Articles | Volume 21, issue 2
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1015–1034, 2021
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-21-1015-2021
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1015–1034, 2021
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-21-1015-2021

Research article 26 Jan 2021

Research article | 26 Jan 2021

3D radiative heating of tropical upper tropospheric cloud systems derived from synergistic A-Train observations and machine learning

Claudia J. Stubenrauch et al.

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Cited articles

Ackerman, T. P., Liou, K.-N., Valero, F. P. J., and Pfister, L.: Heating Rates in Tropical Anvils, J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 1606–1623, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1988)045<1606:HRITA>2.0.CO;2, 1988. 
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Austin, R. T., Heymsfield, A. J., and Stephens, G. L.: Retrieval of ice cloud microphysical parameters using the CloudSat millimeter-wave radar and temperature, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D00A23, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD010049, 2009. 
Bergman, J. W. and Hendon, H. H.: Cloud Radiative Forcing of the Low-Latitude Tropospheric Circulation: Linear Calculations, J. Atmos. Sci., 57, 2225–2245, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(2000)057<2225:CRFOTL>2.0.CO;2, 2000. 
Boucher, O., Randall, D., Artaxo, P., Bretherton, C., Feingold, G., Forster, P., Kerminen, V.-M., Kondo, Y., Liao, H., Lohmann, U., Rasch, P., Satheesh, S.K., Sherwood, S., Stevens, B., and Zhang, X. Y.: Clouds and aerosols, in: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by: Stocker, T. F., Qin, D., Plattner, G.-K., Tignor, M., Allen, S. K., Doschung, J., Nauels, A., Xia, Y., Bex, V., and Midgley, P. M., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 571–657, https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.01, 2013. 
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Tropical anvils formed by convective outflow play a crucial role in modulating the Earth’s energy budget and heat transport. To explore the relation between these anvils and convection, we built 3D radiative heating fields, based on machine learning employed on cloud and atmospheric properties from IR sounder and meteorological reanalyses, trained on lidar–radar retrievals. The 15-year time series reveals colder convective systems during warm periods, affecting the atmospheric heating structure.
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