Articles | Volume 21, issue 18
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14235–14250, 2021
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14235–14250, 2021
Research article
24 Sep 2021
Research article | 24 Sep 2021

Mass and density of individual frozen hydrometeors

Karlie N. Rees et al.

Related authors

Idealized simulation study of the relationship of disdrometer sampling statistics with the precision of precipitation rate measurement
Karlie N. Rees and Timothy J. Garrett
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7681–7691,,, 2021
Short summary

Related subject area

Subject: Clouds and Precipitation | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)
Interaction between cloud–radiation, atmospheric dynamics and thermodynamics based on observational data from GoAmazon 2014/15 and a cloud-resolving model
Layrson J. M. Gonçalves, Simone M. S. C. Coelho, Paulo Y. Kubota, and Dayana C. Souza
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15509–15526,,, 2022
Short summary
Snowfall in Northern Finland derives mostly from ice clouds
Claudia Mignani, Lukas Zimmermann, Rigel Kivi, Alexis Berne, and Franz Conen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13551–13568,,, 2022
Short summary
Observation of secondary ice production in clouds at low temperatures
Alexei Korolev, Paul J. DeMott, Ivan Heckman, Mengistu Wolde, Earle Williams, David J. Smalley, and Michael F. Donovan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13103–13113,,, 2022
Short summary
In situ and satellite-based estimates of cloud properties and aerosol–cloud interactions over the southeast Atlantic Ocean
Siddhant Gupta, Greg M. McFarquhar, Joseph R. O'Brien, Michael R. Poellot, David J. Delene, Ian Chang, Lan Gao, Feng Xu, and Jens Redemann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12923–12943,,, 2022
Short summary
Ice fog observed at cirrus temperatures at Dome C, Antarctic Plateau
Étienne Vignon, Lea Raillard, Christophe Genthon, Massimo Del Guasta, Andrew J. Heymsfield, Jean-Baptiste Madeleine, and Alexis Berne
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12857–12872,,, 2022
Short summary

Cited articles

Alcott, T. I. and Steenburgh, W. J.: Snow-to-liquid ratio variability and prediction at a high-elevation site in Utah's Wasatch Mountains, Weather Forecast., 25, 323–337, 2010. a
Barthazy, E. and Schefold, R.: Fall velocity of snowflakes of different riming degree and crystal types, Atmos. Res., 82, 391–398, 2006. a
Barthazy, E., Göke, S., Schefold, R., and Högl, D.: An Optical Array Instrument for Shape and Fall Velocity Measurements of Hydrometeors, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 21, 1400–1416,<1400:AOAIFS>2.0.CO;2, 2004. a
Battaglia, A., Rustemeier, E., Tokay, A., Blahak, U., and Simmer, C.: PARSIVEL Snow Observations: A Critical Assessment, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 27, 333–344,, 2010. a
Böhm, H. P.: A General Equation for the Terminal Fall Speed of Solid Hydrometeors, J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 2419–2427,<2419:AGEFTT>2.0.CO;2, 1989. a, b
Short summary
Accurate predictions of weather and climate require descriptions of the mass and density of snowflakes as a function of their size. Few measurements have been obtained to date because snowflakes are so small and fragile. This article describes results from a new instrument that automatically measures individual snowflake size, mass, and density. Key findings are that small snowflakes have much lower densities than is often assumed and that snowflake density increases with temperature.
Final-revised paper