Articles | Volume 20, issue 3
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1701–1722, 2020
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Research article 12 Feb 2020
Research article | 12 Feb 2020
A transition of atmospheric emissions of particles and gases from on-road heavy-duty trucks
Liyuan Zhou et al.
No articles found.
Mahesh Kumar Sha, Bavo Langerock, Jean-François L. Blavier, Thomas Blumenstock, Tobias Borsdorff, Matthias Buschmann, Angelika Dehn, Martine De Mazière, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Dietrich G. Feist, Omaira E. García, David W. T. Griffith, Michel Grutter, James W. Hannigan, Frank Hase, Pauli Heikkinen, Christian Hermans, Laura T. Iraci, Pascal Jeseck, Nicholas Jones, Rigel Kivi, Nicolas Kumps, Jochen Landgraf, Alba Lorente, Emmanuel Mahieu, Maria V. Makarova, Johan Mellqvist, Jean-Marc Metzger, Isamu Morino, Tomoo Nagahama, Justus Notholt, Hirofumi Ohyama, Ivan Ortega, Mathias Palm, Christof Petri, David F. Pollard, Markus Rettinger, John Robinson, Sébastien Roche, Coleen M. Roehl, Amelie N. Röhling, Constantina Rousogenous, Matthias Schneider, Kei Shiomi, Dan Smale, Wolfgang Stremme, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, Osamu Uchino, Voltaire A. Velazco, Corinne Vigouroux, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Pucai Wang, Thorsten Warneke, Tyler Wizenberg, Debra Wunch, Shoma Yamanouchi, Yang Yang, and Minqiang Zhou
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6249–6304,Short summary
This paper presents, for the first time, Sentinel-5 Precursor methane and carbon monoxide validation results covering a period from November 2017 to September 2020. For this study, we used global TCCON and NDACC-IRWG network data covering a wide range of atmospheric and surface conditions across different terrains. We also show the influence of a priori alignment, smoothing uncertainties and the sensitivity of the validation results towards the application of advanced co-location criteria.
Shang Gao, Mona Kurppa, Chak K. Chan, and Keith Ngan
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The contribution of cooking emissions to organic aerosols may exceed that of motor vehicles. However, little is known about how cooking-generated aerosols evolve in the outdoor environment. In this paper, we present a numerical study of the dispersion of cooking emissions. For plausible choices of the emission strength, cooking can yield much higher concentrations than traffic. This has important implications for public health and city planning.
Rongrong Wu, Luc Vereecken, Epameinondas Tsiligiannis, Sungah Kang, Sascha R. Albrecht, Luisa Hantschke, Defeng Zhao, Anna Novelli, Hendrik Fuchs, Ralf Tillmann, Thorsten Hohaus, Philip T. M. Carlsson, Justin Shenolikar, François Bernard, John N. Crowley, Juliane L. Fry, Bellamy Brownwood, Joel A. Thornton, Steven S. Brown, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, Mattias Hallquist, and Thomas F. Mentel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10799–10824,Short summary
Isoprene is the biogenic volatile organic compound with the largest emissions rates. The nighttime reaction of isoprene with the NO3 radical has a large potential to contribute to SOA. We classified isoprene nitrates into generations and proposed formation pathways. Considering the potential functionalization of the isoprene nitrates we propose that mainly isoprene dimers contribute to SOA formation from the isoprene NO3 reactions with at least a 5 % mass yield.
Zhancong Liang, Yangxi Chu, Masao Gen, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The properties and fate of individual airborne particles can be significantly different, leading to distinct environmental impacts (e.g., climate and human health). While many instruments only analyze an ensemble of these particles, single-particle Raman spectroscopy enables unambiguous characterization of individual particles. In this paper, we comprehensively review the applications of such a technique in the studies of atmospheric particles.
Attilio Naccarato, Antonella Tassone, Maria Martino, Sacha Moretti, Antonella Macagnano, Emiliano Zampetti, Paolo Papa, Joshua Avossa, Nicola Pirrone, Michelle Nerentorp, John Munthe, Ingvar Wängberg, Geoff W. Stupple, Carl P. J. Mitchell, Adam R. Martin, Alexandra Steffen, Diana Babi, Eric M. Prestbo, Francesca Sprovieri, and Frank Wania
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3657–3672,Short summary
Mercury monitoring in support of the Minamata Convention requires effective and reliable analytical tools. Passive sampling is a promising approach for creating a sustainable long-term network for atmospheric mercury with improved spatial resolution and global coverage. In this study the analytical performance of three passive air samplers (CNR-PAS, IVL-PAS, and MerPAS) was assessed over extended deployment periods and the accuracy of concentrations was judged by comparison with active sampling.
Beatrix Rosette Go Mabato, Yan Lyu, Yan Ji, Dan Dan Huang, Xue Li, Theodora Nah, Chun Ho Lam, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Biomass burning (BB) is a global phenomenon that releases large quantities of pollutants such as phenols and aromatic carbonyls into the atmosphere. These compounds can form secondary organic aerosols (SOA) which play an important role in the Earth’s energy budget. In this work, we demonstrated that the direct irradiation of vanillin (VL) could generate aqueous SOA (aqSOA) such as oligomers. In the presence of nitrate, VL photo-oxidation can also form nitrated compounds.
Michael Priestley, Thomas J. Bannan, Michael Le Breton, Stephen D. Worrall, Sungah Kang, Iida Pullinen, Sebastian Schmitt, Ralf Tillmann, Einhard Kleist, Defeng Zhao, Jürgen Wildt, Olga Garmash, Archit Mehra, Asan Bacak, Dudley E. Shallcross, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Åsa M. Hallquist, Mikael Ehn, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, Mattias Hallquist, Thomas F. Mentel, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3473–3490,Short summary
A significant fraction of emissions from human activity consists of aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g. benzene, which oxidise to form new compounds important for particle growth. Characterisation of benzene oxidation products highlights the range of species produced as well as their chemical properties and contextualises them within relevant frameworks, e.g. MCM. Cluster analysis of the oxidation product time series distinguishes behaviours of CHON compounds that could aid in identifying functionality.
Thomas Blumenstock, Frank Hase, Axel Keens, Denis Czurlok, Orfeo Colebatch, Omaira Garcia, David W. T. Griffith, Michel Grutter, James W. Hannigan, Pauli Heikkinen, Pascal Jeseck, Nicholas Jones, Rigel Kivi, Erik Lutsch, Maria Makarova, Hamud K. Imhasin, Johan Mellqvist, Isamu Morino, Tomoo Nagahama, Justus Notholt, Ivan Ortega, Mathias Palm, Uwe Raffalski, Markus Rettinger, John Robinson, Matthias Schneider, Christian Servais, Dan Smale, Wolfgang Stremme, Kimberly Strong, Ralf Sussmann, Yao Té, and Voltaire A. Velazco
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1239–1252,Short summary
This study investigates the level of channeling (optical resonances) of each FTIR spectrometer within the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). Since the air gap of the beam splitter is a significant source of channeling, we propose new beam splitters with an increased wedge of the air gap. This study shows the potential for reducing channeling in the FTIR spectrometers operated by the NDACC, thereby increasing the quality of recorded spectra across the network.
Christian Mark Garcia Salvador, Rongzhi Tang, Michael Priestley, Linjie Li, Epameinondas Tsiligiannis, Michael Le Breton, Wenfei Zhu, Limin Zeng, Hui Wang, Ying Yu, Min Hu, Song Guo, and Mattias Hallquist
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1389–1406,Short summary
High-frequency online measurement of gas- and particle-phase nitro-aromatic compounds (NACs) at a rural site in China, heavily influenced by biomass burning events, enabled the analysis of the production pathway of NACs, including an explanation of strong persistence in the daytime. The contribution of secondary processes was significant, even during the dominant wintertime influence of primary emissions, suggesting the important role of regional secondary chemistry, i.e. photochemical smog.
Epameinondas Tsiligiannis, Julia Hammes, Christian Mark Salvador, Thomas F. Mentel, and Mattias Hallquist
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15073–15086,Short summary
The role of anthropogenic VOCs (AVOCs) for SOA formation needs to be scrutinised. The aromatic 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (TMB) was shown to form highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) in NOx-free environments, possibly contributing to new particle formation (NPF). However, formation of HOMs and particles was suppressed in the presence of NOx, while the formation of organonitrates (ONs) was increased. Thus, aromatic AVOCs may not enhance NPF in urban air masses.
Julia Hammes, Anna Lutz, Thomas Mentel, Cameron Faxon, and Mattias Hallquist
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13037–13052,Short summary
Identifying the chemical pathways of condensable products such as carboxylic acids is essential for predicting SOA formation. This identification is inherently difficult, as such products reside in both the gas and particulate phases. We measured acids, produced from atmospheric oxidation of limonene, in both phases and scrutinised the mechanistic understanding of their formation. The mechanisms explain nearly 75 % of the gas-phase signal at the lowest concentration (8.4 ppb, 23 % acid yield).
Mingjin Tang, Chak K. Chan, Yong Jie Li, Hang Su, Qingxin Ma, Zhijun Wu, Guohua Zhang, Zhe Wang, Maofa Ge, Min Hu, Hong He, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12631–12686,Short summary
Hygroscopicity is one of the most important properties of aerosol particles, and a number of experimental techniques, which differ largely in principles, configurations and cost, have been developed to investigate hygroscopic properties of atmospherically relevant particles. Our paper provides a comprehensive and critical review of available techniques for aerosol hygroscopicity studies.
Carly L. Reddington, Luke Conibear, Christoph Knote, Ben J. Silver, Yong J. Li, Chak K. Chan, Steve R. Arnold, and Dominick V. Spracklen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11887–11910,Short summary
We use a high-resolution model over South and East Asia to explore air quality and human health benefits of eliminating emissions from six man-made pollution sources. We find that preventing emissions from either residential energy use, industry, or open biomass burning yields the largest reductions in ground-level particulate matter pollution and its associated disease burden over this region. We also summarize previous estimates of the source-specific disease burden in China and India.
Zhujie Li, Haobo Tan, Jun Zheng, Li Liu, Yiming Qin, Nan Wang, Fei Li, Yongjie Li, Mingfu Cai, Yan Ma, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11669–11685,Short summary
Comprehensive field measurements were conducted to investigate aerosol compositions, optical properties, source origins, and radiative forcing effects in Guangzhou. Particulate brown carbon (BrC) light absorption was differentiated from that of black carbon. BrC was mostly due to primary emissions, such as straw burning, rather than secondary formation. BrC may cause ∼2.3 W m−2 radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and contribute to ∼15.8 % of the aerosol warming effect.
Yujue Wang, Min Hu, Yuchen Wang, Jing Zheng, Dongjie Shang, Yudong Yang, Ying Liu, Xiao Li, Rongzhi Tang, Wenfei Zhu, Zhuofei Du, Yusheng Wu, Song Guo, Zhijun Wu, Shengrong Lou, Mattias Hallquist, and Jian Zhen Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7649–7665,Short summary
Nitro-aromatic compounds (NACs), an important fraction in brown carbon, were comprehensively characterized in Beijing. The oxidation of anthropogenic VOCs represented more dominant sources of NACs than biomass burning. A transition of NO2 from low- to high-NOx regimes was observed. The contribution of aqueous-phase pathways to NAC formation increased at elevated RH. This work highlights secondary formation of NACs and influence factors in high NOx–anthropogenic VOC-dominated urban atmospheres.
Thomas J. Bannan, Michael Le Breton, Michael Priestley, Stephen D. Worrall, Asan Bacak, Nicholas A. Marsden, Archit Mehra, Julia Hammes, Mattias Hallquist, M. Rami Alfarra, Ulrich K. Krieger, Jonathan P. Reid, John Jayne, Wade Robinson, Gordon McFiggans, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, and Dave Topping
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1429–1439,Short summary
The Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO) is an inlet designed to be coupled with a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) and provides simultaneous molecular information relating to both the gas- and particle-phase samples. This method has been used to extract vapour pressures of compounds whilst giving quantitative concentrations in the particle phase. Here we detail an ideal set of benchmark compounds for characterization of the FIGAERO.
Mingfu Cai, Haobo Tan, Chak K. Chan, Yiming Qin, Hanbing Xu, Fei Li, Misha I. Schurman, Li Liu, and Jun Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16419–16437,Short summary
Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) play a critical role in cloud formation which affects solar radiation and climate. We employed advanced instruments to measure aerosol hygroscopicity and chemical composition and used them to predict CCN activity. Our results found that the CCN activity was largely dependent on the hygroscopicity parameter and the surface tension of the particles. Our study highlights the need for evaluating the effects of organics in order to accurately predict CCN activity.
Yi Ming Qin, Hao Bo Tan, Yong Jie Li, Zhu Jie Li, Misha I. Schurman, Li Liu, Cheng Wu, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16409–16418,Short summary
We developed the relationship between the chemical and optical characteristics of BrC in Guangzhou, China. We determined wavelength-dependent mass absorption coefficients of organic aerosol with different sources. The BrC absorption coefficient was associated with N-containing ion fragments and depended on their degrees of unsaturation/cyclization and oxygenation.
Michael Le Breton, Åsa M. Hallquist, Ravi Kant Pathak, David Simpson, Yujue Wang, John Johansson, Jing Zheng, Yudong Yang, Dongjie Shang, Haichao Wang, Qianyun Liu, Chak Chan, Tao Wang, Thomas J. Bannan, Michael Priestley, Carl J. Percival, Dudley E. Shallcross, Keding Lu, Song Guo, Min Hu, and Mattias Hallquist
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13013–13030,Short summary
We apply state-of-the-art chemical characterization to determine the chloride radical production in Beijing via measurement of inorganic halogens at a semi-rural site. The high concentration of inorganic halogens, namely nitryl chloride, enables the production of chlorinated volatile organic compounds which are measured in both the gas and particle phases simultaneously. This enables the secondary production of aerosols via chlorine oxidation to be directly observed in ambient air.
Yangxi Chu, Erin Evoy, Saeid Kamal, Young Chul Song, Jonathan P. Reid, Chak K. Chan, and Allan K. Bertram
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4809–4822,Short summary
The viscosity of erythritol, a tetrol found in aerosol particles, is highly uncertain. To help resolve this uncertainty, we measured the viscosities of erythritol–water particles using rectangular-area fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and aerosol optical tweezers techniques. These results should help improve the understanding of the viscosity of secondary organic aerosol particles. In addition, we present an intercomparison of techniques for measuring the viscosity of particles.
Tengyu Liu, Zhaoyi Wang, Xinming Wang, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11363–11374,Short summary
POA and SOA from seven heated cooking oil emissions were investigated in a smog chamber. We found that PMF analysis separated POA and SOA better than the residual spectrum method and the traditional method, assuming first-order POA loss. The PMF factors mass spectra were compared with those of ambient PMF factors. Our results suggest that COA source analysis from ambient data is likely complicated by the cooking style and atmospheric oxidation conditions.
Yujue Wang, Min Hu, Song Guo, Yuchen Wang, Jing Zheng, Yudong Yang, Wenfei Zhu, Rongzhi Tang, Xiao Li, Ying Liu, Michael Le Breton, Zhuofei Du, Dongjie Shang, Yusheng Wu, Zhijun Wu, Yu Song, Shengrong Lou, Mattias Hallquist, and Jianzhen Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10693–10713,Short summary
The overall characteristics and concentrations of organosulfates (OSs) and nitrooxy-OSs (NOSs) were determined in summer in Beijing. This study provided direct observational evidence that OSs form via acid-catalyzed aqueous-phase reactions in the presence of acidic sulfate aerosols, and monoterpene NOSs form via nighttime NO3 oxidation. Using OSs and NOSs as examples, this work highlights the formation pathways of SOA via anthropogenic–biogenic interactions and organic–inorganic reactions.
Michael Le Breton, Yujue Wang, Åsa M. Hallquist, Ravi Kant Pathak, Jing Zheng, Yudong Yang, Dongjie Shang, Marianne Glasius, Thomas J. Bannan, Qianyun Liu, Chak K. Chan, Carl J. Percival, Wenfei Zhu, Shengrong Lou, David Topping, Yuchen Wang, Jianzhen Yu, Keding Lu, Song Guo, Min Hu, and Mattias Hallquist
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10355–10371,Short summary
This paper utilizes a chemical ionisation mass spectrometer measuring gas and particle-phase organosulfates (OS) simultaneously during a field campaign in Beijing, China, and highlights how high time frequency online measurements enable a detailed analysis of dominant production mechanisms. We find that high aerosol acidity, organic precursor concentration and relative humidity promote the production of OS. The thermogram desorption reveals the potential for semi-volatile gas-phase OS.
Xiangyu Pei, Mattias Hallquist, Axel C. Eriksson, Joakim Pagels, Neil M. Donahue, Thomas Mentel, Birgitta Svenningsson, William Brune, and Ravi Kant Pathak
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9845–9860,Short summary
The findings in this study show that morphological transformation of soot occurs via two key complementary and sequential processes, i.e., void filling in the particle and its diameter growth. To quantify the state of morphological transformation, i.e., the utilization of material for filling and growth during the condensation processes, a framework was developed which can further be utilized to quantify the effect of condensed material on the optical and hygroscopic properties of soot.
Haichao Wang, Keding Lu, Song Guo, Zhijun Wu, Dongjie Shang, Zhaofeng Tan, Yujue Wang, Michael Le Breton, Shengrong Lou, Mingjin Tang, Yusheng Wu, Wenfei Zhu, Jing Zheng, Limin Zeng, Mattias Hallquist, Min Hu, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9705–9721,Short summary
N2O5, ClNO2, and particulate nitrate were measured simultaneously in Beijing, China, in 2016. The elevated N2O5 uptake coefficient and ClNO2 yield were determined, which suggest fast N2O5 uptake in Beijing. We highlight that the NO3 oxidation in nocturnal VOC degradation is efficient, with fast formation of organic nitrates. More studies are needed to investigate NO3–N2O5 chemistry and its contribution to secondary organic aerosol formation.
Chunlei Cheng, Zuzhao Huang, Chak K. Chan, Yangxi Chu, Mei Li, Tao Zhang, Yubo Ou, Duohong Chen, Peng Cheng, Lei Li, Wei Gao, Zhengxu Huang, Bo Huang, Zhong Fu, and Zhen Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9147–9159,Short summary
Particulate amines play an important role for the particle acidity and hygroscopicity. We found amines were internally mixed with sulfate and nitrate at a rural site in the PRD, China, suggesting the formation of aminium sulfate and nitrate salts. The ammonium-poor state of amine particles in summer was associated with the low emission sources of ammonia and a possible contribution of ammonium–amine exchange reactions. Amines could be a buffer for the particle acidity of ammonium-poor particles.
Tengyu Liu, Dan Dan Huang, Zijun Li, Qianyun Liu, ManNin Chan, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5677–5689,Short summary
The formation of SOA from toluene on initially dry and wet AS seeds was compared using an OFR at an RH of 68 %. We found that, as OH exposure increased, the SOA yield and ALW of the initially dry seeds approached those of the initially wet seeds while the wet seeds yielded SOA of a higher degree of oxidation at all exposure levels. Our results suggest that AS dry seeds soon at least partially deliquesce during SOA formation; more studies on the interplay of SOA formation and ALW are warranted.
Cameron Faxon, Julia Hammes, Michael Le Breton, Ravi Kant Pathak, and Mattias Hallquist
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5467–5481,Short summary
Nighttime oxidation of organic compounds emitted from vegetation produce aerosol particles affecting climate and human health. Here we apply state-of the-art chemical characterization for a detailed study on the oxidation of limonene initiated by the nitrate radical. We now have the identity of major nitrated products and their thermal properties. Including a cluster analysis, through this study, new knowledge supporting modeling and field observations of organic nitrates is gained.
Rongzhi Tang, Zepeng Wu, Xiao Li, Yujue Wang, Dongjie Shang, Yao Xiao, Mengren Li, Limin Zeng, Zhijun Wu, Mattias Hallquist, Min Hu, and Song Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4055–4068,Short summary
We used CMB and the tracer yield method to apportion organic sources in Beijing. Vehicular emissions served as the dominant source, and the contributions of all the other primary sources decreased. One interesting result is that in contrast to the SOA from other regions in the world where biogenic SOA was dominant, anthropogenic SOA was the major contributor to SOA, implying that deducting anthropogenic VOC emissions is an efficient way to reduce SOA in Beijing.
Berto Paul Lee, Peter Kwok Keung Louie, Connie Luk, and Chak Keung Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15121–15135,Short summary
Road traffic is an important source of air pollution. This study investigates the relationship between traffic-related airborne carbonaceous particles and the composition of traffic to reveal how emissions from different vehicle types affect ambient air quality. On average, LPG vehicles showed very small contributions, while gasoline- and diesel-powered vehicles emitted similar total amounts of carbon-containing particles but with differences in chemical composition.
Masao Gen and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14025–14037,Short summary
We propose electrospray-surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (ES-SERS) for measuring the surface chemical compositions of atmospherically relevant particles. The observations of surface aqueous sulfate and adsorbed water demonstrate a possible role of the water in facilitating the dissolution of sulfate from the bulk phase into its water layers. ES-SERS of submicron ambient aerosol particles collected in Hong Kong indicated an enrichment of sulfate and organic matter on the particle surface.
Berto Paul Lee, Hao Wang, and Chak Keung Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13605–13624,Short summary
The size of atmospheric particles is an important physical property that determines environmental and health effects. We measured the size and chemical composition of particles in two locations in Hong Kong impacted by different predominant sources of particulate air pollutants to characterize how particle size and particle composition vary over different time frames, from changes within a day to long-term changes over weeks, and which processes and sources may have played important roles.
Yi Ming Qin, Hao Bo Tan, Yong Jie Li, Misha I. Schurman, Fei Li, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10245–10258,Short summary
Freshly emitted HOA contributed significantly to the high concentrations of organics at night as heavy-duty vehicles enter downtown Guangzhou, while SOA contributed to the daytime high concentration. The large input of NOx, from automobile emissions, resulted in the significant formation of nitrate in both daytime and nighttime. Mitigating the PM pollution in urbanized areas such as Guangzhou can potentially benefit their peripheral cities, by reductions in traffic-related pollutants.
Chunlei Cheng, Mei Li, Chak K. Chan, Haijie Tong, Changhong Chen, Duohong Chen, Dui Wu, Lei Li, Cheng Wu, Peng Cheng, Wei Gao, Zhengxu Huang, Xue Li, Zhijuan Zhang, Zhong Fu, Yanru Bi, and Zhen Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9519–9533,Short summary
Oxalic acid is an abundant and ubiquitous constituent in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and can be an effective tracer for the oxidative processes leading to the formation of SOA. In this work photochemical reactions have a significant contribution to oxalic acid formation in summer, while in winter the formation of oxalic acid is closely associated with the oxidation of organic precursors in the aqueous phase.
James W. Grayson, Erin Evoy, Mijung Song, Yangxi Chu, Adrian Maclean, Allena Nguyen, Mary Alice Upshur, Marzieh Ebrahimi, Chak K. Chan, Franz M. Geiger, Regan J. Thomson, and Allan K. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8509–8524,Short summary
The viscosities of four polyols and three saccharides mixed with water were determined. The results from the polyol studies suggest viscosity increases by 1–2 orders of magnitude with the addition of an OH functional group to a carbon backbone. The results from the saccharide studies suggest that the viscosity of highly oxidized compounds is strongly dependent on molar mass and oligomerization of highly oxidized compounds in atmospheric SOM could lead to large increases in viscosity.
Tengyu Liu, Zijun Li, ManNin Chan, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7333–7344,Short summary
Formation of SOA from gas-phase emissions of five heated vegetable oils was investigated in a PAM chamber for the first time. The major SOA precursors from heated cooking oils were related to the content of monounsaturated fat and omega-6 fatty acids in cooking oils. The average production rate of SOA was 3 orders of magnitude lower compared with emission rates of PM2.5 from heated cooking oils. In these experiments, SOA was lightly oxidized.
Meike Sauerwein and Chak Keung Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6323–6339,Short summary
Heterogeneous uptake is one of the mechanisms influencing the amounts of alkylamines and ammonia in atmospheric particles. The present study investigates the simultaneous uptake of dimethylamine and ammonia at different gas molar ratios into sulfuric and oxalic acid particles at low and high relative humidity. Results showed that the particulate dimethylaminium/ammonium molar ratios changed substantially during the uptake process, depending on the extent of neutralisation and phase state.
Oleg Travnikov, Hélène Angot, Paulo Artaxo, Mariantonia Bencardino, Johannes Bieser, Francesco D'Amore, Ashu Dastoor, Francesco De Simone, María del Carmen Diéguez, Aurélien Dommergue, Ralf Ebinghaus, Xin Bin Feng, Christian N. Gencarelli, Ian M. Hedgecock, Olivier Magand, Lynwill Martin, Volker Matthias, Nikolay Mashyanov, Nicola Pirrone, Ramesh Ramachandran, Katie Alana Read, Andrei Ryjkov, Noelle E. Selin, Fabrizio Sena, Shaojie Song, Francesca Sprovieri, Dennis Wip, Ingvar Wängberg, and Xin Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5271–5295,Short summary
The study provides a complex analysis of processes governing Hg fate in the atmosphere involving both measurement data and simulation results of chemical transport models. Evaluation of the model simulations and numerical experiments against observations allows explaining spatial and temporal variations of Hg concentration in the near-surface atmospheric layer and shows possibility of multiple pathways of Hg oxidation occurring concurrently in various parts of the atmosphere.
Francesca Sprovieri, Nicola Pirrone, Mariantonia Bencardino, Francesco D'Amore, Helene Angot, Carlo Barbante, Ernst-Günther Brunke, Flor Arcega-Cabrera, Warren Cairns, Sara Comero, María del Carmen Diéguez, Aurélien Dommergue, Ralf Ebinghaus, Xin Bin Feng, Xuewu Fu, Patricia Elizabeth Garcia, Bernd Manfred Gawlik, Ulla Hageström, Katarina Hansson, Milena Horvat, Jože Kotnik, Casper Labuschagne, Olivier Magand, Lynwill Martin, Nikolay Mashyanov, Thumeka Mkololo, John Munthe, Vladimir Obolkin, Martha Ramirez Islas, Fabrizio Sena, Vernon Somerset, Pia Spandow, Massimiliano Vardè, Chavon Walters, Ingvar Wängberg, Andreas Weigelt, Xu Yang, and Hui Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2689–2708,Short summary
The results on total mercury (THg) wet deposition flux obtained within the GMOS network have been presented and discussed to understand the atmospheric Hg cycling and its seasonal depositional patterns over the 2011–2015 period. The data set provides new insight into baseline concentrations of THg concentrations in precipitation particularly in regions where wet deposition and atmospheric Hg species were not investigated before, opening the way for additional measurements and modeling studies.
Francesco De Simone, Paulo Artaxo, Mariantonia Bencardino, Sergio Cinnirella, Francesco Carbone, Francesco D'Amore, Aurélien Dommergue, Xin Bin Feng, Christian N. Gencarelli, Ian M. Hedgecock, Matthew S. Landis, Francesca Sprovieri, Noriuki Suzuki, Ingvar Wängberg, and Nicola Pirrone
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1881–1899,Short summary
Biomass burning (BB) releases of Hg, usually considered to be Hg(0), are a significant global source of atmospheric Hg. However there is experimental evidence that a fraction of this Hg is bound to particulate matter, Hg(P). This modelling study shows how increasing fractions of Hg(P) reduce the availability of Hg to the global pool, raising Hg exposure for those regions characterized by high BB, with implications for the sub-Arctic and also rice-growing areas in South-East Asia.
Yi Ming Qin, Yong Jie Li, Hao Wang, Berto Paul Yok Long Lee, Dan Dan Huang, and Chak Keung Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14131–14145,Short summary
The source, formation, transformation mechanisms and mixing state of particulate matter (PM) in high episodic events under different meteorological conditions in Hong Kong remain unclear. With high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometric measurement, we successfully demonstrated the dynamic and complex nature of PM transformation during high-PM episodes. This study revealed that not only regional transport but also local secondary formation is the culprit for high PM levels.
Ingvar Wängberg, Michelle G. Nerentorp Mastromonaco, John Munthe, and Katarina Gårdfeldt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13379–13387,Short summary
Within the EU-funded project, Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS) airborne mercury has been monitored at the background Råö measurement site on the western coast of Sweden from May 2012 to the end of May 2015, the following mercury species/fractions were measured: gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), particulate bound mercury (PBM) and gaseous oxidised mercury (GOM). Evidence that a significant part of the GOM measured at the Råö site has been formed in the free tropospheric air is presented.
Francesca Sprovieri, Nicola Pirrone, Mariantonia Bencardino, Francesco D'Amore, Francesco Carbone, Sergio Cinnirella, Valentino Mannarino, Matthew Landis, Ralf Ebinghaus, Andreas Weigelt, Ernst-Günther Brunke, Casper Labuschagne, Lynwill Martin, John Munthe, Ingvar Wängberg, Paulo Artaxo, Fernando Morais, Henrique de Melo Jorge Barbosa, Joel Brito, Warren Cairns, Carlo Barbante, María del Carmen Diéguez, Patricia Elizabeth Garcia, Aurélien Dommergue, Helene Angot, Olivier Magand, Henrik Skov, Milena Horvat, Jože Kotnik, Katie Alana Read, Luis Mendes Neves, Bernd Manfred Gawlik, Fabrizio Sena, Nikolay Mashyanov, Vladimir Obolkin, Dennis Wip, Xin Bin Feng, Hui Zhang, Xuewu Fu, Ramesh Ramachandran, Daniel Cossa, Joël Knoery, Nicolas Marusczak, Michelle Nerentorp, and Claus Norstrom
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11915–11935,Short summary
This work presents atmospheric Hg concentrations recorded within the GMOS global network analyzing Hg measurement results in terms of temporal trends, seasonality and comparability within the network. The over-arching beneﬁt of this coordinated Hg monitoring network would clearly be the production of high-quality measurement datasets on a global scale useful in developing and validating models on different spatial and temporal scales.
Heidi H. Y. Cheung, Haobo Tan, Hanbing Xu, Fei Li, Cheng Wu, Jian Z. Yu, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8431–8446,Short summary
We present simultaneous measurements of aerosol volatility and carbonaceous matters in Guangzhou, China, in Feb and Mar 2014 using a VTDMA and OC / EC analyzer. Low volatility particles with no significant evaporation at 300° C in the VTDMA contributed 5–15 % of number concentrations of the 40–300 nm particles. Mass closure suggests that non-volatile organic carbon, in addition to elemental carbon, was one of the components of the non-volatile residuals measured by the VTDMA in this study.
Ingvar Wängberg, Ulla Hageström, Jonas Sommar, and Martin Ferm
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Andrea Ghirardo, Junfei Xie, Xunhua Zheng, Yuesi Wang, Rüdiger Grote, Katja Block, Jürgen Wildt, Thomas Mentel, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Mattias Hallquist, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, and Jörg-Peter Schnitzler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2901–2920,Short summary
Trees can impact urban air quality. Large emissions of plant volatiles are emitted in Beijing as a stress response to the urban polluted environment, but their impacts on secondary particulate matter remain relatively low compared to those originated from anthropogenic activities. The present study highlights the importance of including stress-induced compounds when studying plant volatile emissions.
C. Sun, B. P. Lee, D. Huang, Y. Jie Li, M. I. Schurman, P. K. K. Louie, C. Luk, and C. K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1713–1728,Short summary
This study presents results of long-term submicron aerosol measurements in Hong Kong. The presented work covers fall and winter 2013. It serves to characterize aerosol in a densely built-up urban area of a typical Asian megacity with strong primary emission sources from vehicles and cooking and presents an in-depth analysis of distinct clean and heavily polluted time periods tied with meteorological data and other gas-phase species observed in the study period.
D. F. Zhao, A. Buchholz, B. Kortner, P. Schlag, F. Rubach, H. Fuchs, A. Kiendler-Scharr, R. Tillmann, A. Wahner, Å. K. Watne, M. Hallquist, J. M. Flores, Y. Rudich, K. Kristensen, A. M. K. Hansen, M. Glasius, I. Kourtchev, M. Kalberer, and Th. F. Mentel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1105–1121,Short summary
This study investigated the cloud droplet activation behavior and hygroscopic growth of mixed anthropogenic and biogenic SOA (ABSOA) compared to pure biogenic SOA (BSOA) and pure anthropogenic SOA (ASOA). Cloud droplet activation behaviors of different types of SOA were similar. In contrast, the hygroscopicity of ASOA was higher than BSOA and ABSOA. ASOA components enhanced the hygroscopicity of the ABSOA. Yet this enhancement cannot be described by a linear mixing of pure SOA systems.
Y. J. Li, B. P. Lee, L. Su, J. C. H. Fung, and C.K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 37–53,Short summary
(1) NR-PM1 at the HKUST Supersite was highly aged, with a high sulfate content and highly oxygenated organics. (2) Seasonal variation in NR-PM1 concentration was not obvious, but the relative fractions of different species showed strong seasonal dependence. (3) Both NR-PM1 concentrations and the relative fractions showed a strong dependence on air mass origin. (4) Both locally produced and regionally transported organic aerosols contribute to the organic content of PM at this site.
J. W. Meng, M. C. Yeung, Y. J. Li, B. Y. L. Lee, and C. K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10267–10282,
S. M. Gaita, J. Boman, M. J. Gatari, J. B. C. Pettersson, and S. Janhäll
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9977–9991,
Y. J. Li, D. D. Huang, H. Y. Cheung, A. K. Y. Lee, and C. K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2871–2885,
Y. J. Li, B. Y. L. Lee, J. Z. Yu, N. L. Ng, and C. K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8739–8753,
Å. M. Hallquist, M. Jerksjö, H. Fallgren, J. Westerlund, and Å. Sjödin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5337–5350,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Controls on surface aerosol particle number concentrations and aerosol-limited cloud regimes over the central Greenland Ice SheetAmbient aerosol properties in the remote atmosphere from global-scale in situ measurementsResponse of particle number concentrations to the clean air action plan: lessons from the first long-term aerosol measurements in a typical urban valley in western ChinaObservations of supermicron-sized aerosols originating from biomass burning in southern Central AfricaIce-nucleating particle concentration measurements from Ny-Ålesund during the Arctic spring–summer in 2018Clustering diurnal cycles of day-to-day temperature change to understand their impacts on air quality forecasting in mountain-basin areasEvaluation of the contribution of new particle formation to cloud droplet number concentration in the urban atmosphereA global study of hygroscopicity-driven light-scattering enhancement in the context of other in situ aerosol optical propertiesOptical properties of coated black carbon aggregates: numerical simulations, radiative forcing estimates, and size-resolved parameterization schemeMeasurement report: Cloud condensation nuclei activity and its variation with organic oxidation level and volatility observed during an aerosol life cycle intensive operational period (ALC-IOP)Southern Ocean latitudinal gradients of cloud condensation nucleiZeppelin-led study on the onset of new particle formation in the planetary boundary layerCharacterization of aerosol number size distributions and their effect on cloud properties at Syowa Station, AntarcticaA phenomenology of new particle formation (NPF) at 13 European sitesDiel cycle impacts on the chemical and light absorption properties of organic carbon aerosol from wildfires in the western United StatesTerrestrial or marine – indications towards the origin of ice-nucleating particles during melt season in the European Arctic up to 83.7° NCloud activation properties of aerosol particles in a continental Central European urban environmentVertical profiles of trace gas and aerosol properties over the eastern North Atlantic: variations with season and synoptic conditionOn the drivers of droplet variability in alpine mixed-phase cloudsContrasting effects of secondary organic aerosol formations on organic aerosol hygroscopicityImpact of aerosol–radiation interaction on new particle formationMeasurement report: The effect of aerosol chemical composition on light scattering due to the hygroscopic swelling effectMeasurement report: The influence of traffic and new particle formation on the size distribution of 1–800 nm particles in Helsinki – a street canyon and an urban background station comparisonSummer aerosol measurements over the East Antarctic seasonal ice zoneAerosol Responses to Precipitation Along North American Air Trajectories Arriving at BermudaRapid transformation of ambient absorbing aerosols from West African biomass burningTechnical note: Sea salt interference with black carbon quantification in snow samples using the single particle soot photometerMixing state of refractory black carbon aerosol in the South Asian outflow over the northern Indian Ocean during winterTowards understanding the characteristics of new particle formation in the Eastern MediterraneanLarge-scale synoptic drivers of co-occurring summertime ozone and PM2.5 pollution in eastern ChinaA long-term study of cloud residuals from low-level Arctic cloudsMeasurement report: Altitudinal variation of cloud condensation nuclei activation across the Indo-Gangetic Plain prior to monsoon onset and during peak monsoon periods: results from the SWAAMI field campaignUrban aerosol size distributions: a global perspectiveThe impact of aerosol size-dependent hygroscopicity and mixing state on the cloud condensation nuclei potential over the north-east AtlanticMeasurement report: Strong light absorption induced by aged biomass burning black carbon over the southeastern Tibetan Plateau in pre-monsoon seasonThe important roles of surface tension and growth rate in the contribution of new particle formation (NPF) to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration: evidence from field measurements in southern ChinaAerosol particle formation in the upper residual layerSecondary aerosol formation alters CCN activity in the North China PlainComplex refractive indices in the ultraviolet and visible spectral region for highly absorbing non-spherical biomass burning aerosolDilution impacts on smoke aging: evidence in Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) dataMeasurement report: Balloon-borne in situ profiling of Saharan dust over Cyprus with the UCASS optical particle counterArctic black carbon during PAMARCMiP 2018 and previous aircraft experiments in springEl Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) effect on interannual variability in spring aerosols over East AsiaThe impact threshold of the aerosol radiative forcing on the boundary layer structure in the pollution regionTechnical note: Measurement of chemically resolved volume equivalent diameter and effective density of particles by AAC-SPAMSA meteorological overview of the ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS) campaign over the southeast Atlantic during 2016–2018The impact of cloudiness and cloud type on the atmospheric heating rate of black and brown carbon in the Po ValleyMeteorology-driven variability of air pollution (PM1) revealed with explainable machine learningThe seasonal cycle of ice-nucleating particles linked to the abundance of biogenic aerosol in boreal forestsMeasurement report: Cloud processes and the transport of biological emissions affect southern ocean particle and cloud condensation nuclei concentrations
Heather Guy, Ian M. Brooks, Ken S. Carslaw, Benjamin J. Murray, Von P. Walden, Matthew D. Shupe, Claire Pettersen, David D. Turner, Christopher J. Cox, William D. Neff, Ralf Bennartz, and Ryan R. Neely III
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15351–15374,Short summary
We present the first full year of surface aerosol number concentration measurements from the central Greenland Ice Sheet. Aerosol concentrations here have a distinct seasonal cycle from those at lower-altitude Arctic sites, which is driven by large-scale atmospheric circulation. Our results can be used to help understand the role aerosols might play in Greenland surface melt through the modification of cloud properties. This is crucial in a rapidly changing region where observations are sparse.
Charles A. Brock, Karl D. Froyd, Maximilian Dollner, Christina J. Williamson, Gregory Schill, Daniel M. Murphy, Nicholas J. Wagner, Agnieszka Kupc, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Jason C. Schroder, Douglas A. Day, Derek J. Price, Bernadett Weinzierl, Joshua P. Schwarz, Joseph M. Katich, Siyuan Wang, Linghan Zeng, Rodney Weber, Jack Dibb, Eric Scheuer, Glenn S. Diskin, Joshua P. DiGangi, ThaoPaul Bui, Jonathan M. Dean-Day, Chelsea R. Thompson, Jeff Peischl, Thomas B. Ryerson, Ilann Bourgeois, Bruce C. Daube, Róisín Commane, and Steven C. Wofsy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15023–15063,Short summary
The Atmospheric Tomography Mission was an airborne study that mapped the chemical composition of the remote atmosphere. From this, we developed a comprehensive description of aerosol properties that provides a unique, global-scale dataset against which models can be compared. The data show the polluted nature of the remote atmosphere in the Northern Hemisphere and quantify the contributions of sea salt, dust, soot, biomass burning particles, and pollution particles to the haziness of the sky.
Suping Zhao, Ye Yu, Jianglin Li, Daiying Yin, Shaofeng Qi, and Dahe Qin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14959–14981,Short summary
We found a large PM2.5 reduction in response to Clean Air Action (CAA), but impacts of CAA on particle number concentrations (PNCs) may be different from PM2.5 mass due to newly formed particle impacts. The k-means clustering technique and Theil–Sen regression were used to analyze PNCs variations and to quantify their trends. Increased daytime solar radiation, higher temperature and lower RH at noon induced by reduced PM2.5 mass promoted formation of new particles and increased particle numbers.
Rose M. Miller, Greg M. McFarquhar, Robert M. Rauber, Joseph R. O'Brien, Siddhant Gupta, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, Amie N. Dobracki, Arthur J. Sedlacek, Sharon P. Burton, Steven G. Howell, Steffen Freitag, and Caroline Dang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14815–14831,Short summary
A large stratocumulus cloud deck resides off the west coast of central Africa. Biomass burning in Africa produces a large plume of aerosol that is carried by the wind over this stratocumulus cloud deck. This paper shows that particles with sizes from 0.01 to 1 mm reside within this plume. Past studies have shown that biomass burning produces such particles, but this is the first study to show that they can be transported westward, over long distances, to the Atlantic stratocumulus cloud deck.
Matteo Rinaldi, Naruki Hiranuma, Gianni Santachiara, Mauro Mazzola, Karam Mansour, Marco Paglione, Cheyanne A. Rodriguez, Rita Traversi, Silvia Becagli, David Cappelletti, and Franco Belosi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14725–14748,Short summary
This study aims to add to the still scant ice-nucleating particle (INP) observations in the Arctic environment, investigating INP concentrations and potential sources, during spring and summertime, at the ground-level site of GVB. The lack of a clear concentration seasonal trend, in contrast with previous works, shows an important interannual variability of Arctic INP sources, which may be both terrestrial and marine, outside the Arctic haze period.
Debing Kong, Guicai Ning, Shigong Wang, Jing Cong, Ming Luo, Xiang Ni, and Mingguo Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14493–14505,Short summary
This study provides the first attempt to examine the diurnal cycles of day-to-day temperature change and reveals their impacts on air quality forecasting in mountain-basin areas. Three different diurnal cycles of the preceding day-to-day temperature change are identified and exhibit notably distinct effects on the air quality evolutions. The mechanisms of the identified diurnal cycles' effects on air quality are also revealed, which exhibit promising potential for air quality forecasting.
Sihui Jiang, Fang Zhang, Jingye Ren, Lu Chen, Xing Yan, Jieyao Liu, Yele Sun, and Zhanqing Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14293–14308,Short summary
New particle formation (NPF) can be a large source of CCN and affect weather and climate. Here we show that the NPF contributes largely to cloud droplet number concentration (Nd) but is suppressed at high particle number concentrations in Beijing due to water vapor competition. We also reveal a considerable impact of primary sources on the evaluation in the urban atmosphere. Our study has great significance for assessing NPF-associated effects on climate in polluted regions.
Gloria Titos, María A. Burgos, Paul Zieger, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, Urs Baltensperger, Anne Jefferson, James Sherman, Ernest Weingartner, Bas Henzing, Krista Luoma, Colin O'Dowd, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Elisabeth Andrews
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13031–13050,Short summary
This paper investigates the impact of water uptake on aerosol optical properties, in particular the aerosol light-scattering coefficient. Although in situ measurements are performed at low relative humidity (typically at RH < 40 %), to address the climatic impact of aerosol particles it is necessary to take into account the effect that water uptake may have on the aerosol optical properties.
Baseerat Romshoo, Thomas Müller, Sascha Pfeifer, Jorge Saturno, Andreas Nowak, Krzysztof Ciupek, Paul Quincey, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12989–13010,Short summary
Modifications in the optical properties of black carbon (BC) due to ageing are presented and quantified in this study using a state-of-the-art description scheme of BC fractal aggregates. It is shown that the relative change in BC radiative forcing can be larger than 50 % as a function of changing fractal dimension and organic content. A comprehensive parameterization scheme for coated BC optical properties is developed with applications for modelling, ambient, and laboratory-based BC studies.
Fan Mei, Jian Wang, Shan Zhou, Qi Zhang, Sonya Collier, and Jianzhong Xu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13019–13029,Short summary
This work focuses on understanding aerosol's ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and its variations with organic oxidation level and volatility using measurements at a rural site. Aerosol properties were examined from four air mass sources. The results help improve the accurate representation of aerosol from different ambient aerosol emissions, transformation pathways, and atmospheric processes in a climate model.
Ruhi S. Humphries, Melita D. Keywood, Sean Gribben, Ian M. McRobert, Jason P. Ward, Paul Selleck, Sally Taylor, James Harnwell, Connor Flynn, Gourihar R. Kulkarni, Gerald G. Mace, Alain Protat, Simon P. Alexander, and Greg McFarquhar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12757–12782,Short summary
The Southern Ocean region is one of the most pristine in the world and serves as an important proxy for the pre-industrial atmosphere. Improving our understanding of the natural processes in this region is likely to result in the largest reductions in the uncertainty of climate and earth system models. In this paper we present a statistical summary of the latitudinal gradient of aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei concentrations obtained from five voyages spanning the Southern Ocean.
Janne Lampilahti, Hanna E. Manninen, Tuomo Nieminen, Sander Mirme, Mikael Ehn, Iida Pullinen, Katri Leino, Siegfried Schobesberger, Juha Kangasluoma, Jenni Kontkanen, Emma Järvinen, Riikka Väänänen, Taina Yli-Juuti, Radovan Krejci, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Janne Levula, Aadu Mirme, Stefano Decesari, Ralf Tillmann, Douglas R. Worsnop, Franz Rohrer, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Thomas F. Mentel, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12649–12663,Short summary
We studied aerosol particle formation and growth in different parts of the planetary boundary layer at two different locations (Po Valley, Italy, and Hyytiälä, Finland). The observations consist of airborne measurements on board an instrumented Zeppelin and a small airplane combined with comprehensive ground-based measurements.
Keiichiro Hara, Chiharu Nishita-Hara, Kazuo Osada, Masanori Yabuki, and Takashi Yamanouchi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12155–12172,Short summary
New particle formation (NPF) occurred dominantly in the Antarctic free troposphere during spring and fall and in the free troposphere and boundary layer during summer. With the existence of the ozone hole, more UV radiation can enhance formation of aerosol precursors and NPF in the free troposphere. Here, we assess the hypothesis that UV enhancement in the upper troposphere by the Antarctic ozone hole modifies the aerosol and cloud properties in Antarctic regions during summer.
Dimitrios Bousiotis, Francis D. Pope, David C. S. Beddows, Manuel Dall'Osto, Andreas Massling, Jakob Klenø Nøjgaard, Claus Nordstrøm, Jarkko V. Niemi, Harri Portin, Tuukka Petäjä, Noemi Perez, Andrés Alastuey, Xavier Querol, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Nikos Mihalopoulos, Stergios Vratolis, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Alfred Wiedensohler, Kay Weinhold, Maik Merkel, Thomas Tuch, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11905–11925,Short summary
Formation of new particles is a key process in the atmosphere. New particle formation events arising from nucleation of gaseous precursors have been analysed in extensive datasets from 13 sites in five European countries in terms of frequency, nucleation rate, and particle growth rate, with several common features and many differences identified. Although nucleation frequencies are lower at roadside sites, nucleation rates and particle growth rates are typically higher.
Benjamin Sumlin, Edward Fortner, Andrew Lambe, Nishit J. Shetty, Conner Daube, Pai Liu, Francesca Majluf, Scott Herndon, and Rajan K. Chakrabarty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11843–11856,Short summary
We present a comparison of the changes to light absorption behavior and chemical composition of wildfire smoke particles from day- and nighttime oxidation processes and discuss the results within the context of previous laboratory findings.
Markus Hartmann, Xianda Gong, Simonas Kecorius, Manuela van Pinxteren, Teresa Vogl, André Welti, Heike Wex, Sebastian Zeppenfeld, Hartmut Herrmann, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11613–11636,Short summary
Ice-nucleating particles (INPs) are not well characterized in the Arctic despite their importance for the Arctic energy budget. Little is known about their nature (mineral or biological) and sources (terrestrial or marine, long-range transport or local). We find indications that, at the beginning of the melt season, a local, biogenic, probably marine source is likely, but significant enrichment of INPs has to take place from the ocean to the aerosol phase.
Imre Salma, Wanda Thén, Máté Vörösmarty, and András Zénó Gyöngyösi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11289–11302,Short summary
Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and their properties were explored in this study. CCN modify the intensity and other properties of the sunlight reaching the Earth’s surface. These properties are primarily influenced by the number of droplets, the droplet size and the cloud residence time. CCN also influence the hydrological cycle (including the amount and intensity of precipitation), vegetation and its interactions with the carbon cycle, as well as atmospheric chemistry, physics and dynamics.
Yang Wang, Guangjie Zheng, Michael P. Jensen, Daniel A. Knopf, Alexander Laskin, Alyssa A. Matthews, David Mechem, Fan Mei, Ryan Moffet, Arthur J. Sedlacek, John E. Shilling, Stephen Springston, Amy Sullivan, Jason Tomlinson, Daniel Veghte, Rodney Weber, Robert Wood, Maria A. Zawadowicz, and Jian Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11079–11098,Short summary
This paper reports the vertical profiles of trace gas and aerosol properties over the eastern North Atlantic, a region of persistent but diverse subtropical marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds. We examined the key processes that drive the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) population and how it varies with season and synoptic conditions. This study helps improve the model representation of the aerosol processes in the remote MBL, reducing the simulated aerosol indirect effects.
Paraskevi Georgakaki, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Jörg Wieder, Claudia Mignani, Fabiola Ramelli, Zamin A. Kanji, Jan Henneberger, Maxime Hervo, Alexis Berne, Ulrike Lohmann, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10993–11012,Short summary
Aerosol and cloud observations coupled with a droplet activation parameterization was used to investigate the aerosol–cloud droplet link in alpine mixed-phase clouds. Predicted droplet number, Nd, agrees with observations and never exceeds a characteristic “limiting droplet number”, Ndlim, which depends solely on σw. Nd becomes velocity limited when it is within 50 % of Ndlim. Identifying when dynamical changes control Nd variability is central for understanding aerosol–cloud interactions.
Ye Kuang, Shan Huang, Biao Xue, Biao Luo, Qicong Song, Wei Chen, Weiwei Hu, Wei Li, Pusheng Zhao, Mingfu Cai, Yuwen Peng, Jipeng Qi, Tiange Li, Sihang Wang, Duohong Chen, Dingli Yue, Bin Yuan, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10375–10391,Short summary
We found that organic aerosol factors with identified sources perform much better than oxidation level parameters in characterizing variations in organic aerosol hygroscopicity, and secondary aerosol formations associated with different sources have distinct effects on organic aerosol hygroscopicity. It reveals that source-oriented organic aerosol hygroscopicity investigations might result in more appropriate parameterization approaches in chemical and climate models.
Gang Zhao, Yishu Zhu, Zhijun Wu, Taomou Zong, Jingchuan Chen, Tianyi Tan, Haichao Wang, Xin Fang, Keding Lu, Chunsheng Zhao, and Min Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9995–10004,Short summary
New particle formation is thought to contribute half of the global cloud condensation nuclei. We find that the new particle formation is more likely to happen in the upper boundary layer than that at the ground, which can be partially explained by the aerosol–radiation interaction. Our study emphasizes the influence of aerosol–radiation interaction on the NPF.
Rongmin Ren, Zhanqing Li, Peng Yan, Yuying Wang, Hao Wu, Maureen Cribb, Wei Wang, Xiao'ai Jin, Yanan Li, and Dongmei Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9977–9994,Short summary
We analyzed the effect of the proportion of components making up the chemical composition of aerosols on f(RH) in southern Beijing in 2019. Nitrate played a more significant role in affecting f(RH) than sulfate. The ratio of the sulfate mass fraction to the nitrate mass fraction (mostly higher than ~ 4) was a sign of the deliquescence of aerosol. A piecewise parameterized scheme was proposed, which could better describe deliquescence and reduce uncertainties in simulating aerosol hygroscopicity.
Magdalena Okuljar, Heino Kuuluvainen, Jenni Kontkanen, Olga Garmash, Miska Olin, Jarkko V. Niemi, Hilkka Timonen, Juha Kangasluoma, Yee Jun Tham, Rima Baalbaki, Mikko Sipilä, Laura Salo, Henna Lintusaari, Harri Portin, Kimmo Teinilä, Minna Aurela, Miikka Dal Maso, Topi Rönkkö, Tuukka Petäjä, and Pauli Paasonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9931–9953,Short summary
To estimate the relative contribution of different sources to the particle population in an urban environment, we conducted simultaneous measurements at a street canyon and an urban background station in Helsinki. We investigated the contribution of traffic and new particle formation to particles with a diameter between 1 and 800 nm. We found that during spring traffic does not dominate the particles smaller than 3 nm at either of the stations.
Jack B. Simmons, Ruhi S. Humphries, Stephen R. Wilson, Scott D. Chambers, Alastair G. Williams, Alan D. Griffiths, Ian M. McRobert, Jason P. Ward, Melita D. Keywood, and Sean Gribben
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9497–9513,Short summary
Aerosols have a climate forcing effect in the Earth's atmosphere. Few measurements exist of aerosols in the Southern Ocean, a region key to our understanding of this effect. In this study, aerosol measurements from a summer 2017 campaign in the East Antarctic seasonal ice zone are examined. Higher concentrations of aerosols were found in dry air with origins from above the Antarctic continent compared to other periods of the voyage.
Hossein Dadashazar, Majid Alipanah, Miguel Ricardo A. Hilario, Ewan Crosbie, Simon Kirschler, Hongyu Liu, Richard H. Moore, Andrew J. Peters, Amy Jo Scarino, Michael Shook, K. Lee Thornhill, Christiane Voigt, Hailong Wang, Edward Winstead, Bo Zhang, Luke Ziemba, and Armin Sorooshian
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This study investigates precipitation impacts on long-range transport of North American over the western North Atlantic Ocean (WNAO). Our results demonstrate that precipitation scavenging plays a significant role in modifying surface aerosol concentrations over the WNAO, especially in winter/spring months due to large-scale scavenging processes. This study highlights how precipitation impacts surface aerosol properties with relevance for other marine regions vulnerable to continental outflow.
Huihui Wu, Jonathan W. Taylor, Justin M. Langridge, Chenjie Yu, James D. Allan, Kate Szpek, Michael I. Cotterell, Paul I. Williams, Michael Flynn, Patrick Barker, Cathryn Fox, Grant Allen, James Lee, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9417–9440,Short summary
Seasonal biomass burning over West Africa is a globally significant source of carbonaceous particles in the atmosphere, which have important climate impacts but are poorly constrained. We conducted in situ airborne measurements to investigate the evolution of smoke aerosol properties in this region. We observed absorption enhancement for both black carbon and brown carbon after emission, which provides new field results and constraints on aerosol parameterizations for future climate models.
Marco Zanatta, Andreas Herber, Zsófia Jurányi, Oliver Eppers, Johannes Schneider, and Joshua P. Schwarz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9329–9342,Short summary
Saline snow samples were collected from the sea ice in the Fram Strait. Laboratory experiments revealed that sea salt can bias the quantification of black carbon with a laser-induced incandescence technique. The maximum underestimation was quantified to reach values of 80 %–90 %. This salt-induced interference is reported here for the first time and should be considered in future studies aiming to quantify black carbon in snow in marine environments.
Sobhan Kumar Kompalli, Surendran Nair Suresh Babu, Krishnaswamy Krishna Moorthy, Sreedharan Krishnakumari Satheesh, Mukunda Madhab Gogoi, Vijayakumar S. Nair, Venugopalan Nair Jayachandran, Dantong Liu, Michael J. Flynn, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9173–9199,Short summary
The first observations of refractory black carbon aerosol size distributions and mixing state in South Asian outflow to the northern Indian Ocean were carried out as a part of the ICARB-2018 experiment during winter. Size distributions indicated mixed sources of BC particles in the outflow, which are thickly coated. The coating thickness of BC is controlled mainly by the availability of condensable species in the outflow.
Rima Baalbaki, Michael Pikridas, Tuija Jokinen, Tiia Laurila, Lubna Dada, Spyros Bezantakos, Lauri Ahonen, Kimmo Neitola, Anne Maisser, Elie Bimenyimana, Aliki Christodoulou, Florin Unga, Chrysanthos Savvides, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Juha Kangasluoma, George Biskos, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Jean Sciare, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9223–9251,Short summary
This study investigates new particle formation (NPF) in the less represented region of the Mediterranean basin using 1-year measurements of aerosol particles down to ~ 1 nm in diameter. We report a high frequency of NPF and give examples of interesting NPF features. We quantify the strength of NPF events by calculating formation rates and growth rates. We further unveil the atmospheric conditions and variables considered important for the intra-monthly and inter-monthly occurrence of NPF.
Lian Zong, Yuanjian Yang, Meng Gao, Hong Wang, Peng Wang, Hongliang Zhang, Linlin Wang, Guicai Ning, Chao Liu, Yubin Li, and Zhiqiu Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9105–9124,Short summary
In recent years, summer O3 pollution over eastern China has become more serious, and it is even the case that surface O3 and PM2.5 pollution can co-occur. However, the synoptic weather pattern (SWP) related to this compound pollution remains unclear. Regional PM2.5 and O3 compound pollution is characterized by various SWPs with different dominant factors. Our findings provide insights into the regional co-occurring high PM2.5 and O3 levels via the effects of certain meteorological factors.
Linn Karlsson, Radovan Krejci, Makoto Koike, Kerstin Ebell, and Paul Zieger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8933–8959,Short summary
Aerosol–cloud interactions in the Arctic are poorly understood largely due to a lack of observational data. We present the first direct, long-term measurements of cloud residuals, i.e. the particles that remain when cloud droplets and ice crystals are dried. These detailed observations of cloud residuals cover more than 2 years, which is unique for the Arctic and globally. This work studies the size distributions of cloud residuals, their seasonality, and dependence on meteorology.
Mohanan R. Manoj, Sreedharan K. Satheesh, Krishnaswamy K. Moorthy, Jamie Trembath, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8979–8997,Short summary
Vertical distributions of atmospheric aerosols across the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) and their ability to form clouds have been studied based on airborne measurements during the SWAAMI field campaign. The ability of the aerosols to act as cloud-forming nuclei exhibited large spatial variation across the IGP and strong seasonality with increase in this ability with increase in altitude prior to the onset of monsoon and decrease with increase in altitude during the active phase of the monsoon.
Tianren Wu and Brandon E. Boor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8883–8914,Short summary
Urban air pollution is a major global environmental health challenge. Establishing associations between exposure to urban aerosols and human health outcomes requires reliable aerosol measurements. Of particular importance are measurements of urban aerosol particle size distributions. This review critically analyzes global trends in urban aerosol particle size distributions in order to provide insights into air pollution in cities and guidance for the future for air quality monitoring networks.
Wei Xu, Kirsten N. Fossum, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Chunshui Lin, Ru-Jin Huang, Colin O'Dowd, and Darius Ceburnis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8655–8675,Short summary
Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are an important topic in atmospheric studies, especially for evaluating the climate impact of aerosol. Here in this study, CCN closure is studied by using chemical composition based on an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and hygroscopicity growth measurements based on a humidified tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) at the Mace Head atmospheric research station.
Tianyi Tan, Min Hu, Zhuofei Du, Gang Zhao, Dongjie Shang, Jing Zheng, Yanhong Qin, Mengren Li, Yusheng Wu, Limin Zeng, Song Guo, and Zhijun Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8499–8510,Short summary
Every year in the pre-monsoon season, the black carbon (BC) aerosols originated from biomass burning in southern Asia are easily transported to the Tibetan Plateau (TP) by the convenience of westerly wind. This study reveals that the BC aerosols in the aged biomass burning plumes strongly enhance the total light absorption over the TP, and the aging process during the long-range transport will further strengthen the radiative heating of those BC aerosols.
Mingfu Cai, Baoling Liang, Qibin Sun, Li Liu, Bin Yuan, Min Shao, Shan Huang, Yuwen Peng, Zelong Wang, Haobo Tan, Fei Li, Hanbin Xu, Duohong Chen, and Jun Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8575–8592,Short summary
This study investigated the contribution of new particle formation (NPF) events to the number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (NCCN) and its controlling factors in the Pearl River Delta region. The results show that the surfactant effect can decrease the critical diameter and significantly increase the NCCN during the NPF event. In addition, the growth rate is founded to be the most important controlling factor that affects NCCN for growth of newly-formed particles to the CCN sizes.
Janne Lampilahti, Katri Leino, Antti Manninen, Pyry Poutanen, Anna Franck, Maija Peltola, Paula Hietala, Lisa Beck, Lubna Dada, Lauriane Quéléver, Ronja Öhrnberg, Ying Zhou, Madeleine Ekblom, Ville Vakkari, Sergej Zilitinkevich, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7901–7915,Short summary
Using airborne measurements we observed increased number concentrations of sub-25 nm particles in the upper residual layer. These particles may be entrained into the well-mixed boundary layer and observed at the surface. We attribute our observations to new particle formation in the topmost part of the residual layer.
Jiangchuan Tao, Ye Kuang, Nan Ma, Juan Hong, Yele Sun, Wanyun Xu, Yanyan Zhang, Yao He, Qingwei Luo, Linhong Xie, Hang Su, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7409–7427,Short summary
The mechanism of secondary aerosol (SA) formation can be affected by relative humidity (RH) and has different influences on the particle CCN activity under different RH conditions. In the North China Plain, we find different responses of CCN activity and enhancements of CCN number concentration to SA formation under different RH conditions. In addition, variations of aerosol mixing state due to SA formation contribute some of the largest uncertainties in predicting CCN number concentration.
Caroline C. Womack, Katherine M. Manfred, Nicholas L. Wagner, Gabriela Adler, Alessandro Franchin, Kara D. Lamb, Ann M. Middlebrook, Joshua P. Schwarz, Charles A. Brock, Steven S. Brown, and Rebecca A. Washenfelder
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7235–7252,Short summary
Microscopic particles interact with sunlight and affect the earth's climate in ways that are not fully understood. Aerosols from wildfire smoke present particular challenges due to their complexity in shape and composition. We demonstrate that we can experimentally measure aerosol optical properties for many types of smoke particles, using measurements of smoke from controlled burns, but that the method does not work well for smoke with high soot content.
Anna L. Hodshire, Emily Ramnarine, Ali Akherati, Matthew L. Alvarado, Delphine K. Farmer, Shantanu H. Jathar, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Chantelle R. Lonsdale, Timothy B. Onasch, Stephen R. Springston, Jian Wang, Yang Wang, Lawrence I. Kleinman, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, and Jeffrey R. Pierce
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6839–6855,Short summary
Biomass burning emits particles and vapors that can impact both health and climate. Here, we investigate the role of dilution in the evolution of aerosol size and composition in observed US wildfire smoke plumes. Centers of plumes dilute more slowly than edges. We see differences in concentrations and composition between the centers and edges both in the first measurement and in subsequent measurements. Our findings support the hypothesis that plume dilution influences smoke aging.
Maria Kezoudi, Matthias Tesche, Helen Smith, Alexandra Tsekeri, Holger Baars, Maximilian Dollner, Víctor Estellés, Johannes Bühl, Bernadett Weinzierl, Zbigniew Ulanowski, Detlef Müller, and Vassilis Amiridis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6781–6797,Short summary
Mineral dust concentrations in the diameter range from 0.4 to 14.0 μm were measured with the balloon-borne UCASS optical particle counter. Launches were coordinated with ground-based remote-sensing and airborne in situ measurements during a Saharan dust outbreak over Cyprus. Particle number concentrations reached 50 cm−3 for the diameter range 0.8–13.9 μm. Comparisons with aircraft data show reasonable agreement in magnitude and shape of the particle size distribution.
Sho Ohata, Makoto Koike, Atsushi Yoshida, Nobuhiro Moteki, Kouji Adachi, Naga Oshima, Hitoshi Matsui, Oliver Eppers, Heiko Bozem, Marco Zanatta, and Andreas B. Herber
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Vertical profiles of black carbon (BC) in the Arctic were measured during the PAMARCMiP aircraft-based experiment in spring 2018 and compared with those observed during previous aircraft campaigns in 2008, 2010, and 2015. Their differences were explained primarily by the year-to-year variation of biomass burning activities in northern high latitudes over Eurasia. Our observations provide bases to evaluate numerical model simulations that assess the BC radiative effects in the Arctic spring.
Anbao Zhu, Haiming Xu, Jiechun Deng, Jing Ma, and Shuhui Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5919–5933,
Dandan Zhao, Jinyuan Xin, Chongshui Gong, Jiannong Quan, Yuesi Wang, Guiqian Tang, Yongxiang Ma, Lindong Dai, Xiaoyan Wu, Guangjing Liu, and Yongjing Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5739–5753,Short summary
The influence of aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) on the boundary layer structure is nonlinear. The threshold of the modification effects of ARF on the boundary layer structure was determined for the first time, highlighting that once ARF exceeded a certain value, the boundary layer would quickly stabilize and aggravate air pollution. This could provide useful information for relevant atmospheric-environment improvement measures and policies.
Long Peng, Lei Li, Guohua Zhang, Xubing Du, Xinming Wang, Ping'an Peng, Guoying Sheng, and Xinhui Bi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5605–5613,Short summary
We build a novel system that utilizes an aerodynamic aerosol classifier (AAC) combined with a single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS) to simultaneously characterize the volume equivalent diameter (Dve), chemical compositions, and effective density (ρe) of individual particles in real time. A test of the AAC-SPAMS with both spherical and aspherical particles shows that the deviations between the measured and theoretical values are less than 6 %.
Ju-Mee Ryoo, Leonhard Pfister, Rei Ueyama, Paquita Zuidema, Robert Wood, Ian Chang, and Jens Redemann
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Meteorology influences the aerosol-cloud interaction. Thus, it is critical to understand the meteorological characteristics during the deployment to better interpret the airborne measurement. Furthermore, it is crucial to know how different they are compared to the climatological mean in various temporal and spatial scales. This paper provides a thorough overview of the meteorology reflecting the coupled land-ocean-atmosphere system and the representativeness of the deployment months.
Luca Ferrero, Asta Gregorič, Griša Močnik, Martin Rigler, Sergio Cogliati, Francesca Barnaba, Luca Di Liberto, Gian Paolo Gobbi, Niccolò Losi, and Ezio Bolzacchini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4869–4897,Short summary
The work experimentally quantifies the impact of cloudiness and cloud type on the atmospheric heating rate of black and brown carbon. The most impacting clouds were stratocumulus, altostratus and stratus. Clouds caused a decrease of the heating rate of about 12 % per okta. The black carbon decease was slightly higher with respect to that of brown carbon. This study highlights the need to take into account the role of cloudiness when modelling light-absorbing aerosol climate forcing.
Roland Stirnberg, Jan Cermak, Simone Kotthaus, Martial Haeffelin, Hendrik Andersen, Julia Fuchs, Miae Kim, Jean-Eudes Petit, and Olivier Favez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3919–3948,Short summary
Air pollution endangers human health and poses a problem particularly in densely populated areas. Here, an explainable machine learning approach is used to analyse periods of high particle concentrations for a suburban site southwest of Paris to better understand its atmospheric drivers. Air pollution is particularly excaberated by low temperatures and low mixed layer heights, but processes vary substantially between and within seasons.
Julia Schneider, Kristina Höhler, Paavo Heikkilä, Jorma Keskinen, Barbara Bertozzi, Pia Bogert, Tobias Schorr, Nsikanabasi Silas Umo, Franziska Vogel, Zoé Brasseur, Yusheng Wu, Simo Hakala, Jonathan Duplissy, Dmitri Moisseev, Markku Kulmala, Michael P. Adams, Benjamin J. Murray, Kimmo Korhonen, Liqing Hao, Erik S. Thomson, Dimitri Castarède, Thomas Leisner, Tuukka Petäjä, and Ottmar Möhler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3899–3918,Short summary
By triggering the formation of ice crystals, ice-nucleating particles (INP) strongly influence cloud formation. Continuous, long-term measurements are needed to characterize the atmospheric INP variability. Here, a first long-term time series of INP spectra measured in the boreal forest for more than 1 year is presented, showing a clear seasonal cycle. It is shown that the seasonal dependency of INP concentrations and prevalent INP types is driven by the abundance of biogenic aerosol.
Kevin J. Sanchez, Gregory C. Roberts, Georges Saliba, Lynn M. Russell, Cynthia Twohy, J. Michael Reeves, Ruhi S. Humphries, Melita D. Keywood, Jason P. Ward, and Ian M. McRobert
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3427–3446,Short summary
Measurements of particles and their properties were made from aircraft over the Southern Ocean. Aerosol transported from the Antarctic coast is shown to greatly enhance particle concentrations over the Southern Ocean. The occurrence of precipitation was shown to be associated with the lowest particle concentrations over the Southern Ocean. These particles are important due to their ability to enhance cloud droplet concentrations, resulting in more sunlight being reflected by the clouds.
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The study reports the transition in the atmospheric emission of particles and gases from on-road heavy-duty trucks (HDTs) caused by the modernisation of the fleet. We measured particle number (PN), particle mass (PM), black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC), particle size distributions, and volatility in the plumes of 556 individual HDTs. Significant but different changes in emissions were evident for various pollutants with respect to emission standards.
The study reports the transition in the atmospheric emission of particles and gases from on-road...