Articles | Volume 21, issue 18
Research article
24 Sep 2021
Research article |  | 24 Sep 2021

Mass and density of individual frozen hydrometeors

Karlie N. Rees, Dhiraj K. Singh, Eric R. Pardyjak, and Timothy J. Garrett

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Subject: Clouds and Precipitation | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)
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Cited articles

Alcott, T. I. and Steenburgh, W. J.: Snow-to-liquid ratio variability and prediction at a high-elevation site in Utah's Wasatch Mountains, Weather Forecast., 25, 323–337, 2010. a
Barthazy, E. and Schefold, R.: Fall velocity of snowflakes of different riming degree and crystal types, Atmos. Res., 82, 391–398, 2006. a
Barthazy, E., Göke, S., Schefold, R., and Högl, D.: An Optical Array Instrument for Shape and Fall Velocity Measurements of Hydrometeors, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 21, 1400–1416,<1400:AOAIFS>2.0.CO;2, 2004. a
Battaglia, A., Rustemeier, E., Tokay, A., Blahak, U., and Simmer, C.: PARSIVEL Snow Observations: A Critical Assessment, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 27, 333–344,, 2010. a
Böhm, H. P.: A General Equation for the Terminal Fall Speed of Solid Hydrometeors, J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 2419–2427,<2419:AGEFTT>2.0.CO;2, 1989. a, b
Short summary
Accurate predictions of weather and climate require descriptions of the mass and density of snowflakes as a function of their size. Few measurements have been obtained to date because snowflakes are so small and fragile. This article describes results from a new instrument that automatically measures individual snowflake size, mass, and density. Key findings are that small snowflakes have much lower densities than is often assumed and that snowflake density increases with temperature.
Final-revised paper