Articles | Volume 20, issue 12
Research article 23 Jun 2020
Research article | 23 Jun 2020
Heavy air pollution with a unique “non-stagnant” atmospheric boundary layer in the Yangtze River middle basin aggravated by regional transport of PM2.5 over China
Chao Yu et al.
No articles found.
Chenglong Zhou, Yuzhi Liu, Qingzhe Zhu, Qing He, Tianliang Zhao, Fan Yang, Wen Huo, Xinghua Yang, and Mamtimn Ali
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Basing on the radiosonde observations, an anomalous warm layer is measured at altitudes between 500 hPa and 300 hPa over the Tarim Basin (TB) with an average intensity of 2.53 K and 1.39 K in the spring and summer, respectively. Suspended dust is one of the contributors to this warm layer. Topographically, the TB is adjacent to the Tibetan Plateau (TP), we propose the concept of the Tibetan heat source’s northward extension. This is a unique atmospheric phenomenon in China.
Quan Liu, Dantong Liu, Yangzhou Wu, Kai Bi, Wenkang Gao, Ping Tian, Delong Zhao, Siyuan Li, Chenjie Yu, Guiqian Tang, Yunfei Wu, Kang Hu, Shuo Ding, Qian Gao, Fei Wang, Shaofei Kong, Hui He, Mengyu Huang, and Deping Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14749–14760,Short summary
Through simultaneous online measurements of detailed aerosol compositions at both surface and surface-influenced mountain sites, the evolution of aerosol composition during daytime vertical transport was investigated. The results show that, from surface to the top of the planetary boundary layer, the oxidation state of organic aerosol had been significantly enhanced due to evaporation and further oxidation of these evaporated gases.
Xiaoyun Sun, Tianliang Zhao, Yongqing Bai, Shaofei Kong, Huang Zheng, Weiyang Hu, Xiaodan Ma, and Jie Xiong
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
This study exposed the impact of anthropogenic emissions and meteorological conditions on the PM2.5 decline over a receptor region in regional transport of air pollutants in central China. The meteorological drivers lead to upwind accelerating and downward offsetting the effects of emission reduction over the receptor region in regional PM2.5 transport, and the contribution of gaseous precursor emissions to PM2.5 pollution was enhanced with reducing anthropogenic emissions over recent years.
Xiangde Xu, Wenyue Cai, Tianliang Zhao, Xinfa Qiu, Wenhui Zhu, Chan Sun, Peng Yan, Chunzhu Wang, and Fei Ge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14131–14139,Short summary
We found that the structure of atmospheric thermodynamics in the troposphere can be regarded as a strong forewarning signal for variations of surface PM2.5 concentration in heavy air pollution.
Xiangde Xu, Chan Sun, Deliang Chen, Tianliang Zhao, Jianjun Xu, Shengjun Zhang, Juan Li, Bin Chen, Yang Zhao, Lili Dong, Xiaoyun Sun, and Yan Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
A vertical transport window of tropospheric vapor exists on the Tibetan Plateau (TP). TP’s thermal forcing drives the vertical transport “window” of vapor in the troposphere. Effects of TP’s vertical transport “window” of vapor is of importance on global change.
Wengang Zhang, Ling Wang, Yang Yu, Guirong Xu, Xiuqing Hu, Zhikang Fu, and Chunguang Cui
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Global precipitable water vapor (PWV) derived from MERSI-II is evaluated by comparing with PWV obtained from Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive (IGRA). Our results show that there is a good agreement between PWVs from MERSI-Ⅱ and IGRA, and the MERSI-Ⅱ PWV is slight underestimated on the whole. The discrepancy of distance has more effects than temporal discrepancy in the evaluation. There is a good application of the MERSI-Ⅱ PWV over QTP on the analysis for the distribution of water vapor.
Zhuozhi Shu, Yubao Liu, Tianliang Zhao, Junrong Xia, Chenggang Wang, Le Cao, Haoliang Wang, Lei Zhang, Yu Zheng, Lijuan Shen, Lei Luo, and Yueqing Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9253–9268,Short summary
Focusing on a heavy haze pollution event in the Sichuan Basin (SCB), we investigated the elevated 3D structure of PM2.5 and trans-boundary transport with the WRF-Chem simulation. It is remarkable for vertical PM2.5 that the unique hollows were structured, which which occurred by the interaction of vortex circulations and topographic effects. The SCB was regarded as the major air pollutant source with the trans-boundary transport of PM2.5 affecting atmospheric environment changes.
Yingying Yan, Yue Zhou, Shaofei Kong, Jintai Lin, Jian Wu, Huang Zheng, Zexuan Zhang, Aili Song, Yongqing Bai, Zhang Ling, Dantong Liu, and Tianliang Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3143–3162,Short summary
We analyze the effectiveness of emission reduction for local and upwind regions during winter haze episodes controlled by the main potential synoptic patterns over central China, a regional pollutant transport hub with sub-basin topography. Our results provide an opportunity to effectively mitigate haze pollution via local emission control actions in coordination with regional collaborative actions according to different synoptic patterns.
Lei Zhang, Sunling Gong, Tianliang Zhao, Chunhong Zhou, Yuesi Wang, Jiawei Li, Dongsheng Ji, Jianjun He, Hongli Liu, Ke Gui, Xiaomei Guo, Jinhui Gao, Yunpeng Shan, Hong Wang, Yaqiang Wang, Huizheng Che, and Xiaoye Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 703–718,Short summary
Development of chemical transport models with advanced physics and chemical schemes is important for improving air-quality forecasts. This study develops the chemical module CUACE by updating with a new particle dry deposition scheme and adding heterogenous chemical reactions and couples it with the WRF model. The coupled model (WRF/CUACE) was able to capture well the variations of PM2.5, O3, NO2, and secondary inorganic aerosols in eastern China.
Xiaodan Ma, Jianping Huang, Tianliang Zhao, Cheng Liu, Kaihui Zhao, Jia Xing, and Wei Xiao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1–16,Short summary
The present work aims at identifying and quantifying the relative contributions of the key factors in driving a rapid increase in summertime surface O3 over the North China Plain during 2013–2019. In addition to anthropogenic emission reduction and meteorological variabilities, our study highlights the importance of inclusion of aerosol absorption and scattering properties rather than aerosol abundance only in accurate assessment of aerosol radiative effect on surface O3 formation and change.
Yongqing Bai, Tianliang Zhao, Yue Zhou, Jie Xiong, Weiyang Hu, Yao Gu, Lin Liu, Shaofei Kong, and Huang Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Xiaoning Xie, Anmin Duan, Zhengguo Shi, Xinzhou Li, Hui Sun, Xiaodong Liu, Xugeng Cheng, Tianliang Zhao, Huizheng Che, and Yangang Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11143–11159,Short summary
Observational and modeling results both show that the surface dust concentrations over the East Asian (EA) dust source region and over the northwestern Pacific (NP) in MAM are significantly positively correlated with TPSH. These atmospheric circulation anomalies induced by the increased TPSH result in increasing westerly winds over both EA and NP, which in turn increases dust emissions over the dust source and dust transport over these two regions, as well as the regional dust cycles.
Wanyu Zhao, Hong Ren, Kimitaka Kawamura, Huiyun Du, Xueshun Chen, Siyao Yue, Qiaorong Xie, Lianfang Wei, Ping Li, Xin Zeng, Shaofei Kong, Yele Sun, Zifa Wang, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10331–10350,Short summary
Our observations provide detailed information on the abundance and vertical distribution of dicarboxylic acids, oxoacids and α-dicarbonyls in PM2.5 collected at three heights based on a 325 m meteorological tower in Beijing in summer. Our results demonstrate that organic acids at the ground surface are largely associated with local traffic emissions, while long-range atmospheric transport followed by photochemical ageing contributes more in the urban boundary layer than the ground surface.
Yilun Chen, Guangcan Chen, Chunguang Cui, Aoqi Zhang, Rong Wan, Shengnan Zhou, Dongyong Wang, and Yunfei Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1131–1145,Short summary
The vertical evolution of the cloud effective radius reflects the precipitation-forming process. We developed an algorithm for retrieving it based on objective cloud-cluster identification rather than the subjective polygon of the conventional method. The profile shows completely different morphologies in different life stages of the cloud cluster, which is important in the characterization of the formation of precipitation and the temporal evolution of microphysical processes.
Jun Zhu, Xiangao Xia, Huizheng Che, Jun Wang, Zhiyuan Cong, Tianliang Zhao, Shichang Kang, Xuelei Zhang, Xingna Yu, and Yanlin Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14637–14656,Short summary
The long-term temporal–spatial variations of the aerosol optical properties over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) based on the multiple ground-based sun photometer sites and the MODIS product are presented. Besides, the aerosol pollution and aerosol transport processes over the TP are also analyzed by the observations and models. The results in this region could help reduce the assessment uncertainties of aerosol radiative forcing and provide more information on aerosol transportation.
Shixian Zhai, Daniel J. Jacob, Xuan Wang, Lu Shen, Ke Li, Yuzhong Zhang, Ke Gui, Tianliang Zhao, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11031–11041,Short summary
Observed annual mean PM2.5 decreased by 30–50 % in China from 2013–2018. However, meteorologically PM2.5 variability complicates trend attribution. We used a stepwise multiple linear regression model to quantitatively separate contributions from anthropogenic emissions and meteorology. Results show that 88 % of the PM2.5 decrease across China is attributable to anthropogenic emission changes, and 12 % is attributable to meteorology.
Huang Zheng, Shaofei Kong, Fangqi Wu, Yi Cheng, Zhenzhen Niu, Shurui Zheng, Guowei Yang, Liquan Yao, Qin Yan, Jian Wu, Mingming Zheng, Nan Chen, Ke Xu, Yingying Yan, Dantong Liu, Delong Zhao, Tianliang Zhao, Yongqing Bai, Shuanglin Li, and Shihua Qi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4499–4516,Short summary
This study simultaneously observed black carbon (BC) at five sites in central China and on the south edge of North China Plain, which have the most serious air pollution issues in China. The differences in BC properties between different air quality conditions and the property changes during transportation were studied. The main findings of this study were that during the downwind transportation of air, the BC mass concentration increased, whereas the absorption Ångström exponent decreased.
Junting Zhong, Xiaoye Zhang, Yaqiang Wang, Jizhi Wang, Xiaojing Shen, Hongsheng Zhang, Tijian Wang, Zhouqing Xie, Cheng Liu, Hengde Zhang, Tianliang Zhao, Junying Sun, Shaojia Fan, Zhiqiu Gao, Yubin Li, and Linlin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3287–3306,Short summary
In various haze regions in China, including the Guanzhong Plain, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the Pearl River Delta, the Sichuan Basin, and the Northeast China Plain, heavy aerosol pollution episodes include inter-/trans-regional transport stages and cumulative stages (CSs). During CSs a two-way feedback mechanism exists between unfavorable meteorological conditions and cumulative aerosol pollution. This two-way feedback is further quantified and its magnitude is compared.
Jing Wang, Zhiwei Zhu, Li Qi, Qiaohua Zhao, Jinhai He, and Julian X. L. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1521–1535,Short summary
Less attention has been paid to haze weather during the autumn season. Here, we unravel the mechanism of how SST anomalies over the subtropical North Atlantic and western North Pacific drive the interannual variability of the autumnal haze days in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region. The two pathways of SST anomaly forcings can result in an anticyclonic (cyclonic) anomaly over Northeast Asia, leading to a lower-level southerly (northerly) anomaly and in turn more (fewer) haze days in this region.
Yue Peng, Hong Wang, Yubin Li, Changwei Liu, Tianliang Zhao, Xiaoye Zhang, Zhiqiu Gao, Tong Jiang, Huizheng Che, and Meng Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17421–17435,Short summary
Two surface layer schemes are evaluated in eastern China based on observational flux data. The results indicate that the Li scheme better describes regional atmosphere stratification compared with the MM5 scheme, especially for the transition stage from unstable to stable atmosphere conditions, corresponding to PM2.5 accumulation. Our research suggests the potential improved possibilities for severe haze prediction in eastern China by coupling Li online into atmosphere chemical models.
Jun Hu, Yichen Li, Tianliang Zhao, Jane Liu, Xiao-Ming Hu, Duanyang Liu, Yongcheng Jiang, Jianming Xu, and Luyu Chang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16239–16251,Short summary
Using observational and modeling studies, the importance of the mechanism driving regional O3 transport in the residual layer (RL) with respect to summer smog over the Yangtze River Delta region in eastern China was revealed. This mechanism was also examined in association with diurnal change in the atmospheric boundary layer. Regional O3 transport through the nocturnal RL is believed to have great implications for understanding urban and regional O3 pollution in this area.
Xiaoning Xie, Xiaodong Liu, Huizheng Che, Xiaoxun Xie, Xinzhou Li, Zhengguo Shi, Hongli Wang, Tianliang Zhao, and Yangang Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12683–12698,Short summary
This study extends our previous investigation in dust–radiation interactions to investigate SRF and its feedbacks on the regional climate and the dust cycle over east Asia by use of the CAM4-BAM. Our results show that SRF increases the east Asian dust emissions significantly by 13.7 % in the spring, in contrast to −7.6 % of decreased dust emissions by DRF. Hence, a significant feature of SRF on the Tibetan Plateau can create a positive feedback loop to enhance the dust cycle over east Asia.
Jian Wu, Shaofei Kong, Fangqi Wu, Yi Cheng, Shurui Zheng, Qin Yan, Huang Zheng, Guowei Yang, Mingming Zheng, Dantong Liu, Delong Zhao, and Shihua Qi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11623–11646,Short summary
In order to support regional modeling impact on air quality and policy making on controlling open biomass burning emissions, accurate open biomass burning emissions were estimated from 2003 to 2015 with high spatial and temporal resolution. Multiple satellite data, updated biomass data and survey results were all used to improve the accuracy. In addition, management policies and all influencing factors in rural areas for open biomass burning emissions were considered.
Mingming Zheng, Shaofei Kong, Jianguo Bao, Ke Xu, Shurui Zheng, Guowei Yang, Jihong Quan, Lianxin Yuan, Nan Chen, Yiping Tian, Huang Zheng, Jian Wu, Dantong Liu, Delong Zhao, Qin Yan, Tianliang Zhao, and Shihua Qi
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint retractedShort summary
In this paper, we study the aerosol acidity for different time scales, pollution episodes and air mass directions in a megacity of central China with high ambient temperature and relative humidity, and the impacting factors of pH were identified. This research is the first study concerning the aerosol acidity based on one-year online monitoring dataset with high resolution in central China, which is an important supplementary for the current aerosol acidity study around the world.
Shixian Zhai, Xingqin An, Tianliang Zhao, Zhaobin Sun, Wei Wang, Qing Hou, Zengyuan Guo, and Chao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6241–6258,Short summary
The GRAPES–CUACE aerosol adjoint model was developed and applied in detecting PM2.5 sources for haze events in eastern China (EC). The response time of Beijing PM2.5 pollution peaks to local and surrounding emissions is quantized for regional transport of air pollution over the EC. The adjoint results agreed well with the Models-3/CMAQ assessments. The adjoint method is powerful in simulating the receptor–source relationship and can be utilized in dynamic air quality control scheme design.
Huang Zheng, Shaofei Kong, Xinli Xing, Yao Mao, Tianpeng Hu, Yang Ding, Gang Li, Dantong Liu, Shuanglin Li, and Shihua Qi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4567–4595,Short summary
This research is the first study concerning the 1-year online monitoring of volatile organic compounds in an oil–gas field in China. The VOC concentrations, compositions and ozone formation potential in this study are quite different from other research. The contributions of natural gas and the other four sources to total VOCs are quantified. The different timescale variations in different sources are described. This research broadens our knowledge of VOC behavior in this type of region.
Lei Zhang, Tianliang Zhao, Sunling Gong, Shaofei Kong, Lili Tang, Duanyang Liu, Yongwei Wang, Lianji Jin, Yunpeng Shan, Chenghao Tan, Yingjie Zhang, and Xiaomei Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2065–2079,Short summary
An updated emission inventory of coal-fired power plants (UEIPP) based on online monitoring data in Jiangsu Province in China for the year of 2012 was implemented in the Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC). By employing the model WRF-Chem, two simulations were executed to assess the atmospheric environmental change by using the original MEIC and the MEIC with the UEIPP. Interestingly, when the UEIPP was used, the atmospheric oxidizing capacity significantly reinforced.
Delong Zhao, Mengyu Huang, Dantong Liu, Deping Ding, Ping Tian, Quan Liu, Wei Zhou, Jiujiang Sheng, Fei Wang, Kai Bi, Yan Yang, Xia Li, Yaqiong Hu, Xin Guo, Yang Gao, Hui He, Yunbo Chen, Shaofei Kong, and Jiayi Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
This study for the first time reports the 3D distributions of black carbon and detailed physical properties in the boundary layer over the North China Plain, using intensive aircraft measurements in both hot and cold seasons. The BC mass in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) was found to be largely influenced by meteorology which modulated the local emission and regional transport.
Xiangde Xu, Xueliang Guo, Tianliang Zhao, Xingqin An, Yang Zhao, Jiannong Quan, Fei Mao, Yang Gao, Xinghong Cheng, Wenhui Zhu, and Yinjun Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8011–8019,Short summary
Aerosols have complicated effects on clouds and precipitation, depending on many factors such as aerosol properties, topography and meteorological conditions. Most previous investigations of aerosol impacts on clouds and precipitation are primarily based on limited cases on relatively small spatial and temporal scales. The climate forcing of aerosols on precipitation in large-scale continental regions and their physical causes remain uncertain.
Zefeng Zhang, Yan Shen, Yanwei Li, Bin Zhu, and Xingna Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4147–4157,Short summary
Aerosol particles and relative humidity are the main factors that affect atmospheric visibility. Due to the complexity of the physicochemical properties of aerosol particles, more and more instruments and cost were put into research, which limited the development of large area observation research. Thus, it is especially important to find the key parameters which affect the visibility and to establish the observation scheme.
Zhaopeng Luan, Yongxiang Han, Tianliang Zhao, Feng Liu, Chong Liu, Mark J. Rood, Xinghua Yang, Qing He, and Huichao Lu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 273–279,
Chunpeng Leng, Junyan Duan, Chen Xu, Hefeng Zhang, Yifan Wang, Yanyu Wang, Xiang Li, Lingdong Kong, Jun Tao, Renjian Zhang, Tiantao Cheng, Shuping Zha, and Xingna Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9221–9234,Short summary
Meteorological conditions, local anthropogenic emissions and aerosol properties played major roles in this historic winter haze weather formation. Aerosols the size of 600–1400 nm are mostly responsible for the impairment of atmospheric visibility. This study was performed by combining many on-line measurement techniques which were calibrated regularly to ensure reliability, and can act as a reference for forecasting and eliminating the occurrences of regional atmospheric pollutions in China.
X. Xu, T. Zhao, F. Liu, S. L. Gong, D. Kristovich, C. Lu, Y. Guo, X. Cheng, Y. Wang, and G. Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1365–1375,Short summary
We study the climate modulation of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) on atmospheric environment in China with three key points. First a large-scale "susceptible region" for haze is climatologically identified over central-eastern China (CEC) harbored by the TP. Secondly, thermal anomalies of the TP induce the changes in meteorological drivers downstream for frequent haze events in CEC. Finally implications of the TP for the atmospheric environment have potential utility for development planning in China.
Y. C. Jiang, T. L. Zhao, J. Liu, X. D. Xu, C. H. Tan, X. H. Cheng, X. Y. Bi, J. B. Gan, J. F. You, and S. Z. Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13331–13338,Short summary
An O3 episode with high night-time O3 was observed before typhoon landing over southeastern China. Variations in the observed O3, NO2, CO and meteorology during Typhoon Hagibis event clearly suggest a substantial impact of the peripheral downdrafts in the tropical cyclone on the high O3 episode. This study provides observational evidence of typhoon-driven intrusion of O3 from the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere to surface air threatening to ambient air quality.
C. Jiang, H. Wang, T. Zhao, T. Li, and H. Che
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5803–5814,
K. Ding, J. Liu, A. Ding, Q. Liu, T. L. Zhao, J. Shi, Y. Han, H. Wang, and F. Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2843–2866,Short summary
1. High CO abundances of 300-550 ppbv is shown in aircraft MOZAIC data between 700 and 300 hPa over East Asia in three episodes. Correspondingly, elevated CO is observed in satellite MOPITT data at similar altitudes. 2. GEOS-Chem and FLEXPART simulations reveal distinct uplifting processes for CO from fires and anthropogenic sources in the cases. 3. Topography in East Asia affects uplifting of CO in different ways. 4. The new version 5 MOPITT data can help diagnose vertical transport of CO.
S. F. Kong, L. Li, X. X. Li, Y. Yin, K. Chen, D. T. Liu, L. Yuan, Y. J. Zhang, Y. P. Shan, and Y. Q. Ji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2167–2184,
X. Xu, T. Zhao, C. Lu, Y. Guo, B. Chen, R. Liu, Y. Li, and X. Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11287–11295,Short summary
The Tibetan Plateau (TP) with its thermal structure leads to dynamic processes of vapor transport, similar to the CISK mechanism of tropical cyclones. Two CISK-like processes, contiguous horizontally but staggered vertically, in two ladders over the southern slopes and main platform of the TP relay the moist air over the TP. An integration of mechanical and thermal TP forcing is revealed in relation to the Asian summer monsoon circulation transporting water vapor from tropical oceans to the TP.
J. Liu, D. W. Tarasick, V. E. Fioletov, C. McLinden, T. Zhao, S. Gong, C. Sioris, J. J. Jin, G. Liu, and O. Moeini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11441–11464,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Seasonality of the particle number concentration and size distribution: a global analysis retrieved from the network of Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) near-surface observatoriesMeasurement report: Comparison of airborne, in situ measured, lidar-based, and modeled aerosol optical properties in the central European background – identifying sources of deviationsA meteorological overview of the ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS) campaign over the southeastern Atlantic during 2016–2018: Part 1 – ClimatologyArctic black carbon during PAMARCMiP 2018 and previous aircraft experiments in springAerosol responses to precipitation along North American air trajectories arriving at BermudaControls on surface aerosol particle number concentrations and aerosol-limited cloud regimes over the central Greenland Ice SheetAmbient aerosol properties in the remote atmosphere from global-scale in situ measurementsResponse of particle number concentrations to the clean air action plan: lessons from the first long-term aerosol measurements in a typical urban valley in western ChinaObservations of supermicron-sized aerosols originating from biomass burning in southern Central AfricaIce-nucleating particle concentration measurements from Ny-Ålesund during the Arctic spring–summer in 2018Clustering diurnal cycles of day-to-day temperature change to understand their impacts on air quality forecasting in mountain-basin areasEvaluation of the contribution of new particle formation to cloud droplet number concentration in the urban atmosphereA global study of hygroscopicity-driven light-scattering enhancement in the context of other in situ aerosol optical propertiesOptical properties of coated black carbon aggregates: numerical simulations, radiative forcing estimates, and size-resolved parameterization schemeMeasurement report: Cloud condensation nuclei activity and its variation with organic oxidation level and volatility observed during an aerosol life cycle intensive operational period (ALC-IOP)Southern Ocean latitudinal gradients of cloud condensation nucleiZeppelin-led study on the onset of new particle formation in the planetary boundary layerCharacterization of aerosol number size distributions and their effect on cloud properties at Syowa Station, AntarcticaA phenomenology of new particle formation (NPF) at 13 European sitesDiel cycle impacts on the chemical and light absorption properties of organic carbon aerosol from wildfires in the western United StatesMixing state of refractory black carbon in fog and haze at rural sites in winter on the North China PlainMeasurement report: Three years of size-resolved eddy-covariance particle number flux measurements in an urban environmentTerrestrial or marine – indications towards the origin of ice-nucleating particles during melt season in the European Arctic up to 83.7° NThe contribution of Saharan dust to the ice nucleating particle concentrations at the High Altitude Station Jungfraujoch (3580 m a.s.l.), SwitzerlandFirst triple-wavelength lidar observations of depolarization and extinction-to-backscatter ratios of Saharan dustCloud activation properties of aerosol particles in a continental Central European urban environmentVertical profiles of trace gas and aerosol properties over the eastern North Atlantic: variations with season and synoptic conditionOn the drivers of droplet variability in alpine mixed-phase cloudsContrasting effects of secondary organic aerosol formations on organic aerosol hygroscopicityImpact of aerosol–radiation interaction on new particle formationMeasurement report: The effect of aerosol chemical composition on light scattering due to the hygroscopic swelling effectMeasurement report: The influence of traffic and new particle formation on the size distribution of 1–800 nm particles in Helsinki – a street canyon and an urban background station comparisonSummer aerosol measurements over the East Antarctic seasonal ice zoneRapid transformation of ambient absorbing aerosols from West African biomass burningTechnical note: Sea salt interference with black carbon quantification in snow samples using the single particle soot photometerAerosol particle characteristics measured in the United Arab Emirates and their response to mixing in the boundary layerMixing state of refractory black carbon aerosol in the South Asian outflow over the northern Indian Ocean during winterTowards understanding the characteristics of new particle formation in the Eastern MediterraneanLarge-scale synoptic drivers of co-occurring summertime ozone and PM2.5 pollution in eastern ChinaA long-term study of cloud residuals from low-level Arctic cloudsMeasurement report: Altitudinal variation of cloud condensation nuclei activation across the Indo-Gangetic Plain prior to monsoon onset and during peak monsoon periods: results from the SWAAMI field campaignUrban aerosol size distributions: a global perspectiveThe impact of aerosol size-dependent hygroscopicity and mixing state on the cloud condensation nuclei potential over the north-east AtlanticMeasurement report: Strong light absorption induced by aged biomass burning black carbon over the southeastern Tibetan Plateau in pre-monsoon seasonThe important roles of surface tension and growth rate in the contribution of new particle formation (NPF) to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration: evidence from field measurements in southern ChinaAerosol particle formation in the upper residual layerSecondary aerosol formation alters CCN activity in the North China PlainComplex refractive indices in the ultraviolet and visible spectral region for highly absorbing non-spherical biomass burning aerosolDilution impacts on smoke aging: evidence in Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) dataMeasurement report: Balloon-borne in situ profiling of Saharan dust over Cyprus with the UCASS optical particle counter
Clémence Rose, Martine Collaud Coen, Elisabeth Andrews, Yong Lin, Isaline Bossert, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Thomas Tuch, Alfred Wiedensohler, Markus Fiebig, Pasi Aalto, Andrés Alastuey, Elisabeth Alonso-Blanco, Marcos Andrade, Begoña Artíñano, Todor Arsov, Urs Baltensperger, Susanne Bastian, Olaf Bath, Johan Paul Beukes, Benjamin T. Brem, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Juan Andrés Casquero-Vera, Sébastien Conil, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Olivier Favez, Harald Flentje, Maria I. Gini, Francisco Javier Gómez-Moreno, Martin Gysel-Beer, Anna Gannet Hallar, Ivo Kalapov, Nikos Kalivitis, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Melita Keywood, Jeong Eun Kim, Sang-Woo Kim, Adam Kristensson, Markku Kulmala, Heikki Lihavainen, Neng-Huei Lin, Hassan Lyamani, Angela Marinoni, Sebastiao Martins Dos Santos, Olga L. Mayol-Bracero, Frank Meinhardt, Maik Merkel, Jean-Marc Metzger, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Jakub Ondracek, Marco Pandolfi, Noemi Pérez, Tuukka Petäjä, Jean-Eudes Petit, David Picard, Jean-Marc Pichon, Veronique Pont, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Fabienne Reisen, Karine Sellegri, Sangeeta Sharma, Gerhard Schauer, Patrick Sheridan, James Patrick Sherman, Andreas Schwerin, Ralf Sohmer, Mar Sorribas, Junying Sun, Pierre Tulet, Ville Vakkari, Pieter Gideon van Zyl, Fernando Velarde, Paolo Villani, Stergios Vratolis, Zdenek Wagner, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Kay Weinhold, Rolf Weller, Margarita Yela, Vladimir Zdimal, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17185–17223,Short summary
Aerosol particles are a complex component of the atmospheric system the effects of which are among the most uncertain in climate change projections. Using data collected at 62 stations, this study provides the most up-to-date picture of the spatial distribution of particle number concentration and size distribution worldwide, with the aim of contributing to better representation of aerosols and their interactions with clouds in models and, therefore, better evaluation of their impact on climate.
Sebastian Düsing, Albert Ansmann, Holger Baars, Joel C. Corbin, Cyrielle Denjean, Martin Gysel-Beer, Thomas Müller, Laurent Poulain, Holger Siebert, Gerald Spindler, Thomas Tuch, Birgit Wehner, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16745–16773,Short summary
The work deals with optical properties of aerosol particles in dried and atmospheric states. Based on two measurement campaigns in the rural background of central Europe, different measurement approaches were compared with each other, such as modeling based on Mie theory and direct in situ or remote sensing measurements. Among others, it was shown that the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio is relative humidity dependent, and refinement with respect to the model input parameters is needed.
Ju-Mee Ryoo, Leonhard Pfister, Rei Ueyama, Paquita Zuidema, Robert Wood, Ian Chang, and Jens Redemann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16689–16707,Short summary
Part 1 of the meteorological overview paper highlights the anomalous meteorological characteristics during the ORACLES deployment compared to the climatological mean at monthly timescales. The upper-level wave disturbance and the associated anomalous circulation explain the weakening of AEJ-S through the reduction of the strength of the heat low over the land during August 2017. This may also help explain the anomalously low aerosol optical depth observed in the August 2017 ORACLES deployment.
Sho Ohata, Makoto Koike, Atsushi Yoshida, Nobuhiro Moteki, Kouji Adachi, Naga Oshima, Hitoshi Matsui, Oliver Eppers, Heiko Bozem, Marco Zanatta, and Andreas B. Herber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15861–15881,Short summary
Vertical profiles of black carbon (BC) in the Arctic were measured during the PAMARCMiP aircraft-based experiment in spring 2018 and compared with those observed during previous aircraft campaigns in 2008, 2010, and 2015. Their differences were explained primarily by the year-to-year variation of biomass burning activities in northern midlatitudes over Eurasia. Our observations provide a bases to evaluate numerical model simulations that assess the BC radiative effects in the Arctic spring.
Hossein Dadashazar, Majid Alipanah, Miguel Ricardo A. Hilario, Ewan Crosbie, Simon Kirschler, Hongyu Liu, Richard H. Moore, Andrew J. Peters, Amy Jo Scarino, Michael Shook, K. Lee Thornhill, Christiane Voigt, Hailong Wang, Edward Winstead, Bo Zhang, Luke Ziemba, and Armin Sorooshian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16121–16141,Short summary
This study investigates precipitation impacts on long-range transport of North American outflow over the western North Atlantic Ocean (WNAO). Results demonstrate that precipitation scavenging plays a significant role in modifying surface aerosol concentrations over the WNAO, especially in winter and spring due to large-scale scavenging processes. This study highlights how precipitation impacts surface aerosol properties with relevance for other marine regions vulnerable to continental outflow.
Heather Guy, Ian M. Brooks, Ken S. Carslaw, Benjamin J. Murray, Von P. Walden, Matthew D. Shupe, Claire Pettersen, David D. Turner, Christopher J. Cox, William D. Neff, Ralf Bennartz, and Ryan R. Neely III
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15351–15374,Short summary
We present the first full year of surface aerosol number concentration measurements from the central Greenland Ice Sheet. Aerosol concentrations here have a distinct seasonal cycle from those at lower-altitude Arctic sites, which is driven by large-scale atmospheric circulation. Our results can be used to help understand the role aerosols might play in Greenland surface melt through the modification of cloud properties. This is crucial in a rapidly changing region where observations are sparse.
Charles A. Brock, Karl D. Froyd, Maximilian Dollner, Christina J. Williamson, Gregory Schill, Daniel M. Murphy, Nicholas J. Wagner, Agnieszka Kupc, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Jason C. Schroder, Douglas A. Day, Derek J. Price, Bernadett Weinzierl, Joshua P. Schwarz, Joseph M. Katich, Siyuan Wang, Linghan Zeng, Rodney Weber, Jack Dibb, Eric Scheuer, Glenn S. Diskin, Joshua P. DiGangi, ThaoPaul Bui, Jonathan M. Dean-Day, Chelsea R. Thompson, Jeff Peischl, Thomas B. Ryerson, Ilann Bourgeois, Bruce C. Daube, Róisín Commane, and Steven C. Wofsy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15023–15063,Short summary
The Atmospheric Tomography Mission was an airborne study that mapped the chemical composition of the remote atmosphere. From this, we developed a comprehensive description of aerosol properties that provides a unique, global-scale dataset against which models can be compared. The data show the polluted nature of the remote atmosphere in the Northern Hemisphere and quantify the contributions of sea salt, dust, soot, biomass burning particles, and pollution particles to the haziness of the sky.
Suping Zhao, Ye Yu, Jianglin Li, Daiying Yin, Shaofeng Qi, and Dahe Qin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14959–14981,Short summary
We found a large PM2.5 reduction in response to Clean Air Action (CAA), but impacts of CAA on particle number concentrations (PNCs) may be different from PM2.5 mass due to newly formed particle impacts. The k-means clustering technique and Theil–Sen regression were used to analyze PNCs variations and to quantify their trends. Increased daytime solar radiation, higher temperature and lower RH at noon induced by reduced PM2.5 mass promoted formation of new particles and increased particle numbers.
Rose M. Miller, Greg M. McFarquhar, Robert M. Rauber, Joseph R. O'Brien, Siddhant Gupta, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, Amie N. Dobracki, Arthur J. Sedlacek, Sharon P. Burton, Steven G. Howell, Steffen Freitag, and Caroline Dang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14815–14831,Short summary
A large stratocumulus cloud deck resides off the west coast of central Africa. Biomass burning in Africa produces a large plume of aerosol that is carried by the wind over this stratocumulus cloud deck. This paper shows that particles with sizes from 0.01 to 1 mm reside within this plume. Past studies have shown that biomass burning produces such particles, but this is the first study to show that they can be transported westward, over long distances, to the Atlantic stratocumulus cloud deck.
Matteo Rinaldi, Naruki Hiranuma, Gianni Santachiara, Mauro Mazzola, Karam Mansour, Marco Paglione, Cheyanne A. Rodriguez, Rita Traversi, Silvia Becagli, David Cappelletti, and Franco Belosi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14725–14748,Short summary
This study aims to add to the still scant ice-nucleating particle (INP) observations in the Arctic environment, investigating INP concentrations and potential sources, during spring and summertime, at the ground-level site of GVB. The lack of a clear concentration seasonal trend, in contrast with previous works, shows an important interannual variability of Arctic INP sources, which may be both terrestrial and marine, outside the Arctic haze period.
Debing Kong, Guicai Ning, Shigong Wang, Jing Cong, Ming Luo, Xiang Ni, and Mingguo Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14493–14505,Short summary
This study provides the first attempt to examine the diurnal cycles of day-to-day temperature change and reveals their impacts on air quality forecasting in mountain-basin areas. Three different diurnal cycles of the preceding day-to-day temperature change are identified and exhibit notably distinct effects on the air quality evolutions. The mechanisms of the identified diurnal cycles' effects on air quality are also revealed, which exhibit promising potential for air quality forecasting.
Sihui Jiang, Fang Zhang, Jingye Ren, Lu Chen, Xing Yan, Jieyao Liu, Yele Sun, and Zhanqing Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14293–14308,Short summary
New particle formation (NPF) can be a large source of CCN and affect weather and climate. Here we show that the NPF contributes largely to cloud droplet number concentration (Nd) but is suppressed at high particle number concentrations in Beijing due to water vapor competition. We also reveal a considerable impact of primary sources on the evaluation in the urban atmosphere. Our study has great significance for assessing NPF-associated effects on climate in polluted regions.
Gloria Titos, María A. Burgos, Paul Zieger, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, Urs Baltensperger, Anne Jefferson, James Sherman, Ernest Weingartner, Bas Henzing, Krista Luoma, Colin O'Dowd, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Elisabeth Andrews
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13031–13050,Short summary
This paper investigates the impact of water uptake on aerosol optical properties, in particular the aerosol light-scattering coefficient. Although in situ measurements are performed at low relative humidity (typically at RH < 40 %), to address the climatic impact of aerosol particles it is necessary to take into account the effect that water uptake may have on the aerosol optical properties.
Baseerat Romshoo, Thomas Müller, Sascha Pfeifer, Jorge Saturno, Andreas Nowak, Krzysztof Ciupek, Paul Quincey, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12989–13010,Short summary
Modifications in the optical properties of black carbon (BC) due to ageing are presented and quantified in this study using a state-of-the-art description scheme of BC fractal aggregates. It is shown that the relative change in BC radiative forcing can be larger than 50 % as a function of changing fractal dimension and organic content. A comprehensive parameterization scheme for coated BC optical properties is developed with applications for modelling, ambient, and laboratory-based BC studies.
Fan Mei, Jian Wang, Shan Zhou, Qi Zhang, Sonya Collier, and Jianzhong Xu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13019–13029,Short summary
This work focuses on understanding aerosol's ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and its variations with organic oxidation level and volatility using measurements at a rural site. Aerosol properties were examined from four air mass sources. The results help improve the accurate representation of aerosol from different ambient aerosol emissions, transformation pathways, and atmospheric processes in a climate model.
Ruhi S. Humphries, Melita D. Keywood, Sean Gribben, Ian M. McRobert, Jason P. Ward, Paul Selleck, Sally Taylor, James Harnwell, Connor Flynn, Gourihar R. Kulkarni, Gerald G. Mace, Alain Protat, Simon P. Alexander, and Greg McFarquhar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12757–12782,Short summary
The Southern Ocean region is one of the most pristine in the world and serves as an important proxy for the pre-industrial atmosphere. Improving our understanding of the natural processes in this region is likely to result in the largest reductions in the uncertainty of climate and earth system models. In this paper we present a statistical summary of the latitudinal gradient of aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei concentrations obtained from five voyages spanning the Southern Ocean.
Janne Lampilahti, Hanna E. Manninen, Tuomo Nieminen, Sander Mirme, Mikael Ehn, Iida Pullinen, Katri Leino, Siegfried Schobesberger, Juha Kangasluoma, Jenni Kontkanen, Emma Järvinen, Riikka Väänänen, Taina Yli-Juuti, Radovan Krejci, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Janne Levula, Aadu Mirme, Stefano Decesari, Ralf Tillmann, Douglas R. Worsnop, Franz Rohrer, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Thomas F. Mentel, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12649–12663,Short summary
We studied aerosol particle formation and growth in different parts of the planetary boundary layer at two different locations (Po Valley, Italy, and Hyytiälä, Finland). The observations consist of airborne measurements on board an instrumented Zeppelin and a small airplane combined with comprehensive ground-based measurements.
Keiichiro Hara, Chiharu Nishita-Hara, Kazuo Osada, Masanori Yabuki, and Takashi Yamanouchi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12155–12172,Short summary
New particle formation (NPF) occurred dominantly in the Antarctic free troposphere during spring and fall and in the free troposphere and boundary layer during summer. With the existence of the ozone hole, more UV radiation can enhance formation of aerosol precursors and NPF in the free troposphere. Here, we assess the hypothesis that UV enhancement in the upper troposphere by the Antarctic ozone hole modifies the aerosol and cloud properties in Antarctic regions during summer.
Dimitrios Bousiotis, Francis D. Pope, David C. S. Beddows, Manuel Dall'Osto, Andreas Massling, Jakob Klenø Nøjgaard, Claus Nordstrøm, Jarkko V. Niemi, Harri Portin, Tuukka Petäjä, Noemi Perez, Andrés Alastuey, Xavier Querol, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Nikos Mihalopoulos, Stergios Vratolis, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Alfred Wiedensohler, Kay Weinhold, Maik Merkel, Thomas Tuch, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11905–11925,Short summary
Formation of new particles is a key process in the atmosphere. New particle formation events arising from nucleation of gaseous precursors have been analysed in extensive datasets from 13 sites in five European countries in terms of frequency, nucleation rate, and particle growth rate, with several common features and many differences identified. Although nucleation frequencies are lower at roadside sites, nucleation rates and particle growth rates are typically higher.
Benjamin Sumlin, Edward Fortner, Andrew Lambe, Nishit J. Shetty, Conner Daube, Pai Liu, Francesca Majluf, Scott Herndon, and Rajan K. Chakrabarty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11843–11856,Short summary
We present a comparison of the changes to light absorption behavior and chemical composition of wildfire smoke particles from day- and nighttime oxidation processes and discuss the results within the context of previous laboratory findings.
Yuting Zhang, Hang Liu, Shandong Lei, Wanyun Xu, Yu Tian, Weijie Yao, Xiaoyong Liu, Qi Liao, Jie Li, Chun Chen, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, Jinyuan Xin, Junji Cao, Xiaole Pan, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
In this study, the authors used a single particle soot photometer (SP2) to characterize the particle size, mixing state, and optical properties of black carbon aerosols in rural areas of North China Plain in winter. The author wishes to emphasize the importance of meteorological parameters on the mixing state of black carbon.
Agnes Straaten and Stephan Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Cities show high concentrations of ultrafine particles due to multiple emissions sources such as traffic and industry. To analyse turbulent urban surface-atmosphere exchange of particles, we quantified multi-annual size-resolved particle number fluxes in Berlin, Germany. The site was a net source of particles with dominant contribution of traffic-related emission, especially very small particles < 30 nm. Particle fluxes clearly varied as a function of anthropogenic activity and urban land-use.
Markus Hartmann, Xianda Gong, Simonas Kecorius, Manuela van Pinxteren, Teresa Vogl, André Welti, Heike Wex, Sebastian Zeppenfeld, Hartmut Herrmann, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11613–11636,Short summary
Ice-nucleating particles (INPs) are not well characterized in the Arctic despite their importance for the Arctic energy budget. Little is known about their nature (mineral or biological) and sources (terrestrial or marine, long-range transport or local). We find indications that, at the beginning of the melt season, a local, biogenic, probably marine source is likely, but significant enrichment of INPs has to take place from the ocean to the aerosol phase.
Cyril Brunner, Benjamin Tobias Brem, Martine Collaud Coen, Franz Conen, Maxime Hervo, Stephan Henne, Martin Steinbacher, Martin Gysel-Beer, and Zamin Abdulali Kanji
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Special microscopic particles called ice-nucleating particles (INPs) are essential for ice crystals to form in the atmosphere. INPs are sparse and their atmospheric concentration and properties are not well understood. Mineral dust particles make up a significant fraction of INPs, but how much remains unknown. Here, we address this knowledge gap by studying periods when mineral particles are present in large quantities at a mountain top station in central Europe.
Moritz Haarig, Albert Ansmann, Ronny Engelmann, Holger Baars, Dietrich Althausen, Carlos Toledano, Benjamin Torres, Martin Radenz, and Ulla Wandinger
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The irregular shape of the dust particles makes it difficult to treat them correctly in optical models. Atmospheric measurements of the dust optical properties are therefore of great importance. The present study increases the space of observed parameters from 355 and 532 nm towards 1064 nm, which is of special importance for the large dust particles. The lidar ratio influenced by mineralogy and the depolarization ratio influenced by shape are measured for the first time at all 3 wavelengths.
Imre Salma, Wanda Thén, Máté Vörösmarty, and András Zénó Gyöngyösi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11289–11302,Short summary
Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and their properties were explored in this study. CCN modify the intensity and other properties of the sunlight reaching the Earth’s surface. These properties are primarily influenced by the number of droplets, the droplet size and the cloud residence time. CCN also influence the hydrological cycle (including the amount and intensity of precipitation), vegetation and its interactions with the carbon cycle, as well as atmospheric chemistry, physics and dynamics.
Yang Wang, Guangjie Zheng, Michael P. Jensen, Daniel A. Knopf, Alexander Laskin, Alyssa A. Matthews, David Mechem, Fan Mei, Ryan Moffet, Arthur J. Sedlacek, John E. Shilling, Stephen Springston, Amy Sullivan, Jason Tomlinson, Daniel Veghte, Rodney Weber, Robert Wood, Maria A. Zawadowicz, and Jian Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11079–11098,Short summary
This paper reports the vertical profiles of trace gas and aerosol properties over the eastern North Atlantic, a region of persistent but diverse subtropical marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds. We examined the key processes that drive the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) population and how it varies with season and synoptic conditions. This study helps improve the model representation of the aerosol processes in the remote MBL, reducing the simulated aerosol indirect effects.
Paraskevi Georgakaki, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Jörg Wieder, Claudia Mignani, Fabiola Ramelli, Zamin A. Kanji, Jan Henneberger, Maxime Hervo, Alexis Berne, Ulrike Lohmann, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10993–11012,Short summary
Aerosol and cloud observations coupled with a droplet activation parameterization was used to investigate the aerosol–cloud droplet link in alpine mixed-phase clouds. Predicted droplet number, Nd, agrees with observations and never exceeds a characteristic “limiting droplet number”, Ndlim, which depends solely on σw. Nd becomes velocity limited when it is within 50 % of Ndlim. Identifying when dynamical changes control Nd variability is central for understanding aerosol–cloud interactions.
Ye Kuang, Shan Huang, Biao Xue, Biao Luo, Qicong Song, Wei Chen, Weiwei Hu, Wei Li, Pusheng Zhao, Mingfu Cai, Yuwen Peng, Jipeng Qi, Tiange Li, Sihang Wang, Duohong Chen, Dingli Yue, Bin Yuan, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10375–10391,Short summary
We found that organic aerosol factors with identified sources perform much better than oxidation level parameters in characterizing variations in organic aerosol hygroscopicity, and secondary aerosol formations associated with different sources have distinct effects on organic aerosol hygroscopicity. It reveals that source-oriented organic aerosol hygroscopicity investigations might result in more appropriate parameterization approaches in chemical and climate models.
Gang Zhao, Yishu Zhu, Zhijun Wu, Taomou Zong, Jingchuan Chen, Tianyi Tan, Haichao Wang, Xin Fang, Keding Lu, Chunsheng Zhao, and Min Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9995–10004,Short summary
New particle formation is thought to contribute half of the global cloud condensation nuclei. We find that the new particle formation is more likely to happen in the upper boundary layer than that at the ground, which can be partially explained by the aerosol–radiation interaction. Our study emphasizes the influence of aerosol–radiation interaction on the NPF.
Rongmin Ren, Zhanqing Li, Peng Yan, Yuying Wang, Hao Wu, Maureen Cribb, Wei Wang, Xiao'ai Jin, Yanan Li, and Dongmei Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9977–9994,Short summary
We analyzed the effect of the proportion of components making up the chemical composition of aerosols on f(RH) in southern Beijing in 2019. Nitrate played a more significant role in affecting f(RH) than sulfate. The ratio of the sulfate mass fraction to the nitrate mass fraction (mostly higher than ~ 4) was a sign of the deliquescence of aerosol. A piecewise parameterized scheme was proposed, which could better describe deliquescence and reduce uncertainties in simulating aerosol hygroscopicity.
Magdalena Okuljar, Heino Kuuluvainen, Jenni Kontkanen, Olga Garmash, Miska Olin, Jarkko V. Niemi, Hilkka Timonen, Juha Kangasluoma, Yee Jun Tham, Rima Baalbaki, Mikko Sipilä, Laura Salo, Henna Lintusaari, Harri Portin, Kimmo Teinilä, Minna Aurela, Miikka Dal Maso, Topi Rönkkö, Tuukka Petäjä, and Pauli Paasonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9931–9953,Short summary
To estimate the relative contribution of different sources to the particle population in an urban environment, we conducted simultaneous measurements at a street canyon and an urban background station in Helsinki. We investigated the contribution of traffic and new particle formation to particles with a diameter between 1 and 800 nm. We found that during spring traffic does not dominate the particles smaller than 3 nm at either of the stations.
Jack B. Simmons, Ruhi S. Humphries, Stephen R. Wilson, Scott D. Chambers, Alastair G. Williams, Alan D. Griffiths, Ian M. McRobert, Jason P. Ward, Melita D. Keywood, and Sean Gribben
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9497–9513,Short summary
Aerosols have a climate forcing effect in the Earth's atmosphere. Few measurements exist of aerosols in the Southern Ocean, a region key to our understanding of this effect. In this study, aerosol measurements from a summer 2017 campaign in the East Antarctic seasonal ice zone are examined. Higher concentrations of aerosols were found in dry air with origins from above the Antarctic continent compared to other periods of the voyage.
Huihui Wu, Jonathan W. Taylor, Justin M. Langridge, Chenjie Yu, James D. Allan, Kate Szpek, Michael I. Cotterell, Paul I. Williams, Michael Flynn, Patrick Barker, Cathryn Fox, Grant Allen, James Lee, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9417–9440,Short summary
Seasonal biomass burning over West Africa is a globally significant source of carbonaceous particles in the atmosphere, which have important climate impacts but are poorly constrained. We conducted in situ airborne measurements to investigate the evolution of smoke aerosol properties in this region. We observed absorption enhancement for both black carbon and brown carbon after emission, which provides new field results and constraints on aerosol parameterizations for future climate models.
Marco Zanatta, Andreas Herber, Zsófia Jurányi, Oliver Eppers, Johannes Schneider, and Joshua P. Schwarz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9329–9342,Short summary
Saline snow samples were collected from the sea ice in the Fram Strait. Laboratory experiments revealed that sea salt can bias the quantification of black carbon with a laser-induced incandescence technique. The maximum underestimation was quantified to reach values of 80 %–90 %. This salt-induced interference is reported here for the first time and should be considered in future studies aiming to quantify black carbon in snow in marine environments.
Jutta Kesti, John Backman, Ewan James O'Connor, Anne Hirsikko, Eija Asmi, Minna Aurela, Ulla Makkonen, Maria Filioglou, Mika Komppula, Hannele Korhonen, and Heikki Lihavainen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
In this study we combined aerosol particle measurements at the surface with a scanning Doppler lidar providing vertical profiles of the atmosphere to study the effect of different boundary layer conditions on aerosol particle properties in the understudied Arabian Peninsula region. The instrumentation used in this study enabled us to identify periods when pollution from remote sources was mixed down to the surface and initiated new particle formation in the growing boundary layer.
Sobhan Kumar Kompalli, Surendran Nair Suresh Babu, Krishnaswamy Krishna Moorthy, Sreedharan Krishnakumari Satheesh, Mukunda Madhab Gogoi, Vijayakumar S. Nair, Venugopalan Nair Jayachandran, Dantong Liu, Michael J. Flynn, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9173–9199,Short summary
The first observations of refractory black carbon aerosol size distributions and mixing state in South Asian outflow to the northern Indian Ocean were carried out as a part of the ICARB-2018 experiment during winter. Size distributions indicated mixed sources of BC particles in the outflow, which are thickly coated. The coating thickness of BC is controlled mainly by the availability of condensable species in the outflow.
Rima Baalbaki, Michael Pikridas, Tuija Jokinen, Tiia Laurila, Lubna Dada, Spyros Bezantakos, Lauri Ahonen, Kimmo Neitola, Anne Maisser, Elie Bimenyimana, Aliki Christodoulou, Florin Unga, Chrysanthos Savvides, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Juha Kangasluoma, George Biskos, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Jean Sciare, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9223–9251,Short summary
This study investigates new particle formation (NPF) in the less represented region of the Mediterranean basin using 1-year measurements of aerosol particles down to ~ 1 nm in diameter. We report a high frequency of NPF and give examples of interesting NPF features. We quantify the strength of NPF events by calculating formation rates and growth rates. We further unveil the atmospheric conditions and variables considered important for the intra-monthly and inter-monthly occurrence of NPF.
Lian Zong, Yuanjian Yang, Meng Gao, Hong Wang, Peng Wang, Hongliang Zhang, Linlin Wang, Guicai Ning, Chao Liu, Yubin Li, and Zhiqiu Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9105–9124,Short summary
In recent years, summer O3 pollution over eastern China has become more serious, and it is even the case that surface O3 and PM2.5 pollution can co-occur. However, the synoptic weather pattern (SWP) related to this compound pollution remains unclear. Regional PM2.5 and O3 compound pollution is characterized by various SWPs with different dominant factors. Our findings provide insights into the regional co-occurring high PM2.5 and O3 levels via the effects of certain meteorological factors.
Linn Karlsson, Radovan Krejci, Makoto Koike, Kerstin Ebell, and Paul Zieger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8933–8959,Short summary
Aerosol–cloud interactions in the Arctic are poorly understood largely due to a lack of observational data. We present the first direct, long-term measurements of cloud residuals, i.e. the particles that remain when cloud droplets and ice crystals are dried. These detailed observations of cloud residuals cover more than 2 years, which is unique for the Arctic and globally. This work studies the size distributions of cloud residuals, their seasonality, and dependence on meteorology.
Mohanan R. Manoj, Sreedharan K. Satheesh, Krishnaswamy K. Moorthy, Jamie Trembath, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8979–8997,Short summary
Vertical distributions of atmospheric aerosols across the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) and their ability to form clouds have been studied based on airborne measurements during the SWAAMI field campaign. The ability of the aerosols to act as cloud-forming nuclei exhibited large spatial variation across the IGP and strong seasonality with increase in this ability with increase in altitude prior to the onset of monsoon and decrease with increase in altitude during the active phase of the monsoon.
Tianren Wu and Brandon E. Boor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8883–8914,Short summary
Urban air pollution is a major global environmental health challenge. Establishing associations between exposure to urban aerosols and human health outcomes requires reliable aerosol measurements. Of particular importance are measurements of urban aerosol particle size distributions. This review critically analyzes global trends in urban aerosol particle size distributions in order to provide insights into air pollution in cities and guidance for the future for air quality monitoring networks.
Wei Xu, Kirsten N. Fossum, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Chunshui Lin, Ru-Jin Huang, Colin O'Dowd, and Darius Ceburnis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8655–8675,Short summary
Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are an important topic in atmospheric studies, especially for evaluating the climate impact of aerosol. Here in this study, CCN closure is studied by using chemical composition based on an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and hygroscopicity growth measurements based on a humidified tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) at the Mace Head atmospheric research station.
Tianyi Tan, Min Hu, Zhuofei Du, Gang Zhao, Dongjie Shang, Jing Zheng, Yanhong Qin, Mengren Li, Yusheng Wu, Limin Zeng, Song Guo, and Zhijun Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8499–8510,Short summary
Every year in the pre-monsoon season, the black carbon (BC) aerosols originated from biomass burning in southern Asia are easily transported to the Tibetan Plateau (TP) by the convenience of westerly wind. This study reveals that the BC aerosols in the aged biomass burning plumes strongly enhance the total light absorption over the TP, and the aging process during the long-range transport will further strengthen the radiative heating of those BC aerosols.
Mingfu Cai, Baoling Liang, Qibin Sun, Li Liu, Bin Yuan, Min Shao, Shan Huang, Yuwen Peng, Zelong Wang, Haobo Tan, Fei Li, Hanbin Xu, Duohong Chen, and Jun Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8575–8592,Short summary
This study investigated the contribution of new particle formation (NPF) events to the number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (NCCN) and its controlling factors in the Pearl River Delta region. The results show that the surfactant effect can decrease the critical diameter and significantly increase the NCCN during the NPF event. In addition, the growth rate is founded to be the most important controlling factor that affects NCCN for growth of newly-formed particles to the CCN sizes.
Janne Lampilahti, Katri Leino, Antti Manninen, Pyry Poutanen, Anna Franck, Maija Peltola, Paula Hietala, Lisa Beck, Lubna Dada, Lauriane Quéléver, Ronja Öhrnberg, Ying Zhou, Madeleine Ekblom, Ville Vakkari, Sergej Zilitinkevich, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7901–7915,Short summary
Using airborne measurements we observed increased number concentrations of sub-25 nm particles in the upper residual layer. These particles may be entrained into the well-mixed boundary layer and observed at the surface. We attribute our observations to new particle formation in the topmost part of the residual layer.
Jiangchuan Tao, Ye Kuang, Nan Ma, Juan Hong, Yele Sun, Wanyun Xu, Yanyan Zhang, Yao He, Qingwei Luo, Linhong Xie, Hang Su, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7409–7427,Short summary
The mechanism of secondary aerosol (SA) formation can be affected by relative humidity (RH) and has different influences on the particle CCN activity under different RH conditions. In the North China Plain, we find different responses of CCN activity and enhancements of CCN number concentration to SA formation under different RH conditions. In addition, variations of aerosol mixing state due to SA formation contribute some of the largest uncertainties in predicting CCN number concentration.
Caroline C. Womack, Katherine M. Manfred, Nicholas L. Wagner, Gabriela Adler, Alessandro Franchin, Kara D. Lamb, Ann M. Middlebrook, Joshua P. Schwarz, Charles A. Brock, Steven S. Brown, and Rebecca A. Washenfelder
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7235–7252,Short summary
Microscopic particles interact with sunlight and affect the earth's climate in ways that are not fully understood. Aerosols from wildfire smoke present particular challenges due to their complexity in shape and composition. We demonstrate that we can experimentally measure aerosol optical properties for many types of smoke particles, using measurements of smoke from controlled burns, but that the method does not work well for smoke with high soot content.
Anna L. Hodshire, Emily Ramnarine, Ali Akherati, Matthew L. Alvarado, Delphine K. Farmer, Shantanu H. Jathar, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Chantelle R. Lonsdale, Timothy B. Onasch, Stephen R. Springston, Jian Wang, Yang Wang, Lawrence I. Kleinman, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, and Jeffrey R. Pierce
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6839–6855,Short summary
Biomass burning emits particles and vapors that can impact both health and climate. Here, we investigate the role of dilution in the evolution of aerosol size and composition in observed US wildfire smoke plumes. Centers of plumes dilute more slowly than edges. We see differences in concentrations and composition between the centers and edges both in the first measurement and in subsequent measurements. Our findings support the hypothesis that plume dilution influences smoke aging.
Maria Kezoudi, Matthias Tesche, Helen Smith, Alexandra Tsekeri, Holger Baars, Maximilian Dollner, Víctor Estellés, Johannes Bühl, Bernadett Weinzierl, Zbigniew Ulanowski, Detlef Müller, and Vassilis Amiridis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6781–6797,Short summary
Mineral dust concentrations in the diameter range from 0.4 to 14.0 μm were measured with the balloon-borne UCASS optical particle counter. Launches were coordinated with ground-based remote-sensing and airborne in situ measurements during a Saharan dust outbreak over Cyprus. Particle number concentrations reached 50 cm−3 for the diameter range 0.8–13.9 μm. Comparisons with aircraft data show reasonable agreement in magnitude and shape of the particle size distribution.
Acciai, C., Zhang, Z., Wang, F., Zhong, Z., and Lonati, G.: Characteristics and source Analysis of trace Elements in PM2.5 in the Urban Atmosphere of Wuhan in Spring, Aerosol Air Qual. Res., 17, 2224–2234, https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2017.06.0207, 2017.
An, X., Yao, B., Li, Y., Li, N., and Zhou, L.: Tracking source area of Shangdianzi station using Lagrangian particle dispersion model of FLEXPART, Meteorol. Appl., 21, 466–473, https://doi.org/10.1002/met.1358, 2014.
An, Z., Huang, R. J., Zhang, R., Tie, X., Li, G., Cao, J., Zhou, W., Shi, Z., Han, Y., Gu, Z., and Ji, Y.: Severe haze in northern China: A synergy of anthropogenic emissions and atmospheric processes, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 116, 8657–8666, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1900125116, 2019.
Brioude, J., Arnold, D., Stohl, A., Cassiani, M., Morton, D., Seibert, P., Angevine, W., Evan, S., Dingwell, A., Fast, J. D., Easter, R. C., Pisso, I., Burkhart, J., and Wotawa, G.: The Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART-WRF version 3.1, Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 1889–1904, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-6-1889-2013, 2013.
Cao, J.-J., Wang, Q.-Y., Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Tie, X.-X., Shen, Z.-X., Wang, P., and An, Z.-S.: Impacts of aerosol compositions on visibility impairment in Xi'an, China, Atmos. Environ., 59, 559–566, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.05.036, 2012.
Chang, X., Wang, S., Zhao, B., Cai, S., and Hao, J.: Assessment of inter-city transport of particulate matter in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4843–4858, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-4843-2018, 2018.
Chen, B., Xu, X.-D., and Zhao, T.: Quantifying oceanic moisture exports to mainland China in association with summer precipitation, Clim. Dynam., 51, 4271–4286, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-017-3925-1, 2017.
Chen, S., Zhou, G., and Zhu, B.: A method for fast quantification of air pollutant sources, Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae, 37, 2474–2481, https://doi.org/10.13671/j.hjkxxb.2017.0045, 2017 (in Chinese).
Cheng, H., Gong, W., Wang, Z., Zhang, F., Wang, X., Lv, X., Liu, J., Fu, X., and Zhang, G.: Ionic composition of submicron particles (PM1.0) during the long-lasting haze period in January 2013 in Wuhan, central China, J. Environ. Sci., 26, 810–817, https://doi.org/10.1016/s1001-0742(13)60503-3, 2014.
Cheng, X., Zhao, T., Gong, S., Xu, X., Han, Y., Yin, Y., Tang, L., He, H., and He, J.: Implications of East Asian summer and winter monsoons for interannual aerosol variations over central-eastern China, Atmos. Environ., 129, 218–228, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.01.037, 2016.
Cheng, Y. F., Wiedensohler, A., Eichler, H., Heintzenberg, J., Tesche, M., Ansmann, A., Wendisch, M., Su, H., Althausen, D., and Herrmann, H.: Relative humidity dependence of aerosol optical properties and direct radiative forcing in the surface boundary layer at Xinken in Pearl River Delta of China: An observation based numerical study, Atmos. Environ., 42, 6373–6397, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.04.009, 2008.
Dawson, J. P., Adams, P. J., and Pandis, S. N.: Sensitivity of PM2.5 to climate in the Eastern US: a modeling case study, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 4295–4309, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-7-4295-2007, 2007.
de Foy, B., Burton, S. P., Ferrare, R. A., Hostetler, C. A., Hair, J. W., Wiedinmyer, C., and Molina, L. T.: Aerosol plume transport and transformation in high spectral resolution lidar measurements and WRF-Flexpart simulations during the MILAGRO Field Campaign, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 3543–3563, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-3543-2011, 2011.
Ding, A., Wang, T., Xue, L., Gao, J., Stohl, A., Lei, H., Jin, D., Ren, Y., Wang, X., and Wei, X.: Transport of north China air pollution by midlatitude cyclones: Case study of aircraft measurements in summer 2007, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 114, D08304, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD011023, 2009.
Ding, Y.: Monsoons over china, Springer Science & Business Media, 1993.
Ding, Y., Wu, P., Liu, Y., and Song, Y.: Environmental and Dynamic Conditions for the Occurrence of Persistent Haze Events in North China, Engineering, 3, 266–271, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eng.2017.01.009, 2017.
Fast, J. D. and Easter, R. C.: A Lagrangian particle dispersion model compatible with WRF, 7th WRF Users Workshop, NCAR, 19–22, 2006.
Fuzzi, S., Baltensperger, U., Carslaw, K., Decesari, S., Denier van der Gon, H., Facchini, M. C., Fowler, D., Koren, I., Langford, B., Lohmann, U., Nemitz, E., Pandis, S., Riipinen, I., Rudich, Y., Schaap, M., Slowik, J. G., Spracklen, D. V., Vignati, E., Wild, M., Williams, M., and Gilardoni, S.: Particulate matter, air quality and climate: lessons learned and future needs, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8217–8299, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-8217-2015, 2015.
Gao, Y., Liu, X., Zhao, C., and Zhang, M.: Emission controls versus meteorological conditions in determining aerosol concentrations in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Games, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 12437–12451, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-12437-2011, 2011.
Gong, W., Zhang, T., Zhu, Z., Ma, Y., Ma, X., and Wang, W.: Characteristics of PM1.0, PM2.5, and PM10, and Their Relation to Black Carbon in Wuhan, Central China, Atmosphere, 6, 1377–1387, https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos6091377, 2015.
Grell, G. A., Peckham, S. E., Schmitz, R., McKeen, S. A., Frost, G., Skamarock, W. C., and Eder, B.: Fully coupled “online” chemistry within the WRF model, Atmos. Environ., 39, 6957–6975, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.04.027, 2005.
He, J., Mao, H., Gong, S., Yu, Y., Wu, L., Liu, H., Chen, Y., Jing, B., Ren, P., and Zou, C.: Investigation of Particulate Matter Regional Transport in Beijing Based on Numerical Simulation, Aerosol Air Qual. Res., 17, 1181–1189, https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2016.03.0110, 2017.
He, K., Zhao, Q., Ma, Y., Duan, F., Yang, F., Shi, Z., and Chen, G.: Spatial and seasonal variability of PM2.5 acidity at two Chinese megacities: insights into the formation of secondary inorganic aerosols, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 1377–1395, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-1377-2012, 2012.
Hong, S.-Y., Noh, Y., and Dudhia, J.: A new vertical diffusion package with an explicit treatment of entrainment processes, Mon. Weather Rev., 134, 2318–2341, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR3199.1,2006, 2006.
Hu, J., Li, Y., Zhao, T., Liu, J., Hu, X.-M., Liu, D., Jiang, Y., Xu, J., and Chang, L.: An important mechanism of regional O3 transport for summer smog over the Yangtze River Delta in eastern China, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16239–16251, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-16239-2018, 2018.
Huang, Q., Cai, X., Wang, J., Song, Y., and Zhu, T.: Climatological study of the Boundary-layer air Stagnation Index for China and its relationship with air pollution, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7573–7593, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-7573-2018, 2018.
Huang, R. J., Zhang, Y., Bozzetti, C., Ho, K. F., Cao, J. J., Han, Y., Daellenbach, K. R., Slowik, J. G., Platt, S. M., Canonaco, F., Zotter, P., Wolf, R., Pieber, S. M., Bruns, E. A., Crippa, M., Ciarelli, G., Piazzalunga, A., Schwikowski, M., Abbaszade, G., Schnelle-Kreis, J., Zimmermann, R., An, Z., Szidat, S., Baltensperger, U., El Haddad, I., and Prevot, A. S.: High secondary aerosol contribution to particulate pollution during haze events in China, Nature, 514, 218–222, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13774, 2014.
Jiang, C., Wang, H., Zhao, T., Li, T., and Che, H.: Modeling study of PM2.5 pollutant transport across cities in China's Jing-Jin-Ji region during a severe haze episode in December 2013, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15, 5803–5814, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-5803-2015, 2015.
Kang, H., Zhu, B., Gao, J., He, Y., Wang, H., Su, J., Pan, C., Zhu, T., and Yu, B.: Potential impacts of cold frontal passage on air quality over the Yangtze River Delta, China, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3673–3685, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-3673-2019, 2019.
Miao, Y., Guo, J., Liu, S., Zhao, C., Li, X., Zhang, G., Wei, W., and Ma, Y.: Impacts of synoptic condition and planetary boundary layer structure on the trans-boundary aerosol transport from Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region to northeast China, Atmos. Environ., 181, 1–11, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2018.03.005, 2018.
Mlawer, E. J., Taubman, S. J., Brown, P. D., Iacono, M. J., and Clough, S. A.: Radiative transfer for inhomogeneous atmospheres: RRTM, a validated correlated-k model for the longwave, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 102, 16663–16682, https://doi.org/10.1029/97jd00237, 1997.
Morrison, H., Thompson, G., and Tatarskii, V.: Impact of Cloud Microphysics on the Development of Trailing Stratiform Precipitation in a Simulated Squall Line: Comparison of One- and Two-Moment Schemes, Mon. Weather Rev., 137, 991–1007, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008mwr2556.1, 2009.
Nel, A.: Air pollution-related illness: effects of particles, Science, 308, 804–806, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1108752, 2005.
Oke, T. R.: Boundary layer climates, Routledge, 2002.
Qiao, X., Guo, H., Tang, Y., Wang, P., Deng, W., Zhao, X., Hu, J., Ying, Q., and Zhang, H.: Local and regional contributions to fine particulate matter in the 18 cities of Sichuan Basin, southwestern China, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5791–5803, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-5791-2019, 2019.
Sauvage, B., Fontaine, A., Eckhardt, S., Auby, A., Boulanger, D., Petetin, H., Paugam, R., Athier, G., Cousin, J.-M., Darras, S., Nédélec, P., Stohl, A., Turquety, S., Cammas, J.-P., and Thouret, V.: Source attribution using FLEXPART and carbon monoxide emission inventories: SOFT-IO version 1.0, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15271–15292, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-15271-2017, 2017.
Seibert, P. and Frank, A.: Source-receptor matrix calculation with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model in backward mode, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 51–63, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-4-51-2004, 2004.
Stohl, A., Forster, C., Eckhardt, S., Spichtinger, N., Huntrieser, H., Heland, J., Schlager, H., Wilhelm, S., Arnold, F., and Cooper, O.: A backward modeling study of intercontinental pollution transport using aircraft measurements, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 108, 4370, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002jd002862, 2003.
Stohl, A., Forster, C., Frank, A., Seibert, P., and Wotawa, G.: Technical note: The Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART version 6.2, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 2461–2474, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-5-2461-2005, 2005.
Taylor, K. E.: Summarizing multiple aspects of model performance in a single diagram, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 106, 7183–7192, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000jd900719, 2001.
Tie, X., Huang, R. J., Cao, J., Zhang, Q., Cheng, Y., Su, H., Chang, D., Poschl, U., Hoffmann, T., Dusek, U., Li, G., Worsnop, D. R., and O'Dowd, C. D.: Severe Pollution in China Amplified by Atmospheric Moisture, Sci. Rep., 7, 15760, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-15909-1, 2017.
Voulgarakis, A., Savage, N. H., Wild, O., Braesicke, P., Young, P. J., Carver, G. D., and Pyle, J. A.: Interannual variability of tropospheric composition: the influence of changes in emissions, meteorology and clouds, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 2491–2506, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-2491-2010, 2010.
Wang, H. L., Qiao, L. P., Lou, S. R., Zhou, M., Ding, A. J., Huang, H. Y., Chen, J. M., Wang, Q., Tao, S. K., Chen, C. H., Li, L., and Huang, C.: Chemical composition of PM2.5 and meteorological impact among three years in urban Shanghai, China, J. Clean. Prod., 112, 1302–1311, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.04.099, 2016.
Wang, S. X., Zhao, B., Cai, S. Y., Klimont, Z., Nielsen, C. P., Morikawa, T., Woo, J. H., Kim, Y., Fu, X., Xu, J. Y., Hao, J. M., and He, K. B.: Emission trends and mitigation options for air pollutants in East Asia, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6571–6603, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-6571-2014, 2014.
Wu, J., Kong, S., Wu, F., Cheng, Y., Zheng, S., Yan, Q., Zheng, H., Yang, G., Zheng, M., Liu, D., Zhao, D., and Qi, S.: Estimating the open biomass burning emissions in central and eastern China from 2003 to 2015 based on satellite observation, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 18, 11623-11646, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-11623-2018, 2018.
Xu, G., Jiao, L., Zhang, B., Zhao, S., Yuan, M., Gu, Y., Liu, J., and Tang, X.: Spatial and Temporal Variability of the PM2.5/PM10 Ratio in Wuhan, Central China, Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 17, 741-751, https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2016.09.0406, 2017.
Xu, J., Chang, L., Qu, Y., Yan, F., Wang, F., and Fu, Q.: The meteorological modulation on PM2.5 interannual oscillation during 2013 to 2015 in Shanghai, China, Science of the Total Environment, 572, 1138-1149, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.08.024, 2016.
Xu, X., Zhao, T., Liu, F., Gong, S. L., Kristovich, D., Lu, C., Guo, Y., Cheng, X., Wang, Y., and Ding, G.: Climate modulation of the Tibetan Plateau on haze in China, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 16, 1365-1375, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-1365-2016, 2016.
Zhai, S., An, X., Liu, Z., Sun, Z., and Hou, Q.: Model assessment of atmospheric pollution control schemes for critical emission regions, Atmos. Environ., 124, 367–377, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.08.093, 2016.
Zhang, F., Wang, Z. W., Cheng, H. R., Lv, X. P., Gong, W., Wang, X. M., and Zhang, G.: Seasonal variations and chemical characteristics of PM2.5 in Wuhan, central China, Sci. Total Environ., 518–519, 97–105, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.02.054, 2015.
Zhang, R., Li, Q., and Zhang, R.: Meteorological conditions for the persistent severe fog and haze event over eastern China in January 2013, Sci. China Earth Sci., 57, 26–35, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11430-013-4774-3, 2013.
Zhang, X. Y., Wang, Y. Q., Niu, T., Zhang, X. C., Gong, S. L., Zhang, Y. M., and Sun, J. Y.: Atmospheric aerosol compositions in China: spatial/temporal variability, chemical signature, regional haze distribution and comparisons with global aerosols, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 779–799, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-779-2012, 2012.
Zhao, T. L., Gong, S. L., Huang, P., and Lavoué, D.: Hemispheric transport and influence of meteorology on global aerosol climatology, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 7609–7624, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-7609-2012, 2012.
Zhao, X. J., Zhao, P. S., Xu, J., Meng,, W., Pu, W. W., Dong, F., He, D., and Shi, Q. F.: Analysis of a winter regional haze event and its formation mechanism in the North China Plain, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5685–5696, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-5685-2013, 2013.
Zheng, H., Kong, S., Wu, F., Cheng, Y., Niu, Z., Zheng, S., Yang, G., Yao, L., Yan, Q., Wu, J., Zheng, M., Chen, N., Xu, K., Yan, Y., Liu, D., Zhao, D., Zhao, T., Bai, Y., Li, S., and Qi, S.: Intra-regional transport of black carbon between the south edge of the North China Plain and central China during winter haze episodes, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4499–4516, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-4499-2019, 2019.
Zhong, J., Zhang, X., Wang, Y., Wang, J., Shen, X., Zhang, H., Wang, T., Xie, Z., Liu, C., Zhang, H., Zhao, T., Sun, J., Fan, S., Gao, Z., Li, Y., and Wang, L.: The two-way feedback mechanism between unfavorable meteorological conditions and cumulative aerosol pollution in various haze regions of China, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3287–3306, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-3287-2019, 2019.
This study investigated the ambient PM2.5 variations over Wuhan, a typical urban Yangtze River middle basin (YRMB) region in central eastern China in January 2016. Through an analysis of observational data of the environment and meteorology, as well as via a FLEXPART-WRF simulation, it heavy air pollution is revealed with the unique “non-stagnant” atmospheric boundary layer in the YRMB region aggravated by regional transport of PM2.5 over central and eastern China.
This study investigated the ambient PM2.5 variations over Wuhan, a typical urban Yangtze River...