being discussed as a way to counterbalance surface warming, mimicking volcanic eruptions. In this paper, we analyse results from two models part of the GeoMIP project in order to understand the effect SG might have on the concentration and lifetime of methane, which acts in the atmosphere as a greenhouse gas. Understanding possible side effects of SG is a crucial step if its viability is to be assessed.
Steffen Münch and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7581–7591,Short summary
Recent research has analyzed the formation of a particle (CN) layer in the stratosphere above Antarctica after sunrise. We investigate the CN layer formation processes with our particle formation model and derive sulfuric acid profiles (no measurements exist). Our study confirms existing explanations and gives more insights into the formation process, leading to higher derived concentrations. Therefore, this paper improves our understanding of the processes in the high atmosphere.
Anton Laakso, Hannele Korhonen, Sami Romakkaniemi, and Harri Kokkola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6957–6974,Short summary
Based on simulations, equatorial stratospheric sulfur injections have shown to be an efficient strategy to counteract ongoing global warming. However, equatorial injections would result in relatively larger cooling in low latitudes than in high latitudes. This together with greenhouse-gas-induced warming would lead to cooling in the Equator and warming in the high latitudes. Results of this study show that a more optimal cooling effect is achieved by varying the injection area seasonally.
Alejandro Marti, Arnau Folch, Oriol Jorba, and Zavisa Janjic
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4005–4030,Short summary
We describe and evaluate NMMB-MONARCH-ASH, a novel online multi-scale meteorological and transport model developed at the BSC-CNS capable of forecasting the dispersal and deposition of volcanic ash. The forecast skills of the model have been validated and they improve on those from traditional operational offline (decoupled) models. The results support the use of online coupled models to aid civil aviation and emergency management during a crisis such as the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull.
Daniele Visioni, Giovanni Pitari, and Valentina Aquila
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3879–3889,Short summary
This review paper summarizes the state-of-the-art knowledge of the direct and indirect side effects of sulfate geoengineering, that is, the injection of sulfur dioxide into the stratosphere in order to offset the warming caused by the anthropic increase in greenhouse gasses. An overview of the various effects and their uncertainties, using results from published scientific articles, may help fine-tune the best amount of sulfate to be injected in an eventual realization of the experiment.
Anthony C. Jones, James M. Haywood, and Andy Jones
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2843–2862,Short summary
In this paper we assess the potential climatic impacts of geoengineering with sulfate, black carbon and titania injection strategies. We find that black carbon injection results in severe stratospheric warming and precipitation impacts, and therefore black carbon is unsuitable for geoengineering purposes. As the injection rates and climatic impacts for titania are close to those for sulfate, there appears little benefit of using titania when compared to injection of sulfur dioxide.
A. Laakso, H. Kokkola, A.-I. Partanen, U. Niemeier, C. Timmreck, K. E. J. Lehtinen, H. Hakkarainen, and H. Korhonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 305–323,Short summary
We have studied the impacts of a volcanic eruption during solar radiation management (SRM) using an aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM-SALSA and an Earth system model MPI-ESM. A volcanic eruption during stratospheric sulfur geoengineering would lead to larger particles and smaller amount of new particles than if an volcano erupts in normal atmospheric conditions. Thus, volcanic eruption during SRM would lead to only a small additional cooling which would last for a significantly shorter period.
V. N. Aswathy, O. Boucher, M. Quaas, U. Niemeier, H. Muri, J. Mülmenstädt, and J. Quaas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9593–9610,Short summary
Simulations conducted in the GeoMIP and IMPLICC model intercomparison studies for climate engineering by stratospheric sulfate injection and marine cloud brightening via sea salt are analysed and compared to the reference scenario RCP4.5. The focus is on extremes in surface temperature and precipitation. It is found that the extreme changes mostly follow the mean changes and that extremes are also in general well mitigated, except for in polar regions.
U. Niemeier and C. Timmreck
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9129–9141,Short summary
The injection of sulfur dioxide is considered as an option for solar radiation management. We have calculated the effects of SO2 injections up to 100 Tg(S)/y. Our calculations show that the forcing efficiency of the injection decays exponentially. This result implies that SO2 injections in the order of 6 times Mt. Pinatubo eruptions per year are required to keep temperatures constant at that anticipated for 2020, whilst maintaining business as usual emission conditions.
R. Hommel, C. Timmreck, M. A. Giorgetta, and H. F. Graf
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5557–5584,
M. Toohey, K. Krüger, M. Bittner, C. Timmreck, and H. Schmidt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13063–13079,Short summary
Earth system model simulations are used to investigate the impact of volcanic aerosol forcing on stratospheric dynamics, e.g. the Northern Hemisphere (NH) polar vortex. We find that mechanisms linking aerosol heating and high-latitude dynamics are not as direct as often assumed; high-latitude effects result from changes in stratospheric circulation and related vertical motions. The simulated responses also show evidence of being sensitive to the structure of the volcanic forcing used.
F. Arfeuille, B. P. Luo, P. Heckendorn, D. Weisenstein, J. X. Sheng, E. Rozanov, M. Schraner, S. Brönnimann, L. W. Thomason, and T. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11221–11234,
S. Fadnavis, K. Semeniuk, L. Pozzoli, M. G. Schultz, S. D. Ghude, S. Das, and R. Kakatkar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8771–8786,
M. Toohey, K. Krüger, U. Niemeier, and C. Timmreck
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 12351–12367,
J. M. English, O. B. Toon, M. J. Mills, and F. Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 9303–9322,
U. Niemeier, C. Timmreck, H.-F. Graf, S. Kinne, S. Rast, and S. Self
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 9043–9057,
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