Articles | Volume 13, issue 17
© Author(s) 2013. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2013. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Present and future nitrogen deposition to national parks in the United States: critical load exceedances
R. A. Ellis
School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA
Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA
D. J. Jacob
School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA
Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA
M. P. Sulprizio
School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA
Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA
Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Laboratory for Climate and Ocean-Atmosphere Studies, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing, China
C. D. Holmes
Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA
B. A. Schichtel
Air Resources Division, National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO, USA
Air Resources Division, National Park Service, Denver, CO, USA
Air Resources Division, National Park Service, Denver, CO, USA
L. H. Pardo
USDA Forest Service, University of Vermont Aiken Center, Burlington, VT, USA
J. A. Lynch
Office of Air and Radiation, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA
No articles found.
Davide Putero, Paolo Cristofanelli, Kai-Lan Chang, Gaëlle Dufour, Gregory Beachley, Cédric Couret, Peter Effertz, Daniel A. Jaffe, Dagmar Kubistin, Jason Lynch, Irina Petropavlovskikh, Melissa Puchalski, Timothy Sharac, Barkley C. Sive, Martin Steinbacher, Carlos Torres, and Owen R. Cooper
We investigated the impact of the societal restriction measures during the COVID-19 pandemic on surface ozone at 41 high-elevation sites worldwide. Negative ozone anomalies were observed for spring and summer 2020 for all of the regions considered. In 2021, negative anomalies continued for Europe and partially for the Eastern US, while Western US sites showed positive anomalies due to wildfires. IASI satellite data and Carbon Monitor supported emission reductions as a cause of the anomalies.
Kaiyue Zhou, Wen Xu, Lin Zhang, Mingrui Ma, Xuejun Liu, and Yu Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8531–8551,Short summary
We developed a dataset of the long-term (2005–2020) variabilities of China’s nitrogen and sulfur deposition, with multiple statistical models that combine available observations and chemistry transport modeling. We demonstrated the strong impact of human activities and national pollution control actions on the spatiotemporal changes in deposition and indicated a relatively small benefit of emission abatement on deposition (and thereby ecological risk) for China compared to Europe and the USA.
Bruno Debus, Andrew T. Weakley, Satoshi Takahama, Kathryn M. George, Anahita Amiri-Farahani, Bret Schichtel, Scott Copeland, Anthony S. Wexler, and Ann M. Dillner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2685–2702,Short summary
In the US, routine particulate matter composition is measured on samples collected on three types of filter media and analyzed using several techniques. We propose an alternate approach that uses one analytical technique, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and one filter type to measure the chemical composition of particulate matter in a major US monitoring network. This method could be used to add low-cost sites to the network, fill-in missing data, or for quality control.
Dianyi Li, Drew Shindell, Dian Ding, Xiao Lu, Lin Zhang, and Yuqiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2625–2638,Short summary
In this study, we applied chemical transport model simulation with the latest annual anthropogenic emission inventory to study the long-term trend of ozone-induced crop production losses from 2010 to 2017 in China. We find that overall the ozone-induced crop production loss in China is significant and the annual average economic losses for wheat, rice, maize, and soybean in China are USD 9.55 billion, USD 8.53 billion, USD 2.23 billion, and USD 1.16 billion respectively, over the 8 years.
James R. Ouimette, William C. Malm, Bret A. Schichtel, Patrick J. Sheridan, Elisabeth Andrews, John A. Ogren, and W. Patrick Arnott
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 655–676,Short summary
We show that the low-cost PurpleAir sensor can be characterized as a cell-reciprocal nephelometer. At two very different locations (Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii and the Table Mountain rural site in Colorado), the PurpleAir measurements are highly correlated with the submicrometer aerosol scattering coefficient measured by a research-grade integrating nephelometer. These results imply that, with care, PurpleAir data may be used to evaluate climate and air quality models.
Haiyue Tan, Lin Zhang, Xiao Lu, Yuanhong Zhao, Bo Yao, Robert J. Parker, and Hartmut Boesch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1229–1249,Short summary
Methane is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas. Understanding methane emissions and concentration growth over China in the past decade is important to support its mitigation. This study analyzes the contributions of methane emissions from different regions and sources over the globe to methane changes over China in 2007–2018. Our results show strong international transport influences and emphasize the need of intensive methane measurements covering eastern China.
Ruqian Miao, Qi Chen, Manish Shrivastava, Youfan Chen, Lin Zhang, Jianlin Hu, Yan Zheng, and Keren Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16183–16201,Short summary
We apply process-based and observation-constrained schemes to simulate organic aerosol in China and conduct comprehensive model–observation comparisons. The results show that anthropogenic semivolatile and intermediate-volatility organic compounds (SVOCs and IVOCs) are the main sources of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in polluted regions, for which the residential sector is perhaps the predominant contributor. The hydroxyl radical level is also important for SOA modeling in polluted regions.
Yadong Lei, Xu Yue, Hong Liao, Lin Zhang, Yang Yang, Hao Zhou, Chenguang Tian, Cheng Gong, Yimian Ma, Lan Gao, and Yang Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11531–11543,Short summary
We present the first estimate of ozone enhancement by fire emissions through ozone–vegetation interactions using a fully coupled chemistry–vegetation model (GC-YIBs). In fire-prone areas, fire-induced ozone causes a positive feedback to surface ozone mainly because of the inhibition effects on stomatal conductance.
Youwen Sun, Hao Yin, Cheng Liu, Lin Zhang, Yuan Cheng, Mathias Palm, Justus Notholt, Xiao Lu, Corinne Vigouroux, Bo Zheng, Wei Wang, Nicholas Jones, Changong Shan, Min Qin, Yuan Tian, Qihou Hu, Fanhao Meng, and Jianguo Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6365–6387,Short summary
This study mapped the drivers of HCHO variability from 2015 to 2019 over eastern China. Hydroxyl (OH) radical production rates from HCHO photolysis were evaluated. The relative contributions of emitted and photochemical sources to the observed HCHO abundance were analyzed. Contributions of various emission sources and geographical regions to the observed HCHO summertime enhancements were determined.
Zhongjing Jiang, Jing Li, Xiao Lu, Cheng Gong, Lin Zhang, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2601–2613,Short summary
This study demonstrates that the intensity of the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH), a major synoptic pattern in the northern Pacific during summer, can induce a dipole change in surface ozone pollution over eastern China. Ozone concentration increases in the north and decreases in the south during the strong WPSH phase, and vice versa. The change in chemical processes associated with the WPSH change plays a decisive role, whereas the natural emission of ozone precursors accounts for ~ 30 %.
Xiao Lu, Lin Zhang, Tongwen Wu, Michael S. Long, Jun Wang, Daniel J. Jacob, Fang Zhang, Jie Zhang, Sebastian D. Eastham, Lu Hu, Lei Zhu, Xiong Liu, and Min Wei
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3817–3838,Short summary
This study presents the development and evaluation of a new climate chemistry model, BCC-GEOS-Chem v1.0, which couples the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model as an atmospheric chemistry component in the Beijing Climate Center atmospheric general circulation model. A 3-year (2012–2014) simulation of BCC-GEOS-Chem v1.0 shows that the model captures well the spatiotemporal distributions of tropospheric ozone, other gaseous pollutants, and aerosols.
Haipeng Lin, Xu Feng, Tzung-May Fu, Heng Tian, Yaping Ma, Lijuan Zhang, Daniel J. Jacob, Robert M. Yantosca, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Elizabeth W. Lundgren, Jiawei Zhuang, Qiang Zhang, Xiao Lu, Lin Zhang, Lu Shen, Jianping Guo, Sebastian D. Eastham, and Christoph A. Keller
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3241–3265,Short summary
Online coupling of meteorology and chemistry models often presents maintenance issues with hard-wired coding. We present WRF-GC, an one-way online coupling of the WRF meteorological model and GEOS-Chem atmospheric chemistry model for regional atmospheric chemistry and air quality modeling. Our coupling structure allows future versions of either parent model to be immediately integrated into WRF-GC. The WRF-GC model was able to well reproduce regional PM2.5 with greater computational efficiency.
Youwen Sun, Cheng Liu, Lin Zhang, Mathias Palm, Justus Notholt, Hao Yin, Corinne Vigouroux, Erik Lutsch, Wei Wang, Changong Shan, Thomas Blumenstock, Tomoo Nagahama, Isamu Morino, Emmanuel Mahieu, Kimberly Strong, Bavo Langerock, Martine De Mazière, Qihou Hu, Huifang Zhang, Christof Petri, and Jianguo Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5437–5456,Short summary
We present multiyear time series of ground-based Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy measurements of HCN in densely populated eastern China. The seasonality and interannual variability of tropospheric HCN columns were investigated. The potential sources that drive the observed HCN seasonality and interannual variability were determined using a GEOS-Chem tagged CO simulation, global fire maps, and potential source contribution function values calculated using HYSPLIT back trajectories.
Yadong Lei, Xu Yue, Hong Liao, Cheng Gong, and Lin Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1137–1153,Short summary
We coupled a dynamic vegetation model YIBs with the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem to develop a new tool for studying interactions between atmospheric chemistry and biosphere. Within this framework, leaf area index and stomatal conductance are predicted for chemical simulations. In turn, surface ozone causes negative impacts to plant growth and the consequent dry deposition. Such interactions are important for air pollution prediction but ignored in most of current chemical models.
Tongwen Wu, Fang Zhang, Jie Zhang, Weihua Jie, Yanwu Zhang, Fanghua Wu, Laurent Li, Jinghui Yan, Xiaohong Liu, Xiao Lu, Haiyue Tan, Lin Zhang, Jun Wang, and Aixue Hu
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 977–1005,Short summary
This paper describes the first version of the Beijing Climate Center (BCC) fully coupled Earth System Model with interactive atmospheric chemistry and aerosols (BCC-ESM1). It is one of the models at the BCC for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6). The CMIP6 Aerosol Chemistry Model Intercomparison Project (AerChemMIP) experiment using BCC-ESM1 has been finished. The evaluations show an overall good agreement between BCC-ESM1 simulations and observations in the 20th century.
Xiao Lu, Lin Zhang, Youfan Chen, Mi Zhou, Bo Zheng, Ke Li, Yiming Liu, Jintai Lin, Tzung-May Fu, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8339–8361,Short summary
Severe and deteriorating surface ozone pollution over major Chinese cities has become an emerging environmental concern in China. This study assesses the source contributions (including anthropogenic, background, and individual natural sources) and meteorological influences of surface ozone over China in 2016–2017 using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model at high horizontal resolution with the most up-to-date Chinese anthropogenic emission inventory.
Jingyuan Shao, Qianjie Chen, Yuxuan Wang, Xiao Lu, Pengzhen He, Yele Sun, Viral Shah, Randall V. Martin, Sajeev Philip, Shaojie Song, Yue Zhao, Zhouqing Xie, Lin Zhang, and Becky Alexander
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6107–6123,Short summary
Sulfate is a key species contributing to particle formation and growth during wintertime Chinese haze events. This study combines observations and modeling of oxygen isotope signatures in sulfate aerosol to investigate its formation mechanisms, with a focus on heterogeneous production on aerosol surface via H2O2, O3, and NO2 and trace metal catalyzed oxidation. Contributions from different formation pathways are presented.
Zhenying Xu, Mingxu Liu, Minsi Zhang, Yu Song, Shuxiao Wang, Lin Zhang, Tingting Xu, Tiantian Wang, Caiqing Yan, Tian Zhou, Yele Sun, Yuepeng Pan, Min Hu, Mei Zheng, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5605–5613,
Katherine B. Benedict, Yong Zhou, Barkley C. Sive, Anthony J. Prenni, Kristi A. Gebhart, Emily V. Fischer, Ashley Evanoski-Cole, Amy P. Sullivan, Sara Callahan, Bret A. Schichtel, Huiting Mao, Ying Zhou, and Jeffrey L. Collett Jr.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 499–521,Short summary
Rocky Mountain National Park experiences high ozone concentrations that can exceed the National Ambient Air Quality Standard. As part of the FRAPPÉ field campaign, a suite of volatile organic compounds were measured to characterize the sources of ozone precursors that contribute to high ozone in the park. These measurements indicate emissions from the Front Range in Colorado tied to oil and gas operations, urban areas, and the stratosphere contribute to episodes of elevated ozone.
Mingxu Liu, Xin Huang, Yu Song, Tingting Xu, Shuxiao Wang, Zhijun Wu, Min Hu, Lin Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Yuepeng Pan, Xuejun Liu, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17933–17943,
Yangyang Zhang, Aohan Tang, Dandan Wang, Qingqing Wang, Katie Benedict, Lin Zhang, Duanyang Liu, Yi Li, Jeffrey L. Collett Jr., Yele Sun, and Xuejun Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16385–16398,Short summary
Our study is the first to continually monitor the vertical concentration profile of NH3 in urban Beijing. Weekly concentrations averaged 13.3 ± 4.8 μg m−3. The highest NH3 concentrations were always observed between 32 and 63 m, decreasing toward the surface and toward higher altitudes. Our results demonstrate a NH3 rich atmosphere in urban Beijing, from the ground to at least 320 m. Regional transport from the south (intensive agricultural regions) contributed high NH3 concentrations in Beijing.
Hansen Cao, Tzung-May Fu, Lin Zhang, Daven K. Henze, Christopher Chan Miller, Christophe Lerot, Gonzalo González Abad, Isabelle De Smedt, Qiang Zhang, Michel van Roozendael, François Hendrick, Kelly Chance, Jie Li, Junyu Zheng, and Yuanhong Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15017–15046,Short summary
Our top-down estimates for annual total Chinese NMVOC emissions was 30.7 to 49.5 Tg y−1, including 16.4 to 23.6 Tg y−1 from anthropogenic sources, 12.2 to 22.8 Tg y−1 from biogenic sources, and 2.08 to 3.13 Tg y−1 from biomass burning. Our four inversions consistently showed that the emissions of Chinese anthropogenic NMVOC precursors of glyoxal were larger than the a priori estimates. The glyoxal and formaldehyde constraints helped distinguish the NMVOC species from different sources.
Wen Xu, Lei Liu, Miaomiao Cheng, Yuanhong Zhao, Lin Zhang, Yuepeng Pan, Xiuming Zhang, Baojing Gu, Yi Li, Xiuying Zhang, Jianlin Shen, Li Lu, Xiaosheng Luo, Yu Zhao, Zhaozhong Feng, Jeffrey L. Collett Jr., Fusuo Zhang, and Xuejun Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10931–10954,Short summary
Our main results demonstrate that atmospheric Nr pollution in eastern China is more serious in the northern region than in the southern region. Any effects of current emission controls are not yet apparent in Nr pollution. NH3 emissions from fertilizer use were the largest contributor (36 %) to total inorganic Nr deposition. Our results provide useful information for policy-makers that mitigation of NH3 emissions should be a priority to tackle serious N deposition.
Jennifer Kaiser, Daniel J. Jacob, Lei Zhu, Katherine R. Travis, Jenny A. Fisher, Gonzalo González Abad, Lin Zhang, Xuesong Zhang, Alan Fried, John D. Crounse, Jason M. St. Clair, and Armin Wisthaler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5483–5497,Short summary
Isoprene emissions from vegetation have a large effect on atmospheric chemistry and air quality. Here we use the adjoint of GEOS-Chem in an inversion of OMI formaldehyde observations to produce top-down estimates of isoprene emissions in the southeast US during the summer of 2013. We find that MEGAN v2.1 is biased high on average by 40 %. Our downward correction of isoprene emissions leads to a small reduction in modeled surface O3 and decreases the contribution of isoprene to organic aerosol.
Xiao Lu, Lin Zhang, Xiong Liu, Meng Gao, Yuanhong Zhao, and Jingyuan Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3101–3118,Short summary
Deteriorating tropospheric ozone pollution over India may not only affect local human health and vegetation but also perturb global ozone distribution. This study analyzes the processes controlling lower tropospheric ozone over India using OMI satellite observations (2006–2014) and model simulations (1990–2010). We show that the South Asian monsoon largely controls the seasonal cycle and interannual variability of Indian lower tropospheric ozone via changes in ozone production and transport.
Lin Zhang, Youfan Chen, Yuanhong Zhao, Daven K. Henze, Liye Zhu, Yu Song, Fabien Paulot, Xuejun Liu, Yuepeng Pan, Yi Lin, and Binxiang Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 339–355,Short summary
Substantial differences exist in current estimates of agricultural ammonia emissions in China, hindering understanding of their environmental consequences. This study applies both bottom-up and top-down methods to better quantify agricultural ammonia sources in China using observations from satellite and surface networks interpreted by a chemical transport model. Our estimate of annual Chinese anthropogenic ammonia emission is 11.7 tg (teragram) for 2008 with a strong seasonality peak in summer.
Hongyan Zhao, Xin Li, Qiang Zhang, Xujia Jiang, Jintai Lin, Glen P. Peters, Meng Li, Guannan Geng, Bo Zheng, Hong Huo, Lin Zhang, Haikun Wang, Steven J. Davis, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10367–10381,Short summary
Effective and efficient control of air pollution relies upon an understanding of the pollution sources. We conduct an interdisciplinary study and find that 33 % of China’s PM2.5-related premature mortality in 2010 were caused by production emission in other regions; 56 % of the mortality was related to consumption in other regions. Multilateral and multi-stage cooperation under a regional sustainable development framework is in urgent need to mitigate air pollution and related health impacts.
Yuanhong Zhao, Lin Zhang, Amos P. K. Tai, Youfan Chen, and Yuepeng Pan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9781–9796,Short summary
Human activities have substantially enhanced atmospheric deposition of reactive nitrogen, inducing complex environmental consequences. This study presents a first quantitative investigation of how anthropogenic nitrogen deposition could impact surface ozone air quality through surface–atmosphere exchange processes. We find important surface ozone changes driven by nitrogen deposition, which can be comparable with those due to historical climate and land use changes.
Wen Xu, Wei Song, Yangyang Zhang, Xuejun Liu, Lin Zhang, Yuanhong Zhao, Duanyang Liu, Aohan Tang, Daowei Yang, Dandan Wang, Zhang Wen, Yuepeng Pan, David Fowler, Jeffrey L. Collett Jr., Jan Willem Erisman, Keith Goulding, Yi Li, and Fusuo Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 31–46,Short summary
This paper evaluates the effectiveness of emission control measures implemented in Beijing during the Parade Blue period by integrating our own results, official-released data and modeling data. We demonstrate that emission control measures make a major contribution to air quality improvement in Beijing and surrounding regions. We conclude a joint local and regional control of secondary aerosol precursors to be key to curbing air pollution in Beijing.
Xiao Lu, Lin Zhang, Xu Yue, Jiachen Zhang, Daniel A. Jaffe, Andreas Stohl, Yuanhong Zhao, and Jingyuan Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14687–14702,Short summary
Increasing wildfire activities in the mountainous western US may present a challenge for the region to attain a recently revised ozone air quality standard in summer. We quantify the wildfire influence on the ozone variability, trends, and number of high ozone days over this region in summers 1989–2010 using a Lagrangian dispersion model and statistical regression models.
Graydon Snider, Crystal L. Weagle, Kalaivani K. Murdymootoo, Amanda Ring, Yvonne Ritchie, Emily Stone, Ainsley Walsh, Clement Akoshile, Nguyen Xuan Anh, Rajasekhar Balasubramanian, Jeff Brook, Fatimah D. Qonitan, Jinlu Dong, Derek Griffith, Kebin He, Brent N. Holben, Ralph Kahn, Nofel Lagrosas, Puji Lestari, Zongwei Ma, Amit Misra, Leslie K. Norford, Eduardo J. Quel, Abdus Salam, Bret Schichtel, Lior Segev, Sachchida Tripathi, Chien Wang, Chao Yu, Qiang Zhang, Yuxuan Zhang, Michael Brauer, Aaron Cohen, Mark D. Gibson, Yang Liu, J. Vanderlei Martins, Yinon Rudich, and Randall V. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9629–9653,Short summary
We examine the chemical composition of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) collected on filters at traditionally undersampled, globally dispersed urban locations. Several PM2.5 chemical components (e.g. ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, and black carbon) vary by more than an order of magnitude between sites while aerosol hygroscopicity varies by a factor of 2. Enhanced anthropogenic dust fractions in large urban areas are apparent from high Zn : Al ratios.
H.-M. Lee, F. Paulot, D. K. Henze, K. Travis, D. J. Jacob, L. H. Pardo, and B. A. Schichtel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 525–540,Short summary
Sources of nitrogen deposition (Ndep) in Federal Class I areas in the US are investigated, identifying unique features in contributions from different species, sectors and locations. Ndep in many parks is impacted by emissions several hundred km away; the role of oxidized vs reduced sources varies regionally. Emissions reductions in the western US most effectively reduce the extent of areas in critical load exceedance, while reductions in the east most effectively reduce exceedance magnitudes.
W. Xu, X. S. Luo, Y. P. Pan, L. Zhang, A. H. Tang, J. L. Shen, Y. Zhang, K. H. Li, Q. H. Wu, D. W. Yang, Y. Y. Zhang, J. Xue, W. Q. Li, Q. Q. Li, L. Tang, S. H. Lu, T. Liang, Y. A. Tong, P. Liu, Q. Zhang, Z. Q. Xiong, X. J. Shi, L. H. Wu, W. Q. Shi, K. Tian, X. H. Zhong, K. Shi, Q. Y. Tang, L. J. Zhang, J. L. Huang, C. E. He, F. H. Kuang, B. Zhu, H. Liu, X. Jin, Y. J. Xin, X. K. Shi, E. Z. Du, A. J. Dore, S. Tang, J. L. Collett Jr., K. Goulding, Y. X. Sun, J. Ren, F. S. Zhang, and X. J. Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12345–12360,Short summary
The annual average concentrations (1.3-47.0µg N m-3) and dry plus wet/bulk deposition fluxes (2.9-83.3kg N ha-1 yr-1) of inorganic Nr species ranked by land use as urban > rural > background sites and by regions as north China > southeast China > southwest China > northeast China > northwest China > Tibetan Plateau, reflecting the impact of anthropogenic Nr emission. Average dry and wet/bulk N deposition fluxes were 20.6 ± 11.2 and 19.3 ± 9.2kg kg N ha-1 yr-1 across China, respectively.
Y. Zhao, L. Zhang, Y. Pan, Y. Wang, F. Paulot, and D. K. Henze
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10905–10924,Short summary
Rapid Asian industrialization has led to increased atmospheric nitrogen deposition downwind. This work analyzes the sources and processes controlling atmospheric nitrogen deposition to the northwestern Pacific. Both nitrogen emissions and meteorology, largely controlled by the East Asian Monsoon, determine the seasonality of nitrogen deposition. Ascribing deposition over the marginal seas to nitrogen sources from different regions and sectors shows important contribution from fertilizer use.
W. Tao, J. Liu, G. A. Ban-Weiss, D. A. Hauglustaine, L. Zhang, Q. Zhang, Y. Cheng, Y. Yu, and S. Tao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8597–8614,Short summary
We examine the responses of a range of meteorological and air quality indicators to the expansion of urban land using WRF/Chem. Sensitivity studies indicate that the responses of pollutant concentrations to the spatial extent of urbanization are linear near the surface but nonlinear at higher altitudes. The results of process analysis demonstrate that urban heat island circulation and a deeper boundary layer with stronger turbulent intensities play a significant role in relocating pollutants.
M. Val Martin, C. L. Heald, J.-F. Lamarque, S. Tilmes, L. K. Emmons, and B. A. Schichtel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2805–2823,Short summary
We present for the first time the relative effect of climate, emissions, and land use change on ozone and PM25 over the United States, focusing on the national parks. Air quality in 2050 will likely be dominated by emission patterns, but climate and land use changes alone can lead to a substantial increase in air pollution over most of the US, with important implications for O3 air quality, visibility and ecosystem health degradation in the national parks.
M. I. Schurman, T. Lee, Y. Sun, B. A. Schichtel, S. M. Kreidenweis, and J. L. Collett Jr.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 737–752,Short summary
Atmospheric particles can contribute to environmental degradation. An aerosol mass spectrometer was used with positive matrix factorization to explore submicron particle sources in Rocky Mountain National Park, finding that ammonium (3.9%), nitrate (4.3%), sulfate (16.6%), and two types of oxidized organic aerosol (66.9% total) are transported on upslope winds from the urban Front Range, while local campfires contribute 8.4% of mass.
Y.-Y. Yan, J.-T. Lin, Y. Kuang, D. Yang, and L. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12649–12663,Short summary
Limited by coarse resolutions, global chemical transport models cannot well capture small-scale nonlinear processes. To alleviate the problem, we develop a two-way coupled system to integrate the global GEOS-Chem model and its three high-resolution nested models covering Asia, Europe and North America. Confirmed by comparisons with observations, the coupled system improves upon the global model with a 10% increase in global tropospheric CO, a 4% decrease in OH and a 4% increase in MCF lifetime.
L. Zhang, D. J. Jacob, X. Yue, N. V. Downey, D. A. Wood, and D. Blewitt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5295–5309,
G. C. M. Vinken, K. F. Boersma, A. van Donkelaar, and L. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1353–1369,
M. Collaud Coen, E. Andrews, A. Asmi, U. Baltensperger, N. Bukowiecki, D. Day, M. Fiebig, A. M. Fjaeraa, H. Flentje, A. Hyvärinen, A. Jefferson, S. G. Jennings, G. Kouvarakis, H. Lihavainen, C. Lund Myhre, W. C. Malm, N. Mihapopoulos, J. V. Molenar, C. O'Dowd, J. A. Ogren, B. A. Schichtel, P. Sheridan, A. Virkkula, E. Weingartner, R. Weller, and P. Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 869–894,
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Subject: Biosphere Interactions | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling and Data Analysis | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Why do inverse models disagree? A case study with two European CO2 inversionsNet ecosystem exchange (NEE) estimates 2006–2019 over Europe from a pre-operational ensemble-inversion systemInterpreting machine learning prediction of fire emissions and comparison with FireMIP process-based modelsDistinguishing the impacts of natural and anthropogenic aerosols on global gross primary productivity through diffuse fertilization effectWas Australia a sink or source of CO2 in 2015? Data assimilation using OCO-2 satellite measurementsCO2-equivalence metrics for surface albedo change based on the radiative forcing concept: a critical reviewEffects of aerosol dynamics and gas–particle conversion on dry deposition of inorganic reactive nitrogen in a temperate forestOzone–vegetation feedback through dry deposition and isoprene emissions in a global chemistry–carbon–climate modelPathway dependence of ecosystem responses in China to 1.5 °C global warmingA model-based analysis of foliar NOx depositionQuantifying the UK's carbon dioxide flux: an atmospheric inverse modelling approach using a regional measurement networkPrediction of photosynthesis in Scots pine ecosystems across Europe by a needle-level theoryTechnical note: How are NH3 dry deposition estimates affected by combining the LOTOS-EUROS model with IASI-NH3 satellite observations?Isoprene and monoterpene emissions in south-east Australia: comparison of a multi-layer canopy model with MEGAN and with atmospheric observationsParticulate matter air pollution may offset ozone damage to global crop productionSensitivity of stomatal conductance to soil moisture: implications for tropospheric ozoneThe influence of idealized surface heterogeneity on virtual turbulent flux measurementsTechnical Note: Atmospheric CO2 inversions on the mesoscale using data-driven prior uncertainties: methodology and system evaluationAtmospheric CO2 inversions on the mesoscale using data-driven prior uncertainties: quantification of the European terrestrial CO2 fluxesModeling the contributions of global air temperature, synoptic-scale phenomena and soil moisture to near-surface static energy variability using artificial neural networksFuture inhibition of ecosystem productivity by increasing wildfire pollution over boreal North AmericaMulti-model ensemble simulations of olive pollen distribution in Europe in 2014: current status and outlookModeling soil organic carbon dynamics and their driving factors in the main global cereal cropping systemsA wedge strategy for mitigation of urban warming in future climate scenariosThe boundary condition for vertical velocity and its interdependence with surface gas exchangePan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX): towards a holistic understanding of the feedbacks and interactions in the land–atmosphere–ocean–society continuum in the northern Eurasian regionGreenhouse gas simulations with a coupled meteorological and transport model: the predictability of CO2Increasing summer net CO2 uptake in high northern ecosystems inferred from atmospheric inversions and comparisons to remote-sensing NDVIA study of the influence of forest gaps on fire–atmosphere interactionsStratospheric sulfate geoengineering could enhance the terrestrial photosynthesis rateDistinguishing the drivers of trends in land carbon fluxes and plant volatile emissions over the past 3 decadesGranger causality from changes in level of atmospheric CO2 to global surface temperature and the El Niño–Southern Oscillation, and a candidate mechanism in global photosynthesisMACC regional multi-model ensemble simulations of birch pollen dispersion in EuropeStably stratified canopy flow in complex terrainFire emission heights in the climate system – Part 1: Global plume height patterns simulated by ECHAM6-HAM2Fire emission heights in the climate system – Part 2: Impact on transport, black carbon concentrations and radiationReliable, robust and realistic: the three R's of next-generation land-surface modellingBiases in atmospheric CO2 estimates from correlated meteorology modeling errorsCarbon balance of China constrained by CONTRAIL aircraft CO2 measurementsGreenhouse gas network design using backward Lagrangian particle dispersion modelling − Part 1: Methodology and Australian test caseSensitivity analysis of an updated bidirectional air–surface exchange model for elemental mercury vaporNitrous oxide emissions 1999 to 2009 from a global atmospheric inversionQuantifying the constraint of biospheric process parameters by CO2 concentration and flux measurement networks through a carbon cycle data assimilation systemPhotosynthesis-dependent isoprene emission from leaf to planet in a global carbon-chemistry-climate modelGlobal mapping of maximum emission heights and resulting vertical profiles of wildfire emissionsScorched Earth: how will changes in the strength of the vegetation sink to ozone deposition affect human health and ecosystems?The effect of climate and climate change on ammonia emissions in EuropeObserving the continental-scale carbon balance: assessment of sampling complementarity and redundancy in a terrestrial assimilation system by means of quantitative network designCO2 flux estimation errors associated with moist atmospheric processesDO3SE modelling of soil moisture to determine ozone flux to forest trees
Saqr Munassar, Guillaume Monteil, Marko Scholze, Ute Karstens, Christian Rödenbeck, Frank-Thomas Koch, Kai U. Totsche, and Christoph Gerbig
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2813–2828,Short summary
Using different transport models results in large errors in optimized fluxes in the atmospheric inversions. Boundary conditions and inversion system configurations lead to a smaller but non-negligible impact. The findings highlight the importance to validate transport models for further developments but also to properly account for such errors in inverse modelling. This will help narrow the convergence of gas estimates reported in the scientific literature from different inversion frameworks.
Saqr Munassar, Christian Rödenbeck, Frank-Thomas Koch, Kai U. Totsche, Michał Gałkowski, Sophia Walther, and Christoph Gerbig
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7875–7892,Short summary
The results obtained from ensembles of inversions over 13 years show the largest spread in the a posteriori fluxes over the station set ensemble. Using different prior fluxes in the inversions led to a smaller impact. Drought occurrences in 2018 and 2019 affected CO2 fluxes as seen in net ecosystem exchange estimates. Our study highlights the importance of expanding the atmospheric site network across Europe to better constrain CO2 fluxes in inverse modelling.
Sally S.-C. Wang, Yun Qian, L. Ruby Leung, and Yang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3445–3468,Short summary
This study develops an interpretable machine learning (ML) model predicting monthly PM2.5 fire emission over the contiguous US at 0.25° resolution and compares the prediction skills of the ML and process-based models. The comparison facilitates attributions of model biases and better understanding of the strengths and uncertainties in the two types of models at regional scales, for informing future model development and their applications in fire emission projection.
Hao Zhou, Xu Yue, Yadong Lei, Chenguang Tian, Jun Zhu, Yimian Ma, Yang Cao, Xixi Yin, and Zhiding Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 693–709,Short summary
Aerosols enhance plant photosynthesis by increasing diffuse radiation. In this study, we found that the aerosol impacts are quite different for varied species. Scattering aerosols such as sulfate and organic carbon promote photosynthesis while absorbing aerosols such as black carbon have negative impacts. Earth system models should consider the impacts of cloud and aerosol species on terrestrial ecosystems so as to better predict carbon cycles under different emission scenarios.
Yohanna Villalobos, Peter J. Rayner, Jeremy D. Silver, Steven Thomas, Vanessa Haverd, Jürgen Knauer, Zoë M. Loh, Nicholas M. Deutscher, David W. T. Griffith, and David F. Pollard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17453–17494,Short summary
Semi-arid ecosystems such as those in Australia are evolving and might play an essential role in the future of climate change. We use carbon dioxide concentrations derived from the OCO-2 satellite instrument and a regional transport model to understand if Australia was a carbon sink or source of CO2 in 2015. Our research's main findings suggest that Australia acted as a carbon sink of about −0.41 ± 0.08 petagrams of carbon in 2015, driven primarily by savanna and sparsely vegetated ecosystems.
Ryan M. Bright and Marianne T. Lund
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9887–9907,Short summary
Humans affect the reflective properties (albedo) of Earth's surface and the amount of solar energy that it absorbs, in turn affecting climate. In recent years, a variety of climate metrics have been applied to characterize albedo perturbations in terms of their
CO2-equivalenteffects, despite the lack of scientific consensus surrounding the methods behind them. We review these metrics, evaluate their (de)merits, provide guidance for future application, and suggest avenues for future research.
Genki Katata, Kazuhide Matsuda, Atsuyuki Sorimachi, Mizuo Kajino, and Kentaro Takagi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4933–4949,Short summary
This work quantified the role of aerosol dynamics and gas–particle conversion processes in the dry deposition of inorganic reactive nitrogen using a new multilayer land surface model. It also revealed a potential impact of the above processes on improving the predictive accuracy of chemical transport models.
Cheng Gong, Yadong Lei, Yimian Ma, Xu Yue, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3841–3857,Short summary
We evaluate ozone–vegetation feedback using a fully coupled chemistry–carbon–climate global model (ModelE2-YIBs). Ozone damage to photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and isoprene emissions parameterized by different schemes and sensitivities is jointly considered. In general, surface ozone concentrations are increased due to ozone–vegetation interactions, especially over the regions with a high ambient ozone level such as the eastern US, eastern China, and western Europe.
Xu Yue, Hong Liao, Huijun Wang, Tianyi Zhang, Nadine Unger, Stephen Sitch, Zhaozhong Feng, and Jia Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2353–2366,Short summary
We explore ecosystem responses in China to 1.5 °C global warming under stabilized versus transient pathways. Remarkably, GPP shows 30 % higher enhancement in the stabilized than the transient pathway because of the lower ozone (smaller damages to photosynthesis) and fewer aerosols (higher light availability) in the former pathway. Our analyses suggest that an associated reduction of CO2 and pollution emissions brings more benefits to ecosystems in China via 1.5 °C global warming.
Erin R. Delaria and Ronald C. Cohen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2123–2141,Short summary
Uptake of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) through pores in the surfaces of leaves has been identified as a significant, but inadequately understood, loss process of atmospheric nitrogen oxides. We have constructed a simple model for examining the impact of NO2 foliar uptake on the atmospheric chemistry of nitrogen oxides. We show that an accurate representation in atmospheric models of the effects of weather and soil conditions on leaf NO2 uptake may be important for accurately predicting NO2 deposition.
Emily D. White, Matthew Rigby, Mark F. Lunt, T. Luke Smallman, Edward Comyn-Platt, Alistair J. Manning, Anita L. Ganesan, Simon O'Doherty, Ann R. Stavert, Kieran Stanley, Mathew Williams, Peter Levy, Michel Ramonet, Grant L. Forster, Andrew C. Manning, and Paul I. Palmer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4345–4365,Short summary
Understanding carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes from the terrestrial biosphere on a national scale is important for evaluating land use strategies to mitigate climate change. We estimate emissions of CO2 from the UK biosphere using atmospheric data in a top-down approach. Our findings show that bottom-up estimates from models of biospheric fluxes overestimate the amount of CO2 uptake in summer. This suggests these models wrongly estimate or omit key processes, e.g. land disturbance due to harvest.
Pertti Hari, Steffen Noe, Sigrid Dengel, Jan Elbers, Bert Gielen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Bart Kruijt, Liisa Kulmala, Anders Lindroth, Ivan Mammarella, Tuukka Petäjä, Guy Schurgers, Anni Vanhatalo, Markku Kulmala, and Jaana Bäck
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13321–13328,Short summary
The development of eddy-covariance measurements of ecosystem CO2 fluxes began a new era in the field studies of photosynthesis. The interpretation of the very variable CO2 fluxes in evergreen forests has been problematic especially in seasonal transition times. We apply two theoretical needle-level equations and show they can predict photosynthetic CO2 flux between the atmosphere and Scots pine forests. This has strong implications for the interpretation of the global change and boreal forests.
Shelley C. van der Graaf, Enrico Dammers, Martijn Schaap, and Jan Willem Erisman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13173–13196,Short summary
A combination of NH3 satellite observations from IASI and the LOTOS-EUROS model is used to derive NH3 surface concentrations and dry deposition fluxes over Europe. The results were evaluated using surface measurements (EMEP, LML, MAN) and a sensitivity study. This is a first step in further integration of surface measurements, satellite observations and an atmospheric transport model to derive accurate NH3 surface concentrations and dry deposition fluxes on a large scale.
Kathryn M. Emmerson, Martin E. Cope, Ian E. Galbally, Sunhee Lee, and Peter F. Nelson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7539–7556,Short summary
We compare the CSIRO in-house biogenic emissions model (ABCGEM) with the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), for eucalypt-rich south-east Australia. Differences in emissions are not only due to the emission factors, but also how these emission factors are processed. ABCGEM assumes monoterpenes are not light dependent, whilst MEGAN does. Comparison with observations suggests that Australian monoterpenes may not be as light dependent as other vegetation globally.
Luke D. Schiferl and Colette L. Heald
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5953–5966,Short summary
Global population growth and industrialization have contributed to poor air quality worldwide, and increasing population will put pressure on global food production. We therefore assess how air pollution may impact crop growth. Ozone has previously been shown to damage crops. We demonstrate that the impact of particles associated with enhanced light scattering promotes growth, offsetting much, if not all, ozone damage. This has implications for air quality management and global food security.
Alessandro Anav, Chiara Proietti, Laurent Menut, Stefano Carnicelli, Alessandra De Marco, and Elena Paoletti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5747–5763,Short summary
Soil moisture and water stress play a pivotal role in regulating stomatal behaviour of plants; however, the role of water availability is often neglected in atmospheric chemistry modelling studies. We show how dry deposition significantly declines when soil moisture is used to regulate the stomatal opening, mainly in semi-arid environments. Despite the fact that dry deposition occurs from the top of canopy to ground level, it affects the concentration of gases remaining in the lower atmosphere.
Frederik De Roo and Matthias Mauder
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5059–5074,Short summary
We investigate the mismatch between incoming energy and the turbulent flux of sensible heat at the Earth's surface and how surface heterogeneity affects this imbalance. To resolve the turbulent fluxes we employ large-eddy simulations. We study terrain with different heterogeneity lengths and quantify the contributions of advection by the mean flow and horizontal flux-divergence in the surface energy budget. We find that the latter contributions depend on the scale of the heterogeneity length.
Panagiotis Kountouris, Christoph Gerbig, Christian Rödenbeck, Ute Karstens, Thomas Frank Koch, and Martin Heimann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3027–3045,
Panagiotis Kountouris, Christoph Gerbig, Christian Rödenbeck, Ute Karstens, Thomas F. Koch, and Martin Heimann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3047–3064,
Sara C. Pryor, Ryan C. Sullivan, and Justin T. Schoof
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14457–14471,Short summary
The air temperature and water vapor content are increasing globally due to the increased concentration of "heat-trapping" (greenhouse) gases. But not all regions are warming at the same rate. This analysis is designed to improve understanding of the causes of recent trends and year-to-year variability in summertime heat indices over the eastern US and to present a new model that can be used to make projections of future events that may cause loss of life and/or decreased human well-being.
Xu Yue, Susanna Strada, Nadine Unger, and Aihui Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13699–13719,Short summary
Climate change will significantly increase wildfire emissions in boreal North America by the midcentury, leading to increased surface ozone and atmospheric aerosols. These air pollutants can affect vegetation photosynthesis through stomatal uptake (for ozone) and radiative and climatic perturbations (for aerosols). Using a carbon–chemistry–climate model, we estimate trivial ozone vegetation damages but significant aerosol-induced reduction in ecosystem productivity by the 2050s.
Mikhail Sofiev, Olga Ritenberga, Roberto Albertini, Joaquim Arteta, Jordina Belmonte, Carmi Geller Bernstein, Maira Bonini, Sevcan Celenk, Athanasios Damialis, John Douros, Hendrik Elbern, Elmar Friese, Carmen Galan, Gilles Oliver, Ivana Hrga, Rostislav Kouznetsov, Kai Krajsek, Donat Magyar, Jonathan Parmentier, Matthieu Plu, Marje Prank, Lennart Robertson, Birthe Marie Steensen, Michel Thibaudon, Arjo Segers, Barbara Stepanovich, Alvaro M. Valdebenito, Julius Vira, and Despoina Vokou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12341–12360,Short summary
This work presents the features and evaluates the quality of the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service forecasts of olive pollen distribution in Europe. It is shown that the models can predict the main features of the observed pollen distribution but have more difficulties in capturing the season start and end, which appeared shifted by a few days. We also demonstrated that the combined use of model predictions with up-to-date measurements (data fusion) can strongly improve the results.
Guocheng Wang, Wen Zhang, Wenjuan Sun, Tingting Li, and Pengfei Han
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11849–11859,Short summary
Cropland soil carbon sequestration contribute to not only climate change mitigation but also to sustainable agricultural production. This paper investigates soil carbon dynamics across the global main cereal cropping systems at a fine spatial resolution, using a modeling approach based on state-of-the-art databases of soil and climate. The key environmental controls on soil carbon changes were also identified.
Lei Zhao, Xuhui Lee, and Natalie M. Schultz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9067–9080,Short summary
Heat stress associated with climate change is one of most severe threats to human society. The problem is further compounded in urban areas by urban heat islands (UHIs). We use an urban climate model to evaluate the cooling benefits of active urban heat mitigation strategies both individually and collectively. We show that by forming UHI mitigation wedges, these strategies have the potential to significantly reduce the UHI effect plus warming induced by greenhouse gases.
Andrew S. Kowalski
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8177–8187,Short summary
An analysis based on physical conservation law demonstrates that surface–atmosphere exchanges include a non-diffusive component. This implies the need to revise flux gradient relationships including eddy diffusivities in micrometeorology and stomatal conductances in plant physiology.
Hanna K. Lappalainen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Theo Kurten, Aleksander Baklanov, Anatoly Shvidenko, Jaana Bäck, Timo Vihma, Pavel Alekseychik, Meinrat O. Andreae, Stephen R. Arnold, Mikhail Arshinov, Eija Asmi, Boris Belan, Leonid Bobylev, Sergey Chalov, Yafang Cheng, Natalia Chubarova, Gerrit de Leeuw, Aijun Ding, Sergey Dobrolyubov, Sergei Dubtsov, Egor Dyukarev, Nikolai Elansky, Kostas Eleftheriadis, Igor Esau, Nikolay Filatov, Mikhail Flint, Congbin Fu, Olga Glezer, Aleksander Gliko, Martin Heimann, Albert A. M. Holtslag, Urmas Hõrrak, Juha Janhunen, Sirkku Juhola, Leena Järvi, Heikki Järvinen, Anna Kanukhina, Pavel Konstantinov, Vladimir Kotlyakov, Antti-Jussi Kieloaho, Alexander S. Komarov, Joni Kujansuu, Ilmo Kukkonen, Ella-Maria Duplissy, Ari Laaksonen, Tuomas Laurila, Heikki Lihavainen, Alexander Lisitzin, Alexsander Mahura, Alexander Makshtas, Evgeny Mareev, Stephany Mazon, Dmitry Matishov, Vladimir Melnikov, Eugene Mikhailov, Dmitri Moisseev, Robert Nigmatulin, Steffen M. Noe, Anne Ojala, Mari Pihlatie, Olga Popovicheva, Jukka Pumpanen, Tatjana Regerand, Irina Repina, Aleksei Shcherbinin, Vladimir Shevchenko, Mikko Sipilä, Andrey Skorokhod, Dominick V. Spracklen, Hang Su, Dmitry A. Subetto, Junying Sun, Arkady Y. Terzhevik, Yuri Timofeyev, Yuliya Troitskaya, Veli-Pekka Tynkkynen, Viacheslav I. Kharuk, Nina Zaytseva, Jiahua Zhang, Yrjö Viisanen, Timo Vesala, Pertti Hari, Hans Christen Hansson, Gennady G. Matvienko, Nikolai S. Kasimov, Huadong Guo, Valery Bondur, Sergej Zilitinkevich, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14421–14461,Short summary
After kick off in 2012, the Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) program has expanded fast and today the multi-disciplinary research community covers ca. 80 institutes and a network of ca. 500 scientists from Europe, Russia, and China. Here we introduce scientific topics relevant in this context. This is one of the first multi-disciplinary overviews crossing scientific boundaries, from atmospheric sciences to socio-economics and social sciences.
Saroja M. Polavarapu, Michael Neish, Monique Tanguay, Claude Girard, Jean de Grandpré, Kirill Semeniuk, Sylvie Gravel, Shuzhan Ren, Sébastien Roche, Douglas Chan, and Kimberly Strong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12005–12038,Short summary
CO2 predictions are used to compute model–data mismatches when estimating surfaces fluxes using atmospheric observations together with an atmospheric transport model. By isolating the component of transport error which is due to uncertain meteorological analyses, it is demonstrated that CO2 can only be defined on large spatial scales. Thus, there is a spatial scale below which we cannot infer fluxes simply due to the fact that meteorological analyes are imperfect.
Lisa R. Welp, Prabir K. Patra, Christian Rödenbeck, Rama Nemani, Jian Bi, Stephen C. Piper, and Ralph F. Keeling
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9047–9066,Short summary
Boreal and arctic ecosystems have been responding to elevated temperatures and atmospheric CO2 over the last decades. It is not clear if these ecosystems are sequestering more carbon or possibly becoming sources. This is an important feedback of the carbon cycle to global warming. We studied monthly biological land CO2 fluxes inferred from atmospheric CO2 concentrations using inverse models and found that net summer CO2 uptake increased, resulting in a small increase in annual CO2 uptake.
Michael T. Kiefer, Warren E. Heilman, Shiyuan Zhong, Joseph J. Charney, and Xindi Bian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8499–8509,Short summary
Studies of fire–atmosphere interactions in horizontally heterogeneous forests are limited in number. This study considers the sensitivity of fire-perturbed variables (e.g., vertical velocity, turbulent kinetic energy) to gaps in forest cover using ARPS-CANOPY, an atmospheric numerical model with a canopy sub-model. Results show that the atmosphere is most sensitive to the fire when the gap is centered on the fire and least sensitive when the gap is upstream of the fire.
L. Xia, A. Robock, S. Tilmes, and R. R. Neely III
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1479–1489,Short summary
Climate model simulations show that stratospheric sulfate geoengineering could impact the terrestrial carbon cycle by enhancing the carbon sink. Enhanced downward diffuse radiation, combined with cooling, could stimulate plants to grow more and absorb more carbon dioxide. This beneficial impact of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering would need to be balanced by a large number of potential risks in any future decisions about implementation of geoengineering.
X. Yue, N. Unger, and Y. Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11931–11948,Short summary
We estimate decadal trends in land carbon fluxes and emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) during 1982-2011, with a focus on the feedback from biosphere (such as tree growth and phenology). Increases of LAI at peak season accounts for ~25% of the trends in GPP and isoprene emissions at the northern lands. However, phenological change alone does not promote regional carbon uptake and BVOC emissions.
L. M. W. Leggett and D. A. Ball
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11571–11592,Short summary
The previously expected linear relationship between atmospheric CO2 and climate variables including temperature is showing an increasing mismatch. This paper nonetheless provides fresh and possibly definitive support for a major relationship between CO2 and climate. Granger causality analysis provides evidence that change in level not level of CO2 primarily influences both global temperature and the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. The results may contribute to the prediction of future climate.
M. Sofiev, U. Berger, M. Prank, J. Vira, J. Arteta, J. Belmonte, K.-C. Bergmann, F. Chéroux, H. Elbern, E. Friese, C. Galan, R. Gehrig, D. Khvorostyanov, R. Kranenburg, U. Kumar, V. Marécal, F. Meleux, L. Menut, A.-M. Pessi, L. Robertson, O. Ritenberga, V. Rodinkova, A. Saarto, A. Segers, E. Severova, I. Sauliene, P. Siljamo, B. M. Steensen, E. Teinemaa, M. Thibaudon, and V.-H. Peuch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8115–8130,Short summary
The paper presents the first ensemble modelling experiment for forecasting the atmospheric dispersion of birch pollen in Europe. The study included 7 models of MACC-ENS tested over the season of 2010 and applied for 2013 in forecasting and reanalysis modes. The results were compared with observations in 11 countries, members of European Aeroallergen Network. The models successfully reproduced the timing of the unusually late season of 2013 but had more difficulties with absolute concentration.
X. Xu, C. Yi, and E. Kutter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7457–7470,
A. Veira, S. Kloster, S. Wilkenskjeld, and S. Remy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7155–7171,Short summary
We discuss the representation of wildfire emission heights in global climate models. Our implementation of a simple, semi-empirical plume height parametrization in the aerosol-climate model ECHAM6-HAM2 shows reasonable agreement with observations and with a more complex plume rise model. In contrast, prescribed emission heights, which do not consider the intensity of individual fires, fail to adequately simulate global plume height patterns. Diurnal and seasonal cycles are of minor importance.
A. Veira, S. Kloster, N. A. J. Schutgens, and J. W. Kaiser
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7173–7193,Short summary
Global aerosol-climate models usually prescribe wildfire emission injections at fixed atmospheric levels. Here, we quantify the impact of prescribed and parametrized emission heights on aerosol long-range transport and radiation. For global emission height changes of 1.5-3.5km, we find a top-of-atmosphere radiative forcing of 0.05-0.1Wm-2. Replacing prescribed emission heights by a simple plume height parametrization only marginally improves the model performance in aerosol optical thickness.
I. C. Prentice, X. Liang, B. E. Medlyn, and Y.-P. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5987–6005,Short summary
Land surface models (LSMs) describe how carbon and water fluxes react to environmental change. They are key component of climate models, yet they differ enormously. Many perform poorly, despite having many parameters. We outline a development strategy emphasizing robustness, reliability and realism, none of which is guaranteed by complexity alone. We propose multiple constraints, benchmarking and data assimilation, and representing unresolved processes stochastically, as tools in this endeavour.
S. M. Miller, M. N. Hayek, A. E. Andrews, I. Fung, and J. Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2903–2914,
F. Jiang, H. M. Wang, J. M. Chen, T. Machida, L. X. Zhou, W. M. Ju, H. Matsueda, and Y. Sawa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10133–10144,
T. Ziehn, A. Nickless, P. J. Rayner, R. M. Law, G. Roff, and P. Fraser
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9363–9378,
X. Wang, C.-J. Lin, and X. Feng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6273–6287,
R. L. Thompson, F. Chevallier, A. M. Crotwell, G. Dutton, R. L. Langenfelds, R. G. Prinn, R. F. Weiss, Y. Tohjima, T. Nakazawa, P. B. Krummel, L. P. Steele, P. Fraser, S. O'Doherty, K. Ishijima, and S. Aoki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1801–1817,
E. N. Koffi, P. J. Rayner, M. Scholze, F. Chevallier, and T. Kaminski
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10555–10572,
N. Unger, K. Harper, Y. Zheng, N. Y. Kiang, I. Aleinov, A. Arneth, G. Schurgers, C. Amelynck, A. Goldstein, A. Guenther, B. Heinesch, C. N. Hewitt, T. Karl, Q. Laffineur, B. Langford, K. A. McKinney, P. Misztal, M. Potosnak, J. Rinne, S. Pressley, N. Schoon, and D. Serça
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10243–10269,
M. Sofiev, R. Vankevich, T. Ermakova, and J. Hakkarainen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7039–7052,
L. D. Emberson, N. Kitwiroon, S. Beevers, P. Büker, and S. Cinderby
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6741–6755,
C. A. Skjøth and C. Geels
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 117–128,
T. Kaminski, P. J. Rayner, M. Voßbeck, M. Scholze, and E. Koffi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 7867–7879,
N. C. Parazoo, A. S. Denning, S. R. Kawa, S. Pawson, and R. Lokupitiya
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 6405–6416,
P. Büker, T. Morrissey, A. Briolat, R. Falk, D. Simpson, J.-P. Tuovinen, R. Alonso, S. Barth, M. Baumgarten, N. Grulke, P. E. Karlsson, J. King, F. Lagergren, R. Matyssek, A. Nunn, R. Ogaya, J. Peñuelas, L. Rhea, M. Schaub, J. Uddling, W. Werner, and L. D. Emberson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 5537–5562,
Aber, J. D., Goodale, C. L., Ollinger, S. V., Smith, M. L., Magill, A. H., Martin, M. E., Hallett, R. A., and Stoddard, J. L.: Is nitrogen deposition altering the nitrogen status of northeastern forests?, Bioscience, 53, 375–389, 2003.
Baron, J. S.: Hindcasting nitrogen deposition to determine an ecological critical load, Ecol. Appl., 16, 433–439, 2006.
Baron, J. S., Driscoll, C. T., Stoddard, J. L., and Richer, E. E.: Empirical Critical Loads of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition for Nutrient Enrichment and Acidification of Sensitive US Lakes, Bioscience, 61, 602–613, https://doi.org/10.1525/Bio.2011.61.8.6, 2011.
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