Articles | Volume 15, issue 1
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 319–334, 2015
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
13 Jan 2015
Research article | 13 Jan 2015
Estimation of PM10 concentrations over Seoul using multiple empirical models with AERONET and MODIS data collected during the DRAGON-Asia campaign
S. Seo et al.
No articles found.
Bok H. Baek, Rizzieri Pedruzzi, Minwoo Park, Chi-Tsan Wang, Younha Kim, Chul-Han Song, and Jung-Hun Woo
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4757–4781,Short summary
The Comprehensive Automobile Research System (CARS) is an open-source Python-based automobile emissions inventory model designed to efficiently estimate high-quality emissions. The CARS is designed to utilize the local vehicle activity database, such as vehicle travel distance, road-link-level network information, and vehicle-specific average speed by road type, to generate a temporally and spatially enhanced inventory for policymakers, stakeholders, and the air quality modeling community.
Soon-Young Park, Uzzal Kumar Dash, Jinhyeok Yu, Keiya Yumimoto, Itsushi Uno, and Chul Han Song
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 2773–2790,Short summary
An EnKF was applied to CMAQ for assimilating ground PM2.5 observations from China and South Korea. The EnKF performed better than that without assimilation and even superior to 3D-Var. The reduced MBs in 24 h predictions were 48 % and 27 % by improving ICs and BCs, respectively.
Ukkyo Jeong, Si-Chee Tsay, Nai-Yung Christina Hsu, David M. Giles, John W. Cooper, Jaehwa Lee, Robert J. Swap, Brent N. Holben, James J. Butler, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Somporn Chantara, Hyunkee Hong, Donghee Kim, and Jhoon Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
The ultraviolet (UV) measurements from satellite and ground are important for deriving information on several atmospheric trace and aerosol characteristics. Simultaneous retrievals of aerosol and trace gases in this study suggest that water uptake by aerosols is one of the important phenomena affecting aerosol properties over Northern Thailand, which is important for regional air quality and climate. Obtained aerosol properties covering the UV are also important for various satellite algorithms.
Drew C. Pendergrass, Shixian Zhai, Jhoon Kim, Ja-Ho Koo, Seoyoung Lee, Minah Bae, Soontae Kim, Hong Liao, and Daniel J. Jacob
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1075–1091,Short summary
This paper uses a machine learning algorithm to infer high-resolution maps of particulate air quality in eastern China, Japan, and the Korean peninsula, using data from a geostationary satellite along with meteorology. We then perform an extensive evaluation of this inferred air quality and use it to diagnose trends in the region. We hope this paper and the associated data will be valuable to other scientists interested in epidemiology, air quality, remote sensing, and machine learning.
Sujung Go, Alexei Lyapustin, Gregory L. Schuster, Myungje Choi, Paul Ginoux, Mian Chin, Olga Kalashnikova, Oleg Dubovik, Jhoon Kim, Arlindo da Silva, Brent Holben, and Jeffrey S. Reid
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1395–1423,Short summary
This paper presents a retrieval algorithm of iron-oxide species (hematite, goethite) content in the atmosphere from DSCOVR EPIC observations. Our results display variations within the published range of hematite and goethite over the main dust-source regions but show significant seasonal and spatial variability. This implies a single-viewing satellite instrument with UV–visible channels may provide essential information on shortwave dust direct radiative effects for climate modeling.
Samuel E. LeBlanc, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, Jens Redemann, Connor J. Flynn, Roy R. Johnson, Stephen E. Dunagan, Robert Dahlgren, Jhoon Kim, Myungje Choi, Arlindo M. da Silva, Patricia Castellanos, Qian Tan, Luke Ziemba, Kenneth Lee Thornhill, and Meloë S. Kacenelenbogen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Airborne observations of atmospheric particles and pollution over Korea during a field campaign in May–June 2016 showed that the smallest atmospheric particles are present in the lowest 2 km of the atmosphere. The aerosol size is less repeatable over distances than their optical thickness. We show this with remote sensing (4STAR), in-situ (LARGE) observations, satellite measurements (GOCI), and modeled properties (MERRA-2), and it is contrary to current understanding.
Clémence Rose, Martine Collaud Coen, Elisabeth Andrews, Yong Lin, Isaline Bossert, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Thomas Tuch, Alfred Wiedensohler, Markus Fiebig, Pasi Aalto, Andrés Alastuey, Elisabeth Alonso-Blanco, Marcos Andrade, Begoña Artíñano, Todor Arsov, Urs Baltensperger, Susanne Bastian, Olaf Bath, Johan Paul Beukes, Benjamin T. Brem, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Juan Andrés Casquero-Vera, Sébastien Conil, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Olivier Favez, Harald Flentje, Maria I. Gini, Francisco Javier Gómez-Moreno, Martin Gysel-Beer, Anna Gannet Hallar, Ivo Kalapov, Nikos Kalivitis, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Melita Keywood, Jeong Eun Kim, Sang-Woo Kim, Adam Kristensson, Markku Kulmala, Heikki Lihavainen, Neng-Huei Lin, Hassan Lyamani, Angela Marinoni, Sebastiao Martins Dos Santos, Olga L. Mayol-Bracero, Frank Meinhardt, Maik Merkel, Jean-Marc Metzger, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Jakub Ondracek, Marco Pandolfi, Noemi Pérez, Tuukka Petäjä, Jean-Eudes Petit, David Picard, Jean-Marc Pichon, Veronique Pont, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Fabienne Reisen, Karine Sellegri, Sangeeta Sharma, Gerhard Schauer, Patrick Sheridan, James Patrick Sherman, Andreas Schwerin, Ralf Sohmer, Mar Sorribas, Junying Sun, Pierre Tulet, Ville Vakkari, Pieter Gideon van Zyl, Fernando Velarde, Paolo Villani, Stergios Vratolis, Zdenek Wagner, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Kay Weinhold, Rolf Weller, Margarita Yela, Vladimir Zdimal, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17185–17223,Short summary
Aerosol particles are a complex component of the atmospheric system the effects of which are among the most uncertain in climate change projections. Using data collected at 62 stations, this study provides the most up-to-date picture of the spatial distribution of particle number concentration and size distribution worldwide, with the aim of contributing to better representation of aerosols and their interactions with clouds in models and, therefore, better evaluation of their impact on climate.
Shixian Zhai, Daniel J. Jacob, Jared F. Brewer, Ke Li, Jonathan M. Moch, Jhoon Kim, Seoyoung Lee, Hyunkwang Lim, Hyun Chul Lee, Su Keun Kuk, Rokjin J. Park, Jaein I. Jeong, Xuan Wang, Pengfei Liu, Gan Luo, Fangqun Yu, Jun Meng, Randall V. Martin, Katherine R. Travis, Johnathan W. Hair, Bruce E. Anderson, Jack E. Dibb, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Jung-Hun Woo, Younha Kim, Qiang Zhang, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16775–16791,Short summary
Geostationary satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) has tremendous potential for monitoring surface fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Our study explored the physical relationship between AOD and PM2.5 by integrating data from surface networks, aircraft, and satellites with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. We quantitatively showed that accurate simulation of aerosol size distributions, boundary layer depths, relative humidity, coarse particles, and diurnal variations in PM2.5 are essential.
Hyunkwang Lim, Sujung Go, Jhoon Kim, Myungje Choi, Seoyoung Lee, Chang-Keun Song, and Yasuko Kasai
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4575–4592,Short summary
Aerosol property observations by satellites from geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) in particular have advantages of frequent sampling better than 1 h in addition to broader spatial coverage. This study provides data fusion products of aerosol optical properties from four different algorithms for two different GEO satellites: GOCI and AHI. The fused aerosol products adopted ensemble-mean and maximum-likelihood estimation methods. The data fusion provides improved results with better accuracy.
Saehee Lim, Meehye Lee, Paolo Laj, Sang-Woo Kim, Kang-Ho Ahn, Junsoo Gil, Xiaona Shang, Marco Zanatta, and Kyeong-Sik Kang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
This study identifies the main drivers of the formation and transformation processes of submicron particles and highlights that the thick coating of rBC was a result of active conversion of hygroscopic inorganic salts leading to fine aerosol pollution. Consequently, we suggest BC particles as a key contributor to PM2.5 mass increase, which implies that BC reduction is an effective mitigation against haze pollution as well as climate change in Northeast Asia.
Yongjoo Choi, Yugo Kanaya, Masayuki Takigawa, Chunmao Zhu, Seung-Myung Park, Atsushi Matsuki, Yasuhiro Sadanaga, Sang-Woo Kim, Xiaole Pan, and Ignacio Pisso
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13655–13670,
Paolo Laj, Alessandro Bigi, Clémence Rose, Elisabeth Andrews, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Martine Collaud Coen, Yong Lin, Alfred Wiedensohler, Michael Schulz, John A. Ogren, Markus Fiebig, Jonas Gliß, Augustin Mortier, Marco Pandolfi, Tuukka Petäja, Sang-Woo Kim, Wenche Aas, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Olga Mayol-Bracero, Melita Keywood, Lorenzo Labrador, Pasi Aalto, Erik Ahlberg, Lucas Alados Arboledas, Andrés Alastuey, Marcos Andrade, Begoña Artíñano, Stina Ausmeel, Todor Arsov, Eija Asmi, John Backman, Urs Baltensperger, Susanne Bastian, Olaf Bath, Johan Paul Beukes, Benjamin T. Brem, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Sébastien Conil, Cedric Couret, Derek Day, Wan Dayantolis, Anna Degorska, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Prodromos Fetfatzis, Olivier Favez, Harald Flentje, Maria I. Gini, Asta Gregorič, Martin Gysel-Beer, A. Gannet Hallar, Jenny Hand, Andras Hoffer, Christoph Hueglin, Rakesh K. Hooda, Antti Hyvärinen, Ivo Kalapov, Nikos Kalivitis, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Jeong Eun Kim, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Irena Kranjc, Radovan Krejci, Markku Kulmala, Casper Labuschagne, Hae-Jung Lee, Heikki Lihavainen, Neng-Huei Lin, Gunter Löschau, Krista Luoma, Angela Marinoni, Sebastiao Martins Dos Santos, Frank Meinhardt, Maik Merkel, Jean-Marc Metzger, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Nhat Anh Nguyen, Jakub Ondracek, Noemi Pérez, Maria Rita Perrone, Jean-Eudes Petit, David Picard, Jean-Marc Pichon, Veronique Pont, Natalia Prats, Anthony Prenni, Fabienne Reisen, Salvatore Romano, Karine Sellegri, Sangeeta Sharma, Gerhard Schauer, Patrick Sheridan, James Patrick Sherman, Maik Schütze, Andreas Schwerin, Ralf Sohmer, Mar Sorribas, Martin Steinbacher, Junying Sun, Gloria Titos, Barbara Toczko, Thomas Tuch, Pierre Tulet, Peter Tunved, Ville Vakkari, Fernando Velarde, Patricio Velasquez, Paolo Villani, Sterios Vratolis, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Kay Weinhold, Rolf Weller, Margarita Yela, Jesus Yus-Diez, Vladimir Zdimal, Paul Zieger, and Nadezda Zikova
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4353–4392,Short summary
The paper establishes the fiducial reference of the GAW aerosol network providing the fully characterized value chain to the provision of four climate-relevant aerosol properties from ground-based sites. Data from almost 90 stations worldwide are reported for a reference year, 2017, providing a unique and very robust view of the variability of these variables worldwide. Current gaps in the GAW network are analysed and requirements for the Global Climate Monitoring System are proposed.
Teruyuki Nakajima, Monica Campanelli, Huizheng Che, Victor Estellés, Hitoshi Irie, Sang-Woo Kim, Jhoon Kim, Dong Liu, Tomoaki Nishizawa, Govindan Pandithurai, Vijay Kumar Soni, Boossarasiri Thana, Nas-Urt Tugjsurn, Kazuma Aoki, Sujung Go, Makiko Hashimoto, Akiko Higurashi, Stelios Kazadzis, Pradeep Khatri, Natalia Kouremeti, Rei Kudo, Franco Marenco, Masahiro Momoi, Shantikumar S. Ningombam, Claire L. Ryder, Akihiro Uchiyama, and Akihiro Yamazaki
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4195–4218,Short summary
This paper overviews the progress in sky radiometer technology and the development of the network called SKYNET. It is found that the technology has produced useful on-site calibration methods, retrieval algorithms, and data analyses from sky radiometer observations of aerosol, cloud, water vapor, and ozone. The paper also discusses current issues of SKYNET to provide better information for the community.
Arman Pouyaei, Yunsoo Choi, Jia Jung, Bavand Sadeghi, and Chul Han Song
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3489–3505,Short summary
This paper introduces a novel Lagrangian model (Concentration Trajectory of Air pollution with an Integrated Lagrangian model, C-TRAIL) for showing the source and receptor areas by following polluted air masses. To investigate the concentrations and trajectories of air masses simultaneously, we use the trajectory-grid (TG) Lagrangian advection model. The TG model follows the concentrations of representative air
packetsof species along trajectories determined by the wind field.
Martine Collaud Coen, Elisabeth Andrews, Andrés Alastuey, Todor Petkov Arsov, John Backman, Benjamin T. Brem, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Cédric Couret, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Harald Flentje, Markus Fiebig, Martin Gysel-Beer, Jenny L. Hand, András Hoffer, Rakesh Hooda, Christoph Hueglin, Warren Joubert, Melita Keywood, Jeong Eun Kim, Sang-Woo Kim, Casper Labuschagne, Neng-Huei Lin, Yong Lin, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Krista Luoma, Hassan Lyamani, Angela Marinoni, Olga L. Mayol-Bracero, Nikos Mihalopoulos, Marco Pandolfi, Natalia Prats, Anthony J. Prenni, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Ludwig Ries, Fabienne Reisen, Karine Sellegri, Sangeeta Sharma, Patrick Sheridan, James Patrick Sherman, Junying Sun, Gloria Titos, Elvis Torres, Thomas Tuch, Rolf Weller, Alfred Wiedensohler, Paul Zieger, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8867–8908,Short summary
Long-term trends of aerosol radiative properties (52 stations) prove that aerosol load has significantly decreased over the last 20 years. Scattering trends are negative in Europe (EU) and North America (NA), not ss in Asia, and show a mix of positive and negative trends at polar stations. Absorption has mainly negative trends. The single scattering albedo has positive trends in Asia and eastern EU and negative in western EU and NA, leading to a global positive median trend of 0.02 % per year.
Pablo E. Saide, Meng Gao, Zifeng Lu, Daniel L. Goldberg, David G. Streets, Jung-Hun Woo, Andreas Beyersdorf, Chelsea A. Corr, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Bruce Anderson, Johnathan W. Hair, Amin R. Nehrir, Glenn S. Diskin, Jose L. Jimenez, Benjamin A. Nault, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jack Dibb, Eric Heim, Kara D. Lamb, Joshua P. Schwarz, Anne E. Perring, Jhoon Kim, Myungje Choi, Brent Holben, Gabriele Pfister, Alma Hodzic, Gregory R. Carmichael, Louisa Emmons, and James H. Crawford
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6455–6478,Short summary
Air quality forecasts over the Korean Peninsula captured aerosol optical depth but largely overpredicted surface PM during a Chinese haze transport event. Model deficiency was related to the calculation of optical properties. In order to improve it, aerosol size representation needs to be refined in the calculations, and the representation of aerosol properties, such as size distribution, chemical composition, refractive index, hygroscopicity parameter, and density, needs to be improved.
Sojin Lee, Chul Han Song, Kyung Man Han, Daven K. Henze, Kyunghwa Lee, Jinhyeok Yu, Jung-Hun Woo, Jia Jung, Yunsoo Choi, Pablo E. Saide, and Gregory R. Carmichael
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Kyunghwa Lee, Jinhyeok Yu, Sojin Lee, Mieun Park, Hun Hong, Soon Young Park, Myungje Choi, Jhoon Kim, Younha Kim, Jung-Hun Woo, Sang-Woo Kim, and Chul H. Song
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1055–1073,Short summary
For the purpose of providing reliable and robust air quality predictions, an operational air quality prediction system was developed for the main air quality criteria species in South Korea (PM10, PM2.5, CO, O3 and SO2) by preparing the initial conditions for model simulations via data assimilation using satellite- and ground-based observations. The performance of the developed air quality prediction system was evaluated using ground in situ data during the KORUS-AQ campaign period.
Yongjoo Choi, Yugo Kanaya, Seung-Myung Park, Atsushi Matsuki, Yasuhiro Sadanaga, Sang-Woo Kim, Itsushi Uno, Xiaole Pan, Meehye Lee, Hyunjae Kim, and Dong Hee Jung
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 83–98,Short summary
The relationship between black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO) can differ by the different structure of fuel consumption. By investigating the representativeness of the BC and CO emission inventory for real-world comparison with reliable observations, this study suggested that accurate CO emissions should be preferentially investigated to enhance the accuracy of the BC emission rate over East Asia.
Jay Herman, Nader Abuhassan, Jhoon Kim, Jae Kim, Manvendra Dubey, Marcelo Raponi, and Maria Tzortziou
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5593–5612,Short summary
Total column NO2 (TCNO2) from the Ozone Measuring Instrument (OMI) is compared for 14 sites with ground-based PANDORA spectrometer instruments making direct-sun measurements. These sites have high TCNO2, causing significant air quality problems that can affect human health. OMI almost always underestimates the amount of TCNO2 by 50 to 100 %. OMI's large field of view (FOV) is the most likely factor when comparing OMI TCNO2 to retrievals with PANDORA. OMI misses higher afternoon values of TCNO2.
Hyun S. Kim, Inyoung Park, Chul H. Song, Kyunghwa Lee, Jae W. Yun, Hong K. Kim, Moongu Jeon, Jiwon Lee, and Kyung M. Han
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12935–12951,Short summary
In this study, a deep recurrent neural network system based on a long short-term memory (LSTM) model was developed for daily PM10 and PM2.5 predictions in South Korea. In general, the accuracies of the LSTM-based predictions were superior to the 3-D CTM-based predictions. Based on this, we concluded that the LSTM-based system could be applied to daily operational PM forecasts in South Korea. We expect that similar AI systems can be applied to the predictions of other atmospheric pollutants.
Juseon Bak, Kang-Hyeon Baek, Jae-Hwan Kim, Xiong Liu, Jhoon Kim, and Kelly Chance
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5201–5215,Short summary
GEMS will be launched in late 2019 on board the GeoKOMPSAT (Geostationary Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite) to measure O3, NO2, SO2, H2CO, CHOCHO, and aerosols in East Asia. To support the development of the GEMS ozone profile algorithm, we perform the cross-evaluation of simulated GEMS ozone profile retrievals based on optimal estimation and ozonesonde measurements within the GEMS domain.
Myungje Choi, Hyunkwang Lim, Jhoon Kim, Seoyoung Lee, Thomas F. Eck, Brent N. Holben, Michael J. Garay, Edward J. Hyer, Pablo E. Saide, and Hongqing Liu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4619–4641,Short summary
Satellite-based aerosol optical depth (AOD) products have been improved continuously and available from multiple low Earth orbit sensors, such as MODIS, MISR, and VIIRS, and geostationary sensors, such as GOCI and AHI, over East Asia. These multi-satellite AOD products are validated, intercompared, analyzed, and integrated to understand different characteristics, such as quality and spatio-temporal coverage, focused on several aerosol transportation cases during the 2016 KORUS-AQ campaign.
Hyeong-Ahn Kwon, Rokjin J. Park, Gonzalo González Abad, Kelly Chance, Thomas P. Kurosu, Jhoon Kim, Isabelle De Smedt, Michel Van Roozendael, Enno Peters, and John Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3551–3571,Short summary
The Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) will be launched by South Korea in 2019, and it will measure radiances ranging from 300 to 500 nm every hour with a fine spatial resolution of 7 km x 8 km over Seoul in South Korea to monitor column concentrations of air pollutants including O3, NO2, SO2, and HCHO, as well as aerosol optical properties. This paper describes a GEMS formaldehyde retrieval algorithm including a number of sensitivity tests for algorithm evaluation.
Wenjing Su, Cheng Liu, Qihou Hu, Shaohua Zhao, Youwen Sun, Wei Wang, Yizhi Zhu, Jianguo Liu, and Jhoon Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6717–6736,Short summary
For a better understanding of HCHO pollution and atmospheric chemistry, we evaluated primary and secondary sources of HCHO in the Yangtze River Delta based on HCHO column density from OMPS and combined this with in situ surface measurements. We found that secondary formation contributed most to ambient HCHO over longer timescales, but primary emission could be dominant in the winter. Hence, the usability of total HCHO as a proxy of VOC reactivity depends on the timescale of interest.
Seohui Park, Minso Shin, Jungho Im, Chang-Keun Song, Myungje Choi, Jhoon Kim, Seungun Lee, Rokjin Park, Jiyoung Kim, Dong-Won Lee, and Sang-Kyun Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1097–1113,Short summary
This study proposed machine-learning-based models to estimate ground-level particulate matter concentrations using satellite observations and numerical model-derived data. Aerosol optical depth was identified as the most significant for estimating ground-level PM concentrations, followed by wind speed and solar radiation. The results show that the proposed models produced better performance than the existing approaches, particularly in improving on the biases of the process-based models.
Elizabeth M. Lennartson, Jun Wang, Juping Gu, Lorena Castro Garcia, Cui Ge, Meng Gao, Myungje Choi, Pablo E. Saide, Gregory R. Carmichael, Jhoon Kim, and Scott J. Janz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15125–15144,Short summary
This paper is among the first to study the diurnal variations of AOD, PM2.5, and their relationships in South Korea. We show that the PM2.5–AOD relationship has strong diurnal variations, and, hence, using AOD data retrieved from geostationary satellite can improve the monitoring of surface PM2.5 air quality on a daily basis as well as constrain the diurnal variation of aerosol emission.
Jay Herman, Elena Spinei, Alan Fried, Jhoon Kim, Jae Kim, Woogyung Kim, Alexander Cede, Nader Abuhassan, and Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4583–4603,Short summary
Nine Pandora Spectrometer Instruments were installed at 8 sites for KORUS-AQ (Korea U.S.-Air Quality) field study from ground, aircraft, and satellite measurements. The quantities retrieved were total column measurements of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and formaldehyde. We show the distribution of NO2 and HCHO air pollutants vs location and time of day and comparisons with aircraft and satellite data. For some of the sites, long-term time series are available to asses changes.
Si-Wan Kim, Vijay Natraj, Seoyoung Lee, Hyeong-Ahn Kwon, Rokjin Park, Joost de Gouw, Gregory Frost, Jhoon Kim, Jochen Stutz, Michael Trainer, Catalina Tsai, and Carsten Warneke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7639–7655,Short summary
Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a hazardous air pollutant and is associated with tropospheric ozone production. HCHO has been monitored from space. In this study, to acquire high-quality satellite-based HCHO observations, we utilize fine-resolution atmospheric chemistry model results as an input to the computer code for satellite retrievals over the Los Angeles Basin. Our study indicates that the use of fine-resolution profile shapes helps to identify HCHO plumes from space.
Jungbin Mok, Nickolay A. Krotkov, Omar Torres, Hiren Jethva, Zhanqing Li, Jhoon Kim, Ja-Ho Koo, Sujung Go, Hitoshi Irie, Gordon Labow, Thomas F. Eck, Brent N. Holben, Jay Herman, Robert P. Loughman, Elena Spinei, Seoung Soo Lee, Pradeep Khatri, and Monica Campanelli
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2295–2311,Short summary
Measuring aerosol absorption from the shortest ultraviolet (UV) to the near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths is important for studies of climate, tropospheric photochemistry, human health, and agricultural productivity. We estimate the accuracy and demonstrate consistency of aerosol absorption retrievals from different instruments, after accounting for spectrally varying surface albedo and gaseous absorption.
Brent N. Holben, Jhoon Kim, Itaru Sano, Sonoyo Mukai, Thomas F. Eck, David M. Giles, Joel S. Schafer, Aliaksandr Sinyuk, Ilya Slutsker, Alexander Smirnov, Mikhail Sorokin, Bruce E. Anderson, Huizheng Che, Myungje Choi, James H. Crawford, Richard A. Ferrare, Michael J. Garay, Ukkyo Jeong, Mijin Kim, Woogyung Kim, Nichola Knox, Zhengqiang Li, Hwee S. Lim, Yang Liu, Hal Maring, Makiko Nakata, Kenneth E. Pickering, Stuart Piketh, Jens Redemann, Jeffrey S. Reid, Santo Salinas, Sora Seo, Fuyi Tan, Sachchida N. Tripathi, Owen B. Toon, and Qingyang Xiao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 655–671,Short summary
Aerosol particles, such as smoke, vary over space and time. This paper describes a series of very high-resolution ground-based aerosol measurement networks and associated studies that contributed new understanding of aerosol processes and detailed comparisons to satellite aerosol validation. Significantly, these networks also provide an opportunity to statistically relate grab samples of an aerosol parameter to companion satellite observations, a step toward air quality assessment from space.
Myungje Choi, Jhoon Kim, Jaehwa Lee, Mijin Kim, Young-Je Park, Brent Holben, Thomas F. Eck, Zhengqiang Li, and Chul H. Song
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 385–408,Short summary
This study is a major version upgrade of the aerosol product from GOCI, the first and unique ocean color imager in geostationary earth orbit. It describes the improvement of version 2 of the GOCI Yonsei aerosol retrieval algorithm for near-real-time processing with improved accuracy from the modification of cloud masking, surface reflectance, etc. The product is validated against AERONET/SONET over East Asia with analyses of various errors features, and a pixel-level uncertainty is calculated.
Duseong S. Jo, Rokjin J. Park, Jaein I. Jeong, Gabriele Curci, Hyung-Min Lee, and Sang-Woo Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Chaeyoon Cho, Sang-Woo Kim, Maheswar Rupakheti, Jin-Soo Park, Arnico Panday, Soon-Chang Yoon, Ji-Hyoung Kim, Hyunjae Kim, Haeun Jeon, Minyoung Sung, Bong Mann Kim, Seungkyu K. Hong, Rokjin J. Park, Dipesh Rupakheti, Khadak Singh Mahata, Puppala Siva Praveen, Mark G. Lawrence, and Brent Holben
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12617–12632,Short summary
We investigated the optical and chemical properties and direct radiative effects of aerosols in the Kathmandu Valley. We concluded that the ratio of light-absorbing to scattering aerosols as well as the concentration of light-absorbing aerosols is much higher at Kathmandu than other comparable regions, and it contributes to a great atmospheric absorption efficiency. This study provides unprecedented insights into aerosol optical properties and their radiative forcings in the Kathmandu Valley.
Lauren Schmeisser, Elisabeth Andrews, John A. Ogren, Patrick Sheridan, Anne Jefferson, Sangeeta Sharma, Jeong Eun Kim, James P. Sherman, Mar Sorribas, Ivo Kalapov, Todor Arsov, Christo Angelov, Olga L. Mayol-Bracero, Casper Labuschagne, Sang-Woo Kim, András Hoffer, Neng-Huei Lin, Hao-Ping Chia, Michael Bergin, Junying Sun, Peng Liu, and Hao Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12097–12120,Short summary
Three methods are used to classify aerosol type from aerosol optical properties measured in situ at 24 surface sites. Classification methods work best at sites with stable, homogenous aerosol at particularly polluted and dust-prone continental and marine sites. Classification methods are poor at remote marine and Arctic sites. Using these methods to extrapolate aerosol type from optical properties can help determine aerosol radiative forcing and improve aerosol satellite retrieval algorithms.
Jiyoung Kim, Jhoon Kim, Hi-Ku Cho, Jay Herman, Sang Seo Park, Hyun Kwang Lim, Jae-Hwan Kim, Koji Miyagawa, and Yun Gon Lee
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3661–3676,Short summary
Total column ozone (TCO) has been obtained by various ground-based and spaceborne instruments (OMI) with high accuracy. Here, daily TCO measured by a Pandora spectrophotometer (no. 19) installed since the (DRAGON)-NE Asia campaign (2012) was intercompared using Dobson (no. 124), Brewer (no. 148), and OMI measurements from March 2012 to March 2014 at Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea. The results showed that Pandora TCO is in very good agreement with other measurements.
Wonbae Jeon, Yunsoo Choi, Peter Percell, Amir Hossein Souri, Chang-Keun Song, Soon-Tae Kim, and Jhoon Kim
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 3671–3684,Short summary
This study suggests a new hybrid Lagrangian–Eulerian modeling tool (the Screening Trajectory Ozone Prediction System, STOPS) for an accurate/fast prediction of Asian dust events. The STOPS is a moving nest (Lagrangian approach) between the source and the receptor inside Eulerian model. We run STOPS, instead of running a time-consuming Eulerian model, using constrained PM concentration from remote sensing aerosol optical depth, reflecting real-time dust particles. STOPS is for unexpected events.
B. Quennehen, J.-C. Raut, K. S. Law, N. Daskalakis, G. Ancellet, C. Clerbaux, S.-W. Kim, M. T. Lund, G. Myhre, D. J. L. Olivié, S. Safieddine, R. B. Skeie, J. L. Thomas, S. Tsyro, A. Bazureau, N. Bellouin, M. Hu, M. Kanakidou, Z. Klimont, K. Kupiainen, S. Myriokefalitakis, J. Quaas, S. T. Rumbold, M. Schulz, R. Cherian, A. Shimizu, J. Wang, S.-C. Yoon, and T. Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10765–10792,Short summary
This paper evaluates the ability of six global models and one regional model in reproducing short-lived pollutants (defined here as ozone and its precursors, aerosols and black carbon) concentrations over Asia using satellite, ground-based and airborne observations. Key findings are that models homogeneously reproduce the trace gas observations although nitrous oxides are underestimated, whereas the aerosol distributions are heterogeneously reproduced, implicating important uncertainties.
Holger Baars, Thomas Kanitz, Ronny Engelmann, Dietrich Althausen, Birgit Heese, Mika Komppula, Jana Preißler, Matthias Tesche, Albert Ansmann, Ulla Wandinger, Jae-Hyun Lim, Joon Young Ahn, Iwona S. Stachlewska, Vassilis Amiridis, Eleni Marinou, Patric Seifert, Julian Hofer, Annett Skupin, Florian Schneider, Stephanie Bohlmann, Andreas Foth, Sebastian Bley, Anne Pfüller, Eleni Giannakaki, Heikki Lihavainen, Yrjö Viisanen, Rakesh Kumar Hooda, Sérgio Nepomuceno Pereira, Daniele Bortoli, Frank Wagner, Ina Mattis, Lucja Janicka, Krzysztof M. Markowicz, Peggy Achtert, Paulo Artaxo, Theotonio Pauliquevis, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Ved Prakesh Sharma, Pieter Gideon van Zyl, Johan Paul Beukes, Junying Sun, Erich G. Rohwer, Ruru Deng, Rodanthi-Elisavet Mamouri, and Felix Zamorano
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5111–5137,Short summary
The findings from more than 10 years of global aerosol lidar measurements with Polly systems are summarized, and a data set of optical properties for specific aerosol types is given. An automated data retrieval algorithm for continuous Polly lidar observations is presented and discussed by means of a Saharan dust advection event in Leipzig, Germany. Finally, a statistic on the vertical aerosol distribution including the seasonal variability at PollyNET locations around the globe is presented.
Myungje Choi, Jhoon Kim, Jaehwa Lee, Mijin Kim, Young-Je Park, Ukkyo Jeong, Woogyung Kim, Hyunkee Hong, Brent Holben, Thomas F. Eck, Chul H. Song, Jae-Hyun Lim, and Chang-Keun Song
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1377–1398,Short summary
The Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) is the first ocean color sensor in geostationary orbit. It enables hourly aerosol optical properties to be observed in high spatial resolution. This study presents improvements of the GOCI Yonsei Aerosol Retrieval (YAER) algorithm and its validation results using ground-based and other satellite-based observation products during DRAGON-NE Asia 2012 Campaign. Retrieval errors are also analyzed according to various factors through the validation studies.
Duseong S. Jo, Rokjin J. Park, Seungun Lee, Sang-Woo Kim, and Xiaolu Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3413–3432,Short summary
We develop a new approach to estimate global emission of primary brown carbon from biomass burning and biofuel use and explicitly simulate brown carbon aerosol that has not been considered in climate and air quality models despite of its importance for solar absorption at UV and short visible wavelengths. Using our best simulation results, we estimate radiative effects of brown carbon aerosol for climate and photochemistry.
Sang Seo Park, Jhoon Kim, Hanlim Lee, Omar Torres, Kwang-Mog Lee, and Sang Deok Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1987–2006,Short summary
The sensitivities of oxygen-dimer (O4) slant column densities (SCDs) to changes in aerosol layer height are investigated using simulated radiances by a linearized pseudo-spherical vector discrete ordinate radiative transfer (VLIDORT) model, and the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique. A new algorithm is developed and tested to derive the aerosol effective height for cases over East Asia using radiance data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI).
M. Kim, J. Kim, U. Jeong, W. Kim, H. Hong, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, J. H. Lim, C. K. Song, S. Lee, and C.-Y. Chung
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1789–1808,Short summary
An aerosol model optimized for East Asia is improved by applying inversion data from the DRAGON-NE Asia 2012 campaign, and is applied to an AOD retrieval algorithm using single visible measurements from a GEO satellite. In sensitivity tests, a 4 % overestimation in SSA can cause an underestimation in AOD of over 20 %. In accordance with the test, the overestimating tendency of AOD was improved by 8 % after the modification of the aerosol model.
G. L. Schuster, O. Dubovik, A. Arola, T. F. Eck, and B. N. Holben
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1587–1602,Short summary
Some authors have recently suggested that the spectral dependence of aerosol absorption may be used to separate soot carbon absorption from the aerosol absorption associated with organic carbon and dust. We demonstrate that this approach is inconsistent with the underlying assumptions that are required to infer aerosol absorption through remote sensing techniques, and that carbonaceous aerosols can not be differentiated from dust by exclusively using spectral absorption signatures.
Q. Xiao, H. Zhang, M. Choi, S. Li, S. Kondragunta, J. Kim, B. Holben, R. C. Levy, and Y. Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1255–1269,Short summary
Using ground AOD measurements from AERONET, DRAGON-Asia Campaign, and handheld sunphotometers, we evaluated emerging aerosol products from VIIRS, GOCI, and Terra and Aqua MODIS (Collection 6) in East Asia in 2012–2013. We found that satellite aerosol products performed better in tracking the day-to-day variability than the high-resolution spatial variability. VIIRS EDR and GOCI products provided the most accurate AOD retrievals, while VIIRS IP and MODIS C6 3 km products had positive biases.
U. Jeong, J. Kim, C. Ahn, O. Torres, X. Liu, P. K. Bhartia, R. J. D. Spurr, D. Haffner, K. Chance, and B. N. Holben
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 177–193,Short summary
An aerosol retrieval and error analysis algorithm using OMI measurements based on an optimal-estimation method was developed in this study. The aerosol retrievals were validated using the DRAGON campaign products. The estimated errors of the retrievals represented the actual biases between retrieval and AERONET measurements well. The retrievals, with their estimated uncertainties, are expected to be valuable for relevant studies, such as trace gas retrieval and data assimilation.
S. Lee, C. H. Song, R. S. Park, M. E. Park, K. M. Han, J. Kim, M. Choi, Y. S. Ghim, and J.-H. Woo
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 17–39,Short summary
We developed an integrated air quality modeling system using AOD data retrieved from a geostationary satellite sensor, GOCI (Geostationary Ocean Color Imager), over Northeast Asia with an application of the spatiotemporal-kriging (STK) method and conducted short-term hindcast runs using the developed system. It appears that the STK approach can greatly reduce not only the errors and biases of AOD and PM10 predictions but also the computational burden of a chemical weather forecast (CWF).
D. Pérez-Ramírez, I. Veselovskii, D. N. Whiteman, A. Suvorina, M. Korenskiy, A. Kolgotin, B. Holben, O. Dubovik, A. Siniuk, and L. Alados-Arboledas
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3117–3133,
H. Che, X.-Y. Zhang, X. Xia, P. Goloub, B. Holben, H. Zhao, Y. Wang, X.-C. Zhang, H. Wang, L. Blarel, B. Damiri, R. Zhang, X. Deng, Y. Ma, T. Wang, F. Geng, B. Qi, J. Zhu, J. Yu, Q. Chen, and G. Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7619–7652,Short summary
This work studied more than 10 years of measurements of aerosol optical depths (AODs) made for 50 sites of CARSNET compiled into a climatology of aerosol optical properties for China. It lets us see a detailed full-scale description of AOD observations over China. The results would benefit us a lot in comprehending the temporal and special distribution aerosol optical property over China. Also the data would be valuable to communities of aerosol satellite retrieval, modelling, etc.
Z. L. Lüthi, B. Škerlak, S.-W. Kim, A. Lauer, A. Mues, M. Rupakheti, and S. Kang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6007–6021,Short summary
The Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau region (HTP) is regularly exposed to polluted air masses that might influence glaciers as well as climate on regional to global scales. We found that atmospheric brown clouds from South Asia reach the HTP by crossing the Himalayas not only through the major north--south river valleys but rather over large areas by being lifted and advected at mid-troposheric levels. The transport is enabled by a combination of synoptic and local meteorological settings.
F. Tan, H. S. Lim, K. Abdullah, T. L. Yoon, and B. Holben
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3755–3771,Short summary
Southeast Asia stands out globally, as it hosts one of the most complex meteorological and environmental conditions, making remote sensing difficult both for AERONET and satellites. Cloud-cleared data leave gaps in our remote sensing data record, and conversely, residual cloud contamination of remotely sensed data causes challenging tasks for scientists studying aerosols. With the main motivation of overcoming this problem, an AOD-predicting model is proposed.
K. Knobelspiesse, B. van Diedenhoven, A. Marshak, S. Dunagan, B. Holben, and I. Slutsker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1537–1554,Short summary
We test if ground-based sun photometers/radiometers like those in the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) can use the polarization sensitivity of some instruments for improved cloud optical property retrieval. Our radiative transfer simulations show that the direction of linear polarization indicates cloud thermodynamic phase for optically thin clouds. In practice, data analysis shows a weak response with AERONET instruments, most likely due to noise and orientation/calibration ambiguity.
K. M. Han, S. Lee, L. S. Chang, and C. H. Song
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1913–1938,
J. S. Reid, N. D. Lagrosas, H. H. Jonsson, E. A. Reid, W. R. Sessions, J. B. Simpas, S. N. Uy, T. J. Boyd, S. A. Atwood, D. R. Blake, J. R. Campbell, S. S. Cliff, B. N. Holben, R. E. Holz, E. J. Hyer, P. Lynch, S. Meinardi, D. J. Posselt, K. A. Richardson, S. V. Salinas, A. Smirnov, Q. Wang, L. Yu, and J. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1745–1768,Short summary
This paper reports on the first measurements of aerosol particles embedded in the convectively active southwest monsoonal flow of the South China Sea. The paper describes the research cruise and discusses how variability in aerosol characteristics relates to regional meteorological phenomena such as and the Madden Julian Oscillation, tropical cyclones, squall lines and the monsoonal flow itself. Of special interest is how aerosol transport relates to meteorological drivers of convective activity.
I. Veselovskii, D. N Whiteman, M. Korenskiy, A. Suvorina, A. Kolgotin, A. Lyapustin, Y. Wang, M. Chin, H. Bian, T. L. Kucsera, D. Pérez-Ramírez, and B. Holben
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1647–1660,Short summary
The multi-wavelength lidar technique was applied to the study of a smoke event near Washington, DC on 26-28 August 2013. Satellite observations combined with transport model predictions imply that the smoke plume originated mainly from Wyoming/Idaho forest fires. The NASA GSFC multi-wavelength Mie-Raman lidar was used to profile the smoke particle parameters such as volume density, effective radius and the real part of the refractive index.
G. Snider, C. L. Weagle, R. V. Martin, A. van Donkelaar, K. Conrad, D. Cunningham, C. Gordon, M. Zwicker, C. Akoshile, P. Artaxo, N. X. Anh, J. Brook, J. Dong, R. M. Garland, R. Greenwald, D. Griffith, K. He, B. N. Holben, R. Kahn, I. Koren, N. Lagrosas, P. Lestari, Z. Ma, J. Vanderlei Martins, E. J. Quel, Y. Rudich, A. Salam, S. N. Tripathi, C. Yu, Q. Zhang, Y. Zhang, M. Brauer, A. Cohen, M. D. Gibson, and Y. Liu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 505–521,Short summary
We have initiated a global network of ground-level monitoring stations to measure concentrations of fine aerosols in urban environments. Our findings include major ions species, total mass, and total scatter at three wavelengths. Results will be used to further evaluate and enhance satellite remote sensing estimates.
T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, A. Arola, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, S. N. Crumeyrolle, T. A. Berkoff, E. J. Welton, S. Lolli, A. Lyapustin, Y. Wang, J. S. Schafer, D. M. Giles, B. E. Anderson, K. L. Thornhill, P. Minnis, K. E. Pickering, C. P. Loughner, A. Smirnov, and A. Sinyuk
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11633–11656,
A. M. Sayer, N. C. Hsu, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, and B. N. Holben
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11493–11523,
P. Sawamura, D. Müller, R. M. Hoff, C. A. Hostetler, R. A. Ferrare, J. W. Hair, R. R. Rogers, B. E. Anderson, L. D. Ziemba, A. J. Beyersdorf, K. L. Thornhill, E. L. Winstead, and B. N. Holben
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3095–3112,
S. Lim, M. Lee, S.-W. Kim, S.-C. Yoon, G. Lee, and Y. J. Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7781–7793,
R. P. Aryal, K. J. Voss, P. A. Terman, W. C. Keene, J. L. Moody, E. J. Welton, and B. N. Holben
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7617–7629,
H.-K. Kim, J.-H. Woo, R. S. Park, C. H. Song, J.-H. Kim, S.-J. Ban, and J.-H. Park
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7461–7484,
M. Chin, T. Diehl, Q. Tan, J. M. Prospero, R. A. Kahn, L. A. Remer, H. Yu, A. M. Sayer, H. Bian, I. V. Geogdzhayev, B. N. Holben, S. G. Howell, B. J. Huebert, N. C. Hsu, D. Kim, T. L. Kucsera, R. C. Levy, M. I. Mishchenko, X. Pan, P. K. Quinn, G. L. Schuster, D. G. Streets, S. A. Strode, O. Torres, and X.-P. Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3657–3690,
R. S. Park, S. Lee, S.-K. Shin, and C. H. Song
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2185–2201,
H. Che, X. Xia, J. Zhu, Z. Li, O. Dubovik, B. Holben, P. Goloub, H. Chen, V. Estelles, E. Cuevas-Agulló, L. Blarel, H. Wang, H. Zhao, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, J. Sun, R. Tao, X. Zhang, and G. Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2125–2138,
M. E. Park, C. H. Song, R. S. Park, J. Lee, J. Kim, S. Lee, J.-H. Woo, G. R. Carmichael, T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, S.-S. Lee, C. K. Song, and Y. D. Hong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 659–674,
J. L. Moody, W. C. Keene, O. R. Cooper, K. J. Voss, R. Aryal, S. Eckhardt, B. Holben, J. R. Maben, M. A. Izaguirre, and J. N. Galloway
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 691–717,
Y. Choi, Y. S. Ghim, and B. N. Holben
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
L. A. Munchak, R. C. Levy, S. Mattoo, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, J. S. Schafer, C. A. Hostetler, and R. A. Ferrare
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1747–1759,
J. Bak, J. H. Kim, X. Liu, K. Chance, and J. Kim
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 239–249,
J. Jung, H. Furutani, M. Uematsu, S. Kim, and S. Yoon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 411–428,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Characterizing the hygroscopicity of growing particles in the Canadian Arctic summerMeasurement report: Distinct size dependence and diurnal variation in organic aerosol hygroscopicity, volatility, and cloud condensation nuclei activity at a rural site in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, ChinaMeasurement report: Atmospheric new particle formation in a coastal agricultural site explained with binPMF analysis of nitrate CI-APi-TOF spectraCharacteristics and evolution of brown carbon in western United States wildfiresReduced surface fine dust under droughts over the southeastern United States during summertime: observations and CMIP6 model simulationsStrong light scattering of highly oxygenated organic aerosols impacts significantly on visibility degradationMeasurement report: Spectral and statistical analysis of aerosol hygroscopic growth from multi-wavelength lidar measurements in Barcelona, SpainThe diurnal and seasonal variability of ice-nucleating particles at the High Altitude Station Jungfraujoch (3580 m a.s.l.), SwitzerlandThe impact of large-scale circulation on daily fine particulate matter (PM2.5) over major populated regions of China in winterNew particle formation in coastal New Zealand with a focus on open-ocean air massesMeasurement report: Vertical profiling of particle size distributions over Lhasa, Tibet – tethered balloon-based in situ measurements and source apportionmentLong- and short-term temporal variability in cloud condensation nuclei spectra over a wide supersaturation range in the Southern Great Plains siteSiberian Arctic black carbon: gas flaring and wildfire impactParticle size distribution and PM concentrations during synoptic and convective dust events in West TexasSmoke in the river: an Aerosols, Radiation and Clouds in southern Africa (AEROCLO-sA) case studyThe impact of temperature inversions on black carbon and particle mass concentrations in a mountainous areaMeasurement report: Interpretation of wide-range particulate matter size distributions in DelhiUnderstanding aerosol microphysical properties from 10 years of data collected at Cabo Verde based on an unsupervised machine learning classificationAerosol optical properties calculated from size distributions, filter samples and absorption photometer data at Dome C, Antarctica, and their relationships with seasonal cycles of sourcesMeasurement report: On the difference in aerosol hygroscopicity between high and low relative humidity conditions in the North China PlainObservations of particle number size distributions and new particle formation in six Indian locationsAerodynamic size-resolved composition and cloud condensation nuclei properties of aerosols in a Beijing suburban regionMeteorology impact on PM2.5 change over a receptor region in the regional transport of air pollutants: observational study of recent emission reductions in central ChinaOccurrence and growth of sub-50 nm aerosol particles in the Amazonian boundary layerMeasurement report: Ice-nucleating particles active ≥ −15 °C in free tropospheric air over western EuropeColumnar and surface urban aerosol in Moscow megacity according to measurements and simulations with COSMO-ART modelAtmospheric composition in the European Arctic and 30 years of the Zeppelin Observatory, Ny-ÅlesundUnveiling atmospheric transport and mixing mechanisms of ice-nucleating particles over the AlpsAbsorption enhancement of BC particles in a Mediterranean city and countryside: effect of PM chemistry, aging and trend analysisSeasonal variations in fire conditions are important drivers to the trend of aerosol optical properties over the south-eastern AtlanticInteraction between aerosol and thermodynamic stability within the planetary boundary layer during wintertime over the North China Plain: aircraft observation and WRF-Chem simulationFrequent new particle formation at remote sites in the subboreal forest of North AmericaCharacterizing the volatility and mixing state of ambient fine particles in the summer and winter of urban BeijingBimodal distribution of size-resolved particle effective density: results from a short campaign in a rural environment over the North China PlainThe vertical aerosol type distribution above Israel – 2 years of lidar observations at the coastal city of HaifaLight Absorption by Brown Carbon over the South-East Atlantic OceanMeasurement report: Long-term changes in black carbon and aerosol optical properties from 2012 to 2020 in Beijing, ChinaAerosol particle characteristics measured in the United Arab Emirates and their response to mixing in the boundary layerFirst triple-wavelength lidar observations of depolarization and extinction-to-backscatter ratios of Saharan dustBlack carbon aerosol reductions during COVID-19 confinement quantified by aircraft measurements over EuropeModeled and observed properties related to the direct aerosol radiative effect of biomass burning aerosol over the southeastern AtlanticMeasurement report: Three years of size-resolved eddy-covariance particle number flux measurements in an urban environmentNewly identified climatically and environmentally significant high latitude dust sourcesHow weather events modify aerosol particle size distributions in the Amazon boundary layerMeasurement of Light absorbing particles in surface snow of central and western Himalayan glaciers: spatial variability, radiative impacts, and potential source regionsMethod to quantify black carbon aerosol light absorption enhancement with a mixing state indexThe contribution of Saharan dust to the ice-nucleating particle concentrations at the High Altitude Station Jungfraujoch (3580 m a.s.l.), SwitzerlandMeasurement report: New particle formation characteristics at an urban and a mountain station in northern ChinaDiurnal evolution of negative atmospheric ions above the boreal forest: From ground level to the free troposphereMixing state of refractory black carbon in fog and haze at rural sites in winter on the North China Plain
Rachel Y.-W. Chang, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Matthew C. Boyer, Jai Prakash Chaubey, and Douglas B. Collins
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8059–8071,Short summary
During summer 2016, the ability of newly formed particles to turn into droplets was measured in the Canadian Arctic. Our observations suggest that these small particles were growing by the condensation of organic vapours likely coming from the surrounding open waters. These particles grew large enough that they could form cloud droplets and therefore affect the earth’s radiation budget. These results are relevant as the Arctic summer rapidly warms with climate change.
Mingfu Cai, Shan Huang, Baoling Liang, Qibin Sun, Li Liu, Bin Yuan, Min Shao, Weiwei Hu, Wei Chen, Qicong Song, Wei Li, Yuwen Peng, Zelong Wang, Duohong Chen, Haobo Tan, Hanbin Xu, Fei Li, Xuejiao Deng, Tao Deng, Jiaren Sun, and Jun Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8117–8136,Short summary
This study investigated the size dependence and diurnal variation in organic aerosol hygroscopicity, volatility, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity. We found that the physical properties of OA could vary in a large range at different particle sizes and affected the number concentration of CCN (NCCN) at all supersaturations. Our results highlight the importance of evaluating the atmospheric evolution processes of OA at different size ranges and their impact on climate effects.
Miska Olin, Magdalena Okuljar, Matti P. Rissanen, Joni Kalliokoski, Jiali Shen, Lubna Dada, Markus Lampimäki, Yusheng Wu, Annalea Lohila, Jonathan Duplissy, Mikko Sipilä, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Miikka Dal Maso
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8097–8115,Short summary
Atmospheric new particle formation is an important source of the total particle number concentration in the atmosphere. Several parameters for predicting new particle formation events have been suggested before, but the results have been inconclusive. This study proposes an another predicting parameter, related to a specific type of highly oxidized organic molecules, especially for similar locations to the measurement site in this study, which was a coastal agricultural site in Finland.
Linghan Zeng, Jack Dibb, Eric Scheuer, Joseph M. Katich, Joshua P. Schwarz, Ilann Bourgeois, Jeff Peischl, Tom Ryerson, Carsten Warneke, Anne E. Perring, Glenn S. Diskin, Joshua P. DiGangi, John B. Nowak, Richard H. Moore, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, Demetrios Pagonis, Hongyu Guo, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jose L. Jimenez, Lu Xu, and Rodney J. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8009–8036,Short summary
Wildfires emit aerosol particles containing brown carbon material that affects visibility and global climate and is toxic. Brown carbon is poorly characterized due to measurement limitations, and its evolution in the atmosphere is not well known. We report on aircraft measurements of brown carbon from large wildfires in the western United States. We compare two methods for measuring brown carbon and study the evolution of brown carbon in the smoke as it moved away from the burning regions.
Wei Li and Yuxuan Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7843–7859,Short summary
Fine dust is an important component of PM2.5 and can be largely modulated by droughts. In contrast to the increase in dust in the southwest USA where major dust sources are located, dust in the southeast USA is affected more by long-range transport from Africa and decreases under droughts. Both the transport and emissions of African dust are weakened when the southeast USA is under droughts, which reveals how regional-scale droughts can influence aerosol abundance through long-range transport.
Li Liu, Ye Kuang, Miaomiao Zhai, Biao Xue, Yao He, Jun Tao, Biao Luo, Wanyun Xu, Jiangchuan Tao, Changqin Yin, Fei Li, Hanbing Xu, Tao Deng, Xuejiao Deng, Haobo Tan, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7713–7726,Short summary
Using simultaneous measurements of a humidified nephelometer system and an aerosol chemical speciation monitor in winter in Guangzhou, the strongest scattering ability of more oxidized oxygenated organic aerosol (MOOA) among aerosol components considering their dry-state scattering ability and water uptake ability was revealed, leading to large impacts of MOOA on visibility degradation. This has important implications for visibility improvement in China and aerosol radiative effect simulation.
Michaël Sicard, Daniel Camilo Fortunato dos Santos Oliveira, Constantino Muñoz-Porcar, Cristina Gil-Díaz, Adolfo Comerón, Alejandro Rodríguez-Gómez, and Federico Dios Otín
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7681–7697,Short summary
Atmospheric particles can absorb water vapor, and this water uptake may change their properties, e.g., their size. In the coastal region of Barcelona, Spain, we observe that (1) smaller particles absorb more water vapor, in relative terms, than larger particles and (2) the particle capacity to absorb water vapor has no annual tendency, probably because the site background is quite constant (urban + marine aerosol regime).
Cyril Brunner, Benjamin T. Brem, Martine Collaud Coen, Franz Conen, Martin Steinbacher, Martin Gysel-Beer, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7557–7573,Short summary
Microscopic particles called ice-nucleating particles (INPs) are essential for ice crystals to form in clouds. INPs are a tiny proportion of atmospheric aerosol, and their abundance is poorly constrained. We study how the concentration of INPs changes diurnally and seasonally at a mountaintop station in central Europe. Unsurprisingly, a diurnal cycle is only found when considering air masses that have had lower-altitude ground contact. The highest INP concentrations occur in spring.
Zixuan Jia, Ruth M. Doherty, Carlos Ordóñez, Chaofan Li, Oliver Wild, Shipra Jain, and Xiao Tang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6471–6487,Short summary
This study investigates the modulation of daily PM2.5 over three major populated regions in China by regional meteorology and large-scale circulation during winter. These results demonstrate the benefits of considering the large-scale circulation for air quality studies. The novel circulation indices proposed here can explain a considerable fraction of the day-to-day variability of PM2.5 and can be combined with regional meteorology to improve our capability to predict the variability of PM2.5.
Maija Peltola, Clémence Rose, Jonathan V. Trueblood, Sally Gray, Mike Harvey, and Karine Sellegri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6231–6254,Short summary
Despite the importance of marine aerosol measurements for constraining climate models, these measurements are scarce. We measured the aerosol particle number size distribution in coastal New Zealand over a total period of 10 months. This paper analyses the aerosol properties at the site, with a special focus on new particle formation and marine air masses. New particle formation was observed frequently, but in marine air masses it did not follow traditional event criteria.
Liang Ran, Zhaoze Deng, Yunfei Wu, Jiwei Li, Zhixuan Bai, Ye Lu, Deqing Zhuoga, and Jianchun Bian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6217–6229,Short summary
The Tibetan Plateau (TP), the highest plateau in the world, plays a crucial role in regional and global climate. To examine the fingerprint left by human activities on the originally remote atmosphere, size distributions of particles from the ground to about 800 m were measured for the first time in summer 2020 in Lhasa, one of a few urbanized cities on TP. Potential sources of particles at different heights were explored. The contribution of emissions from religious activities was highlighted.
Russell J. Perkins, Peter J. Marinescu, Ezra J. T. Levin, Don R. Collins, and Sonia M. Kreidenweis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6197–6215,Short summary
We used 5 years (2009–2013) of aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) data from a total of seven instruments housed at the Southern Great Plains site, which were merged into a quality-controlled, continuous dataset of CCN spectra at ~45 min resolution. The data cover all seasons, are representative of a rural, agricultural mid-continental site, and are useful for model initialization and validation. Our analysis of this dataset focuses on seasonal and hourly variability.
Olga B. Popovicheva, Nikolaos Evangeliou, Vasilii O. Kobelev, Marina A. Chichaeva, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Asta Gregorič, and Nikolay S. Kasimov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5983–6000,Short summary
Measurements of black carbon (BC) combined with atmospheric transport modeling reveal that gas flaring from oil and gas extraction in Kazakhstan, Volga-Ural, Komi, Nenets and western Siberia contributes the largest share of surface BC in the Russian Arctic dominating over domestic, industrial and traffic sectors. Pollution episodes show an increasing trend in concentration levels and frequency as the station is in the Siberian gateway of the highest anthropogenic pollution to the Russian Arctic.
Karin Ardon-Dryer and Mary C. Kelley
Changes of particle size distribution and PM concentrations during different dust events in West Texas were examined. Analysis based on different time scales showed that current common methods used to evaluate the impact of dust events on air quality will not capture the true impact of short dust events (convective), and therefore would not provide an insightful understanding of their impact on the environment and human health.
Cyrille Flamant, Marco Gaetani, Jean-Pierre Chaboureau, Patrick Chazette, Juan Cuesta, Stuart John Piketh, and Paola Formenti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5701–5724,Short summary
Rivers of smoke extend from tropical southern Africa towards the Indian Ocean during the winter fire season, controlled by the interaction of tropical easterly waves, and westerly waves at mid latitudes. During the AEROCLO-sA field campaign in 2017, a river of smoke was directly observed over Namibia. In this paper, the evolution and atmospheric drivers of the river of smoke are described, and the role of a mid-latitude cut-off low in lifting the smoke to the upper troposphere is highlighted.
Kristina Glojek, Griša Močnik, Honey Dawn C. Alas, Andrea Cuesta-Mosquera, Luka Drinovec, Asta Gregorič, Matej Ogrin, Kay Weinhold, Irena Ježek, Thomas Müller, Martin Rigler, Maja Remškar, Dominik van Pinxteren, Hartmut Herrmann, Martina Ristorini, Maik Merkel, Miha Markelj, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5577–5601,Short summary
A pilot study to determine the emissions of wood burning under
real-world laboratoryconditions was conducted. We found that measured black carbon (eBC) and particulate matter (PM) in rural shallow terrain depressions with residential wood burning could be much greater than predicted by models. The exceeding levels are a cause for concern since similar conditions can be expected in numerous hilly and mountainous regions across Europe, where approximately 20 % of the total population lives.
Ülkü Alver Şahin, Roy M. Harrison, Mohammed S. Alam, David C. S. Beddows, Dimitrios Bousiotis, Zongbo Shi, Leigh R. Crilley, William Bloss, James Brean, Isha Khanna, and Rulan Verma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5415–5433,Short summary
Wide-range particle size spectra have been measured in three seasons in Delhi and are interpreted in terms of sources and processes. Condensational growth is a major feature of the fine fraction, and a coarse fraction contributes substantially – but only in summer.
Xianda Gong, Heike Wex, Thomas Müller, Silvia Henning, Jens Voigtländer, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5175–5194,Short summary
We conducted 10 yr measurements to characterize the atmospheric aerosol at Cabo Verde. An unsupervised machine learning algorithm, K-means, was implemented to study the aerosol types. Cloud condensation nuclei number concentrations during dust periods were 2.5 times higher than marine periods. The long-term data sets, together with the aerosol classification, can be used as a basis to improve understanding of annual cycles of aerosol, and aerosol-cloud interactions in the North Atlantic.
Aki Virkkula, Henrik Grythe, John Backman, Tuukka Petäjä, Maurizio Busetto, Christian Lanconelli, Angelo Lupi, Silvia Becagli, Rita Traversi, Mirko Severi, Vito Vitale, Patrick Sheridan, and Elisabeth Andrews
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5033–5069,Short summary
Optical properties of surface aerosols at Dome C, Antarctica, in 2007–2013 and their potential source areas are presented. The equivalent black carbon (eBC) mass concentrations were compared with eBC measured at three other Antarctic sites: the South Pole (SPO) and two coastal sites, Neumayer and Syowa. Transport analysis suggests that South American BC emissions are the largest contributor to eBC at Dome C.
Jingnan Shi, Juan Hong, Nan Ma, Qingwei Luo, Yao He, Hanbing Xu, Haobo Tan, Qiaoqiao Wang, Jiangchuan Tao, Yaqing Zhou, Shuang Han, Long Peng, Linhong Xie, Guangsheng Zhou, Wanyun Xu, Yele Sun, Yafang Cheng, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4599–4613,Short summary
In this study, we investigated the hygroscopicity of submicron aerosols at a rural site in the North China Plain during the winter of 2018, using a HTDMA and a CV-ToF-ACSM. We observed differences in aerosol hygroscopicity during two distinct episodes with different primary emissions and secondary aerosol formation processes. These results provide an improved understanding of the complex influence of sources and aerosol evolution processes on their hygroscopicity.
Mathew Sebastian, Sobhan Kumar Kompalli, Vasudevan Anil Kumar, Sandhya Jose, S. Suresh Babu, Govindan Pandithurai, Sachchidanand Singh, Rakesh K. Hooda, Vijay K. Soni, Jeffrey R. Pierce, Ville Vakkari, Eija Asmi, Daniel M. Westervelt, Antti-Pekka Hyvärinen, and Vijay P. Kanawade
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4491–4508,Short summary
Characteristics of particle number size distributions and new particle formation in six locations in India were analyzed. New particle formation occurred frequently during the pre-monsoon (spring) season and it significantly modulates the shape of the particle number size distributions. The contribution of newly formed particles to cloud condensation nuclei concentrations was ~3 times higher in urban locations than in mountain background locations.
Chenjie Yu, Dantong Liu, Kang Hu, Ping Tian, Yangzhou Wu, Delong Zhao, Huihui Wu, Dawei Hu, Wenbo Guo, Qiang Li, Mengyu Huang, Deping Ding, and James D. Allan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4375–4391,Short summary
In this study, we applied a new technique to investigate the aerosol properties on both a mass and number basis and CCN abilities in Beijing suburban regions. The size-resolved aerosol chemical compositions and CCN activation measurement enable a detailed analysis of BC-containing particle hygroscopicity and its size-dependent contribution to the CCN activation. The results presented in this study will affect future models and human health studies.
Xiaoyun Sun, Tianliang Zhao, Yongqing Bai, Shaofei Kong, Huang Zheng, Weiyang Hu, Xiaodan Ma, and Jie Xiong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3579–3593,Short summary
This study revealed the impact of anthropogenic emissions and meteorological conditions on PM2.5 decline in the regional transport of air pollutants over a receptor region in central China. The meteorological drivers led to upwind accelerating and downward offsetting of the effects of emission reductions over the receptor region in regional PM2.5 transport, and the contribution of gaseous precursor emissions to PM2.5 pollution was enhanced with reduced anthropogenic emissions in recent years.
Marco A. Franco, Florian Ditas, Leslie A. Kremper, Luiz A. T. Machado, Meinrat O. Andreae, Alessandro Araújo, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Joel F. de Brito, Samara Carbone, Bruna A. Holanda, Fernando G. Morais, Janaína P. Nascimento, Mira L. Pöhlker, Luciana V. Rizzo, Marta Sá, Jorge Saturno, David Walter, Stefan Wolff, Ulrich Pöschl, Paulo Artaxo, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3469–3492,Short summary
In Central Amazonia, new particle formation in the planetary boundary layer is rare. Instead, there is the appearance of sub-50 nm aerosols with diameters larger than about 20 nm that eventually grow to cloud condensation nuclei size range. Here, 254 growth events were characterized which have higher predominance in the wet season. About 70 % of them showed direct relation to convective downdrafts, while 30 % occurred partly under clear-sky conditions, evidencing still unknown particle sources.
Franz Conen, Annika Einbock, Claudia Mignani, and Christoph Hüglin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3433–3444,Short summary
Above western Europe, ice typically starts to form in clouds a few kilometres above the ground if suitable aerosol particles are present. In air masses typical for that altitude, we found that such particles most likely originate from bacteria and fungi living on plants. Occasional Saharan dust intrusions seem to contribute little to the number concentration of particles able to freeze cloud droplets between 0°C and −15°C.
Natalia Chubarova, Elizaveta Androsova, Alexander Kirsanov, Olga Popovicheva, Bernhard Vogel, Heike Vogel, and Gdaliy Rivin
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The effects of urban aerosol pollution in Moscow megacity were analyzed using COSMO-ART chemical transport model and intensive measurement campaigns. We show that urban aerosol comprises about 15–20 % of columnar aerosol content consisting mainly of fine aerosol mode. Black Carbon (BC) fraction is about 5 %, depending on particle dispersion intensity (IPD). BC fraction low value explains weak absorbing properties of the Moscow atmosphere. The IPD also defines daily cycle of urban aerosol species.
Stephen M. Platt, Øystein Hov, Torunn Berg, Knut Breivik, Sabine Eckhardt, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Nikolaos Evangeliou, Markus Fiebig, Rebecca Fisher, Georg Hansen, Hans-Christen Hansson, Jost Heintzenberg, Ove Hermansen, Dominic Heslin-Rees, Kim Holmén, Stephen Hudson, Roland Kallenborn, Radovan Krejci, Terje Krognes, Steinar Larssen, David Lowry, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Chris Lunder, Euan Nisbet, Pernilla B. Nizzetto, Ki-Tae Park, Christina A. Pedersen, Katrine Aspmo Pfaffhuber, Thomas Röckmann, Norbert Schmidbauer, Sverre Solberg, Andreas Stohl, Johan Ström, Tove Svendby, Peter Tunved, Kjersti Tørnkvist, Carina van der Veen, Stergios Vratolis, Young Jun Yoon, Karl Espen Yttri, Paul Zieger, Wenche Aas, and Kjetil Tørseth
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3321–3369,Short summary
Here we detail the history of the Zeppelin Observatory, a unique global background site and one of only a few in the high Arctic. We present long-term time series of up to 30 years of atmospheric components and atmospheric transport phenomena. Many of these time series are important to our understanding of Arctic and global atmospheric composition change. Finally, we discuss the future of the Zeppelin Observatory and emerging areas of future research on the Arctic atmosphere.
Jörg Wieder, Claudia Mignani, Mario Schär, Lucie Roth, Michael Sprenger, Jan Henneberger, Ulrike Lohmann, Cyril Brunner, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3111–3130,Short summary
We investigate the variation in ice-nucleating particles (INPs) relevant for primary ice formation in mixed-phased clouds over the Alps based on simultaneous in situ observations at a mountaintop and a nearby high valley (1060 m height difference). In most cases, advection from the surrounding lower regions was responsible for changes in INP concentration, causing a diurnal cycle at the mountaintop. Our study underlines the importance of the planetary boundary layer as an INP reserve.
Jesús Yus-Díez, Marta Via, Andrés Alastuey, Angeliki Karanasiou, María Cruz Minguillón, Noemí Perez, Xavier Querol, Cristina Reche, Matic Ivančič, Martin Rigler, and Marco Pandolfi
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This study presents the absorption enhancement of internally and externally mixed black carbon (BC) particles in a Mediterranean city and countryside. We showed the importance of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) and particle aging in increasing the BC absorption enhancement. We performed a trend analysis on the absorption enhancement. We found a positive trend of the absorption enhancement at the regional station in summer driven by the increase with time of the relative contribution of SOA.
Haochi Che, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, Lu Zhang, Caroline Dang, Paquita Zuidema, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, Xiaoye Zhang, and Connor Flynn
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
A 17-month in-situ study on Ascension Island found low single scattering albedo and strong absorption enhancement of the marine boundary layer aerosols during biomass burnings on the African continent, along with apparent patterns of regular monthly variability. We further discuss the characteristics and drivers behind these changes and find that biomass burning conditions in Africa may be the main factor influencing the optical properties of marine boundary aerosols.
Hao Luo, Li Dong, Yichen Chen, Yuefeng Zhao, Delong Zhao, Mengyu Huang, Deping Ding, Jiayuan Liao, Tian Ma, Maohai Hu, and Yong Han
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2507–2524,Short summary
Aerosol–planetary boundary layer (PBL) interaction is a key mechanism for stabilizing the atmosphere and exacerbating surface air pollution. Using aircraft measurements and WRF-Chem simulations, we find that the aerosol–PBL interaction of different aerosols under contrasting synoptic patterns, PBL structures, and aerosol vertical distributions vary significantly. We attempt to determine which pollutants to target in different synoptic conditions to attain more precise air pollution control.
Meinrat O. Andreae, Tracey W. Andreae, Florian Ditas, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2487–2505,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosol particles are key players in the Earth’s climate system, but there is still considerable uncertainty about where and how these particles are initially formed. We present the first study of new particle formation (NPF) at a pristine site in a subboreal forest region of North America. Our data suggest that, in this environment, there is frequent NPF from biogenic organic precursor compounds, which was likely the predominant source of particles in the preindustrial environment.
Lu Chen, Fang Zhang, Don Collins, Jingye Ren, Jieyao Liu, Sihui Jiang, and Zhanqing Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2293–2307,Short summary
Understanding the volatility and mixing state of atmospheric aerosols is important for elucidating their formation. Here, the size-resolved volatility of fine particles is characterized using field measurements. On average, the particles are more volatile in the summer. The retrieved mixing state shows that black carbon (BC)-containing particles dominate and contribute 67–77 % toward the total number concentration in the winter, while the non-BC particles accounted for 52–69 % in the summer.
Yaqing Zhou, Nan Ma, Qiaoqiao Wang, Zhibin Wang, Chunrong Chen, Jiangchuan Tao, Juan Hong, Long Peng, Yao He, Linhong Xie, Shaowen Zhu, Yuxuan Zhang, Guo Li, Wanyun Xu, Peng Cheng, Uwe Kuhn, Guangsheng Zhou, Pingqing Fu, Qiang Zhang, Hang Su, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2029–2047,Short summary
This study characterizes size-resolved particle effective densities and their evolution associated with emissions and aging processes in a rural area of the North China Plain. Particle effective density exhibits a high-frequency bimodal distribution, and two density modes exhibit opposite trends with increasing particle size. SIA and BC mass fractions are key factors of particle effective density, and a value of 0.6 g cm−3 is appropriate to represent BC effective density in bulk particles.
Birgit Heese, Athena Augusta Floutsi, Holger Baars, Dietrich Althausen, Julian Hofer, Alina Herzog, Silke Mewes, Martin Radenz, and Yoav Y. Schechner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1633–1648,Short summary
The aerosol distribution over Haifa, Israel, was measured for 2 years by a laser-based vertically resolved measurement technique called lidar. From these data, the aerosol types and their percentages of the observed aerosol mixtures were identified in terms of their size and shape. We found mostly desert dust from the surrounding deserts and sea salt from the close-by Mediterranean Sea. But aerosols from anthropogenic and industrial pollution from local and far away sources were also detected.
Lu Zhang, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, Haochi Che, Caroline Dang, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, Ernie R. Lewis, Amie Dobracki, Jenny P. S. Wong, Paola Formenti, Steven G. Howell, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Widespread biomass burning (BB) events occur annually in Africa, which contribute about one-third of global BB emissions. These emissions contain a large family of light-absorbing organics, known as brown carbon (BrC), whose absorption of incident solar radiation is difficult to estimate, leading to large uncertainties in the global radiative forcing estimation. This study quantified the BrC absorption of aged BB particles and highlighted the importance of absorbing iron in the meanwhile.
Jiaxing Sun, Zhe Wang, Wei Zhou, Conghui Xie, Cheng Wu, Chun Chen, Tingting Han, Qingqing Wang, Zhijie Li, Jie Li, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 561–575,Short summary
We analyzed 9-year measurements of BC and aerosol optical properties from 2012 to 2020 in Beijing, China. Our results showed large reductions in BC and light extinction coefficient due to the Clean Air Action Plan. As a response, both SSA and mass extinction efficiency (MEE) showed considerable increases, demonstrating a future challenge in visibility improvement. The primary and secondary BrC was also separated and quantified, and the changes in radiative forcing of BC and BrC were estimated.
Jutta Kesti, John Backman, Ewan J. O'Connor, Anne Hirsikko, Eija Asmi, Minna Aurela, Ulla Makkonen, Maria Filioglou, Mika Komppula, Hannele Korhonen, and Heikki Lihavainen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 481–503,Short summary
In this study we combined aerosol particle measurements at the surface with a scanning Doppler lidar providing vertical profiles of the atmosphere to study the effect of different boundary layer conditions on aerosol particle properties in the understudied Arabian Peninsula region. The instrumentation used in this study enabled us to identify periods when pollution from remote sources was mixed down to the surface and initiated new particle formation in the growing boundary layer.
Moritz Haarig, Albert Ansmann, Ronny Engelmann, Holger Baars, Carlos Toledano, Benjamin Torres, Dietrich Althausen, Martin Radenz, and Ulla Wandinger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 355–369,Short summary
The irregular shape of dust particles makes it difficult to treat them correctly in optical models. Atmospheric measurements of dust optical properties are therefore of great importance. The present study increases the space of observed parameters from 355 and 532 nm towards 1064 nm, which is of special importance for large dust particles. The lidar ratio influenced by mineralogy and the depolarization ratio influenced by shape are measured for the first time at all three wavelengths.
Ovid Oktavian Krüger, Bruna A. Holanda, Sourangsu Chowdhury, Andrea Pozzer, David Walter, Christopher Pöhlker, Maria Dolores Andrés Hernández, John Phillip Burrows, Christiane Voigt, Jos Lelieveld, Johannes Quaas, Ulrich Pöschl, and Mira L. Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The abrupt reduction in human activities during the first COVID-19 lockdown created unprecedented atmospheric conditions. We took the opportunity to quantify changes in black carbon (BC) as a major anthropogenic air pollutant. Therefore, we measured BC onboard a research aircraft over Europe during the lockdown and compared the results to measurements from 2017. With model simulations we account for different weather conditions and find a lockdown-related decrease in BC of 40 %.
Sarah J. Doherty, Pablo E. Saide, Paquita Zuidema, Yohei Shinozuka, Gonzalo A. Ferrada, Hamish Gordon, Marc Mallet, Kerry Meyer, David Painemal, Steven G. Howell, Steffen Freitag, Amie Dobracki, James R. Podolske, Sharon P. Burton, Richard A. Ferrare, Calvin Howes, Pierre Nabat, Gregory R. Carmichael, Arlindo da Silva, Kristina Pistone, Ian Chang, Lan Gao, Robert Wood, and Jens Redemann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1–46,Short summary
Between July and October, biomass burning smoke is advected over the southeastern Atlantic Ocean, leading to climate forcing. Model calculations of forcing by this plume vary significantly in both magnitude and sign. This paper compares aerosol and cloud properties observed during three NASA ORACLES field campaigns to the same in four models. It quantifies modeled biases in properties key to aerosol direct radiative forcing and evaluates how these biases propagate to biases in forcing.
Agnes Straaten and Stephan Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18707–18726,Short summary
Cities show high concentrations of ultrafine particles due to multiple emission sources such as traffic and industry. To analyse turbulent urban surface–atmosphere exchange of particles, we quantified multi-annual size-resolved particle number fluxes in Berlin, Germany. The site was a net source of particles with a dominant contribution of traffic-related emission, especially very small particles < 30 nm. Particle fluxes clearly varied as a function of anthropogenic activity and urban land use.
Outi Meinander, Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavel Amosov, Elena Aseyeva, Cliff Atkins, Alexander Baklanov, Clarissa Baldo, Sarah Barr, Barbara Barzycka, Liane Benning, Bojan Cvetkovic, Polina Enchilik, Denis Frolov, Santiago Gassó, Konrad Kandler, Nikolay Kasimov, Jan Kavan, James King, Tatyana Koroleva, Viktoria Krupskaya, Monika Kusiak, Michał Laska, Jerome Lasne, Marek Lewandowski, Bartłomiej Luks, James McQuaid, Beatrice Moroni, Benjamin Murray, Ottmar Möhler, Adam Nawrot, Slobodan Nickovic, Norman O’Neill, Goran Pejanovic, Olga Popovicheva, Keyvan Ranjbar, Manolis Romanias, Olga Samonova, Alberto Sanchez-Marroquin, Kerstin Schepanski, Ivan Semenkov, Anna Sharapova, Elena Shevnina, Zongbo Shi, Mikhail Sofiev, Frédéric Thevenet, Throstur Thorsteinsson, Mikhail Timofeev, Nsikanabasi Silas Umo, Andreas Uppstu, Darya Urupina, György Varga, Tomasz Werner, Olafur Arnalds, and Ana Vukovic Vimic
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
High latitude dust (HLD) is a short-lived climate forcer, air pollutant and nutrient source. We identified 64 new high latitude dust sources and their observations and source characteristics. Our update provides crucially needed information on the extent of active HLD sources and their locations. Active HLD sources serve as important sources of aerosols with both direct and indirect impacts on climate and environment in remote regions, which are often poorly understood and predicted.
Luiz A. T. Machado, Marco A. Franco, Leslie A. Kremper, Florian Ditas, Meinrat O. Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Micael A. Cecchini, Bruna A. Holanda, Mira L. Pöhlker, Ivan Saraiva, Stefan Wolff, Ulrich Pöschl, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18065–18086,Short summary
Several studies evaluate aerosol–cloud interactions, but only a few attempted to describe how clouds modify aerosol properties. This study evaluates the effect of weather events on the particle size distribution at the ATTO, combining remote sensing and in situ data. Ultrafine, Aitken and accumulation particles modes have different behaviors for the diurnal cycle and for rainfall events. This study opens up new scientific questions that need to be pursued in detail in new field campaigns.
Chaman Gul, Shichang Kang, Siva Praveen Puppala, Xiaokang Wu, Cenlin He, Yangyang Xu, Inka Koch, Sher Muhammad, Rajesh Kumar, and Getachew Dubache
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This work aims to understand concentrations, spatial variability, and potential source regions of light-absorbing impurities (black carbon aerosols, dust particles, and organic carbon) in the surface snow of central and western Himalayan glaciers and their impact on snow albedo, and radiative forcing.
Gang Zhao, Tianyi Tan, Yishu Zhu, Min Hu, and Chunsheng Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18055–18063,Short summary
In this study, the black carbon (BC) mixing state index (χ) is developed to quantify the dispersion of ambient black carbon aerosol mixing states based on binary systems of BC and other non-black carbon components. We demonstrate that the BC light absorption enhancement increases with χ for the same MR, which indicates that χ can be employed as a factor to constrain the light absorption enhancement of ambient BC.
Cyril Brunner, Benjamin T. Brem, Martine Collaud Coen, Franz Conen, Maxime Hervo, Stephan Henne, Martin Steinbacher, Martin Gysel-Beer, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18029–18053,Short summary
Special microscopic particles called ice-nucleating particles (INPs) are essential for ice crystals to form in the atmosphere. INPs are sparse and their atmospheric concentration and properties are not well understood. Mineral dust particles make up a significant fraction of INPs but how much remains unknown. Here, we address this knowledge gap by studying periods when mineral particles are present in large quantities at a mountaintop station in central Europe.
Ying Zhou, Simo Hakala, Chao Yan, Yang Gao, Xiaohong Yao, Biwu Chu, Tommy Chan, Juha Kangasluoma, Shahzad Gani, Jenni Kontkanen, Pauli Paasonen, Yongchun Liu, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Lubna Dada
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17885–17906,Short summary
We characterized the connection between new particle formation (NPF) events in terms of frequency, intensity and growth at a near-highway location in central Beijing and at a background mountain site 80 km away. Due to the substantial contribution of NPF to the global aerosol budget, identifying the conditions that promote the occurrence of regional NPF events could help understand their contribution on a large scale and would improve their implementation in global models.
Lisa J. Beck, Siegfried Schobesberger, Heikki Junninen, Janne Lampilahti, Antti Manninen, Lubna Dada, Katri Leino, Xu-Cheng He, Iida Pullinen, Lauriane Quéléver, Anna Franck, Pyry Poutanen, Daniela Wimmer, Frans Korhonen, Mikko Sipilä, Mikael Ehn, Douglas Worsnop, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Jonathan Duplissy
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The presented article introduces an overview of atmospheric ions and their composition above the boreal forest. We provide the results of an extensive airborne measurement campaign with an air ion mass spectrometer and particle measurements, showing their diurnal behaviour within the boundary layer and free troposphere. In addition, we compare the airborne dataset with the co-located data from the ground at SMEAR II station, Finland.
Yuting Zhang, Hang Liu, Shandong Lei, Wanyun Xu, Yu Tian, Weijie Yao, Xiaoyong Liu, Qi Liao, Jie Li, Chun Chen, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, Jinyuan Xin, Junji Cao, Xiaole Pan, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17631–17648,Short summary
In this study, the authors used a single-particle soot photometer (SP2) to characterize the particle size, mixing state, and optical properties of black carbon aerosols in rural areas of the North China Plain in winter. Relatively warm and high-RH environments (RH > 50 %, −4° < T < 4 °) were more favorable to rBC aging than dry and cold environments (RH < 60 %, T < −8°). The paper emphasizes the importance of meteorological parameters in the mixing state of black carbon.
Baumer, D., Vogel, B., Versick, S., Rinke, R., Mohler, O., and Schnaiter, M.: Relationship of visibility, aerosol optical thickness and aerosol size distribution in an ageing air mass over South-West Germany, Atmos. Environ., 42, 989–998, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.10.017, 2008.
Brauer, M., Amann, M., Burnett, R. T., Cohen, A., Dentener, F., Ezzati, M., Henderson, S. B., Krzyzanowski, M., Martin, R. V., and Van Dingenen, R.: Exposure assessment for estimation of the global burden of disease attributable to outdoor air pollution, Environ. Sci. Technol., 46, 652–660, 2012.
Brook, R. D., Rajagopalan, S., Pope, C. A., Brook, J. R., Bhatnagar, A., Diez-Roux, A. V., Holguin, F., Hong, Y. L., Luepker, R. V., Mittleman, M. A., Peters, A., Siscovick, D., Smith, S. C., Whitsel, L., Kaufman, J. D., Epidemiol, A. H. A. C., Dis, C. K. C., and Metab, C. N. P. A.: Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Disease An Update to the Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association, Circulation, 121, 2331–2378, 2010.
Brooks, I. M.: Finding boundary layer top: Application of a wavelet covariance transform to lidar backscatter profiles, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 20, 1092–1105, 2003.
Campbell, J. R., Hlavka, D. L., Welton, E. J., Flynn, C. J., Turner, D. D., Spinhirne, J. D., Scott, V. S., and Hwang, I. H.: Full-time, eye-safe cloud and aerosol lidar observation at atmospheric radiation measurement program sites: Instruments and data processing, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 19, 431–442, 2002.
Choi, Y. S., Park, R. J., and Ho, C. H.: Estimates of ground-level aerosol mass concentrations using a chemical transport model with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol observations over East Asia, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 114, D04204, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD011041, 2009.
Chu, D. A., Kaufman, Y. J., Zibordi, G., Chern, J. D., Mao, J., Li, C. C., and Holben, B. N.: Global monitoring of air pollution over land from the Earth Observing System-Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 108, 4661, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002jd003179, 2003.
Dubovik, O., Holben, B. N., Eck, T. F., Smirnov, A., Kaufman, Y. J., King, M. D., Tanré, D., and Slutsker, I.: Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations, J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 590–608, 2002.
Dubovik, O., Smirnov, A., Holben, B., King, M. D., Kaufman, Y. J., Eck, T. F., and Slutsker, I.: Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun and sky radiance measurements, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 105, 9791–9806, 2000.
Dubovik, O. and King, M. D.: A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from Sun and sky radiance measurements, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 105, 20673–20696, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000jd900282, 2000.
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The estimation of PM10 from optical measurement of AERONET and MODIS by various empirical models was evaluated for the DRAGON-Asia campaign. The results showed the importance of boundary layer height (BLH) and effective radius (Reff) in estimating PM10. The highest correlation between the estimated and measured values was found to be 0.81 in winter due to the stagnant air mass and low BLH, while the poorest values were 0.54 in spring due to the influence of long-range transport above BLH.
The estimation of PM10 from optical measurement of AERONET and MODIS by various empirical models...