Articles | Volume 16, issue 15
Research article 03 Aug 2016
Research article | 03 Aug 2016
A method for the direct measurement of surface tension of collected atmospherically relevant aerosol particles using atomic force microscopy
Andrew D. Hritz et al.
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Laboratory Studies | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Toward closure between predicted and observed particle viscosity over a wide range of temperatures and relative humidityThe effects of morphology, mobility size, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) material coating on the ice nucleation activity of black carbon in the cirrus regimeThe ice-nucleating activity of Arctic sea surface microlayer samples and marine algal culturesSize-Resolved Atmospheric Ice Nucleating Particles during East Asian Dust EventsComparing secondary organic aerosol (SOA) volatility distributions derived from isothermal SOA particle evaporation data and FIGAERO–CIMS measurementsLaboratory studies of fresh and aged biomass burning aerosol emitted from east African biomass fuels – Part 1: Optical propertiesEffect of mixing structure on the water uptake of mixtures of ammonium sulfate and phthalic acid particlesBrown carbon's emission factors and optical characteristics in household biomass burning: Developing a novel algorithm for estimating the contribution of brown carbonEnhanced growth rate of atmospheric particles from sulfuric acidAqueous phase behavior of glyoxal and methylglyoxal observed with carbon and oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopyComposition and volatility of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed from oxidation of real tree emissions compared to simplified volatile organic compound (VOC) systemsEffects of SO2 on optical properties of secondary organic aerosol generated from photooxidation of toluene under different relative humidity conditionsInfluence of the dry aerosol particle size distribution and morphology on the cloud condensation nuclei activation. An experimental and theoretical investigationExperimental investigation into the volatilities of highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs)Detection of tar brown carbon with a single particle soot photometer (SP2)Complex refractive indices and single-scattering albedo of global dust aerosols in the shortwave spectrum and relationship to size and iron contentTechnical note: Frenkel, Halsey and Hill analysis of water on clay minerals: toward closure between cloud condensation nuclei activity and water adsorptionLiquid–liquid phase separation and viscosity within secondary organic aerosol generated from diesel fuel vaporsLaboratory study of the heterogeneous ice nucleation on black-carbon-containing aerosolSpecifying the light-absorbing properties of aerosol particles in fresh snow samples, collected at the Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus (UFS), ZugspitzeOptimization of process models for determining volatility distribution and viscosity of organic aerosols from isothermal particle evaporation dataInversely modeling homogeneous H2SO4 − H2O nucleation rate in exhaust-related conditionsThe importance of crystalline phases in ice nucleation by volcanic ashHeterogeneous ice nucleation properties of natural desert dust particles coated with a surrogate of secondary organic aerosolCloud condensation nuclei activity of six pollenkitts and the influence of their surface activityLinks of climate variability in Arctic sea ice, Eurasian teleconnection pattern and summer surface ozone pollution in North ChinaThe effect of hydrophobic glassy organic material on the cloud condensation nuclei activity of particles with different morphologiesTechnical note: The role of evolving surface tension in the formation of cloud dropletsPhysical properties of secondary photochemical aerosol from OH oxidation of a cyclic siloxaneCloud droplet activation of secondary organic aerosol is mainly controlled by molecular weight, not water solubilityProduction of particulate brown carbon during atmospheric aging of residential wood-burning emissionsEvaluating the performance of two surface layer schemes for the momentum and heat exchange processes during severe haze pollution in Jing-Jin-Ji in eastern ChinaMeasured particle water uptake enhanced by co-condensing vapoursCloud droplet activation of black carbon particles coated with organic compounds of varying solubilityMeasurement and modeling of the multiwavelength optical properties of uncoated flame-generated sootLiquid–liquid phase separation in organic particles containing one and two organic species: importance of the average O : CEstablishing the impact of model surfactants on cloud condensation nuclei activity of sea spray aerosol mimicsMorphological transformation of soot: investigation of microphysical processes during the condensation of sulfuric acid and limonene ozonolysis product vaporsExperimental study of H2SO4 aerosol nucleation at high ionization levelsDetermination of the refractive index of insoluble organic extracts from atmospheric aerosol over the visible wavelength range using optical tweezersHygroscopic behavior of atmospheric aerosols containing nitrate salts and water-soluble organic acidsIce-nucleating particle concentrations unaffected by urban air pollution in Beijing, ChinaInvestigating biomass burning aerosol morphology using a laser imaging nephelometerResolving nanoparticle growth mechanisms from size- and time-dependent growth rate analysisA detailed characterization of the Saharan dust collected during the Fennec campaign in 2011: in situ ground-based and laboratory measurementsHygroscopicity of organic surrogate compounds from biomass burning and their effect on the efflorescence of ammonium sulfate in mixed aerosol particlesNew particle formation in the sulfuric acid–dimethylamine–water system: reevaluation of CLOUD chamber measurements and comparison to an aerosol nucleation and growth modelThe role of ions in new particle formation in the CLOUD chamberPotential influences of neglecting aerosol effects on the NCEP GFS precipitation forecastEmission characteristics of refractory black carbon aerosols from fresh biomass burning: a perspective from laboratory experiments
Sabin Kasparoglu, Ying Li, Manabu Shiraiwa, and Markus D. Petters
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1127–1141,Short summary
Viscosity is important because it determines the lifetime, impact, and fate of particulate matter. We collected new data to rigorously test a framework that is used to constrain the phase state in global simulations. We find that the framework is accurate as long as appropriate compound specific inputs are available.
Cuiqi Zhang, Yue Zhang, Martin J. Wolf, Leonid Nichman, Chuanyang Shen, Timothy B. Onasch, Longfei Chen, and Daniel J. Cziczo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13957–13984,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) is considered the second most important global warming agent. However, the role of BC aerosol–cloud–climate interactions in the cirrus formation remains uncertain. Our study of selected BC types and sizes suggests that increases in diameter, compactness, and/or surface oxidation of BC particles lead to more efficient ice nucleation (IN) via pore condensation freezing (PCF) pathways，and that coatings of common secondary organic aerosol (SOA) materials can inhibit ice formation.
Luisa Ickes, Grace C. E. Porter, Robert Wagner, Michael P. Adams, Sascha Bierbauer, Allan K. Bertram, Merete Bilde, Sigurd Christiansen, Annica M. L. Ekman, Elena Gorokhova, Kristina Höhler, Alexei A. Kiselev, Caroline Leck, Ottmar Möhler, Benjamin J. Murray, Thea Schiebel, Romy Ullrich, and Matthew E. Salter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11089–11117,Short summary
The Arctic is a region where aerosols are scarce. Sea spray might be a potential source of aerosols acting as ice-nucleating particles. We investigate two common phytoplankton species (Melosira arctica and Skeletonema marinoi) and present their ice nucleation activity in comparison with Arctic seawater microlayer samples from different field campaigns. We also aim to understand the aerosolization process of marine biological samples and the potential effect on the ice nucleation activity.
Jingchuan Chen, Zhijun Wu, Jie Chen, Naama Reicher, Xin Fang, Yinon Rudich, and Min Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Asian mineral dust is a crucial contributor to global ice nucleating particles (INPs), while its size-resolved information on freezing activity is extremely rare. Here we conducted the first known INP measurements of size-resolved airborne East Asian dust particles. An explicit size dependence of both INP concentration and surface ice active density was observed. The new parameterizations can be widely applied in models to better characterize and predict ice nucleation activities of Asian dust.
Olli-Pekka Tikkanen, Angela Buchholz, Arttu Ylisirniö, Siegfried Schobesberger, Annele Virtanen, and Taina Yli-Juuti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10441–10458,Short summary
We compared the volatility distributions of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) constituents estimated from isothermal evaporation experiments from either particle size change data, by process modelling and global optimization, or from mass spectrometer data with positive matrix factorization analysis. Our results show that, despite the two very different estimation methods, the volatility distributions are comparable if uncertainties are taken into account.
Damon M. Smith, Marc N. Fiddler, Rudra P. Pokhrel, and Solomon Bililign
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10149–10168,Short summary
Biomass burning aerosol can scatter and absorb light, contributing to the cooling or warming of the planet. The scattering and absorption properties (optical properties) change as aerosol ages and interacts with atmospheric gases. Optical properties also depend on burning conditions, fuel type, and morphology. Africa is a major source of biomass burning aerosols, but there are very few laboratory studies. This study focuses on the optical properties of aerosols from east African biomass fuels.
Weigang Wang, Ting Lei, Andreas Zuend, Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, Yajun Shi, Maofa Ge, and Mingyuan Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Aerosol mixing state regulates the interactions between water molecules and particles and thus controls the aerosol activation and hygroscopic growth, which thereby influences the visibility degradation, cloud formation, and its radiative forcing. However, there are only very few studies attempting to investigate their interactions with water molecules. Here, we investigated the effect of organic coatings on the hygroscopic behavior of the inorganic core.
Jianzhong Sun, Guorui Zhi, Regina Hitzenberger, Yingjun Chen, and Chongguo Tian
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACP
Dominik Stolzenburg, Mario Simon, Ananth Ranjithkumar, Andreas Kürten, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Hamish Gordon, Sebastian Ehrhart, Henning Finkenzeller, Lukas Pichelstorfer, Tuomo Nieminen, Xu-Cheng He, Sophia Brilke, Mao Xiao, António Amorim, Rima Baalbaki, Andrea Baccarini, Lisa Beck, Steffen Bräkling, Lucía Caudillo Murillo, Dexian Chen, Biwu Chu, Lubna Dada, António Dias, Josef Dommen, Jonathan Duplissy, Imad El Haddad, Lukas Fischer, Loic Gonzalez Carracedo, Martin Heinritzi, Changhyuk Kim, Theodore K. Koenig, Weimeng Kong, Houssni Lamkaddam, Chuan Ping Lee, Markus Leiminger, Zijun Li, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Guillaume Marie, Ruby Marten, Tatjana Müller, Wei Nie, Eva Partoll, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Maxim Philippov, Matti P. Rissanen, Birte Rörup, Siegfried Schobesberger, Simone Schuchmann, Jiali Shen, Mikko Sipilä, Gerhard Steiner, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, António Tomé, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Andrea C. Wagner, Mingyi Wang, Yonghong Wang, Stefan K. Weber, Daniela Wimmer, Peter J. Wlasits, Yusheng Wu, Qing Ye, Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Urs Baltensperger, Kenneth S. Carslaw, Joachim Curtius, Neil M. Donahue, Richard C. Flagan, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, Jos Lelieveld, Rainer Volkamer, Jasper Kirkby, and Paul M. Winkler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7359–7372,Short summary
Sulfuric acid is a major atmospheric vapour for aerosol formation. If new particles grow fast enough, they can act as cloud droplet seeds or affect air quality. In a controlled laboratory set-up, we demonstrate that van der Waals forces enhance growth from sulfuric acid. We disentangle the effects of ammonia, ions and particle hydration, presenting a complete picture of sulfuric acid growth from molecular clusters onwards. In a climate model, we show its influence on the global aerosol budget.
Georgia Michailoudi, Jack J. Lin, Hayato Yuzawa, Masanari Nagasaka, Marko Huttula, Nobuhiro Kosugi, Theo Kurtén, Minna Patanen, and Nønne L. Prisle
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This study provides insight into hydration of two significant atmospheric compounds, glyoxal and methylglyoxal. Using synchrotron radiation excited X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we confirm that glyoxal is fully hydrated in water, and for the first time, we experimentally detect enol structures in aqueous methylglyoxal. Our results support the contribution of these compounds to secondary organic aerosol formation, known to have a large uncertainty in atmospheric models and climate predictions.
Arttu Ylisirniö, Angela Buchholz, Claudia Mohr, Zijun Li, Luis Barreira, Andrew Lambe, Celia Faiola, Eetu Kari, Taina Yli-Juuti, Sergey A. Nizkorodov, Douglas R. Worsnop, Annele Virtanen, and Siegfried Schobesberger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5629–5644,Short summary
We studied the chemical composition and volatility of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles formed from emissions of Scots pines and compared those results to SOA formed from α-pinene and from a sesquiterpene mixture. We found that SOA formed from single precursors cannot capture the properties of SOA formed from real plant emissions.
Wenyu Zhang, Weigang Wang, Junling Li, Chao Peng, Kun Li, Li Zhou, Bo Shi, Yan Chen, Mingyuan Liu, and Maofa Ge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4477–4492,Short summary
We investigated the effect of SO2 under different humidities on optical properties of toluene-derived SOA under four conditions with CRDs and PAX at 532 and 375 nm, respectively. Our results showed that SO2 under different humidities can change the refractive complex index of toluene SOA by influencing the multiphase processes and altering the aerosol chemical compositions. Different atmospheric conditions could affect the properties of toluene SOA, as well as the global radiative balance.
Junteng Wu, Alessandro Faccinetto, Symphorien Grimonprez, Sébastien Batut, Jérôme Yon, Pascale Desgroux, and Denis Petitprez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4209–4225,Short summary
Soot particles released during anthropogenic activities may lead to positive direct or negative indirect climate forcing depending on their aging in the atmosphere. The latter occurs whenever soot particles act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and trigger the formation of persistent clouds. Herein, we investigate the impact of the size distribution and morphology of freshly emitted soot particles on their aging process and propose a model to quantitatively predict their efficiency as CCN.
Otso Peräkylä, Matthieu Riva, Liine Heikkinen, Lauriane Quéléver, Pontus Roldin, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 649–669,Short summary
Highly oxygenated organic molecules have been suggested to form a large part of secondary organic aerosol. However, with their exotic structures, their volatilities are not well known, making their exact role in particle formation hard to assess. In laboratory experiments, we found the volatility of HOMs formed in the ozonolysis of the monoterpene alpha-pinene to be in the middle of earlier estimates. The volatilities of HOMs could be well explained in terms of their molecular formulae.
Joel C. Corbin and Martin Gysel-Beer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15673–15690,Short summary
We review the literature to refine the definition of "tar balls" (or tar particles). Then, using a marine-engine data set, we show that a standard SP2 can identify tar particles in two ways, as evaporating and non-incandescing (30 % of tar particles by number) or incandescing particles which scatter more light than soot at incandescence (70 % of tar particles by number). To our knowledge, no other technique can provide in situ, real-time evidence for the presence of tar particles in an aerosol.
Claudia Di Biagio, Paola Formenti, Yves Balkanski, Lorenzo Caponi, Mathieu Cazaunau, Edouard Pangui, Emilie Journet, Sophie Nowak, Meinrat O. Andreae, Konrad Kandler, Thuraya Saeed, Stuart Piketh, David Seibert, Earle Williams, and Jean-François Doussin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15503–15531,Short summary
This paper presents a new dataset of laboratory measurements of the shortwave (SW) spectral complex refractive index and single-scattering albedo (SSA) for global mineral dust aerosols of varying origin and composition. Our results show that the dust refractive index and SSA vary strongly from source to source, mostly due to particle iron content changes. We recommend that source-dependent values of the SW spectral refractive index and SSA be used in models and remote sensing applications.
Courtney D. Hatch, Paul R. Tumminello, Megan A. Cassingham, Ann L. Greenaway, Rebecca Meredith, and Matthew J. Christie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13581–13589,Short summary
Atmospheric mineral dust has been identified as an important contributor to cloud formation and cloud properties that influence the Earth's climate, yet experimental measurements of climate model parameters currently disagree. This study demonstrates current best practices for analyzing water adsorption measurements, resulting in significantly improved agreement among experimental practices. As such, more accurate parameters can be used to improve simulations of aerosol climate effects.
Mijung Song, Adrian M. Maclean, Yuanzhou Huang, Natalie R. Smith, Sandra L. Blair, Julia Laskin, Alexander Laskin, Wing-Sy Wong DeRieux, Ying Li, Manabu Shiraiwa, Sergey A. Nizkorodov, and Allan K. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12515–12529,
Leonid Nichman, Martin Wolf, Paul Davidovits, Timothy B. Onasch, Yue Zhang, Doug R. Worsnop, Janarjan Bhandari, Claudio Mazzoleni, and Daniel J. Cziczo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12175–12194,Short summary
Previous studies showed widespread ice nucleation activity of soot. In this systematic study we investigated the factors that affect the heterogeneous ice nucleation activity of soot surrogates in the cirrus cloud regime. Our observations are consistent with an ice nucleation mechanism of pore condensation followed by freezing. The results show significant variations in ice nucleation activity as a function of size, morphology, and surface chemistry of the black-carbon-containing particles.
Martin Schnaiter, Claudia Linke, Inas Ibrahim, Alexei Kiselev, Fritz Waitz, Thomas Leisner, Stefan Norra, and Till Rehm
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10829–10844,Short summary
When combustion particles are deposited to the ground, they darken Earth's snow and ice surfaces by even tiny quantities. This darkening reduces the back reflection of sunlight and induces an additional climate warming. Particles from fresh snow samples were investigated according to their light absorption strength. Enhanced absorption was found in the snow that cannot fully be attributed to combustion particles. Dust and biogenic matter are likely the cause of this additional snow darkening.
Olli-Pekka Tikkanen, Väinö Hämäläinen, Grazia Rovelli, Antti Lipponen, Manabu Shiraiwa, Jonathan P. Reid, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, and Taina Yli-Juuti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9333–9350,Short summary
We assessed how well the organic aerosol particle composition and viscosity can be captured by optimizing process models to match particle evaporation data. We performed the analysis for both artificial and real evaporation data and tested two optimization algorithms. Our findings show that the optimization method yields a good estimate for the studied properties. The timescale of the evaporation data and particle size was found to be important in identifying the volatility of organic compounds.
Miska Olin, Jenni Alanen, Marja R. T. Palmroth, Topi Rönkkö, and Miikka Dal Maso
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6367–6388,Short summary
The mechanism for new particle formation (NPF) in vehicle exhaust is currently unknown. This study focuses on determining the NPF rate in vehicle exhaust caused by sulfuric acid, which is the most promising candidate involved in the NPF process. The NPF rate function obtained in this study helps in examining the NPF mechanism in exhaust plumes, and it can also be used to improve air quality models. The results also imply that the NPF process cannot be fully explained by sulfuric acid only.
Elena C. Maters, Donald B. Dingwell, Corrado Cimarelli, Dirk Müller, Thomas F. Whale, and Benjamin J. Murray
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5451–5465,Short summary
This experimental study investigates the influence of volcanic ash chemical composition, crystallinity, and mineralogy on its ability to promote freezing of supercooled water. The results indicate that crystals in ash play a key role in this process and suggest that feldspars and perhaps pyroxenes in ash may be highly ice-active. These findings contribute to improving understanding of the potential of ash emissions from different explosive eruptions to impact ice formation in the atmosphere.
Zamin A. Kanji, Ryan C. Sullivan, Monika Niemand, Paul J. DeMott, Anthony J. Prenni, Cédric Chou, Harald Saathoff, and Ottmar Möhler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5091–5110,Short summary
The ice nucleation ability of two natural desert dusts coated with a proxy of secondary organic aerosol is presented for temperatures and relative humidity conditions relevant for mixed-phase clouds. We find that at the tested conditions, there is no effect on the ice nucleation ability of the particles due to the organic coating. Furthermore, the two dust samples do not show variability within measurement uncertainty. Particle size and surface area may play a role in any difference observed.
Nønne L. Prisle, Jack J. Lin, Sara Purdue, Haisheng Lin, J. Carson Meredith, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4741–4761,Short summary
We measure surface activity and cloud-forming potential of pollenkitt, an organic mixture coating pollen grains. Cloud droplet formation is affected through both surface tension and bulk depletion, with a consistent particle size-dependent signature. We observe nonideal solution effects in pollenkitt mixtures with ammonium sulfate salt. Our results suggest sensitivity of general water interactions, including cloud formation by pollen and their fragments, to both atmospheric humidity and aging.
Zhicong Yin, Huijun Wang, Yuyan Li, Xiaohui Ma, and Xinyu Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3857–3871,Short summary
Summer surface ozone pollution has rapidly intensified recently, damaging human and ecosystem health. This study aims to examine the large-scale atmospheric circulations associated with the interannual variation in summer surface O3 pollution in North China based on long-term meteorological observations. The impacts of Arctic sea ice were also revealed. The outcomes may provide a basis for understanding the interannual variation of 03 pollution and its seasonal to interannual prediction.
Ankit Tandon, Nicholas E. Rothfuss, and Markus D. Petters
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3325–3339,Short summary
Organic compounds may form a barrier to condensation. Such barriers have been hypothesized to prevent water and other substances from mixing with salt cores. This will hinder the particles' ability to aid cloud formation of < 100 nm particles. Here we perform experiments encasing particles in plastic shells akin to water bottles. Against expectations, the plastic shell did not alter the droplet activation behavior of the encased particles. Water appears to readily permeate the plastic shell.
James F. Davies, Andreas Zuend, and Kevin R. Wilson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2933–2946,Short summary
The formation of cloud droplets involves the condensation of water onto preexisting particles in the atmosphere. The efficiency of this process depends on the nature of the particles, and recent work has shown that organic-rich particles may exhibit a suppressed surface tension that promotes the formation of cloud droplets. In this technical note, we discuss the mechanism for this and highlight the evolution of surface tension as the key factor in the extent of surface effects.
Nathan J. Janechek, Rachel F. Marek, Nathan Bryngelson, Ashish Singh, Robert L. Bullard, William H. Brune, and Charles O. Stanier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1649–1664,Short summary
Cyclic volatile methyl siloxanes (cVMSs) are widely used chemicals in personal care products which can undergo oxidation to generate secondary organic aerosol. In this work, cVMS oxidation aerosols were generated using a photochemical chamber and the physical properties characterized. The aerosol yield, volatility, hygroscopicity, morphology, elemental composition, and proposed parameters for treatment as secondary organic aerosol in atmospheric models are provided.
Jian Wang, John E. Shilling, Jiumeng Liu, Alla Zelenyuk, David M. Bell, Markus D. Petters, Ryan Thalman, Fan Mei, Rahul A. Zaveri, and Guangjie Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 941–954,Short summary
Earlier studies showed organic hygroscopicity increases with oxidation level. Such increases have been attributed to higher water solubility for more oxidized organics. By systematically varying the water content of activating droplets, we show that for secondary organic aerosols, essentially all organics are dissolved at the point of droplet activation. Therefore, the organic hygroscopicity is not limited by solubility but is dictated mainly by the molecular weight of organic species.
Nivedita K. Kumar, Joel C. Corbin, Emily A. Bruns, Dario Massabó, Jay G. Slowik, Luka Drinovec, Griša Močnik, Paolo Prati, Athanasia Vlachou, Urs Baltensperger, Martin Gysel, Imad El-Haddad, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17843–17861,Short summary
It is clear that considerable uncertainties still exist in understanding the magnitude of aerosol absorption on a global scale and its contribution to global warming. This manuscript provides a comprehensive assessment of the optical absorption by organic aerosols (brown carbon) from residential wood combustion as a function of atmospheric aging.
Yue Peng, Hong Wang, Yubin Li, Changwei Liu, Tianliang Zhao, Xiaoye Zhang, Zhiqiu Gao, Tong Jiang, Huizheng Che, and Meng Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17421–17435,Short summary
Two surface layer schemes are evaluated in eastern China based on observational flux data. The results indicate that the Li scheme better describes regional atmosphere stratification compared with the MM5 scheme, especially for the transition stage from unstable to stable atmosphere conditions, corresponding to PM2.5 accumulation. Our research suggests the potential improved possibilities for severe haze prediction in eastern China by coupling Li online into atmosphere chemical models.
Dawei Hu, David Topping, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14925–14937,Short summary
Co-condensation of inorganic or organic vapours on growing droplets could significantly enhance both CCN and cloud droplet number concentration, thereby influencing climate. Until now, there has been very few direct observational evidence of this process. We exposed involatile inorganic particles to a moist atmosphere containing a controlled amount of an organic semi-volatile vapour. We measured a much greater growth of the particles than if they had only been exposed to water vapour.
Maryam Dalirian, Arttu Ylisirniö, Angela Buchholz, Daniel Schlesinger, Johan Ström, Annele Virtanen, and Ilona Riipinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12477–12489,Short summary
Atmospheric black carbon (BC) particles are a concern due to their impact on air quality and climate. Their net climate effect is, however, still uncertain. In this study, laboratory measurements were performed to investigate cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity of BC particles, in pure state or coated by various organic species. Our results show that existing theories have potential in describing the CCN activation of atmospheric BC mixed with soluble pollutants.
Sara D. Forestieri, Taylor M. Helgestad, Andrew T. Lambe, Lindsay Renbaum-Wolff, Daniel A. Lack, Paola Massoli, Eben S. Cross, Manvendra K. Dubey, Claudio Mazzoleni, Jason S. Olfert, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, Andrew Freedman, Paul Davidovits, Timothy B. Onasch, and Christopher D. Cappa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12141–12159,Short summary
We characterized optical properties of flame-derived black carbon particles and interpret our observations through the use of Mie theory and Rayleigh–Debye–Gans theory. We determined that the mass absorption coefficient is independent of particle collapse and use this to derive theory- and wavelength-specific refractive indices for black carbon (BC). We demonstrate the inadequacy of Mie theory and suggest an alternative approach for atmospheric models to better represent light absorption by BC.
Mijung Song, Suhan Ham, Ryan J. Andrews, Yuan You, and Allan K. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12075–12084,
Sara D. Forestieri, Sean M. Staudt, Thomas M. Kuborn, Katharine Faber, Christopher R. Ruehl, Timothy H. Bertram, and Christopher D. Cappa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10985–11005,Short summary
Our work establishes how surface tension reduction influences droplet growth and activation of simple sea spray mimics (NaCl coated with fatty acids). Fatty acids can substantially reduce droplet surface tension near activation but have limited impact on activation. Coating of NaCl by palmitic acid (a wax) impedes water uptake, but this impedance is removed if oleic acid (a liquid) is mixed in. The properties that surface-active compounds need to impact activation are theoretically examined.
Xiangyu Pei, Mattias Hallquist, Axel C. Eriksson, Joakim Pagels, Neil M. Donahue, Thomas Mentel, Birgitta Svenningsson, William Brune, and Ravi Kant Pathak
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9845–9860,Short summary
The findings in this study show that morphological transformation of soot occurs via two key complementary and sequential processes, i.e., void filling in the particle and its diameter growth. To quantify the state of morphological transformation, i.e., the utilization of material for filling and growth during the condensation processes, a framework was developed which can further be utilized to quantify the effect of condensed material on the optical and hygroscopic properties of soot.
Maja Tomicic, Martin Bødker Enghoff, and Henrik Svensmark
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5921–5930,Short summary
A supernova within a distance of about 100 pc from the Earth would increase the cosmic ray flux and thereby the atmospheric ionization. We study the impact of high ion concentrations on aerosol nucleation through experiments. The measurements show that nucleation increases by up to an order of magnitude when the ionization increases from background to supernova levels under fixed concentrations of the nucleating gas. This suggests that a supernova could influence the atmospheric microphysics.
Rosalie H. Shepherd, Martin D. King, Amelia A. Marks, Neil Brough, and Andrew D. Ward
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5235–5252,Short summary
The refractive index of atmospheric extracts sourced from urban (London), remote (Antarctica), and woodsmoke aerosol was determined by applying optical trapping simultaneously with Mie spectroscopy. In addition, owing to the absorbing nature of woodsmoke and an aqueous humic acid aerosol extract, the absorption Ångström exponent could be determined.The refractive index and absorption Ångström exponent were then applied in a top-of-the-atmosphere albedo radiation transfer model.
Bo Jing, Zhen Wang, Fang Tan, Yucong Guo, Shengrui Tong, Weigang Wang, Yunhong Zhang, and Maofa Ge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5115–5127,Short summary
The nitrate/organic acid mixed aerosols exhibit varying phase behavior and hygroscopic growth depending upon the type of components in the particles. Our results reveal that the coexisting organic acid has considerable impacts on the phase and morphology of nitrate particles in the low and medium RH range, which thus result in obvious enhancement or suppression of water uptake with increasing RH. This new information provided here has important implications for atmospheric chemistry.
Jie Chen, Zhijun Wu, Stefanie Augustin-Bauditz, Sarah Grawe, Markus Hartmann, Xiangyu Pei, Zirui Liu, Dongsheng Ji, and Heike Wex
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3523–3539,Short summary
The ice nucleation activity of urban aerosols in the atmosphere of Beijing was detected in this study. Results showed that ice-nucleating particle (INP) concentrations were not influenced by the highly variable numbers of atmospheric particles, both in mass and particle number concentrations, implying that INP concentrations might not be influenced directly by anthropogenic activities, at least not down to roughly −25 °C and maybe even below.
Katherine M. Manfred, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Nicholas L. Wagner, Gabriela Adler, Frank Erdesz, Caroline C. Womack, Kara D. Lamb, Joshua P. Schwarz, Alessandro Franchin, Vanessa Selimovic, Robert J. Yokelson, and Daniel M. Murphy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1879–1894,Short summary
In this study, we use a new laser imaging nephelometer to measure the bulk aerosol scattering phase function for biomass burning aerosol from controlled fires. By comparing measurements to models for spherical and fractal particles, we demonstrate that the dominant morphology varies by fuel type. This instrument has unique capabilities to directly measure how morphology affects optical properties, and can be used in the future for important validations of remote sensing retrievals.
Lukas Pichelstorfer, Dominik Stolzenburg, John Ortega, Thomas Karl, Harri Kokkola, Anton Laakso, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, James N. Smith, Peter H. McMurry, and Paul M. Winkler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1307–1323,Short summary
Quantification of new particle formation as a source of atmospheric aerosol is clearly of importance for climate and health aspects. In our new study we developed two analysis methods that allow retrieval of nanoparticle growth dynamics at much higher precision than it was possible so far. Our results clearly demonstrate that growth rates show much more variation than is currently known and suggest that the Kelvin effect governs growth in the sub-10 nm size range.
Adriana Rocha-Lima, J. Vanderlei Martins, Lorraine A. Remer, Martin Todd, John H. Marsham, Sebastian Engelstaedter, Claire L. Ryder, Carolina Cavazos-Guerra, Paulo Artaxo, Peter Colarco, and Richard Washington
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1023–1043,Short summary
We present results of ground-based measurements and subsequent laboratory analysis of Sahara dust samples collected in Algeria and Mauritania during the Fennec campaign in 2011. The results show that the sampled dust has low absorption characteristics and exhibits a distinct spectral bow-like shape. We find distinctive differences in the composition and optical characteristics of the dust from the two sites, corroborating with other studies that not all Saharan dust is the same.
Ting Lei, Andreas Zuend, Yafang Cheng, Hang Su, Weigang Wang, and Maofa Ge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1045–1064,Short summary
Measurements and thermodynamic equilibrium predictions for organic–inorganic aerosols related to components from biomass burning emissions demonstrate a diversity of hygroscopic growth and shrinking behavior, which we observed using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). Controlled laboratory experiments with single solutes and/or with mixed organic–inorganic systems of known phase state will be useful to constrain model parameters of thermodynamic equilibrium models.
Andreas Kürten, Chenxi Li, Federico Bianchi, Joachim Curtius, António Dias, Neil M. Donahue, Jonathan Duplissy, Richard C. Flagan, Jani Hakala, Tuija Jokinen, Jasper Kirkby, Markku Kulmala, Ari Laaksonen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Vladimir Makhmutov, Antti Onnela, Matti P. Rissanen, Mario Simon, Mikko Sipilä, Yuri Stozhkov, Jasmin Tröstl, Penglin Ye, and Peter H. McMurry
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 845–863,Short summary
A recent laboratory study (CLOUD) showed that new particles nucleate efficiently from sulfuric acid and dimethylamine (DMA). The reanalysis of previously published data reveals that the nucleation rates are even faster than previously assumed, i.e., nucleation can proceed at rates that are compatible with collision-controlled new particle formation for atmospheric conditions. This indicates that sulfuric acid–DMA nucleation is likely an important source of particles in the boundary layer.
Robert Wagner, Chao Yan, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Jonathan Duplissy, Tuomo Nieminen, Juha Kangasluoma, Lauri R. Ahonen, Lubna Dada, Jenni Kontkanen, Hanna E. Manninen, Antonio Dias, Antonio Amorim, Paulus S. Bauer, Anton Bergen, Anne-Kathrin Bernhammer, Federico Bianchi, Sophia Brilke, Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Xuemeng Chen, Danielle C. Draper, Lukas Fischer, Carla Frege, Claudia Fuchs, Olga Garmash, Hamish Gordon, Jani Hakala, Liine Heikkinen, Martin Heinritzi, Victoria Hofbauer, Christopher R. Hoyle, Jasper Kirkby, Andreas Kürten, Alexander N. Kvashnin, Tiia Laurila, Michael J. Lawler, Huajun Mai, Vladimir Makhmutov, Roy L. Mauldin III, Ugo Molteni, Leonid Nichman, Wei Nie, Andrea Ojdanic, Antti Onnela, Felix Piel, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Matti P. Rissanen, Nina Sarnela, Simon Schallhart, Kamalika Sengupta, Mario Simon, Dominik Stolzenburg, Yuri Stozhkov, Jasmin Tröstl, Yrjö Viisanen, Alexander L. Vogel, Andrea C. Wagner, Mao Xiao, Penglin Ye, Urs Baltensperger, Joachim Curtius, Neil M. Donahue, Richard C. Flagan, Martin Gallagher, Armin Hansel, James N. Smith, António Tomé, Paul M. Winkler, Douglas Worsnop, Mikael Ehn, Mikko Sipilä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15181–15197,
Mengjiao Jiang, Jinqin Feng, Zhanqing Li, Ruiyu Sun, Yu-Tai Hou, Yuejian Zhu, Bingcheng Wan, Jianping Guo, and Maureen Cribb
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13967–13982,Short summary
Aerosol–cloud interactions have been recognized as playing an important role in precipitation. As a benchmark evaluation of model results that exclude aerosol effects, the operational precipitation forecast (before any aerosol effects included) is evaluated using multiple datasets with the goal of determining if there is any link between the model bias and aerosol loading. The forecast model overestimates light and underestimates heavy rain. Aerosols suppress light rain and enhance heavy rain.
Xiaole Pan, Yugo Kanaya, Fumikazu Taketani, Takuma Miyakawa, Satoshi Inomata, Yuichi Komazaki, Hiroshi Tanimoto, Zhe Wang, Itsushi Uno, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13001–13016,Short summary
Characteristics of refractory black carbon (rBC) from open biomass burning (OBB) have a great impact on regional pollution and climate, in particular in East Asia. However, experimental study on characteristics of rBC from agricultural residue burning in East China was limited. This study performed laboratory experiments: we found that emission of rBC is highly related to flaming burning, and non-rBC to smoldering burning. Rapid condensation of semi-volatile organics resulted in coated rBC.
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In this manuscript, we present a novel, first-principles method for the determination of surface tension of collected liquid aerosol particles. The method uses an atomic force microscope with a specially designed probe to directly measure the surface tension, a physical parameter required for Kohler theory. The measurements were verified using a standard, check-standard and then applied to a dry and humidified oxidized α-pinene aerosol system.
In this manuscript, we present a novel, first-principles method for the determination of surface...