Articles | Volume 23, issue 19
Research article
11 Oct 2023
Research article |  | 11 Oct 2023

Sub-cloud rain evaporation in the North Atlantic winter trade winds derived by pairing isotopic data with a bin-resolved microphysical model

Mampi Sarkar, Adriana Bailey, Peter Blossey, Simon P. de Szoeke, David Noone, Estefanía Quiñones Meléndez, Mason D. Leandro, and Patrick Y. Chuang

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Cited articles

Albrecht, B., Ghate, V., Mohrmann, J., Wood, R., Zuidema, P., Bretherton, C., Schwartz, C., Eloranta, E., Glienke, S., Donaher, S., Sarkar, M., McGibbon, J., Nugent, A., Shaw, R. A., Fugal, J., Minnis, P., Palikonda, R., Lussier, L., Jensen, J., Vivekanandan, J., Ellis, S., Tsai, P., Rilling, R., Haggerty, J., Campos, T., Stell, M., Reeves, M., Beaton, S., Allison, J., Stossmeister, G., Hall, S., and Schmidt, S.: Cloud system evolution in the trades CSET following the evolution of boundary layer cloud systems with the NSF-NCAR GV, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 100, 93–121,, 2019. a
Bailey, A., Henze, D., and Noone, D.: ATOMIC aircraft water vapor isotopic analyzer: Humidity and water vapor isotope ratios from an isotopic analyzer aboard N43 aircraft in the North Atlantic Ocean, Barbados: Atlantic Tradewind Ocean-Atmosphere Mesoscale Interaction Campaign 2020-01-17 to 2020-02-11 (NCEI Accession 0220631), NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information [data set],, 2020. a
Bailey, A., Aemisegger, F., Villiger, L., Los, S. A., Reverdin, G., Quiñones Meléndez, E., Acquistapace, C., Baranowski, D. B., Böck, T., Bony, S., Bordsdorff, T., Coffman, D., de Szoeke, S. P., Diekmann, C. J., Dütsch, M., Ertl, B., Galewsky, J., Henze, D., Makuch, P., Noone, D., Quinn, P. K., Rösch, M., Schneider, A., Schneider, M., Speich, S., Stevens, B., and Thompson, E. J.: Isotopic measurements in water vapor, precipitation, and seawater during EUREC4A, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 465–495,, 2023. a, b, c, d, e
Bretherton, C. S. and Pincus, R.: Cloudiness and marine boundary layer dynamics in the ASTEX Lagrangian experiments. Part I: Synoptic setting and vertical structure, J. Atmos. Sci., 52, 2707–2723,<2707:CAMBLD>2.0.CO;2, 1995. a
Byers, H. R. and Hall, R. K.: A census of cumulus-cloud height versus precipitation in the vicinity of Puerto Rico during the winter and spring of 1953–1954, J. Atmos. Sci., 12, 176–178,<0176:ACOCCH>2.0.CO;2, 1955. a
Short summary
We study rain evaporation characteristics below shallow cumulus clouds over the North Atlantic Ocean by pairing isotope observations with a microphysical model. The modeled fraction of rain mass that evaporates below the cloud strongly depends on the raindrop size and distribution width. Moreover, the higher the rain mass fraction evaporated, the greater the change in deuterium excess. In this way, rain evaporation could be studied independently using only isotope and microphysical observations.
Final-revised paper