Articles | Volume 22, issue 23
Research article
12 Dec 2022
Research article |  | 12 Dec 2022

Vertical structure of the lower-stratospheric moist bias in the ERA5 reanalysis and its connection to mixing processes

Konstantin Krüger, Andreas Schäfler, Martin Wirth, Martin Weissmann, and George C. Craig

Related authors

Validation of Aeolus L2B products over the tropical Atlantic using radiosondes
Maurus Borne, Peter Knippertz, Martin Weissmann, Benjamin Witschas, Cyrille Flamant, Rosimar Rios-Berrios, and Peter Veals
EGUsphere,,, 2023
This preprint is open for discussion and under review for Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT).
Short summary
Investigation of links between dynamical scenarios and particularly high impact of Aeolus on numerical weather prediction (NWP) forecasts
Anne Martin, Martin Weissmann, and Alexander Cress
Weather Clim. Dynam., 4, 249–264,,, 2023
Short summary
Characteristics of supersaturation in midlatitude cirrus clouds and their adjacent cloud-free air
Georgios Dekoutsidis, Silke Groß, Martin Wirth, Martina Krämer, and Christian Rolf
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3103–3117,,, 2023
Short summary
Observations of microphysical properties and radiative effects of a contrail cirrus outbreak over the North Atlantic
Ziming Wang, Luca Bugliaro, Tina Jurkat-Witschas, Romy Heller, Ulrike Burkhardt, Helmut Ziereis, Georgios Dekoutsidis, Martin Wirth, Silke Groß, Simon Kirschler, Stefan Kaufmann, and Christiane Voigt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1941–1961,,, 2023
Short summary
Case study on the influence of synoptic-scale processes on the paired H2O–O3 distribution in the UTLS across a North Atlantic jet stream
Andreas Schäfler, Michael Sprenger, Heini Wernli, Andreas Fix, and Martin Wirth
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 999–1018,,, 2023
Short summary

Related subject area

Subject: Dynamics | Research Activity: Remote Sensing | Altitude Range: Stratosphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)
Intermittency of gravity wave potential energies and absolute momentum fluxes derived from infrared limb sounding satellite observations
Manfred Ern, Peter Preusse, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15093–15133,,, 2022
Short summary
The evolution and dynamics of the Hunga Tonga–Hunga Ha'apai sulfate aerosol plume in the stratosphere
Bernard Legras, Clair Duchamp, Pasquale Sellitto, Aurélien Podglajen, Elisa Carboni, Richard Siddans, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Sergey Khaykin, and Felix Ploeger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14957–14970,,, 2022
Short summary
Stratospheric water vapour and ozone response to the quasi-biennial oscillation disruptions in 2016 and 2020
Mohamadou A. Diallo, Felix Ploeger, Michaela I. Hegglin, Manfred Ern, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Sergey Khaykin, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14303–14321,,, 2022
Short summary
A new methodology for measuring traveling quasi-5-day oscillations during sudden stratospheric warming events based on satellite observations
Zheng Ma, Yun Gong, Shaodong Zhang, Qiao Xiao, Chunming Huang, and Kaiming Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13725–13737,,, 2022
Short summary
The middle atmospheric meridional circulation for 2002–2012 derived from MIPAS observations
Thomas von Clarmann, Udo Grabowski, Gabriele P. Stiller, Beatriz M. Monge-Sanz, Norbert Glatthor, and Sylvia Kellmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8823–8843,,, 2021
Short summary

Cited articles

Bhawar, R., Di Girolamo, P., Summa, D., Flamant, C., Althausen, D., Behrendt, A., Kiemle, C., Bosser, P., Cacciani, M., Champollion, C., Di Iorio, T., Engelmann, R., Herold, C., Müller, D., Pal, S., Wirth, M., and Wulfmeyer, V.: The water vapour intercomparison effort in the framework of the Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study: airborne-to-ground-based and airborne-to-airborne lidar systems, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 137, 325–348,, 2011. 
Birner, T. and Bönisch, H.: Residual circulation trajectories and transit times into the extratropical lowermost stratosphere, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 817–827,, 2011. 
Birner, T., Dörnbrack, A., and Schumann, U.: How sharp is the tropopause at midlatitudes?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 45-1–45-4,, 2002. 
Bland, J., Gray, S., Methven, J., and Forbes, R.: Characterizing extratropical near-tropopause analysis humidity biases and their radiative effects on temperature forecasts, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 140, 3878–3898,, 2021. 
Brewer, A. W.: Evidence for a world circulation provided by the measurements of helium and water vapor distribution in the stratosphere, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 75, 351–363,, 1949. 
Short summary
A comprehensive data set of airborne lidar water vapour profiles is compared with ERA5 reanalyses for a robust characterization of the vertical structure of the mid-latitude lower-stratospheric moist bias. We confirm a moist bias of up to 55 % at 1.3 km altitude above the tropopause and uncover a decreasing bias beyond. Collocated O3 and H2O observations reveal a particularly strong bias in the mixing layer, indicating insufficiently modelled transport processes fostering the bias.
Final-revised paper