Articles | Volume 21, issue 4
Research article 26 Feb 2021
Research article | 26 Feb 2021
Organosulfates in atmospheric aerosols in Shanghai, China: seasonal and interannual variability, origin, and formation mechanisms
Yao Wang et al.
No articles found.
Han Zang, Yue Zhao, Juntao Huo, Qianbiao Zhao, Qingyan Fu, Yusen Duan, Jingyuan Shao, Cheng Huang, Jingyu An, Likun Xue, Ziyue Li, Chenxi Li, and Huayun Xiao
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Particulate nitrate plays an increasingly important role in wintertime haze pollution in eastern China, yet quantitative constraints on detailed nitrate formation mechanisms remain limited. Here we quantified the contributions of the heterogeneous N2O5 hydrolysis (66 %) and gas-phase OH + NO2 reaction (32 %) to nitrate formation in this region and identified the atmospheric oxidation capacity (i.e., availability of O3 and OH radicals) as the driving factor of nitrate formation from both processes.
Zirui Zhang, Wenfei Zhu, Min Hu, Kefan Liu, Hui Wang, Rongzhi Tang, Ruizhe Shen, Ying Yu, Rui Tan, Kai Song, Yuanju Li, Wenbin Zhang, Zhou Zhang, Hongming Xu, Shijin Shuai, Shuangde Li, Yunfa Chen, Jiayun Li, Yuesi Wang, and Song Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15221–15237,Short summary
We comprehensively investigated the mass growth potential, oxidation degree, formation pathway, and mass spectra features of typical urban-lifestyle secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) including vehicle SOAs and cooking SOAs. The mass spectra we acquired could provide necessary references to estimate the mass fractions of vehicle and cooking SOAs in the atmosphere, which would greatly decrease the uncertainty in air quality evaluation and health risk assessment in urban areas.
Wenfei Zhu, Song Guo, Zirui Zhang, Hui Wang, Ying Yu, Zheng Chen, Ruizhe Shen, Rui Tan, Kai Song, Kefan Liu, Rongzhi Tang, Yi Liu, Shengrong Lou, Yuanju Li, Wenbin Zhang, Zhou Zhang, Shijin Shuai, Hongming Xu, Shuangde Li, Yunfa Chen, Min Hu, Francesco Canonaco, and Andre S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15065–15079,Short summary
The experiments of primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from urban lifestyle sources (cooking and vehicles) were conducted. The mass spectral features of primary organic aerosol (POA) and SOA were characterized by using a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer. This work, for the first time, establishes the vehicle and cooking SOA source profiles and can be further used as source constraints in the OA source apportionment in the ambient atmosphere.
Kai Song, Song Guo, Haichao Wang, Ying Yu, Hui Wang, Rongzhi Tang, Shiyong Xia, Yuanzheng Gong, Zichao Wan, Daqi Lv, Rui Tan, Wenfei Zhu, Ruizhe Shen, Xin Li, Xuena Yu, Shiyi Chen, Liming Zeng, and Xiaofeng Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7917–7932,Short summary
Nitrated phenols (NPs) are crucial components of brown carbon. To comprehend the constitutes and sources of NPs in winter of Beijing, their concentrations were measured by a CI-LToF-MS. The secondary formation process was simulated by a box model. NPs were mainly influenced by primary emissions and regional transport. Primary emitted phenol rather than benzene oxidation was crucial in the heavy pollution episode in Beijing. This provides more insight into pollution control strategies of NPs.
Christian Mark Garcia Salvador, Rongzhi Tang, Michael Priestley, Linjie Li, Epameinondas Tsiligiannis, Michael Le Breton, Wenfei Zhu, Limin Zeng, Hui Wang, Ying Yu, Min Hu, Song Guo, and Mattias Hallquist
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1389–1406,Short summary
High-frequency online measurement of gas- and particle-phase nitro-aromatic compounds (NACs) at a rural site in China, heavily influenced by biomass burning events, enabled the analysis of the production pathway of NACs, including an explanation of strong persistence in the daytime. The contribution of secondary processes was significant, even during the dominant wintertime influence of primary emissions, suggesting the important role of regional secondary chemistry, i.e. photochemical smog.
Rui Li, Qiongqiong Wang, Xiao He, Shuhui Zhu, Kun Zhang, Yusen Duan, Qingyan Fu, Liping Qiao, Yangjun Wang, Ling Huang, Li Li, and Jian Zhen Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12047–12061,
Yee Ka Wong, X. H. Hilda Huang, Peter K. K. Louie, Alfred L. C. Yu, Damgy H. L. Chan, and Jian Zhen Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9871–9882,Short summary
We present an approach to track separate contributions to PM2.5 by gasoline and diesel vehicles through a positive matrix factorization analysis of online monitoring data measurable by relatively inexpensive analytical instruments. They are PM2.5 organic and elemental carbon, C2–C9 volatile organic compounds, and nitrogen oxide concentrations. The method was demonstrated to be effective by applying monitoring data spanning 6 years (2011–2017) from a roadside environment in Hong Kong.
Yibei Wan, Xiangpeng Huang, Bin Jiang, Binyu Kuang, Manfei Lin, Deming Xia, Yuhong Liao, Jingwen Chen, Jian Zhen Yu, and Huan Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9821–9835,Short summary
Biogenic iodine emission from macroalgae and microalgae could initiate atmospheric new particle formation (NPF). But it is unknown if other species are needed to drive the growth of new iodine particles in the marine boundary layer. Unlike the deeper understanding of organic compounds driving continental NPF, little is known about the organics involved in coastal or open-ocean NPF. This article reveals a new group of important organic compounds involved in this process.
Ziyue Li, Emma L. D'Ambro, Siegfried Schobesberger, Cassandra J. Gaston, Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker, Jiumeng Liu, John E. Shilling, Joel A. Thornton, and Christopher D. Cappa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2489–2512,Short summary
We discuss the development and application of a robust clustering method for the interpretation of compound-specific organic aerosol thermal desorption profiles. We demonstrate the utility of clustering for analysis and interpretation of the composition and volatility of secondary organic aerosol. We show that the thermal desorption profiles are represented by only 9–13 distinct clusters, with the number of clusters obtained dependent on the precursor and formation conditions.
Jia Yin Sun, Cheng Wu, Dui Wu, Chunlei Cheng, Mei Li, Lei Li, Tao Deng, Jian Zhen Yu, Yong Jie Li, Qianni Zhou, Yue Liang, Tianlin Sun, Lang Song, Peng Cheng, Wenda Yang, Chenglei Pei, Yanning Chen, Yanxiang Cen, Huiqing Nian, and Zhen Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2445–2470,Short summary
Atmospheric aging processes (AAPs) can lead to black carbon (BC) light absorption enhancement (Eabs), which remained poorly characterized at a long timescale. By applying a newly developed approach, the minimum R squared method (MRS), this study investigated the temporal variations of BC Eabs at both seasonal and diel scales in an urban environment. Factors affecting the temporal variability of BC Eabs were also analyzed, including variability in emission sources and various types of AAPs.
Emma L. D'Ambro, Siegfried Schobesberger, Cassandra J. Gaston, Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker, Ben H. Lee, Jiumeng Liu, Alla Zelenyuk, David Bell, Christopher D. Cappa, Taylor Helgestad, Ziyue Li, Alex Guenther, Jian Wang, Matthew Wise, Ryan Caylor, Jason D. Surratt, Theran Riedel, Noora Hyttinen, Vili-Taneli Salo, Galib Hasan, Theo Kurtén, John E. Shilling, and Joel A. Thornton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11253–11265,Short summary
Isoprene is the most abundantly emitted reactive organic gas globally, and thus it is important to understand its fate and role in aerosol formation and growth. A major product of its oxidation is an epoxydiol, IEPOX, which can be efficiently taken up by acidic aerosol to generate substantial amounts of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). We present chamber experiments exploring the properties of IEPOX SOA and reconcile discrepancies between field, laboratory, and model studies of this process.
Yujue Wang, Min Hu, Yuchen Wang, Jing Zheng, Dongjie Shang, Yudong Yang, Ying Liu, Xiao Li, Rongzhi Tang, Wenfei Zhu, Zhuofei Du, Yusheng Wu, Song Guo, Zhijun Wu, Shengrong Lou, Mattias Hallquist, and Jian Zhen Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7649–7665,Short summary
Nitro-aromatic compounds (NACs), an important fraction in brown carbon, were comprehensively characterized in Beijing. The oxidation of anthropogenic VOCs represented more dominant sources of NACs than biomass burning. A transition of NO2 from low- to high-NOx regimes was observed. The contribution of aqueous-phase pathways to NAC formation increased at elevated RH. This work highlights secondary formation of NACs and influence factors in high NOx–anthropogenic VOC-dominated urban atmospheres.
Jingyuan Shao, Qianjie Chen, Yuxuan Wang, Xiao Lu, Pengzhen He, Yele Sun, Viral Shah, Randall V. Martin, Sajeev Philip, Shaojie Song, Yue Zhao, Zhouqing Xie, Lin Zhang, and Becky Alexander
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6107–6123,Short summary
Sulfate is a key species contributing to particle formation and growth during wintertime Chinese haze events. This study combines observations and modeling of oxygen isotope signatures in sulfate aerosol to investigate its formation mechanisms, with a focus on heterogeneous production on aerosol surface via H2O2, O3, and NO2 and trace metal catalyzed oxidation. Contributions from different formation pathways are presented.
Ziyue Li, Katherine A. Smith, and Christopher D. Cappa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14585–14608,Short summary
We investigated the influence of relative humidity (RH) on the heterogeneous oxidation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles by OH radicals. We observed significantly faster volume loss and compositional change of SOA at high RH, showing that viscosity differences determine compositional changes, but variability in either the uptake coefficient or the fragmentation probability are required to explain the difference in volume loss between low and high RH.
Yujue Wang, Min Hu, Song Guo, Yuchen Wang, Jing Zheng, Yudong Yang, Wenfei Zhu, Rongzhi Tang, Xiao Li, Ying Liu, Michael Le Breton, Zhuofei Du, Dongjie Shang, Yusheng Wu, Zhijun Wu, Yu Song, Shengrong Lou, Mattias Hallquist, and Jianzhen Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10693–10713,Short summary
The overall characteristics and concentrations of organosulfates (OSs) and nitrooxy-OSs (NOSs) were determined in summer in Beijing. This study provided direct observational evidence that OSs form via acid-catalyzed aqueous-phase reactions in the presence of acidic sulfate aerosols, and monoterpene NOSs form via nighttime NO3 oxidation. Using OSs and NOSs as examples, this work highlights the formation pathways of SOA via anthropogenic–biogenic interactions and organic–inorganic reactions.
Michael Le Breton, Yujue Wang, Åsa M. Hallquist, Ravi Kant Pathak, Jing Zheng, Yudong Yang, Dongjie Shang, Marianne Glasius, Thomas J. Bannan, Qianyun Liu, Chak K. Chan, Carl J. Percival, Wenfei Zhu, Shengrong Lou, David Topping, Yuchen Wang, Jianzhen Yu, Keding Lu, Song Guo, Min Hu, and Mattias Hallquist
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10355–10371,Short summary
This paper utilizes a chemical ionisation mass spectrometer measuring gas and particle-phase organosulfates (OS) simultaneously during a field campaign in Beijing, China, and highlights how high time frequency online measurements enable a detailed analysis of dominant production mechanisms. We find that high aerosol acidity, organic precursor concentration and relative humidity promote the production of OS. The thermogram desorption reveals the potential for semi-volatile gas-phase OS.
Haichao Wang, Keding Lu, Song Guo, Zhijun Wu, Dongjie Shang, Zhaofeng Tan, Yujue Wang, Michael Le Breton, Shengrong Lou, Mingjin Tang, Yusheng Wu, Wenfei Zhu, Jing Zheng, Limin Zeng, Mattias Hallquist, Min Hu, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9705–9721,Short summary
N2O5, ClNO2, and particulate nitrate were measured simultaneously in Beijing, China, in 2016. The elevated N2O5 uptake coefficient and ClNO2 yield were determined, which suggest fast N2O5 uptake in Beijing. We highlight that the NO3 oxidation in nocturnal VOC degradation is efficient, with fast formation of organic nitrates. More studies are needed to investigate NO3–N2O5 chemistry and its contribution to secondary organic aerosol formation.
Deming Han, Qingyan Fu, Song Gao, Li Li, Yingge Ma, Liping Qiao, Hao Xu, Shan Liang, Pengfei Cheng, Xiaojia Chen, Yong Zhou, Jian Zhen Yu, and Jinping Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9375–9391,Short summary
Non-polar organic compounds (NPOCs), as one important class of particle constituents, served as good tracers for aerosol source apportionment. This research first systemically evaluated their characterization and explored the effects of size distribution, photodegradation and gas–particle partitioning on PM2.5 source apportionment, which will help us accurately identify the potential sources of aerosols.
Yiqiu Ma, Yubo Cheng, Xinghua Qiu, Gang Cao, Yanhua Fang, Junxia Wang, Tong Zhu, Jianzhen Yu, and Di Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5607–5617,Short summary
Water-soluble humic-like substances (HULISWS) are a potential toxic component of PM2.5 for their redox activity. In this study, we measured HULISWS and associated redox activity in PM2.5 sampled during a 1-year period in Beijing and investigated their sources. We found biomass burning and secondary aerosol formation were the major contributors (> 59 %) to both HULISWS and redox activity, and the combustion-related primary sources accounted for > 70 % of HULISWS and redox activity.
Cheng Wu and Jian Zhen Yu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1233–1250,Short summary
A new data generation scheme that employs the Mersenne twister (MT) pseudorandom number generator is proposed to conduct benchmark tests on a variety of linear regression techniques. With an appropriate weighting, Deming regression (DR), weighted ODR (WODR), and York regression (YR) are recommended for atmospheric studies when both x and y data have measurement errors. An Igor-based program (Scatter Plot) is developed to facilitate the regression implementation.
Cheng Wu, Dui Wu, and Jian Zhen Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 289–309,Short summary
This work presents a new approach, minimum R squared (MRS) method, to quantify black carbon aerosols light absorption enhancement factor, Eabs, from ambient measurements using an Aethalometer and field carbon analyzer. Application of MRS on 1 year of measurement is demonstrated. This study provides a potential alternative to explore the Eabs information using inexpensive instrumentation with wider temporal coverage.
Yue Zhao, Jeremy K. Chan, Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker, Megan A. McKeown, Emma L. D'Ambro, Jay G. Slowik, Jeffrey A. Riffell, and Joel A. Thornton
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3609–3625,Short summary
We present a novel atmospheric pressure electrospray chemical ionization (ESCI) source that can generate intense and stable currents of several specific reagent ions using a range of salt solutions prepared in methanol. We couple the ESCI source to a high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer (HRToF-MS) and assess instrument performance through calibrations using different gas standards and measurements of organic mixtures formed by ozonolysis of α-pinene.
Yue Zhao, Michelle C. Fairhurst, Lisa M. Wingen, Véronique Perraud, Michael J. Ezell, and Barbara J. Finlayson-Pitts
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1373–1386,Short summary
Two model systems are studied: dicarboxylic acid particles with gaseous amines and α-cedrene ozonolysis particles. Measurements by direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry and high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry show that the reaction of the amines with the acid particles is restricted to the surface layer, with an odd–even alternating pattern. Furthermore, in the α-cedrene study, DART-MS is able to differentiate isomers based on their volatility.
Wei Nie, Juan Hong, Silja A. K. Häme, Aijun Ding, Yugen Li, Chao Yan, Liqing Hao, Jyri Mikkilä, Longfei Zheng, Yuning Xie, Caijun Zhu, Zheng Xu, Xuguang Chi, Xin Huang, Yang Zhou, Peng Lin, Annele Virtanen, Douglas R. Worsnop, Markku Kulmala, Mikael Ehn, Jianzhen Yu, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3659–3672,Short summary
HULIS are demonstrated to be important low-volatility, or even extremely low volatility, compounds in the organic aerosol phase. This sheds new light on the connection between atmospheric HULIS and ELVOCs. The interaction between HULIS and ammonium sulfate was found to decrease the volatility of the HULIS part in HULIS-AS mixed samples, indicating multiphase processes have the potential to lower the volatility of organic compounds in the aerosol phase.
Cheng Wu, X. H. Hilda Huang, Wai Man Ng, Stephen M. Griffith, and Jian Zhen Yu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4547–4560,Short summary
Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in more than 1300 Hong Kong samples were analyzed using both NIOSH TOT and IMPROVE TOR protocols. EC discrepancy between the two protocols mainly (83 %) arises from a difference in peak inert mode temperature, while the rest (17 %) is attributed to a difference in the optical method (transmittance vs. reflectance) applied for the charring correction. Two approaches are proposed to translate NIOSH TOT OC and EC data into IMPROVE TOR OC and EC data.
Heidi H. Y. Cheung, Haobo Tan, Hanbing Xu, Fei Li, Cheng Wu, Jian Z. Yu, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8431–8446,Short summary
We present simultaneous measurements of aerosol volatility and carbonaceous matters in Guangzhou, China, in Feb and Mar 2014 using a VTDMA and OC / EC analyzer. Low volatility particles with no significant evaporation at 300° C in the VTDMA contributed 5–15 % of number concentrations of the 40–300 nm particles. Mass closure suggests that non-volatile organic carbon, in addition to elemental carbon, was one of the components of the non-volatile residuals measured by the VTDMA in this study.
Cheng Wu and Jian Zhen Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5453–5465,Short summary
Elemental carbon (EC) has been widely used as a tracer to estimate secondary organic carbon (SOC) from ambient EC and OC data. Key to the EC tracer method is to determine a proper primary OC / EC ratio at the observation site. We examine here a method that derives this ratio by seeking the minimum correlation between SOC and EC. This method has a clear quantitative criterion for the ratio derivation and is demonstrated to have superior accuracy over the commonly used approaches for SOC estimation.
Yue Zhao, Lisa M. Wingen, Véronique Perraud, and Barbara J. Finlayson-Pitts
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3245–3264,Short summary
A significant fraction of airborne particles, which have significant impacts on human health, visibility, and climate, are formed from the oxidation of gaseous precursors to generate low-volatility products. We show here that a sesquiterpene, α-cedrene, efficiently forms high-viscosity semisolid particles with complex composition via mechanisms that involve the highly reactive Criegee intermediate and that high molecular weight products play an important role in new particle formation.
Wei Deng, Qihou Hu, Tengyu Liu, Xinming Wang, Yanli Zhang, Xiang Ding, Yele Sun, Xinhui Bi, Jianzhen Yu, Weiqiang Yang, Xinyu Huang, Zhou Zhang, Zhonghui Huang, Quanfu He, A. Mellouki, and Christian George
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
T. Liu, X. Wang, Q. Hu, W. Deng, Y. Zhang, X. Ding, X. Fu, F. Bernard, Z. Zhang, S. Lü, Q. He, X. Bi, J. Chen, Y. Sun, J. Yu, P. Peng, G. Sheng, and J. Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 675–689,Short summary
The formation of SOA and sulfate aerosols from the photooxidation of gasoline vehicle exhaust (GVE) when mixing with SO2 was investigated in a smog chamber. We found that the presence of GVE enhanced the conversion of SO2 to sulfate predominantly through reactions with stabilized Criegee intermediates. On the other hand, the elevated particle acidity enhanced the SOA production from GVE. This study indicated that SO2 and GVE could enhance each other in forming secondary aerosols.
T. Liu, X. Wang, W. Deng, Q. Hu, X. Ding, Y. Zhang, Q. He, Z. Zhang, S. Lü, X. Bi, J. Chen, and J. Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9049–9062,
B. Y. Kuang, P. Lin, X. H. H. Huang, and J. Z. Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1995–2008,Short summary
Humic-like substances (HULIS), the hydrophobic part of water soluble organic material, account for ~10% of PM2.5 mass in the Pearl River Delta, China. Source analysis using PM2.5 chemical composition data revealed that secondary formation process, biomass burning, and residual oil combustion from shipping as significant sources of HULIS. Vehicle emissions contributed little to HULIS. Primary sources of HULIS appeared to be linked to inefficient combustion.
X. H. H. Huang, Q. J. Bian, P. K. K. Louie, and J. Z. Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9279–9293,
Q. Bian, X. H. H. Huang, and J. Z. Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9013–9027,
X. Wang, T. Liu, F. Bernard, X. Ding, S. Wen, Y. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Q. He, S. Lü, J. Chen, S. Saunders, and J. Yu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 301–313,
D. Wu, C. Wu, B. Liao, H. Chen, M. Wu, F. Li, H. Tan, T. Deng, H. Li, D. Jiang, and J. Z. Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12257–12270,
Y. J. Li, B. Y. L. Lee, J. Z. Yu, N. L. Ng, and C. K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8739–8753,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Spatiotemporal variability in the oxidative potential of ambient fine particulate matter in the Midwestern United StatesMeasurement report: Spatiotemporal and policy-related variations of PM2.5 composition and sources during 2015–2019 at multiple sites in a Chinese megacityContribution of combustion Fe in marine aerosols over the northwestern Pacific estimated by Fe stable isotope ratiosFluorescent biological aerosol particles over the central Pacific Ocean: covariation with ocean surface biological activity indicatorsDramatic changes in Harbin aerosol during 2018–2020: the roles of open burning policy and secondary aerosol formationTime-dependent source apportionment of submicron organic aerosol for a rural site in an alpine valley using a rolling positive matrix factorisation (PMF) windowCharacterization of non-refractory (NR) PM1 and source apportionment of organic aerosol in Kraków, PolandSources of black carbon at residential and traffic environments obtained by two source apportionment methodsReduced volatility of aerosols from surface emissions to the top of the planetary boundary layerMeasurement report: Receptor modeling for source identification of urban fine and coarse particulate matter using hourly elemental compositionPolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their nitrated and oxygenated derivatives in the Arctic boundary layer: seasonal trends and local anthropogenic influenceMeasurement report: The chemical composition of and temporal variability in aerosol particles at Tuktoyaktuk, Canada, during the Year of Polar Prediction Second Special Observing PeriodAmmonium nitrate promotes sulfate formation through uptake kinetic regimeMeasurement report: Indirect evidence for the controlling influence of acidity on the speciation of iodine in Atlantic aerosolsUrban aerosol chemistry at a land–water transition site during summer – Part 1: Impact of agricultural and industrial ammonia emissionsMeasurement report: Vertical distribution of biogenic and anthropogenic secondary organic aerosols in the urban boundary layer over Beijing during late summerSource-specific light absorption by carbonaceous components in the complex aerosol matrix from yearly filter-based measurementsVariability in black carbon mass concentration in surface snow at SvalbardRapid mass growth and enhanced light extinction of atmospheric aerosols during the heating season haze episodes in Beijing revealed by aerosol–chemistry–radiation–boundary layer interactionMeasurement report: Saccharide composition in atmospheric fine particulate matter during spring at the remote sites of southwest China and estimates of source contributionsGas–particle partitioning of polyol tracers at a suburban site in Nanjing, east China: increased partitioning to the particle phaseMeasurement report: Source characteristics of water-soluble organic carbon in PM2.5 at two sites in Japan, as assessed by long-term observation and stable carbon isotope ratioImpact of Dry Intrusion Events on Composition and Mixing State of Particles During Winter ACE-ENA StudyThe importance of sesquiterpene oxidation products for secondary organic aerosol formation in a springtime hemiboreal forestPM1 composition and source apportionment at two sites in Delhi, India, across multiple seasonsIncrease of nitrooxy organosulfates in firework-related urban aerosols during Chinese New Year's EveLong-range transport of anthropogenic air pollutants into the marine air: Insight into fine particle transport and chloride depletion on sea saltsDifferentiation of coarse-mode anthropogenic, marine and dust particles in the High Arctic islands of SvalbardSource apportionment of atmospheric PM10 oxidative potential: synthesis of 15 year-round urban datasets in FranceMeasurement report: Long-emission-wavelength chromophores dominate the light absorption of brown carbon in aerosols over Bangkok: impact from biomass burningSecondary organic aerosols from anthropogenic volatile organic compounds contribute substantially to air pollution mortalityDiverse mixing states of amine-containing single particles in Nanjing, ChinaMediterranean nascent sea spray organic aerosol and relationships with seawater biogeochemistrySeasonal analysis of submicron aerosol in Old Delhi using high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry: chemical characterisation, source apportionment and new marker identificationEight years of sub-micrometre organic aerosol composition data from the boreal forest characterized using a machine-learning approachQuantification of solid fuel combustion and aqueous chemistry contributions to secondary organic aerosol during wintertime haze events in BeijingLarge seasonal and interannual variations of biogenic sulfur compounds in the Arctic atmosphere (Svalbard; 78.9° N, 11.9° E)Disparities in particulate matter (PM10) origins and oxidative potential at a city scale (Grenoble, France) – Part 2: Sources of PM10 oxidative potential using multiple linear regression analysis and the predictive applicability of multilayer perceptron neural network analysisInfluence of organic aerosol composition determined by offline FIGAERO-CIMS on particle absorptive properties in autumn BeijingInter-annual variations of wet deposition in Beijing from 2014–2017: implications of below-cloud scavenging of inorganic aerosolsSources and nature of ice-nucleating particles in the free troposphere at Jungfraujoch in winter 2017Urban organic aerosol composition in eastern China differs from north to south: molecular insight from a liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (Orbitrap) studyCultivable halotolerant ice-nucleating bacteria and fungi in coastal precipitationDetermination of free amino acids, saccharides, and selected microbes in biogenic atmospheric aerosols – seasonal variations, particle size distribution, chemical and microbial relationsPhysical and chemical properties of urban aerosols in São Paulo, Brazil: links between composition and size distribution of submicron particlesSubstantial changes in gaseous pollutants and chemical compositions in fine particles in the North China Plain during the COVID-19 lockdown period: anthropogenic vs. meteorological influencesMeasurement report: Molecular composition, optical properties, and radiative effects of water-soluble organic carbon in snowpack samples from northern Xinjiang, ChinaSignificant contrasts in aerosol acidity between China and the United StatesOrigin of water-soluble organic aerosols at the Maïdo high-altitude observatory, Réunion Island in the tropical Indian OceanIncrease in secondary organic aerosol in an urban environment
Haoran Yu, Joseph Varghese Puthussery, Yixiang Wang, and Vishal Verma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16363–16386,Short summary
We assessed the oxidative potential (OP) of ambient PM2.5 collected from many sites in the US Midwest through multiple acellular endpoints. Compared to homogeneously distributed PM2.5, OP showed higher spatiotemporal variation. Poor correlations for the regression between mass and OP indicated a limited role of mass in determining the OP. Moreover, weak correlations among different OP endpoints justify the need for using multiple assays to determine oxidative levels of particles.
Xinyao Feng, Yingze Tian, Qianqian Xue, Danlin Song, Fengxia Huang, and Yinchang Feng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16219–16235,Short summary
This study focused on PM2.5 compositions and sources and explored their spatiotemporal and policy-related variations based on observation at 19 sites during wintertime of 2015–2019 in a fast-developing megacity. We found that PM2.5 compositions for the outermost zone in 2019 were similar to those for the core zone 2 or 3 years ago. Percentage contributions of coal and biomass combustion dramatically declined in the core zone, while the traffic source showed an increasing trend.
Minako Kurisu, Kohei Sakata, Mitsuo Uematsu, Akinori Ito, and Yoshio Takahashi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16027–16050,Short summary
Aerosol iron (Fe) input can enhance oceanic primary production. We analyzed Fe isotope ratios of size-fractionated aerosols over the northwestern Pacific to evaluate the contribution of natural and combustion Fe. It was found that combustion Fe was an important soluble Fe source in marine aerosols and possibly in surface seawater when air masses were from East Asia. This study shows the applicability of Fe isotope ratios for a more quantitative understanding of the Fe cycle in the surface ocean.
Kaori Kawana, Kazuhiko Matsumoto, Fumikazu Taketani, Takuma Miyakawa, and Yugo Kanaya
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15969–15983,Short summary
Atmospheric autofluorescent particles observed over the central Pacific Ocean were identified as bioaerosols from comparisons to a DNA-nuclear-staining method. Their number concentrations in the pristine marine air masses showed high correlations with concentrations of bacteria and transparent exopolymer particles in the surface seawater, providing strong evidence of their marine origins. We propose equations to derive the atmospheric bioaerosol number concentrations from oceanic parameters.
Yuan Cheng, Qin-qin Yu, Jiu-meng Liu, Xu-bing Cao, Ying-jie Zhong, Zhen-yu Du, Lin-lin Liang, Guan-nan Geng, Wan-li Ma, Hong Qi, Qiang Zhang, and Ke-bin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15199–15211,Short summary
Open burning policies in Heilongjiang Province experienced a rapid transition during 2018 to 2020. This study evaluated the responses of PM2.5 pollution to this transition and suggested that neither of the policies could be considered successful. In addition, heterogeneous reactions were found to be at play in secondary aerosol formation, even in the frigid atmosphere in Heilongjiang. The unique haze in northeast China deserves more attention.
Gang Chen, Yulia Sosedova, Francesco Canonaco, Roman Fröhlich, Anna Tobler, Athanasia Vlachou, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Carlo Bozzetti, Christoph Hueglin, Peter Graf, Urs Baltensperger, Jay G. Slowik, Imad El Haddad, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15081–15101,Short summary
A novel, advanced source apportionment technique was applied to a dataset measured in Magadino. Rolling positive matrix factorisation (PMF) allows for retrieving more realistic, time-dependent, and detailed information on organic aerosol sources. The strength of the rolling PMF mechanism is highlighted by comparing it with results derived from conventional seasonal PMF. Overall, this comprehensive interpretation of aerosol chemical speciation monitor data could be a role model for similar work.
Anna K. Tobler, Alicja Skiba, Francesco Canonaco, Griša Močnik, Pragati Rai, Gang Chen, Jakub Bartyzel, Miroslaw Zimnoch, Katarzyna Styszko, Jaroslaw Nęcki, Markus Furger, Kazimierz Różański, Urs Baltensperger, Jay G. Slowik, and Andre S. H. Prevot
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14893–14906,Short summary
Kraków is among the cities with the highest particulate matter levels within Europe. We conducted long-term and highly time-resolved measurements of the chemical composition of submicron particlulate matter (PM1). Combined with advanced source apportionment techniques, which allow for time-dependent factor profiles, our results elucidate that traffic and residential heating (biomass burning and coal combustion) as well as oxygenated organic aerosol are the key PM sources in Kraków.
Sanna Saarikoski, Jarkko V. Niemi, Minna Aurela, Liisa Pirjola, Anu Kousa, Topi Rönkkö, and Hilkka Timonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14851–14869,Short summary
This study presents the main sources of black carbon (BC) at two urban environments. The largest fraction of BC originated from biomass burning at the residential site (38 %) and from vehicular emissions (57 %) in the street canyon. Also, a significant fraction of BC was associated with urban background or long-range transport. The data are needed by modelers and authorities when assessing climate and air quality impact of BC as well as directing the emission legislation and mitigation actions.
Quan Liu, Dantong Liu, Yangzhou Wu, Kai Bi, Wenkang Gao, Ping Tian, Delong Zhao, Siyuan Li, Chenjie Yu, Guiqian Tang, Yunfei Wu, Kang Hu, Shuo Ding, Qian Gao, Fei Wang, Shaofei Kong, Hui He, Mengyu Huang, and Deping Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14749–14760,Short summary
Through simultaneous online measurements of detailed aerosol compositions at both surface and surface-influenced mountain sites, the evolution of aerosol composition during daytime vertical transport was investigated. The results show that, from surface to the top of the planetary boundary layer, the oxidation state of organic aerosol had been significantly enhanced due to evaporation and further oxidation of these evaporated gases.
Magdalena Reizer, Giulia Calzolai, Katarzyna Maciejewska, José A. G. Orza, Luca Carraresi, Franco Lucarelli, and Katarzyna Juda-Rezler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14471–14492,Short summary
The elemental composition of atmospheric PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 was measured during wintertime, with 1 h resolution, using a streaker sampler for the first time at a Central European urban background site. A set of multivariate and wind- and trajectory-based receptor models identified the main sources of ambient aerosol. Fine PM fraction was mainly comprised of regionally transported aged secondary sulfate from residential solid fuel combustion, while the coarse mode showed traffic-related origins.
Tatiana Drotikova, Alena Dekhtyareva, Roland Kallenborn, and Alexandre Albinet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14351–14370,Short summary
A total of 86 polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), toxic compounds mainly emitted after fossil fuel combustion, were measured during 8 months in the urban air of Longyearbyen (78° N, 15° E), the most populated settlement in Svalbard. Contrary to a stereotype of pristine Arctic conditions with very low human activity, considerable PAC concentrations were detected, with spring levels comparable to European levels. Air pollution was caused by local snowmobiles in spring and shipping in summer.
John MacInnis, Jai Prakash Chaubey, Crystal Weagle, David Atkinson, and Rachel Ying-Wen Chang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14199–14213,Short summary
This study measured particulate matter in the western Canadian Arctic during 2018 as part of the Year of Polar Prediction. It was found that the particles were likely from the ocean, soil, road dust, and combustion. The concentrations of small aerosol particles, which can affect human health, were low, suggesting they had little impact on local air quality. These results can be used to understand future changes in local aerosol particle sources and concentrations.
Yongchun Liu, Zemin Feng, Feixue Zheng, Xiaolei Bao, Pengfei Liu, Yanli Ge, Yan Zhao, Tao Jiang, Yunwen Liao, Yusheng Zhang, Xiaolong Fan, Chao Yan, Biwu Chu, Yonghong Wang, Wei Du, Jing Cai, Federico Bianchi, Tuukka Petäjä, Yujing Mu, Hong He, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13269–13286,Short summary
The mechanisms and kinetics of particulate sulfate formation in the atmosphere are still open questions although they have been extensively discussed. We found that uptake of SO2 is the rate-determining step for the conversion of SO2 to particulate sulfate. NH4NO3 plays an important role in AWC, the phase state of aerosol particles, and subsequently the uptake kinetics of SO2 under high-RH conditions. This work is a good example of the feedback between aerosol physics and aerosol chemistry.
Alex R. Baker and Chan Yodle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13067–13076,Short summary
Iodine is emitted from the ocean and helps to destroy ozone in the lower atmosphere before being taken up into aerosol particles. We measured the chemical forms of iodine in aerosols over the Atlantic Ocean, because some of these forms can return to the gas phase and destroy more ozone. Our results indicate that aerosol acidity exerts a strong control on iodine speciation and therefore on its recycling behaviour and impact on ozone concentrations.
Nicholas Balasus, Michael A. Battaglia Jr., Katherine Ball, Vanessa Caicedo, Ruben Delgado, Annmarie G. Carlton, and Christopher J. Hennigan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13051–13065,Short summary
Measurements of aerosol and gas composition were carried out at a land–water transition site near Baltimore, MD. Gas-phase ammonia concentrations were highly elevated compared to measurements at a nearby inland site. Our analysis reveals that NH2 was from both industrial and agricultural sources. This had a pronounced effect on aerosol chemical composition at the site, most notably contributing to episodic spikes of aerosol nitrate.
Hong Ren, Wei Hu, Lianfang Wei, Siyao Yue, Jian Zhao, Linjie Li, Libin Wu, Wanyu Zhao, Lujie Ren, Mingjie Kang, Qiaorong Xie, Sihui Su, Xiaole Pan, Zifa Wang, Yele Sun, Kimitaka Kawamura, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12949–12963,Short summary
This study presents vertical profiles of biogenic and anthropogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) in the urban boundary layer based on a 325 m tower in Beijing in late summer. The increases in the isoprene and toluene SOAs with height were found to be more related to regional transport, whereas the decrease in those from monoterpenes and sesquiterpene were more subject to local emissions. Such complicated vertical distributions of SOA should be considered in future modeling work.
Vaios Moschos, Martin Gysel-Beer, Robin L. Modini, Joel C. Corbin, Dario Massabò, Camilla Costa, Silvia G. Danelli, Athanasia Vlachou, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Sönke Szidat, Paolo Prati, André S. H. Prévôt, Urs Baltensperger, and Imad El Haddad
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12809–12833,Short summary
This study provides a holistic approach to studying the spectrally resolved light absorption by atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) and black carbon using long time series of daily samples from filter-based measurements. The obtained results provide (1) a better understanding of the aerosol absorption profile and its dependence on BrC and on lensing from less absorbing coatings and (2) an estimation of the most important absorbers at typical European locations.
Michele Bertò, David Cappelletti, Elena Barbaro, Cristiano Varin, Jean-Charles Gallet, Krzysztof Markowicz, Anna Rozwadowska, Mauro Mazzola, Stefano Crocchianti, Luisa Poto, Paolo Laj, Carlo Barbante, and Andrea Spolaor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12479–12493,Short summary
We present the daily and seasonal variability in black carbon (BC) in surface snow inferred from two specific experiments based on the hourly and daily time resolution sampling during the Arctic spring in Svalbard. These unique data sets give us, for the first time, the opportunity to evaluate the associations between the observed surface snow BC mass concentration and a set of predictors corresponding to the considered meteorological and snow physico-chemical parameters.
Zhuohui Lin, Yonghong Wang, Feixue Zheng, Ying Zhou, Yishuo Guo, Zemin Feng, Chang Li, Yusheng Zhang, Simo Hakala, Tommy Chan, Chao Yan, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Biwu Chu, Lubna Dada, Juha Kangasluoma, Lei Yao, Xiaolong Fan, Wei Du, Jing Cai, Runlong Cai, Tom V. Kokkonen, Putian Zhou, Lili Wang, Tuukka Petäjä, Federico Bianchi, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Yongchun Liu, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12173–12187,Short summary
We find that ammonium nitrate and aerosol water content contributed most during low mixing layer height conditions; this may further trigger enhanced formation of sulfate and organic aerosol via heterogeneous reactions. The results of this study contribute towards a more detailed understanding of the aerosol–chemistry–radiation–boundary layer feedback that is likely to be responsible for explosive aerosol mass growth events in urban Beijing.
Zhenzhen Wang, Di Wu, Zhuoyu Li, Xiaona Shang, Qing Li, Xiang Li, Renjie Chen, Haidong Kan, Huiling Ouyang, Xu Tang, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12227–12241,Short summary
This study firstly investigates the composition of sugars in the fine fraction of aerosol over three sites in southwest China. The result suggested no significant reduction in biomass burning emissions in southwest Yunnan Province to some extent. The result shown sheds light on the contributions of biomass burning and the characteristics of biogenic saccharides in these regions, which could be further applied to regional source apportionment models and global climate models.
Chao Qin, Yafeng Gou, Yuhang Wang, Yuhao Mao, Hong Liao, Qin'geng Wang, and Mingjie Xie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12141–12153,Short summary
In this study, we found that the aqueous solution in aerosols is an important absorbing phase for gaseous polyols in the atmosphere, indicating that the dissolution in aerosol liquid water should not be ignored when investigating gas–particle partitioning of water-soluble organics. The exponential increase in effective partitioning coefficients of polyol tracers with sulfate ion concentrations could be attributed to organic–inorganic interactions in the particle phase.
Nana Suto and Hiroto Kawashima
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11815–11828,Short summary
The sources and seasonal trends of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in PM2.5 on long-term trends at two sites in Japan are investigated by carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) of WSOC. At the rural site, the δ13C of WSOC from autumn to spring was concluded to reflect mainly the biomass burning of rice straw. The heaviest δ13C of WSOC from February to April 2019 might reflect long-range transport of particles resulting from the overseas burning of C4 plants such as corn.
Jay M. Tomlin, Kevin A. Jankowski, Daniel P. Veghte, Swarup China, Peiwen Wang, Matthew Fraund, Johannes Weis, Guangjie Zheng, Yang Wang, Felipe Rivera-Adorno, Shira Raveh-Rubin, Daniel A. Knopf, Jian Wang, Mary K. Gilles, Ryan C. Moffet, and Alexander Laskin
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Analysis of individual atmospheric particles shows that aerosol transported from North America during meteorological dry intrusion episodes may have a substantial impact on the mixing state and particle-type population over the mid-Atlantic, as organic contribution and particle-type diversity is significantly enhanced during these periods. These observations need to be considered in current atmospheric models.
Luis M. F. Barreira, Arttu Ylisirniö, Iida Pullinen, Angela Buchholz, Zijun Li, Helina Lipp, Heikki Junninen, Urmas Hõrrak, Steffen M. Noe, Alisa Krasnova, Dmitrii Krasnov, Kaia Kask, Eero Talts, Ülo Niinemets, Jose Ruiz-Jimenez, and Siegfried Schobesberger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11781–11800,Short summary
We present results from PM1 atmospheric composition and concentration measurements performed in a springtime hemiboreal forest. Sesquiterpene mixing ratios and particle-phase concentrations of corresponding oxidation products were rapidly increasing on some early mornings. The particle volatility suggested that condensable sesquiterpene oxidation products are rapidly formed in the atmosphere. The results revealed the importance of sesquiterpenes for secondary organic aerosol particulate mass.
Ernesto Reyes-Villegas, Upasana Panda, Eoghan Darbyshire, James M. Cash, Rutambhara Joshi, Ben Langford, Chiara F. Di Marco, Neil J. Mullinger, Mohammed S. Alam, Leigh R. Crilley, Daniel J. Rooney, W. Joe F. Acton, Will Drysdale, Eiko Nemitz, Michael Flynn, Aristeidis Voliotis, Gordon McFiggans, Hugh Coe, James Lee, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Mathew R. Heal, Sachin S. Gunthe, Tuhin K. Mandal, Bhola R. Gurjar, Shivani, Ranu Gadi, Siddhartha Singh, Vijay Soni, and James D. Allan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11655–11667,Short summary
This paper shows the first multisite online measurements of PM1 in Delhi, India, with measurements over different seasons in Old Delhi and New Delhi in 2018. Organic aerosol (OA) source apportionment was performed using positive matrix factorisation (PMF). Traffic was the main primary aerosol source for both OAs and black carbon, seen with PMF and Aethalometer model analysis, indicating that control of primary traffic exhaust emissions would make a significant reduction to Delhi air pollution.
Qiaorong Xie, Sihui Su, Jing Chen, Yuqing Dai, Siyao Yue, Hang Su, Haijie Tong, Wanyu Zhao, Lujie Ren, Yisheng Xu, Dong Cao, Ying Li, Yele Sun, Zifa Wang, Cong-Qiang Liu, Kimitaka Kawamura, Guibin Jiang, Yafang Cheng, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11453–11465,Short summary
This study investigated the role of nighttime chemistry during Chinese New Year's Eve that enhances the formation of nitrooxy organosulfates in the aerosol phase. Results show that anthropogenic precursors, together with biogenic ones, considerably contribute to the formation of low-volatility nitrooxy OSs. Our study provides detailed molecular composition of firework-related aerosols, which gives new insights into the physicochemical properties and potential health effects of urban aerosols.
Liang Xu, Xiaohuan Liu, Huiwang Gao, Xiaohong Yao, Daizhou Zhang, Lei Bi, Lei Liu, Jian Zhang, Yinxiao Zhang, Yuanyuan Wang, Qi Yuan, and Weijun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We quantified different types of marine aerosols and explored the Cl-depletion of sea salt aerosol (SSA) in the eastern China seas and the northwestern Pacific Ocean. We found that anthropogenic acidic gases in the troposphere were transported longer distances compared to the anthropogenic aerosols and could significantly impact remote marine aerosols. Meanwhile, variations of chloride depletion in SSA can serve as a potential indicator for anthropogenic gaseous pollutants in remote marine air.
Congbo Song, Manuel Dall'Osto, Angelo Lupi, Mauro Mazzola, Rita Traversi, Silvia Becagli, Stefania Gilardoni, Stergios Vratolis, Karl Espen Yttri, David C. S. Beddows, Julia Schmale, James Brean, Agung Ghani Kramawijaya, Roy M. Harrison, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11317–11335,Short summary
We present a cluster analysis of relatively long-term (2015–2019) aerosol aerodynamic volume size distributions up to 20 μm in the Arctic for the first time. The study found that anthropogenic and natural aerosols comprised 27 % and 73 % of the occurrence of the coarse-mode aerosols, respectively. Our study shows that about two-thirds of the coarse-mode aerosols are related to two sea-spray-related aerosol clusters, indicating that sea spray aerosol may more complex in the Arctic environment.
Samuël Weber, Gaëlle Uzu, Olivier Favez, Lucille Joanna S. Borlaza, Aude Calas, Dalia Salameh, Florie Chevrier, Julie Allard, Jean-Luc Besombes, Alexandre Albinet, Sabrina Pontet, Boualem Mesbah, Grégory Gille, Shouwen Zhang, Cyril Pallares, Eva Leoz-Garziandia, and Jean-Luc Jaffrezo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11353–11378,Short summary
Oxidative potential (OP) of aerosols is apportioned to the main PM sources found in 15 sites over France. The sources present clear distinct intrinsic OPs at a large geographic scale, and a drastic redistribution between the mass concentration and OP measured by both ascorbic acid and dithiothreitol is highlighted. Moreover, the high discrepancy between the mean and median contributions of the sources to the given metrics raises some important questions when dealing with health endpoints.
Jiao Tang, Jiaqi Wang, Guangcai Zhong, Hongxing Jiang, Yangzhi Mo, Bolong Zhang, Xiaofei Geng, Yingjun Chen, Jianhui Tang, Congguo Tian, Surat Bualert, Jun Li, and Gan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11337–11352,Short summary
This article provides a combined EEM–PARAFAC and statistical analysis method to explore how excitation–emission matrix (EEM) chromophores influence BrC light absorption in soluble organic matter. The application enables us to deduce that BrC absorption is mainly dependent on longer-emission-wavelength chromophores largely associated with biomass burning emissions. This method promotes the application of EEM spectroscopy and helps us understand the light absorption of BrC in the atmosphere.
Benjamin A. Nault, Duseong S. Jo, Brian C. McDonald, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Weiwei Hu, Jason C. Schroder, James Allan, Donald R. Blake, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Hugh Coe, Matthew M. Coggon, Peter F. DeCarlo, Glenn S. Diskin, Rachel Dunmore, Frank Flocke, Alan Fried, Jessica B. Gilman, Georgios Gkatzelis, Jacqui F. Hamilton, Thomas F. Hanisco, Patrick L. Hayes, Daven K. Henze, Alma Hodzic, James Hopkins, Min Hu, L. Greggory Huey, B. Thomas Jobson, William C. Kuster, Alastair Lewis, Meng Li, Jin Liao, M. Omar Nawaz, Ilana B. Pollack, Jeffrey Peischl, Bernhard Rappenglück, Claire E. Reeves, Dirk Richter, James M. Roberts, Thomas B. Ryerson, Min Shao, Jacob M. Sommers, James Walega, Carsten Warneke, Petter Weibring, Glenn M. Wolfe, Dominique E. Young, Bin Yuan, Qiang Zhang, Joost A. de Gouw, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11201–11224,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is an important aspect of poor air quality for urban regions around the world, where a large fraction of the population lives. However, there is still large uncertainty in predicting SOA in urban regions. Here, we used data from 11 urban campaigns and show that the variability in SOA production in these regions is predictable and is explained by key emissions. These results are used to estimate the premature mortality associated with SOA in urban regions.
Qi En Zhong, Chunlei Cheng, Zaihua Wang, Lei Li, Mei Li, Dafeng Ge, Lei Wang, Yuanyuan Li, Wei Nie, Xuguang Chi, Aijun Ding, Suxia Yang, Duohong Chen, and Zhen Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Particulate amines play important roles in new particle formation, aerosol acidity and hygroscopicity. Most of the field observations did not distinguish the different behavior of each type amine under the same ambient influencing factors. In this study two amine-containing single particles exhibited different mixing states and disparate enrichment of secondary organics, which provide insights into the discriminated fates of organics during the formation and evolution processes.
Evelyn Freney, Karine Sellegri, Alessia Nicosia, Leah R. Williams, Matteo Rinaldi, Jonathan T. Trueblood, André S. H. Prévôt, Melilotus Thyssen, Gérald Grégori, Nils Haëntjens, Julie Dinasquet, Ingrid Obernosterer, France Van Wambeke, Anja Engel, Birthe Zäncker, Karine Desboeufs, Eija Asmi, Hilkka Timonen, and Cécile Guieu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10625–10641,Short summary
In this work, we present observations of the organic aerosol content in primary sea spray aerosols (SSAs) continuously generated along a 5-week cruise in the Mediterranean. This information is combined with seawater biogeochemical properties also measured continuously along the ship track to develop a number of parametrizations that can be used in models to determine SSA organic content in oligotrophic waters that represent 60 % of the oceans from commonly measured seawater variables.
James M. Cash, Ben Langford, Chiara Di Marco, Neil J. Mullinger, James Allan, Ernesto Reyes-Villegas, Ruthambara Joshi, Mathew R. Heal, W. Joe F. Acton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Pawel K. Misztal, Will Drysdale, Tuhin K. Mandal, Shivani, Ranu Gadi, Bhola Ram Gurjar, and Eiko Nemitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10133–10158,Short summary
We present the first real-time composition of submicron particulate matter (PM1) in Old Delhi using high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry. Seasonal analysis shows peak concentrations occur during the post-monsoon, and novel-tracers reveal the largest sources are a combination of local open and regional crop residue burning. Strong links between increased chloride aerosol concentrations and burning sources of PM1 suggest burning sources are responsible for the post-monsoon chloride peak.
Liine Heikkinen, Mikko Äijälä, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Gang Chen, Olga Garmash, Diego Aliaga, Frans Graeffe, Meri Räty, Krista Luoma, Pasi Aalto, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, Douglas Worsnop, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10081–10109,Short summary
In many locations worldwide aerosol particles have been shown to be made up of organic aerosol (OA). The boreal forest is a region where aerosol particles possess a high OA mass fraction. Here, we studied OA composition using the longest time series of OA composition ever obtained from a boreal environment. For this purpose, we tested a new analysis framework and discovered that most of the OA was highly oxidized, with strong seasonal behaviour reflecting different sources in summer and winter.
Yandong Tong, Veronika Pospisilova, Lu Qi, Jing Duan, Yifang Gu, Varun Kumar, Pragati Rai, Giulia Stefenelli, Liwei Wang, Ying Wang, Haobin Zhong, Urs Baltensperger, Junji Cao, Ru-Jin Huang, André S. H. Prévôt, and Jay G. Slowik
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9859–9886,Short summary
We investigate SOA sources and formation processes by a field deployment of the EESI-TOF-MS and L-TOF AMS in Beijing in late autumn and early winter. Our study shows that the sources and processes giving rise to haze events in Beijing are variable and seasonally dependent: (1) in the heating season, SOA formation is driven by oxidation of aromatics from solid fuel combustion; and (2) under high-NOx and RH conditions, aqueous-phase chemistry can be a major contributor to SOA formation.
Sehyun Jang, Ki-Tae Park, Kitack Lee, Young Jun Yoon, Kitae Kim, Hyun Young Chung, Eunho Jang, Silvia Becagli, Bang Yong Lee, Rita Traversi, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Radovan Krejci, and Ove Hermansen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9761–9777,Short summary
This study provides comprehensive datasets encompassing seasonal and interannual variations in sulfate and MSA concentration in aerosol particles in the Arctic atmosphere. As oxidation products of DMS have important roles in new particle formation and growth, we focused on factors affecting their variability and the branching ratio of DMS oxidation. We found a strong correlation between the ratio and the light condition, chemical properties of particles, and biological activities near Svalbard.
Lucille Joanna S. Borlaza, Samuël Weber, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Stephan Houdier, Rémy Slama, Camille Rieux, Alexandre Albinet, Steve Micallef, Cécile Trébluchon, and Gaëlle Uzu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9719–9739,Short summary
With an enhanced source apportionment obtained in a companion paper, this paper acquires more understanding of the spatiotemporal associations of the sources of PM to oxidative potential (OP), an emerging health-based metric. Multilayer perceptron neural network analysis was used to apportion OP from PM sources. Results showed that such a methodology is as robust as the linear classical inversion and permits an improvement in the OP prediction when local features or non-linear effects occur.
Jing Cai, Cheng Wu, Jiandong Wang, Wei Du, Feixue Zheng, Simo Hakala, Xiaolong Fan, Biwu Chu, Lei Yao, Zemin Feng, Yongchun Liu, Yele Sun, Jun Zheng, Chao Yan, Federico Bianchi, Markku Kulmala, Claudia Mohr, and Kaspar R. Daellenbach
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This study investigates the connection between organic aerosol (OA) molecular composition and particle absorptive properties in autumn Beijing. We find that the molecular properties of OA compounds in different episodes influence particle light absorption properties differently: the light-absorption enhancement of black carbon and the light absorption coefficient of brown carbon were mostly related to more oxygenated OA (low C number and 4O atoms) and aromatics/nitro-aromatics, respectively.
Baozhu Ge, Danhui Xu, Oliver Wild, Xuefeng Yao, Junhua Wang, Xueshun Chen, Qixin Tan, Xiaole Pan, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9441–9454,Short summary
In this study, an improved sequential sampling method is developed and implemented to estimate the contribution of below-cloud and in-cloud wet deposition over four years of measurements in Beijing. We find that the contribution of below-cloud scavenging for Ca2+, SO4 2–, and NH4+ decreases from above 50 % in 2014 to below 40 % in 2017. This suggests that the Action Plan has mitigated particulate matter pollution in the surface layer and hence decreased scavenging due to the washout process.
Larissa Lacher, Hans-Christian Clemen, Xiaoli Shen, Stephan Mertes, Martin Gysel-Beer, Alireza Moallemi, Martin Steinbacher, Stephan Henne, Harald Saathoff, Ottmar Möhler, Kristina Höhler, Thea Schiebel, Daniel Weber, Jann Schrod, Johannes Schneider, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We investigate ice-nucleating particle properties at Jungfraujoch during the joint INUIT/CLACE 2017 field campaign, to improve the knowledge about those rare particles in a cloud-relevant environment. By quantifying ice-nucleating particles in parallel to single-particle mass spectrometry measurements, we find that mineral dust and aged sea spray particles are potential candidates for ice-nucleating particles. Our findings are supported by ice residual analysis and source region modelling.
Kai Wang, Ru-Jin Huang, Martin Brüggemann, Yun Zhang, Lu Yang, Haiyan Ni, Jie Guo, Meng Wang, Jiajun Han, Merete Bilde, Marianne Glasius, and Thorsten Hoffmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9089–9104,Short summary
Here we present the detailed molecular composition of the organic aerosol collected in three eastern Chinese cities from north to south, Changchun, Shanghai and Guangzhou, by applying LC–Orbitrap analysis. Accordingly, the aromaticity degree of chemical compounds decreases from north to south, while the oxidation degree increases from north to south, which can be explained by the different anthropogenic emissions and photochemical oxidation processes.
Charlotte M. Beall, Jennifer M. Michaud, Meredith A. Fish, Julie Dinasquet, Gavin C. Cornwell, M. Dale Stokes, Michael D. Burkart, Thomas C. Hill, Paul J. DeMott, and Kimberly A. Prather
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9031–9045,Short summary
Ice-nucleating particles (INPs) can influence multiple climate-relevant cloud properties by triggering droplet freezing at relative humidities below or temperatures above the freezing point of water. The ocean is a significant INP source; however, the specific identities of marine INPs remain largely unknown. Here, we identify 14 ice-nucleating microbes from aerosol and precipitation samples collected at a coastal site in southern California, two or more of which are likely marine.
Jose Ruiz-Jimenez, Magdalena Okuljar, Outi-Maaria Sietiö, Giorgia Demaria, Thanaporn Liangsupree, Elisa Zagatti, Juho Aalto, Kari Hartonen, Jussi Heinonsalo, Jaana Bäck, Tuukka Petäjä, and Marja-Liisa Riekkola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8775–8790,Short summary
Altogether, 84 size-segregated aerosol samples from four particle size fractions were collected at the Station for Measuring Forest Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations, Hyytiälä, Finland, in autumn 2017 for the clarification of the complex interrelationships between airborne and particulate chemical traces, amino acids and saccharides, gene copy numbers (16S and 18S for bacteria and fungi, respectively), gas-phase chemistry, and the particle size distribution.
Djacinto Monteiro dos Santos, Luciana Varanda Rizzo, Samara Carbone, Patrick Schlag, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8761–8773,Short summary
The metropolitan area of São Paulo (MASP), with very extensive biofuel use, has unique atmospheric chemistry among world megacities. In this study, we examine the complex relationships between aerosol chemical composition and particle size distribution. Our findings provide a better understanding of the dynamics of the physicochemical properties of submicron particles and highlight the key role of secondary organic aerosol formation in the pollution levels in São Paulo.
Rui Li, Yilong Zhao, Hongbo Fu, Jianmin Chen, Meng Peng, and Chunying Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8677–8692,Short summary
Based on a random forest model, the strict lockdown measures significantly decreased primary components such as Cr (−67 %) and Fe (−61 %) in PM2.5 (p < 0.01), whereas the higher relative humidity (RH) and NH3 level and the lower air temperature (T) remarkably enhanced the production of secondary aerosol including SO42− (29 %), NO3− (29 %), and NH4+ (21 %) (p < 0.05). The natural experiment suggested that the NH3 emission should be strictly controlled.
Yue Zhou, Christopher P. West, Anusha P. S. Hettiyadura, Xiaoying Niu, Hui Wen, Jiecan Cui, Tenglong Shi, Wei Pu, Xin Wang, and Alexander Laskin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8531–8555,Short summary
We present a comprehensive characterization of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in seasonal snow of northwestern China. We applied complementary multimodal analytical techniques to investigate bulk and molecular-level composition, optical properties, and sources of WSOC. For the first time, we estimated the extent of radiative forcing due to WSOC in snow using a model simulation and showed the profound influences of WSOC on the energy budget of midlatitude seasonal snowpack.
Bingqing Zhang, Huizhong Shen, Pengfei Liu, Hongyu Guo, Yongtao Hu, Yilin Chen, Shaodong Xie, Ziyan Xi, T. Nash Skipper, and Armistead G. Russell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8341–8356,Short summary
Extended ground-level measurements are coupled with model simulations to comprehensively compare the aerosol acidity in China and the United States. Aerosols in China are significantly less acidic than those in the United States, with pH values 1–2 units higher. Higher aerosol mass concentrations and the abundance of ammonia and ammonium in China, compared to the United States, are leading causes of the pH difference between these two countries.
Sharmine Akter Simu, Yuzo Miyazaki, Eri Tachibana, Henning Finkenzeller, Jérôme Brioude, Aurélie Colomb, Olivier Magand, Bert Verreyken, Stephanie Evan, Rainer Volkamer, and Trissevgeni Stavrakou
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The tropical Indian Ocean (IO) is expected to be a significant source of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), which is relevant to cloud formation. Our study showed that marine secondary organic formation dominantly contributed to the aerosol WSOC mass at the high-altitude observatory in the southwest IO in the wet season in both marine boundary layer and free troposphere (FT). This suggests that the effect of marine secondary sources is important up to FT, a process missing in climate models.
Marta Via, María Cruz Minguillón, Cristina Reche, Xavier Querol, and Andrés Alastuey
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8323–8339,Short summary
Atmospheric pollutants have been measured in an urban environment by means of state-of-the-art techniques, allowing the origin and the sources of pollution to be identified. Recent years are shown to be increasingly dominated by non-directly emitted particulate matter. Knowledge about the sources of atmospheric pollutants is necessary to design effective mitigation policies.
Behera, S. N., Cheng, J., Huang, X., Zhu, Q., Liu, P., and Balasubramanian, R.: Chemical composition and acidity of size-fractionated inorganic aerosols of 2013-14 winter haze in Shanghai and associated health risk of toxic elements, Atmos. Environ., 122, 259–271, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.09.053, 2015.
Blair, S. L., MacMillan, A. C., Drozd, G. T., Goldstein, A. H., Chu, R. K., Pasa-Tolic, L., Shaw, J. B., Tolic, N., Lin, P., Laskin, J., Laskin, A., and Nizkorodov, S. A.: Molecular characterization of organosulfur compounds in biodiesel and diesel fuel secondary organic aerosol, Environ. Sci. Technol., 51, 119–127, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b03304, 2017.
Borbon, A., Fontaine, H., Veillerot, M., Locoge, N., Galloo, J. C., and Guillermo, R.: An investigation into the traffic-related fraction of isoprene at an urban location, Atmos. Environ., 35, 3749–3760, 2001.
Brüggemann, M., Poulain, L., Held, A., Stelzer, T., Zuth, C., Richters, S., Mutzel, A., van Pinxteren, D., Iinuma, Y., Katkevica, S., Rabe, R., Herrmann, H., and Hoffmann, T.: Real-time detection of highly oxidized organosulfates and BSOA marker compounds during the F-BEACh 2014 field study, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1453–1469, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-1453-2017, 2017.
Brüggemann, M., Xu, R. S., Tilgner, A., Kwong, K. C., Mutzel, A., Poon, H. Y., Otto, T., Schaefer, T., Poulain, L., Chan, M. N., and Herrmann, H.: Organosulfates in ambient aerosol: state of knowledge and future research directions on formation, abundance, fate, and importance, Environ. Sci. Technol., 54, 3767–3782, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b06751, 2020.
Bryant, D. J., Dixon, W. J., Hopkins, J. R., Dunmore, R. E., Pereira, K. L., Shaw, M., Squires, F. A., Bannan, T. J., Mehra, A., Worrall, S. D., Bacak, A., Coe, H., Percival, C. J., Whalley, L. K., Heard, D. E., Slater, E. J., Ouyang, B., Cui, T., Surratt, J. D., Liu, D., Shi, Z., Harrison, R., Sun, Y., Xu, W., Lewis, A. C., Lee, J. D., Rickard, A. R., and Hamilton, J. F.: Strong anthropogenic control of secondary organic aerosol formation from isoprene in Beijing, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7531–7552, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20-7531-2020, 2020.
Budisulistiorini, S. H., Li, X., Bairai, S. T., Renfro, J., Liu, Y., Liu, Y. J., McKinney, K. A., Martin, S. T., McNeill, V. F., Pye, H. O. T., Nenes, A., Neff, M. E., Stone, E. A., Mueller, S., Knote, C., Shaw, S. L., Zhang, Z., Gold, A., and Surratt, J. D.: Examining the effects of anthropogenic emissions on isoprene-derived secondary organic aerosol formation during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) at the Look Rock, Tennessee ground site, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8871–8888, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-8871-2015, 2015.
Chan, M. N., Surratt, J. D., Claeys, M., Edgerton, E. S., Tanner, R. L., Shaw, S. L., Zheng, M., Knipping, E. M., Eddingsaas, N. C., Wennberg, P. O., and Seinfeld, J. H.: Characterization and quantification of isoprene-derived epoxydiols in ambient aerosol in the southeastern United States, Environ. Sci. Technol., 44, 4590–4596, https://doi.org/10.1021/es100596b, 2010.
Chan, M. N., Surratt, J. D., Chan, A. W. H., Schilling, K., Offenberg, J. H., Lewandowski, M., Edney, E. O., Kleindienst, T. E., Jaoui, M., Edgerton, E. S., Tanner, R. L., Shaw, S. L., Zheng, M., Knipping, E. M., and Seinfeld, J. H.: Influence of aerosol acidity on the chemical composition of secondary organic aerosol from β-caryophyllene, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 1735–1751, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-1735-2011, 2011.
Chen, Y., Zhang, Y., Lambe, A. T., Xu, R., Lei, Z., Olson, N. E., Zhang, Z., Szalkowski, T., Cui, T., Vizuete, W., Gold, A., Turpin, B. J., Ault, A. P., Chan, M. N., and Surratt, J. D.: Heterogeneous hydroxyl radical oxidation of isoprene-epoxydiol-derived methyltetrol sulfates: plausible formation mechanisms of previously unexplained organosulfates in ambient fine aerosols, Environ. Sci. Technol. Lett., 7, 460–468, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.estlett.0c00276, 2020.
Claeys, M., Wang, W., Vermeylen, R., Kourtchev, I., Chi, X., Farhat, Y., Surratt, J. D., Gómez-González, Y., Sciare, J., and Maenhaut, W.: Chemical characterisation of marine aerosol at Amsterdam Island during the austral summer of 2006-2007, J. Aerosol Sci., 41, 13=-22, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaerosci.2009.08.003, 2010.
DeRieux, W.-S. W., Li, Y., Lin, P., Laskin, J., Laskin, A., Bertram, A. K., Nizkorodov, S. A., and Shiraiwa, M.: Predicting the glass transition temperature and viscosity of secondary organic material using molecular composition, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6331–6351, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-6331-2018, 2018.
Ding, A., Huang, X., Nie, W., Chi, X., Xu, Z., Zheng, L., Xu, Z., Xie, Y., Qi, X., Shen, Y., Sun, P., Wang, J., Wang, L., Sun, J., Yang, X.-Q., Qin, W., Zhang, X., Cheng, W., Liu, W., Pan, L., and Fu, C.: Significant reduction of PM2.5 in eastern China due to regional-scale emission control: evidence from SORPES in 2011–2018, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11791–11801, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-11791-2019, 2019.
Ding, J., Zhao, P., Su, J., Dong, Q., Du, X., and Zhang, Y.: Aerosol pH and its driving factors in Beijing, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7939–7954, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-7939-2019, 2019.
Estillore, A. D., Hettiyadura, A. P. S., Qin, Z., Leckrone, E., Wombacher, B., Humphry, T., Stone, E. A., and Grassian, V. H.: Water uptake and hygroscopic growth of organosulfate aerosol, Environ. Sci. Technol., 50, 4259–4268, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b05014, 2016.
Fisseha, R., Dommen, J., Gutzwiller, L., Weingartner, E., Gysel, M., Emmenegger, C., Kalberer, M., and Baltensperger, U.: Seasonal and diurnal characteristics of water soluble inorganic compounds in the gas and aerosol phase in the Zurich area, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 1895–1904, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-6-1895-2006, 2006.
Fleming, L. T., Ali, N. N., Blair, S. L., Roveretto, M., George, C., and Nizkorodov, S. A.: Formation of light-absorbing organosulfates during evaporation of secondary organic material extracts in the presence of sulfuric acid, ACS Earth Space Chem., 3, 947–957, https://doi.org/10.1021/acsearthspacechem.9b00036, 2019.
Fountoukis, C. and Nenes, A.: ISORROPIA II: a computationally efficient thermodynamic equilibrium model for K+-Ca2+-Mg2+-NH-Na+-SO-NO-Cl−-H2O aerosols, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 4639–4659, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-7-4639-2007, 2007.
Froyd, K. D., Murphy, S. M., Murphy, D. M., de Gouw, J. A., Eddingsaas, N. C., and Wennberg, P. O.: Contribution of isoprene-derived organosulfates to free tropospheric aerosol mass, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 107, 21360–21365, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1012561107, 2010.
Gómez-González, Y., Surratt, J. D., Cuyckens, F., Szmigielski, R., Vermeylen, R., Jaoui, M., Lewandowski, M., Offenberg, J. H., Kleindienst, T. E., Edney, E. O., Blockhuys, F., Van Alsenoy, C., Maenhaut, W., and Claeys, M.: Characterization of organosulfates from the photooxidation of isoprene and unsaturated fatty acids in ambient aerosol using liquid chromatography/(-) electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, J. Mass Spectrom., 43, 371–382, https://doi.org/10.1002/jms.1329, 2008.
Grgic, I., Dovzan, A., Bercic, G., and Hudnik, V.: The effect of atmospheric organic compounds on the Fe-catalyzed S(IV) autoxidation in aqueous solution, J. Atmos. Chem., 29, 315–337, https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1005918912994, 1998.
Griffith, S. M., Huang, X. H. H., Louie, P. K. K., and Yu, J. Z.: Characterizing the thermodynamic and chemical composition factors controlling PM2.5 nitrate: Insights gained from two years of online measurements in Hong Kong, Atmos. Environ., 122, 864–875, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.02.009, 2015.
Guenther, A., Hewitt, C. N., Erickson, D., Fall, R., Geron, C., Graedel, T., Harley, P., Klinger, L., Lerdau, M., McKay, W. A., Pierce, T., Scholes, B., Steinbrecher, R., Tallamraju, R., Taylor, J., and Zimmerman, P.: A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 8873–8892, https://doi.org/10.1029/94JD02950, 1995.
Guo, H., Xu, L., Bougiatioti, A., Cerully, K. M., Capps, S. L., Hite Jr., J. R., Carlton, A. G., Lee, S.-H., Bergin, M. H., Ng, N. L., Nenes, A., and Weber, R. J.: Fine-particle water and pH in the southeastern United States, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5211–5228, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-5211-2015, 2015.
Guo, H., Sullivan, A. P., Campuzano-Jost, P., Schroder, J. C., Lopez-Hilfiker, F. D., Dibb, J. E., Jimenez, J. L., Thornton, J. A., Brown, S. S., Nenes, A., and Weber, R. J.: Fine particle pH and the partitioning of nitric acid during winter in the northeastern United States, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 121, 10355–10376, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016jd025311, 2016.
Hansen, A. M. K., Kristensen, K., Nguyen, Q. T., Zare, A., Cozzi, F., Nøjgaard, J. K., Skov, H., Brandt, J., Christensen, J. H., Ström, J., Tunved, P., Krejci, R., and Glasius, M.: Organosulfates and organic acids in Arctic aerosols: speciation, annual variation and concentration levels, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7807–7823, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-7807-2014, 2014.
Hansen, A. M. K., Hong, J., Raatikainen, T., Kristensen, K., Ylisirniö, A., Virtanen, A., Petäjä, T., Glasius, M., and Prisle, N. L.: Hygroscopic properties and cloud condensation nuclei activation of limonene-derived organosulfates and their mixtures with ammonium sulfate, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 14071–14089, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-14071-2015, 2015.
Hatch, L. E., Creamean, J. M., Ault, A. P., Surratt, J. D., Chan, M. N., Seinfeld, J. H., Edgerton, E. S., Su, Y., and Prather, K. A.: Measurements of isoprene-derived organosulfates in ambient aerosols by aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry-part 2: temporal variability and formation mechanisms, Environ. Sci. Technol., 45, 8648–8655, https://doi.org/10.1021/es2011836, 2011.
Hawkins, L. N., Russell, L. M., Covert, D. S., Quinn, P. K., and Bates, T. S.: Carboxylic acids, sulfates, and organosulfates in processed continental organic aerosol over the southeast Pacific Ocean during VOCALS-REx 2008, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D13201, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009jd013276, 2010.
He, Q. F., Ding, X., Wang, X. M., Yu, J. Z., Fu, X. X., Liu, T. Y., Zhang, Z., Xue, J., Chen, D. H., Zhong, L. J., and Donahue, N. M.: Organosulfates from pinene and isoprene over the Pearl River Delta, South China: seasonal variation and implication in formation mechanisms, Environ. Sci. Technol., 48, 9236–9245, https://doi.org/10.1021/es501299v, 2014.
He, Q. F., Ding, X., Fu, X. X., Zhang, Y. Q., Wang, J. Q., Liu, Y. X., Tang, M. J., Wang, X. M., and Rudich, Y.: Secondary organic aerosol formation from isoprene epoxides in the Pearl River Delta, South China: IEPOX- and HMML-derived tracers, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 123, 6999–7012, https://doi.org/10.1029/2017jd028242, 2018.
Hennigan, C. J., Izumi, J., Sullivan, A. P., Weber, R. J., and Nenes, A.: A critical evaluation of proxy methods used to estimate the acidity of atmospheric particles, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2775–2790, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-2775-2015, 2015.
Herrmann, H.: Kinetics of aqueous phase reactions relevant for atmospheric chemistry, Chem. Rev., 103, 4691–4716, https://doi.org/10.1021/cr020658q, 2003.
Hettiyadura, A. P. S., Stone, E. A., Kundu, S., Baker, Z., Geddes, E., Richards, K., and Humphry, T.: Determination of atmospheric organosulfates using HILIC chromatography with MS detection, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2347–2358, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-8-2347-2015, 2015.
Hettiyadura, A. P. S., Jayarathne, T., Baumann, K., Goldstein, A. H., de Gouw, J. A., Koss, A., Keutsch, F. N., Skog, K., and Stone, E. A.: Qualitative and quantitative analysis of atmospheric organosulfates in Centreville, Alabama, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1343–1359, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-1343-2017, 2017.
Hettiyadura, A. P. S., Al-Naiema, I. M., Hughes, D. D., Fang, T., and Stone, E. A.: Organosulfates in Atlanta, Georgia: anthropogenic influences on biogenic secondary organic aerosol formation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3191–3206, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-3191-2019, 2019.
Hoffmann, T., Huang, R. J., and Kalberer, M.: Atmospheric analytical chemistry, Anal. Chem., 83, 4649–4664, https://doi.org/10.1021/ac2010718, 2011.
Huang, L., Coddens, E. M., and Grassian, V. H.: Formation of organosulfur compounds from aqueous phase reactions of S(IV) with methacrolein and methyl vinyl ketone in the presence of transition metal ions, ACS Earth Space Chem., 3, 1749–1755, https://doi.org/10.1021/acsearthspacechem.9b00173, 2019.
Huang, L., Liu, T., and Grassian, V. H.: Radical-initiated formation of aromatic organosulfates and sulfonates in the aqueous phase, Environ. Sci. Technol., 54, 11857–11864, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c05644, 2020.
Huang, R.-J., Zhang, Y., Bozzetti, C., Ho, K.-F., Cao, J.-J., Han, Y., Daellenbach, K. R., Slowik, J. G., Platt, S. M., Canonaco, F., Zotter, P., Wolf, R., Pieber, S. M., Bruns, E. A., Crippa, M., Ciarelli, G., Piazzalunga, A., Schwikowski, M., Abbaszade, G., Schnelle-Kreis, J., Zimmermann, R., An, Z., Szidat, S., Baltensperger, U., El Haddad, I., and Prevot, A. S. H.: High secondary aerosol contribution to particulate pollution during haze events in China, Nature, 514, 218–222, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13774, 2014.
Huang, R.-J., Cao, J., Chen, Y., Yang, L., Shen, J., You, Q., Wang, K., Lin, C., Xu, W., Gao, B., Li, Y., Chen, Q., Hoffmann, T., O'Dowd, C. D., Bilde, M., and Glasius, M.: Organosulfates in atmospheric aerosol: synthesis and quantitative analysis of PM2.5 from Xi'an, northwestern China, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3447–3456, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-11-3447-2018, 2018.
Iinuma, Y., Mueller, C., Berndt, T., Boege, O., Claeys, M., and Herrmann, H.: Evidence for the existence of organosulfates from β-pinene ozonolysis in ambient secondary organic aerosol, Environ. Sci. Technol., 41, 6678–6683, 2007a.
Iinuma, Y., Mueller, C., Boege, O., Gnauk, T., and Herrmann, H.: The formation of organic sulfate esters in the limonene ozonolysis secondary organic aerosol (SOA) under acidic conditions, Atmos. Environ., 41, 5571–5583, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.03.007, 2007b.
Iinuma, Y., Boege, O., Kahnt, A., and Herrmann, H.: Laboratory chamber studies on the formation of organosulfates from reactive uptake of monoterpene oxides, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 11, 7985–7997, https://doi.org/10.1039/b904025k, 2009.
Jiang, P.-Y., Katsumura, Y., Domae, M., Ishikawa, K., Ishigure, K., and Yoshida, Y.: Pulse radiolysis study of concentrated sulfuric acid solutions. Formation mechanism, yield and reactivity of sulfate radicals, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday T., 88, 3319–3322, https://doi.org/10.1039/ft9928801653, 1992.
Jimenez, J. L., Canagaratna, M. R., Donahue, N. M., Prevot, A. S. H., Zhang, Q., Kroll, J. H., DeCarlo, P. F., Allan, J. D., Coe, H., Ng, N. L., Aiken, A. C., Docherty, K. S., Ulbrich, I. M., Grieshop, A. P., Robinson, A. L., Duplissy, J., Smith, J. D., Wilson, K. R., Lanz, V. A., Hueglin, C., Sun, Y. L., Tian, J., Laaksonen, A., Raatikainen, T., Rautiainen, J., Vaattovaara, P., Ehn, M., Kulmala, M., Tomlinson, J. M., Collins, D. R., Cubison, M. J., Dunlea, E. J., Huffman, J. A., Onasch, T. B., Alfarra, M. R., Williams, P. I., Bower, K., Kondo, Y., Schneider, J., Drewnick, F., Borrmann, S., Weimer, S., Demerjian, K., Salcedo, D., Cottrell, L., Griffin, R., Takami, A., Miyoshi, T., Hatakeyama, S., Shimono, A., Sun, J. Y., Zhang, Y. M., Dzepina, K., Kimmel, J. R., Sueper, D., Jayne, J. T., Herndon, S. C., Trimborn, A. M., Williams, L. R., Wood, E. C., Middlebrook, A. M., Kolb, C. E., Baltensperger, U., and Worsnop, D. R.: Evolution of organic aerosols in the atmosphere, Science, 326, 1525–1529, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1180353, 2009.
Johnston, M. V. and Kerecman, D. E.: Molecular characterization of atmospheric organic aerosol by mass spectrometry, Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem., 12, 247–274, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-anchem-061516-045135, 2019.
Kourtchev, I., Godoi, R. H. M., Connors, S., Levine, J. G., Archibald, A. T., Godoi, A. F. L., Paralovo, S. L., Barbosa, C. G. G., Souza, R. A. F., Manzi, A. O., Seco, R., Sjostedt, S., Park, J.-H., Guenther, A., Kim, S., Smith, J., Martin, S. T., and Kalberer, M.: Molecular composition of organic aerosols in central Amazonia: an ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry study, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11899–11913, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-11899-2016, 2016.
Kristensen, K. and Glasius, M.: Organosulfates and oxidation products from biogenic hydrocarbons in fine aerosols from a forest in North West Europe during spring, Atmos. Environ., 45, 4546–4556, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.05.063, 2011.
Kundu, S., Quraishi, T. A., Yu, G., Suarez, C., Keutsch, F. N., and Stone, E. A.: Evidence and quantitation of aromatic organosulfates in ambient aerosols in Lahore, Pakistan, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4865–4875, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-4865-2013, 2013.
Le Breton, M., Wang, Y., Hallquist, Å. M., Pathak, R. K., Zheng, J., Yang, Y., Shang, D., Glasius, M., Bannan, T. J., Liu, Q., Chan, C. K., Percival, C. J., Zhu, W., Lou, S., Topping, D., Wang, Y., Yu, J., Lu, K., Guo, S., Hu, M., and Hallquist, M.: Online gas- and particle-phase measurements of organosulfates, organosulfonates and nitrooxy organosulfates in Beijing utilizing a FIGAERO ToF-CIMS, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10355–10371, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-10355-2018, 2018.
Lewandowski, M., Jaoui, M., Offenberg, J. H., Krug, J. D., and Kleindienst, T. E.: Atmospheric oxidation of isoprene and 1,3-butadiene: influence of aerosol acidity and relative humidity on secondary organic aerosol, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3773–3783, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-3773-2015, 2015.
Liao, J., Froyd, K. D., Murphy, D. M., Keutsch, F. N., Yu, G., Wennberg, P. O., St. Clair, J. M., Crounse, J. D., Wisthaler, A., Mikoviny, T., Jimenez, J. L., Campuzano-Jost, P., Day, D. A., Hu, W., Ryerson, T. B., Pollack, I. B., Peischl, J., Anderson, B. E., Ziemba, L. D., Blake, D. R., Meinardi, S., and Diskin, G.: Airborne measurements of organosulfates over the continental US, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 120, 2990–3005, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014jd022378, 2015.
Lin, P., Yu, J. Z., Engling, G., and Kalberer, M.: Organosulfates in humic-like substance fraction isolated from aerosols at seven locations in East Asia: a study by ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry, Environ. Sci. Technol., 46, 13118–13127, https://doi.org/10.1021/es303570v, 2012.
Lin, Y. H., Zhang, Z., Docherty, K. S., Zhang, H., Budisulistiorini, S. H., Rubitschun, C. L., Shaw, S. L., Knipping, E. M., Edgerton, E. S., Kleindienst, T. E., Gold, A., and Surratt, J. D.: Isoprene epoxydiols as precursors to secondary organic aerosol formation: acid-catalyzed reactive uptake studies with authentic compounds, Environ. Sci. Technol., 46, 250–258, https://doi.org/10.1021/es202554c, 2012.
Lin, Y. H., Zhang, H., Pye, H. O., Zhang, Z., Marth, W. J., Park, S., Arashiro, M., Cui, T., Budisulistiorini, S. H., Sexton, K. G., Vizuete, W., Xie, Y., Luecken, D. J., Piletic, I. R., Edney, E. O., Bartolotti, L. J., Gold, A., and Surratt, J. D.: Epoxide as a precursor to secondary organic aerosol formation from isoprene photooxidation in the presence of nitrogen oxides, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 110, 6718–6723, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1221150110, 2013.
Liu, M. X., Song, Y., Zhou, T., Xu, Z. Y., Yan, C. Q., Zheng, M., Wu, Z. J., Hu, M., Wu, Y. S., and Zhu, T.: Fine particle pH during severe haze episodes in northern China, Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, 5213–5221, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017gl073210, 2017.
Liu, Y. and Wang, T.: Worsening urban ozone pollution in China from 2013 to 2017 – Part 2: The effects of emission changes and implications for multi-pollutant control, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6323–6337, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20-6323-2020, 2020.
Lukács, H., Gelencsér, A., Hoffer, A., Kiss, G., Horváth, K., and Hartyáni, Z.: Quantitative assessment of organosulfates in size-segregated rural fine aerosol, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 231–238, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-231-2009, 2009.
Ma, Y., Xu, X., Song, W., Geng, F., and Wang, L.: Seasonal and diurnal variations of particulate organosulfates in urban Shanghai, China, Atmos. Environ., 85, 152–160, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.12.017, 2014.
Mahowald, N.: Aerosol indirect effect on biogeochemical cycles and climate, Science, 334, 794–796, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1207374, 2011.
McNeill, V. F., Woo, J. L., Kim, D. D., Schwier, A. N., Wannell, N. J., Sumner, A. J., and Barakat, J. M.: Aqueous-phase secondary organic aerosol and organosulfate formation in atmospheric aerosols: a modeling study, Environ. Sci. Technol., 46, 8075–8081, https://doi.org/10.1021/es3002986, 2012.
Meade, L. E., Riva, M., Blomberg, M. Z., Brock, A. K., Qualters, E. M., Siejack, R. A., Ramakrishnan, K., Surratt, J. D., and Kautzman, K. E.: Seasonal variations of fine particulate organosulfates derived from biogenic and anthropogenic hydrocarbons in the mid-Atlantic United States, Atmos. Environ., 145, 405–414, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.09.028, 2016.
Nah, T., Guo, H., Sullivan, A. P., Chen, Y., Tanner, D. J., Nenes, A., Russell, A., Ng, N. L., Huey, L. G., and Weber, R. J.: Characterization of aerosol composition, aerosol acidity, and organic acid partitioning at an agriculturally intensive rural southeastern US site, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11471–11491, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-11471-2018, 2018.
Nestorowicz, K., Jaoui, M., Rudzinski, K. J., Lewandowski, M., Kleindienst, T. E., Spólnik, G., Danikiewicz, W., and Szmigielski, R.: Chemical composition of isoprene SOA under acidic and non-acidic conditions: effect of relative humidity, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 18101–18121, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-18101-2018, 2018.
Nguyen, Q. T., Christensen, M. K., Cozzi, F., Zare, A., Hansen, A. M. K., Kristensen, K., Tulinius, T. E., Madsen, H. H., Christensen, J. H., Brandt, J., Massling, A., Nøjgaard, J. K., and Glasius, M.: Understanding the anthropogenic influence on formation of biogenic secondary organic aerosols in Denmark via analysis of organosulfates and related oxidation products, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8961–8981, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-8961-2014, 2014.
Nguyen, T. B., Lee, P. B., Updyke, K. M., Bones, D. L., Laskin, J., Laskin, A., and Nizkorodov, S. A.: Formation of nitrogen- and sulfur-containing light-absorbing compounds accelerated by evaporation of water from secondary organic aerosols, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 117, D01207, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011jd016944, 2012.
Nguyen, T. B., Bates, K. H., Crounse, J. D., Schwantes, R. H., Zhang, X., Kjaergaard, H. G., Surratt, J. D., Lin, P., Laskin, A., Seinfeld, J. H., and Wennberg, P. O.: Mechanism of the hydroxyl radical oxidation of methacryloyl peroxynitrate (MPAN) and its pathway toward secondary organic aerosol formation in the atmosphere, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 17, 17914–17926, https://doi.org/10.1039/c5cp02001h, 2015.
Nozière, B., Ekström, S., Alsberg, T., and Holmström, S.: Radical-initiated formation of organosulfates and surfactants in atmospheric aerosols, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L05806, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009gl041683, 2010.
Nozière, B., Kalberer, M., Claeys, M., Allan, J., D'Anna, B., Decesari, S., Finessi, E., Glasius, M., Grgic, I., Hamilton, J. F., Hoffmann, T., Iinuma, Y., Jaoui, M., Kahno, A., Kampf, C. J., Kourtchev, I., Maenhaut, W., Marsden, N., Saarikoski, S., Schnelle-Kreis, J., Surratt, J. D., Szidat, S., Szmigielski, R., and Wisthaler, A.: The molecular identification of organic compounds in the atmosphere: state of the art and challenges, Chem. Rev., 115, 3919–3983, https://doi.org/10.1021/cr5003485, 2015.
Olson, C. N., Galloway, M. M., Yu, G., Hedman, C. J., Lockett, M. R., Yoon, T., Stone, E. A., Smith, L. M., and Keutsch, F. N.: Hydroxycarboxylic acid-derived organosulfates: synthesis, stability, and quantification in ambient aerosol, Environ. Sci. Technol., 45, 6468–6474, https://doi.org/10.1021/es201039p, 2011.
Olson, N. E., Lei, Z. Y., Craig, R. L., Zhang, Y., Chen, Y. Z., Lambe, A. T., Zhang, Z. F., Gold, A., Surratt, J. D., and Ault, A. P.: Reactive uptake of isoprene epoxydiols increases the viscosity of the core of phase-separated aerosol particles, ACS Earth Space Chem., 3, 1402–1414, https://doi.org/10.1021/acsearthspacechem.9b00138, 2019.
Passananti, M., Kong, L., Shang, J., Dupart, Y., Perrier, S., Chen, J., Donaldson, D. J., and George, C.: Organosulfate formation through the heterogeneous reaction of sulfur dioxide with unsaturated fatty acids and long-chain alkenes, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl., 55, 10336–10339, https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.201605266, 2016.
Pye, H. O. T., Pinder, R. W., Piletic, I. R., Xie, Y., Capps, S. L., Lin, Y. H., Surratt, J. D., Zhang, Z. F., Gold, A., Luecken, D. J., Hutzell, W. T., Jaoui, M., Offenberg, J. H., Kleindienst, T. E., Lewandowski, M., and Edney, E. O.: Epoxide pathways improve model predictions of isoprene markers and reveal key role of acidity in aerosol formation, Environ. Sci. Technol., 47, 11056–11064, https://doi.org/10.1021/es402106h, 2013.
Ramanathan, V., Crutzen, P. J., Lelieveld, J., Mitra, A. P., Althausen, D., Anderson, J., Andreae, M. O., Cantrell, W., Cass, G. R., Chung, C. E., Clarke, A. D., Coakley, J. A., Collins, W. D., Conant, W. C., Dulac, F., Heintzenberg, J., Heymsfield, A. J., Holben, B., Howell, S., Hudson, J., Jayaraman, A., Kiehl, J. T., Krishnamurti, T. N., Lubin, D., McFarquhar, G., Novakov, T., Ogren, J. A., Podgorny, I. A., Prather, K., Priestley, K., Prospero, J. M., Quinn, P. K., Rajeev, K., Rasch, P., Rupert, S., Sadourny, R., Satheesh, S. K., Shaw, G. E., Sheridan, P., and Valero, F. P. J.: Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 106, 28371–28398, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001jd900133, 2001.
Rattanavaraha, W., Chu, K., Budisulistiorini, S. H., Riva, M., Lin, Y.-H., Edgerton, E. S., Baumann, K., Shaw, S. L., Guo, H., King, L., Weber, R. J., Neff, M. E., Stone, E. A., Offenberg, J. H., Zhang, Z., Gold, A., and Surratt, J. D.: Assessing the impact of anthropogenic pollution on isoprene-derived secondary organic aerosol formation in PM2.5 collected from the Birmingham, Alabama, ground site during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4897–4914, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-4897-2016, 2016.
Riva, M., Tomaz, S., Cui, T., Lin, Y. H., Perraudin, E., Gold, A., Stone, E. A., Villenave, E., and Surratt, J. D.: Evidence for an unrecognized secondary anthropogenic source of organosulfates and sulfonates: gas-phase oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of sulfate aerosol, Environ. Sci. Technol., 49, 6654–6664, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b00836, 2015.
Riva, M., Budisulistiorini, S. H., Zhang, Z. F., Gold, A., and Surratt, J. D.: Chemical characterization of secondary organic aerosol constituents from isoprene ozonolysis in the presence of acidic aerosol, Atmos. Environ., 130, 5–13, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.06.027, 2016a.
Riva, M., Da Silva Barbosa, T., Lin, Y.-H., Stone, E. A., Gold, A., and Surratt, J. D.: Chemical characterization of organosulfates in secondary organic aerosol derived from the photooxidation of alkanes, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11001–11018, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-11001-2016, 2016b.
Riva, M., Chen, Y., Zhang, Y., Lei, Z., Olson, N. E., Boyer, H. C., Narayan, S., Yee, L. D., Green, H. S., Cui, T., Zhang, Z., Baumann, K., Fort, M., Edgerton, E., Budisulistiorini, S. H., Rose, C. A., Ribeiro, I. O., RL, E. O., Dos Santos, E. O., Machado, C. M. D., Szopa, S., Zhao, Y., Alves, E. G., de Sa, S. S., Hu, W., Knipping, E. M., Shaw, S. L., Duvoisin Junior, S., de Souza, R. A. F., Palm, B. B., Jimenez, J. L., Glasius, M., Goldstein, A. H., Pye, H. O. T., Gold, A., Turpin, B. J., Vizuete, W., Martin, S. T., Thornton, J. A., Dutcher, C. S., Ault, A. P., and Surratt, J. D.: Increasing isoprene epoxydiol-to-inorganic sulfate aerosol ratio results in extensive conversion of inorganic sulfate to organosulfur forms: implications for aerosol physicochemical properties, Environ. Sci. Technol., 53, 8682–8694, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b01019, 2019.
Schindelka, J., Iinuma, Y., Hoffmann, D., and Herrmann, H.: Sulfate radical-initiated formation of isoprene-derived organosulfates in atmospheric aerosols, Faraday Discuss., 165, 237–259, https://doi.org/10.1039/c3fd00042g, 2013.
Shakya, K. M. and Peltier, R. E.: Investigating missing sources of sulfur at Fairbanks, Alaska, Environ. Sci. Technol., 47, 9332–9338, https://doi.org/10.1021/es402020b, 2013.
Shakya, K. M. and Peltier, R. E.: Non-sulfate sulfur in fine aerosols across the United States: Insight for organosulfate prevalence, Atmos. Environ., 100, 159–166, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.10.058, 2015.
Shalamzari, M. S., Ryabtsova, O., Kahnt, A., Vermeylen, R., Herent, M. F., Quetin-Leclercq, J., Van der Veken, P., Maenhaut, W., and Claeys, M.: Mass spectrometric characterization of organosulfates related to secondary organic aerosol from isoprene, Rapid Commun. Mass Sp., 27, 784–794, https://doi.org/10.1002/rcm.6511, 2013.
Shang, J., Passananti, M., Dupart, Y., Ciuraru, R., Tinel, L., Rossignol, S., Perrier, S., Zhu, T., and George, C.: SO2 uptake on oleic acid: a new formation pathway of organosulfur compounds in the atmosphere, Environ. Sci. Technol. Lett., 3, 67–72, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.estlett.6b00006, 2016.
Shi, G. L., Xu, J., Peng, X., Xiao, Z. M., Chen, K., Tian, Y. Z., Guan, X. B., Feng, Y. C., Yu, H. F., Nenes, A., and Russell, A. G.: aerosols in a polluted atmosphere: source contributions to highly acidic aerosol, Environ. Sci. Technol., 51, 4289–4296, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b05736, 2017.
Shiraiwa, M., Ammann, M., Koop, T., and Pöschl, U.: Gas uptake and chemical aging of semisolid organic aerosol particles, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 108, 11003–11008, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1103045108, 2011.
Shrivastava, M., Cappa, C. D., Fan, J. W., Goldstein, A. H., Guenther, A. B., Jimenez, J. L., Kuang, C., Laskin, A., Martin, S. T., Ng, N. L., Petaja, T., Pierce, J. R., Rasch, P. J., Roldin, P., Seinfeld, J. H., Shilling, J., Smith, J. N., Thornton, J. A., Volkamer, R., Wang, J., Worsnop, D. R., Zaveri, R. A., Zelenyuk, A., and Zhang, Q.: Recent advances in understanding secondary organic aerosol: Implications for global climate forcing, Rev. Geophys., 55, 509–559, 2017.
Song, S., Nenes, A., Gao, M., Zhang, Y., Liu, P., Shao, J., Ye, D., Xu, W., Lei, L., Sun, Y., Liu, B., Wang, S., and McElroy, M. B.: Thermodynamic modeling suggests declines in water uptake and acidity of inorganic aerosols in Beijing winter haze events during 2014/2015–2018/2019, Environ. Sci. Technol. Lett., 6, 752–760, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.estlett.9b00621, 2019.
Staudt, S., Kundu, S., Lehmler, H. J., He, X., Cui, T., Lin, Y. H., Kristensen, K., Glasius, M., Zhang, X., Weber, R. J., Surratt, J. D., and Stone, E. A.: Aromatic organosulfates in atmospheric aerosols: synthesis, characterization, and abundance, Atmos. Environ., 94, 366–373, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.05.049, 2014.
Stone, E. A., Yang, L., Yu, L. E., and Rupakheti, M.: Characterization of organosulfates in atmospheric aerosols at Four Asian locations, Atmos. Environ., 47, 323–329, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.10.058, 2012.
Surratt, J. D., Kroll, J. H., Kleindienst, T. E., Edney, E. O., Claeys, M., Sorooshian, A., Ng, N. L., Offenberg, J. H., Lewandowski, M., Jaoui, M., Flagan, R. C., and Seinfeld, J. H.: Evidence for organosulfates in secondary organic aerosol, Environ. Sci. Technol., 41, 517–527, https://doi.org/10.1021/es062081q, 2007a.
Surratt, J. D., Lewandowski, M., Offenberg, J. H., Jaoui, M., Kleindienst, T. E., Edney, E. O., and Seinfeld, J. H.: Effect of acidity on secondary organic aerosol formation from isoprene, Environ. Sci. Technol., 41, 5363–5369, https://doi.org/10.1021/es0704176, 2007b.
Surratt, J. D., Gómez-González, Y., Chan, A. W. H., Vermeylen, R., Shahgholi, M., Kleindienst, T. E., Edney, E. O., Offenberg, J. H., Lewandowski, M., Jaoui, M., Maenhaut, W., Claeys, M., Richard C. Flagan, and Seinfeld, J. H.: Organosulfate formation in biogenic secondary organic aerosol, J. Phys. Chem. A, 36, 8345–8378, 2008.
Surratt, J. D., Chan, A. W., Eddingsaas, N. C., Chan, M., Loza, C. L., Kwan, A. J., Hersey, S. P., Flagan, R. C., Wennberg, P. O., and Seinfeld, J. H.: Reactive intermediates revealed in secondary organic aerosol formation from isoprene, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 107, 6640–6645, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0911114107, 2010.
Tao, J., Zhang, L., Cao, J., and Zhang, R.: A review of current knowledge concerning PM2.5 chemical composition, aerosol optical properties and their relationships across China, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9485–9518, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-9485-2017, 2017.
Tao, S., Lu, X., Levac, N., Bateman, A. P., Nguyen, T. B., Bones, D. L., Nizkorodov, S. A., Laskin, J., Laskin, A., and Yang, X.: Molecular characterization of organosulfates in organic aerosols from Shanghai and Los Angeles urban areas by nanospray-desorption electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry, Environ. Sci. Technol., 48, 10993–11001, https://doi.org/10.1021/es5024674, 2014.
Tolocka, M. P. and Turpin, B.: Contribution of organosulfur compounds to organic aerosol mass, Environ. Sci. Technol., 46, 7978–7983, https://doi.org/10.1021/es300651v, 2012.
Wach, P., Spolnik, G., Rudzinski, K. J., Skotak, K., Claeys, M., Danikiewicz, W., and Szmigielski, R.: Radical oxidation of methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein in aqueous droplets: characterization of organosulfates and atmospheric implications, Chemosphere, 214, 1–9, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.09.026, 2019.
Wang, H. C., Chen, X. R., Lu, K. D., Hu, R. Z., Li, Z. Y., Wang, H. L., Ma, X. F., Yang, X. P., Chen, S. Y., Dong, H. B., Liu, Y., Fang, X., Zeng, L. M., Hu, M., and Zhang, Y. H.: NO3 and N2O5 chemistry at a suburban site during the EXPLORE-YRD campaign in 2018, Atmos. Environ., 224, 117180, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2019.117180, 2020.
Wang, H. L., Qiao, L. P., Lou, S. R., Zhou, M., Ding, A. J., Huang, H. Y., Chen, J. M., Wang, Q., Tao, S. K., Chen, C. H., Li, L., and Huang, C.: Chemical composition of PM2.5 and meteorological impact among three years in urban Shanghai, China, J. Clean Prod., 112, 1302–1311, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.04.099, 2016.
Wang, J. J., Lu, X. M., Yan, Y. T., Zhou, L. G., and Ma, W. C.: Spatiotemporal characteristics of PM2.5 concentration in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration, China on the application of big data and wavelet analysis, Sci. Total Environ., 724, 138134, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138134, 2020.
Wang, K., Zhang, Y., Huang, R. J., Wang, M., Ni, H., Kampf, C. J., Cheng, Y., Bilde, M., Glasius, M., and Hoffmann, T.: Molecular characterization and source identification of atmospheric particulate organosulfates using ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry, Environ. Sci. Technol., 53, 6192–6202, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b02628, 2019.
Wang, S. Y., Zhou, S. M., Tao, Y., Tsui, W. G., Ye, J. H., Yu, J. Z., Murphy, J. G., McNeill, V. F., Abbatt, J. P. D., and Chan, A. W. H.: Organic peroxides and sulfur dioxide in aerosol: source of particulate sulfate, Environ. Sci. Technol., 53, 10695–10704, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b02591, 2019.
Wang, X. K., Rossignol, S., Ma, Y., Yao, L., Wang, M. Y., Chen, J. M., George, C., and Wang, L.: Molecular characterization of atmospheric particulate organosulfates in three megacities at the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2285–2298, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-2285-2016, 2016.
Wang, Y., Ren, J., Huang, X. H. H., Tong, R., and Yu, J. Z.: Synthesis of four monoterpene-derived organosulfates and their quantification in atmospheric aerosol samples, Environ. Sci. Technol., 51, 6791–6801, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.7b01179, 2017.
Wang, Y., Hu, M., Guo, S., Wang, Y., Zheng, J., Yang, Y., Zhu, W., Tang, R., Li, X., Liu, Y., Le Breton, M., Du, Z., Shang, D., Wu, Y., Wu, Z., Song, Y., Lou, S., Hallquist, M., and Yu, J.: The secondary formation of organosulfates under interactions between biogenic emissions and anthropogenic pollutants in summer in Beijing, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10693–10713, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-10693-2018, 2018.
Wen, L., Xue, L., Wang, X., Xu, C., Chen, T., Yang, L., Wang, T., Zhang, Q., and Wang, W.: Summertime fine particulate nitrate pollution in the North China Plain: increasing trends, formation mechanisms and implications for control policy, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11261–11275, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-11261-2018, 2018.
Worton, D. R., Surratt, J. D., Lafranchi, B. W., Chan, A. W., Zhao, Y., Weber, R. J., Park, J. H., Gilman, J. B., de Gouw, J., Park, C., Schade, G., Beaver, M., Clair, J. M., Crounse, J., Wennberg, P., Wolfe, G. M., Harrold, S., Thornton, J. A., Farmer, D. K., Docherty, K. S., Cubison, M. J., Jimenez, J. L., Frossard, A. A., Russell, L. M., Kristensen, K., Glasius, M., Mao, J., Ren, X., Brune, W., Browne, E. C., Pusede, S. E., Cohen, R. C., Seinfeld, J. H., and Goldstein, A. H.: Observational insights into aerosol formation from isoprene, Environ. Sci. Technol., 47, 11403–11413, https://doi.org/10.1021/es4011064, 2013.
Yao, M., Zhao, Y., Hu, M., Huang, D., Wang, Y., Yu, J. Z., and Yan, N.: Multiphase reactions between secondary organic aerosol and sulfur dioxide: kinetics and contributions to sulfate formation and aerosol aging, Environ. Sci. Technol. Lett., 6, 768–774, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.estlett.9b00657, 2019.
Yassine, M. M., Dabek-Zlotorzynska, E., Harir, M., and Schmitt-Kopplin, P.: Identification of weak and strong organic acids in atmospheric aerosols by capillary electrophoresis/mass spectrometry and ultra-high-resolution fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, Anal. Chem., 84, 6586–6594, https://doi.org/10.1021/ac300798g, 2012.
Zhang, H., Worton, D. R., Lewandowski, M., Ortega, J., Rubitschun, C. L., Park, J. H., Kristensen, K., Campuzano-Jost, P., Day, D. A., Jimenez, J. L., Jaoui, M., Offenberg, J. H., Kleindienst, T. E., Gilman, J., Kuster, W. C., de Gouw, J., Park, C., Schade, G. W., Frossard, A. A., Russell, L., Kaser, L., Jud, W., Hansel, A., Cappellin, L., Karl, T., Glasius, M., Guenther, A., Goldstein, A. H., Seinfeld, J. H., Gold, A., Kamens, R. M., and Surratt, J. D.: Organosulfates as tracers for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) in the atmosphere, Environ. Sci. Technol., 46, 9437–9446, https://doi.org/10.1021/es301648z, 2012.
Zhang, H., Zhang, Z., Cui, T., Lin, Y. H., Bhathela, N. A., Ortega, J., Worton, D. R., Goldstein, A. H., Guenther, A., Jimenez, J. L., Gold, A., and Surratt, J. D.: Secondary organic aerosol formation via 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol photooxidation: evidence of acid-catalyzed reactive uptake of epoxides, Environ. Sci. Technol. Lett., 1, 242–247, https://doi.org/10.1021/ez500055f, 2014.
Zhu, M., Jiang, B., Li, S., Yu, Q., Yu, X., Zhang, Y., Bi, X., Yu, J., George, C., Yu, Z., and Wang, X.: Organosulfur compounds formed from heterogeneous reaction between SO2 and particulate-bound unsaturated fatty acids in ambient air, Environ. Sci. Technol. Lett., 6, 318–322, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.estlett.9b00218, 2019.
Organosulfates (OSs) are important constituents and tracers of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) in the atmosphere. Here we characterized the OS species in ambient aerosols in Shanghai, China. We find that the contributions of OSs and SOAs to organic aerosols have increased in recent years and that OS production was largely controlled by the oxidant level (Ox), particularly in summer. We infer that mitigation of Ox pollution can effectively reduce the production of OSs and SOAs in eastern China.
Organosulfates (OSs) are important constituents and tracers of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs)...