Articles | Volume 12, issue 22
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 10833–10839, 2012
© Author(s) 2012. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article 16 Nov 2012
Research article | 16 Nov 2012
Overview of the 2007 and 2008 campaigns conducted as part of the Greenland Summit Halogen-HOx Experiment (GSHOX)
J. L. Thomas et al.
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Boreal forest fire CO and CH4 emission factors derived from tower observations in Alaska during the extreme fire season of 2015Chemical characterization of oxygenated organic compounds in the gas phase and particle phase using iodide CIMS with FIGAERO in urban airNew approach to evaluate satellite-derived XCO2 over oceans by integrating ship and aircraft observationsCentral role of nitric oxide in ozone production in the upper tropical troposphere over the Atlantic Ocean and western AfricaSesquiterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes dominate the VOC (C5–C20) emissions of downy birchesMeasurement report: Online measurement of gas-phase nitrated phenols utilizing a CI-LToF-MS: primary sources and secondary formationMeasurement report: In situ observations of deep convection without lightning during the tropical cyclone Florence 2018Reactive nitrogen around the Arabian Peninsula and in the Mediterranean Sea during the 2017 AQABA ship campaignStratospheric carbon isotope fractionation and tropospheric histories of CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113 isotopologuesIsotopic compositions of atmospheric total gaseous mercury in 10 Chinese cities and implications for land surface emissionsObservations of speciated isoprene nitrates in Beijing: implications for isoprene chemistryContributions to OH reactivity from unexplored volatile organic compounds measured by PTR-ToF-MS – a case study in a suburban forest of the Seoul metropolitan area during the Korea–United States Air Quality Study (KORUS-AQ) 2016Total OH reactivity over the Amazon rainforest: variability with temperature, wind, rain, altitude, time of day, season, and an overall budget closureWhere there is smoke there is mercury: Assessing boreal forest fire mercury emissions using aircraft and highlighting uncertainties associated with upscaling emissions estimatesFormation of nighttime sulfuric acid from the ozonolysis of alkenes in BeijingSpatiotemporal variation, sources, and secondary transformation potential of volatile organic compounds in Xi'an, ChinaIdentifying and quantifying source contributions of air quality contaminants during unconventional shale gas extractionMeasurement report: Emissions of intermediate-volatility organic compounds from vehicles under real-world driving conditions in an urban tunnelObserved decreases in on-road CO2 concentrations in Beijing during COVID-19 restrictionsInvestigation of several proxies to estimate sulfuric acid concentration under volcanic plume conditionsMeasurement report: Exploring NH3 behavior in urban and suburban Beijing: comparison and implicationsAtmospheric organic vapors in two European pine forests measured by a Vocus PTR-TOF: insights into monoterpene and sesquiterpene oxidation processesSpeciation of VOC emissions related to offshore North Sea oil and gas productionImpact of stratospheric air and surface emissions on tropospheric nitrous oxide during ATomHalogen activation in the plume of Masaya volcano: field observations and box model investigationsDecoupling of urban CO2 and air pollutant emission reductions during the European SARS-CoV-2 lockdownAir-sea exchange of acetone, acetaldehyde, DMS and isoprene at a UK coastal siteAtmospheric VOC measurements at a High Arctic site: characteristics and source apportionmentEvaluating the sensitivity of radical chemistry and ozone formation to ambient VOCs and NOx in BeijingGlobal trends and European emissions of tetrafluoromethane (CF4), hexafluoroethane (C2F6) and octafluoropropane (C3F8)Non-target and suspect characterisation of organic contaminants in ambient air – Part 1: Combining a novel sample clean-up method with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatographyLow-NO atmospheric oxidation pathways in a polluted megacitySeasonal variation and origins of volatile organic compounds observed during 2 years at a western Mediterranean remote background site (Ersa, Cape Corsica)Ambient nitro-aromatic compounds – biomass burning versus secondary formation in rural ChinaSecular change in atmospheric Ar∕N2 and its implications for ocean heat uptake and Brewer–Dobson circulationPan-European rural monitoring network shows dominance of NH3 gas and NH4NO3 aerosol in inorganic atmospheric pollution loadMeasurement report: Changing characteristics of atmospheric CH4 in the Tibetan Plateau: records from 1994 to 2019 at the Mount Waliguan stationAnthropogenic Reversal of the Natural Ozone Gradient between Northern and Southern Mid-latitudesSoil–atmosphere exchange flux of total gaseous mercury (TGM) at subtropical and temperate forest catchmentsMeasurement report: Molecular composition and volatility of gaseous organic compounds in a boreal forest: from volatile organic compounds to highly oxygenated organic moleculesMeasurement report: Long-term variations in carbon monoxide at a background station in China's Yangtze River Delta regionUK surface NO2 levels dropped by 42 % during the COVID-19 lockdown: impact on surface O3Airborne measurements of fire emission factors for African biomass burning sampled during the MOYA campaignSurface–atmosphere fluxes of volatile organic compounds in BeijingElevated levels of OH observed in haze events during wintertime in central BeijingMeasurement report: Important contributions of oxygenated compounds to emissions and chemistry of volatile organic compounds in urban airCharacterisation of African biomass burning plumes and impacts on the atmospheric composition over the south-west Indian OceanSpectrometric measurements of atmospheric propane (C3H8)Measurement report: Aircraft observations of ozone, nitrogen oxides, and volatile organic compounds over Hebei Province, ChinaA measurement and model study on ozone characteristics in marine air at a remote island station and its interaction with urban ozone air quality in Shanghai, China
Elizabeth B. Wiggins, Arlyn Andrews, Colm Sweeney, John B. Miller, Charles E. Miller, Sander Veraverbeke, Roisin Commane, Steven Wofsy, John M. Henderson, and James T. Randerson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8557–8574,Short summary
We analyzed high-resolution trace gas measurements collected from a tower in Alaska during a very active fire season to improve our understanding of trace gas emissions from boreal forest fires. Our results suggest previous studies may have underestimated emissions from smoldering combustion in boreal forest fires.
Chenshuo Ye, Bin Yuan, Yi Lin, Zelong Wang, Weiwei Hu, Tiange Li, Wei Chen, Caihong Wu, Chaomin Wang, Shan Huang, Jipeng Qi, Baolin Wang, Chen Wang, Wei Song, Xinming Wang, E Zheng, Jordan E. Krechmer, Penglin Ye, Zhanyi Zhang, Xuemei Wang, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8455–8478,Short summary
We performed measurements of gaseous and particulate organic compounds using a state-of-the-art online mass spectrometer in urban air. Using the dataset, we provide a holistic chemical characterization of oxygenated organic compounds in the polluted urban atmosphere, which can serve as a reference for the future field measurements of organic compounds in cities.
Astrid Müller, Hiroshi Tanimoto, Takafumi Sugita, Toshinobu Machida, Shin-ichiro Nakaoka, Prabir K. Patra, Joshua Laughner, and David Crisp
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8255–8271,Short summary
Over oceans, high uncertainties in satellite CO2 retrievals exist due to limited reference data. We combine commercial ship and aircraft observations and, with the aid of model calculations, obtain column-averaged mixing ratios of CO2 (XCO2) data over the Pacific Ocean. This new dataset has great potential as a robust reference for XCO2 measured from space and can help to better understand changes in the carbon cycle in response to climate change using satellite observations.
Ivan Tadic, Clara M. Nussbaumer, Birger Bohn, Hartwig Harder, Daniel Marno, Monica Martinez, Florian Obersteiner, Uwe Parchatka, Andrea Pozzer, Roland Rohloff, Martin Zöger, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8195–8211,Short summary
Although mechanisms of tropospheric ozone (O3) formation are well understood, studies reporting on ozone formation derived from field measurements are challenging and remain sparse in number. We use airborne measurements to quantify nitric oxide (NO) and O3 distributions in the upper troposphere over the Atlantic Ocean and western Africa and compare our measurements to model simulations. Our results show that NO and ozone formation are greatest over the tropical areas of western Africa.
Heidi Hellén, Arnaud P. Praplan, Toni Tykkä, Aku Helin, Simon Schallhart, Piia P. Schiestl-Aalto, Jaana Bäck, and Hannele Hakola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8045–8066,Short summary
Even though terpene emissions of boreal needle trees have been studied quite intensively, there is less knowledge of the emissions of broadleaved deciduous trees and emissions of larger terpenes and oxygenated volatile organic compounds. Here we studied downy birch (Betula pubescens) emissions, and especially sesquiterpene and oxygenated sesquiterpene emissions were found to be high. These emissions may have significant effects on secondary organic aerosol formation in boreal areas.
Kai Song, Song Guo, Haichao Wang, Ying Yu, Hui Wang, Rongzhi Tang, Shiyong Xia, Yuanzheng Gong, Zichao Wan, Daqi Lv, Rui Tan, Wenfei Zhu, Ruizhe Shen, Xin Li, Xuena Yu, Shiyi Chen, Liming Zeng, and Xiaofeng Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7917–7932,Short summary
Nitrated phenols (NPs) are crucial components of brown carbon. To comprehend the constitutes and sources of NPs in winter of Beijing, their concentrations were measured by a CI-LToF-MS. The secondary formation process was simulated by a box model. NPs were mainly influenced by primary emissions and regional transport. Primary emitted phenol rather than benzene oxidation was crucial in the heavy pollution episode in Beijing. This provides more insight into pollution control strategies of NPs.
Clara M. Nussbaumer, Ivan Tadic, Dirk Dienhart, Nijing Wang, Achim Edtbauer, Lisa Ernle, Jonathan Williams, Florian Obersteiner, Isidoro Gutiérrez-Álvarez, Hartwig Harder, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7933–7945,Short summary
Lightning over continental and coastal areas is frequent and accompanied by deep convection, while lightning over marine areas and particularly in tropical cyclones is rare. This research presents in situ observations of the tropical storm Florence 2018 near Cabo Verde. We show the absence of lightning in the tropical storm despite the occurrence of deep convective processes by atmospheric trace gas measurements of O3, NO, CO, H2O2, DMS and CH2I.
Nils Friedrich, Philipp Eger, Justin Shenolikar, Nicolas Sobanski, Jan Schuladen, Dirk Dienhart, Bettina Hottmann, Ivan Tadic, Horst Fischer, Monica Martinez, Roland Rohloff, Sebastian Tauer, Hartwig Harder, Eva Y. Pfannerstill, Nijing Wang, Jonathan Williams, James Brooks, Frank Drewnick, Hang Su, Guo Li, Yafang Cheng, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7473–7498,Short summary
This paper uses NOx and NOz measurements from the 2017 AQABA ship campaign in the Mediterranean Sea and around the Arabian Peninsula to examine the influence e.g. of emissions from shipping and oil and gas production. Night-time losses of NOx dominated in the Arabian Gulf and in the Red Sea, whereas daytime losses were more important in the Mediterranean Sea. Nitric acid and organic nitrates were the most prevalent components of NOz.
Max Thomas, Johannes C. Laube, Jan Kaiser, Samuel Allin, Patricia Martinerie, Robert Mulvaney, Anna Ridley, Thomas Röckmann, William T. Sturges, and Emmanuel Witrant
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6857–6873,Short summary
CFC gases are destroying the Earth's life-protecting ozone layer. We improve understanding of CFC destruction by measuring the isotopic fingerprint of the carbon in the three most abundant CFCs. These are the first such measurements in the main region where CFCs are destroyed – the stratosphere. We reconstruct the atmospheric isotope histories of these CFCs back to the 1950s by measuring air extracted from deep snow and using a model. The model and the measurements are generally consistent.
Xuewu Fu, Chen Liu, Hui Zhang, Yue Xu, Hui Zhang, Jun Li, Xiaopu Lyu, Gan Zhang, Hai Guo, Xun Wang, Leiming Zhang, and Xinbin Feng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6721–6734,Short summary
TGM concentrations and isotopic compositions in 10 Chinese cities showed strong seasonality with higher TGM concentrations and Δ199Hg and lower δ202Hg in summer. We found the seasonal variations in TGM concentrations and isotopic compositions were highly related to regional surface Hg(0) emissions, suggesting land surface Hg(0) emissions are an important source of atmospheric TGM that contribute dominantly to the seasonal variations in TGM concentrations and isotopic compositions.
Claire E. Reeves, Graham P. Mills, Lisa K. Whalley, W. Joe F. Acton, William J. Bloss, Leigh R. Crilley, Sue Grimmond, Dwayne E. Heard, C. Nicholas Hewitt, James R. Hopkins, Simone Kotthaus, Louisa J. Kramer, Roderic L. Jones, James D. Lee, Yanhui Liu, Bin Ouyang, Eloise Slater, Freya Squires, Xinming Wang, Robert Woodward-Massey, and Chunxiang Ye
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6315–6330,Short summary
The impact of isoprene on atmospheric chemistry is dependent on how its oxidation products interact with other pollutants, specifically nitrogen oxides. Such interactions can lead to isoprene nitrates. We made measurements of the concentrations of individual isoprene nitrate isomers in Beijing and used a model to test current understanding of their chemistry. We highlight areas of uncertainty in understanding, in particular the chemistry following oxidation of isoprene by the nitrate radical.
Dianne Sanchez, Roger Seco, Dasa Gu, Alex Guenther, John Mak, Youngjae Lee, Danbi Kim, Joonyoung Ahn, Don Blake, Scott Herndon, Daun Jeong, John T. Sullivan, Thomas Mcgee, Rokjin Park, and Saewung Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6331–6345,Short summary
We present observations of total reactive gases in a suburban forest observatory in the Seoul metropolitan area. The quantitative comparison with speciated trace gas observations illustrated significant underestimation in atmospheric reactivity from the speciated trace gas observational dataset. We present scientific discussion about potential causes.
Eva Y. Pfannerstill, Nina G. Reijrink, Achim Edtbauer, Akima Ringsdorf, Nora Zannoni, Alessandro Araújo, Florian Ditas, Bruna A. Holanda, Marta O. Sá, Anywhere Tsokankunku, David Walter, Stefan Wolff, Jošt V. Lavrič, Christopher Pöhlker, Matthias Sörgel, and Jonathan Williams
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6231–6256,Short summary
Tropical forests are globally significant for atmospheric chemistry. However, the mixture of reactive organic gases emitted by these ecosystems is poorly understood. By comprehensive observations at an Amazon forest site, we show that oxygenated species were previously underestimated in their contribution to the tropical-forest reactant mix. Our results show rain and temperature effects and have implications for models and the understanding of ozone and particle formation above tropical forests.
David S. McLagan, Geoff W. Stupple, Andrea Darlington, Katherine Hayden, and Alexandra Steffen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5635–5653,Short summary
An assessment of mercury emissions from a burning boreal forest was made by flying an aircraft through its plume to collect in situ gas and particulate measurements. Direct data show that in-plume gaseous elemental mercury concentrations reach up to 2.4× background for this fire and up to 5.6× when using a correlation with CO data. These unique data are applied to a series of known empirical emissions estimates and used to highlight current uncertainties in the literature.
Yishuo Guo, Chao Yan, Chang Li, Wei Ma, Zemin Feng, Ying Zhou, Zhuohui Lin, Lubna Dada, Dominik Stolzenburg, Rujing Yin, Jenni Kontkanen, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Juha Kangasluoma, Lei Yao, Biwu Chu, Yonghong Wang, Runlong Cai, Federico Bianchi, Yongchun Liu, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5499–5511,Short summary
Fog, cloud and haze are very common natural phenomena. Sulfuric acid (SA) is one of the key compounds forming those suspended particles, technically called aerosols, through gas-to-particle conversion. Therefore, the concentration level, source and sink of SA is very important. Our results show that ozonolysis of alkenes plays a major role in nighttime SA formation under unpolluted conditions in urban Beijing, and nighttime cluster mode particles are probably driven by SA in urban environments.
Mengdi Song, Xin Li, Suding Yang, Xuena Yu, Songxiu Zhou, Yiming Yang, Shiyi Chen, Huabin Dong, Keren Liao, Qi Chen, Keding Lu, Ningning Zhang, Junji Cao, Limin Zeng, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4939–4958,Short summary
Due to their lower diffusion capacities and higher conversion capacities, urban areas in Xi’an experienced severe ozone pollution in the summer. In this study, a campaign of comprehensive field observations and VOC grid sampling was conducted in Xi’an from 20 June to 20 July 2019. We found that Xi'an has a strong local emission source of VOCs, and vehicle exhaust was the primary VOC source. In addition, alkenes, aromatics, and oxygenated VOCs played a dominant role in secondary transformations.
Nur H. Orak, Matthew Reeder, and Natalie J. Pekney
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4729–4739,Short summary
In this paper, we investigate the effect of unconventional natural gas development activities on local air quality. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to collect high-time-resolution ambient concentrations of compounds emitted from well pad activity on Marcellus Shale during various phases of operation such that the relative air quality effect of each phase of development can be investigated.
Hua Fang, Xiaoqing Huang, Yanli Zhang, Chenglei Pei, Zuzhao Huang, Yujun Wang, Yanning Chen, Jianhong Yan, Jianqiang Zeng, Shaoxuan Xiao, Shilu Luo, Sheng Li, Jun Wang, Ming Zhu, Xuewei Fu, Zhenfeng Wu, Runqi Zhang, Wei Song, Guohua Zhang, Weiwei Hu, Mingjin Tang, Xiang Ding, Xinhui Bi, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
A tunnel test was initiated to measure the vehicular IVOCs emissions under real-world driving conditions. Higher SOA formations estimated from vehicular IVOCs than that from traditional VOCs emphasized the greater importance of IVOCs in modulating urban SOA. The results also revealed that non-road diesel-fueled engines greatly contributed to IVOCs in China.
Di Liu, Wanqi Sun, Ning Zeng, Pengfei Han, Bo Yao, Zhiqiang Liu, Pucai Wang, Ke Zheng, Han Mei, and Qixiang Cai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4599–4614,Short summary
It is difficult to directly observe the COVID-19 signals in CO2 due to the strong weather induced variations. Here, we determined the on-road CO2 concentration declines in Beijing using mobile observatory data before (BC), during (DC) and after COVID-19 (AC). We chose trips with the most similar weather and calculated the enhancement, the difference between on-road and the city “background”. We showed a clear on-road CO2 decrease in DC, which is consistent with the emissions reductions in DC.
Clémence Rose, Matti P. Rissanen, Siddharth Iyer, Jonathan Duplissy, Chao Yan, John B. Nowak, Aurélie Colomb, Régis Dupuy, Xu-Cheng He, Janne Lampilahti, Yee Jun Tham, Daniela Wimmer, Jean-Marc Metzger, Pierre Tulet, Jérôme Brioude, Céline Planche, Markku Kulmala, and Karine Sellegri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4541–4560,Short summary
Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is commonly accepted as a key precursor for atmospheric new particle formation. However, direct measurements of [H2SO4] remain challenging, motivating the development of proxies. Using data collected in two different volcanic plumes, we show, under these specific conditions, the good performance of a proxy from the literature and also highlight the benefit of the newly developed proxies for the prediction of the highest [H2SO4] values.
Ziru Lan, Weili Lin, Weiwei Pu, and Zhiqiang Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4561–4573,Short summary
Haze related to particulate matter has become a big problem in eastern China, and ammonia (NH3) plays an important role in secondary particulate matter formation. In this work, variations in the NH3 mixing ratio showed that the contributions of NH3 sources and sinks in urban and suburban areas were quite different, although the areas were under the influence of similar weather systems. This study furthers the understanding of the behavior of NH3 in a megacity environment.
Haiyan Li, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Matthieu Riva, Pekka Rantala, Yanjun Zhang, Steven Thomas, Liine Heikkinen, Pierre-Marie Flaud, Eric Villenave, Emilie Perraudin, Douglas Worsnop, Markku Kulmala, Mikael Ehn, and Federico Bianchi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4123–4147,Short summary
For the first time, we performed binPMF analysis on the complex mass spectra acquired with the Vocus PTR-TOF in two European pine forests and identified various primary emission sources and secondary oxidation processes of atmospheric organic vapors, i.e., terpenes and their oxidation products, with varying oxidation degrees. Further insights were gained regarding monoterpene and sesquiterpene reactions based on the interpretation results.
Shona E. Wilde, Pamela A. Dominutti, Grant Allen, Stephen J. Andrews, Prudence Bateson, Stephane J.-B. Bauguitte, Ralph R. Burton, Ioana Colfescu, James France, James R. Hopkins, Langwen Huang, Anna E. Jones, Tom Lachlan-Cope, James D. Lee, Alastair C. Lewis, Stephen D. Mobbs, Alexandra Weiss, Stuart Young, and Ruth M. Purvis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3741–3762,Short summary
We use airborne measurements to evaluate the speciation of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from offshore oil and gas (O&G) installations in the North Sea. The composition of emissions varied across regions associated with either gas, condensate or oil extraction, demonstrating that VOC emissions are not uniform across the whole O&G sector. We compare our results to VOC source profiles in the UK emissions inventory, showing these emissions are not currently fully characterized.
Yenny Gonzalez, Róisín Commane, Ethan Manninen, Bruce C. Daube, Luke Schiferl, J. Barry McManus, Kathryn McKain, Eric J. Hintsa, James W. Elkins, Stephen A. Montzka, Colm Sweeney, Fred Moore, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano Jost, Thomas B. Ryerson, Ilann Bourgeois, Jeff Peischl, Chelsea R. Thompson, Eric Ray, Paul O. Wennberg, John Crounse, Michelle Kim, Hannah M. Allen, Paul Newman, Britton B. Stephens, Eric C. Apel, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Benjamin A. Nault, Eric Morgan, and Steven C. Wofsy
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Vertical profiles of N2O and a variety of chemical species and aerosols were collected over the oceans from nearly Pole to Pole during the NASA Atmospheric Tomography mission. We observed that tropospheric N2O variability is strongly driven by the influence of stratospheric air depleted in N2O, especially at middle and high latitudes. We also traced the origins of biomass burning and industrial emissions and investigate their impact on the variability of tropospheric N2O.
Julian Rüdiger, Alexandra Gutmann, Nicole Bobrowski, Marcello Liotta, J. Maarten de Moor, Rolf Sander, Florian Dinger, Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, Martha Ibarra, Armando Saballos, María Martínez, Elvis Mendoza, Arnoldo Ferrufino, John Stix, Juan Valdés, Jonathan M. Castro, and Thorsten Hoffmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3371–3393,Short summary
We present an innovative approach to study halogen chemistry in the plume of Masaya volcano in Nicaragua. An unique data set was collected using multiple techniques, including drones. These data enabled us to determine the fraction of activation of the respective halogens at various plume ages, where in-mixing of ambient air causes chemical reactions. An atmospheric chemistry box model was employed to further examine the field results and help our understanding of volcanic plume chemistry.
Christian Lamprecht, Martin Graus, Marcus Striednig, Michael Stichaner, and Thomas Karl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3091–3102,Short summary
The first European SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) wave and associated lockdown provided a unique sensitivity experiment to study air pollution. We find significantly different emission trajectories between classical air pollution and climate gases (e.g., carbon dioxide). The analysis suggests that European policies, shifting residential, public, and commercial energy demand towards cleaner combustion, have helped to improve air quality more than expected.
Daniel P. Phillips, Frances E. Hopkins, Thomas G. Bell, Peter S. Liss, Philip D. Nightingale, Claire E. Reeves, Charel Wohl, and Mingxi Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We present the first measurements of the rate of transfer (flux) of three gases between the atmosphere and the ocean, using a direct flux measurement technique, at a coastal site. We show greater atmospheric loss of acetone and acetaldehyde into the ocean than estimated by global models for the open-water; importantly, the acetaldehyde transfer direction is opposite to the model estimates. Measured dimethylsulphide fluxes agreed with a recent model. Isoprene fluxes were too weak to be measured.
Jakob B. Pernov, Rossana Bossi, Thibaut Lebourgeois, Jacob K. Nøjgaard, Rupert Holzinger, Jens L. Hjorth, and Henrik Skov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2895–2916,Short summary
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are an important constituent in the Arctic atmosphere due to their effect on aerosol and ozone formation. However, an understanding of their sources is lacking. This research presents a multiseason high-time-resolution dataset of VOCs in the Arctic and details their temporal characteristics and source apportionment. Four sources were identified: biomass burning, marine cryosphere, background, and Arctic haze.
Lisa K. Whalley, Eloise J. Slater, Robert Woodward-Massey, Chunxiang Ye, James D. Lee, Freya Squires, James R. Hopkins, Rachel E. Dunmore, Marvin Shaw, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Alastair C. Lewis, Archit Mehra, Stephen D. Worrall, Asan Bacak, Thomas J. Bannan, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, Bin Ouyang, Roderic L. Jones, Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa J. Kramer, William J. Bloss, Tuan Vu, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Siyao Yue, Lujie Ren, W. Joe F. Acton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Xinming Wang, Pingqing Fu, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2125–2147,Short summary
To understand how emission controls will impact ozone, an understanding of the sources and sinks of OH and the chemical cycling between peroxy radicals is needed. This paper presents measurements of OH, HO2 and total RO2 taken in central Beijing. The radical observations are compared to a detailed chemistry model, which shows that under low NO conditions, there is a missing OH source. Under high NOx conditions, the model under-predicts RO2 and impacts our ability to model ozone.
Daniel Say, Alistair J. Manning, Luke M. Western, Dickon Young, Adam Wisher, Matthew Rigby, Stefan Reimann, Martin K. Vollmer, Michela Maione, Jgor Arduini, Paul B. Krummel, Jens Mühle, Christina M. Harth, Brendan Evans, Ray F. Weiss, Ronald G. Prinn, and Simon O'Doherty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2149–2164,Short summary
Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are potent greenhouse gases with exceedingly long lifetimes. We used atmospheric measurements from a global monitoring network to track the accumulation of these gases in the atmosphere. In the case of the two most abundant PFCs, recent measurements indicate that global emissions are increasing. In Europe, we used a model to estimate regional PFC emissions. Our results show that there was no significant decline in northwest European PFC emissions between 2010 and 2019.
Laura Röhler, Pernilla Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pawel Rostkowski, Roland Kallenborn, and Martin Schlabach
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1697–1716,Short summary
A novel non-destructive, sulfuric-acid-free clean-up method for high-volume air samples was developed and evaluated with organic chemicals covering a wide range of polarities (logP 2–11). This method, providing quantitative results of comparable quality to traditional methods, was combined with newly developed data treatment strategies for simultaneous suspect and non-target screening. The application to air samples from southern Norway revealed 90 new potential chemicals of emerging concern.
Mike J. Newland, Daniel J. Bryant, Rachel E. Dunmore, Thomas J. Bannan, W. Joe F. Acton, Ben Langford, James R. Hopkins, Freya A. Squires, William Dixon, William S. Drysdale, Peter D. Ivatt, Mathew J. Evans, Peter M. Edwards, Lisa K. Whalley, Dwayne E. Heard, Eloise J. Slater, Robert Woodward-Massey, Chunxiang Ye, Archit Mehra, Stephen D. Worrall, Asan Bacak, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, C. Nicholas Hewitt, James D. Lee, Tianqu Cui, Jason D. Surratt, Xinming Wang, Alastair C. Lewis, Andrew R. Rickard, and Jacqueline F. Hamilton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1613–1625,Short summary
We report the formation of secondary pollutants in the urban megacity of Beijing that are typically associated with remote regions such as rainforests. This is caused by extremely low levels of nitric oxide (NO), typically expected to be high in urban areas, observed in the afternoon. This work has significant implications for how we understand atmospheric chemistry in the urban environment and thus for how to implement effective policies to improve urban air quality.
Cécile Debevec, Stéphane Sauvage, Valérie Gros, Thérèse Salameh, Jean Sciare, François Dulac, and Nadine Locoge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1449–1484,Short summary
This study provides a better characterization of the seasonal variations in VOC sources impacting the western Mediterranean region, based on a comprehensive chemical composition measured over 25 months at a representative receptor site (Ersa) and by determining factors controlling their temporal variations. Some insights into dominant drivers for VOC concentration variations in Europe are also provided, built on comparisons of Ersa observations with the concomitant ones of 17 European sites.
Christian Mark Garcia Salvador, Rongzhi Tang, Michael Priestley, Linjie Li, Epameinondas Tsiligiannis, Michael Le Breton, Wenfei Zhu, Limin Zeng, Hui Wang, Ying Yu, Min Hu, Song Guo, and Mattias Hallquist
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1389–1406,Short summary
High-frequency online measurement of gas- and particle-phase nitro-aromatic compounds (NACs) at a rural site in China, heavily influenced by biomass burning events, enabled the analysis of the production pathway of NACs, including an explanation of strong persistence in the daytime. The contribution of secondary processes was significant, even during the dominant wintertime influence of primary emissions, suggesting the important role of regional secondary chemistry, i.e. photochemical smog.
Shigeyuki Ishidoya, Satoshi Sugawara, Yasunori Tohjima, Daisuke Goto, Kentaro Ishijima, Yosuke Niwa, Nobuyuki Aoki, and Shohei Murayama
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1357–1373,Short summary
The surface Ar / N2 ratio showed not only secular increasing trends, but also interannual variations in phase with the global ocean heat content (OHC). Sensitivity test by using a two-dimensional model indicated that the secular trend in the Ar / N2 ratio is modified by the gravitational separation in the stratosphere. The analytical results imply that the surface Ar/N2 ratio is an important tracer for detecting spatiotemporally integrated changes in OHC and stratospheric circulation.
Y. Sim Tang, Chris R. Flechard, Ulrich Dämmgen, Sonja Vidic, Vesna Djuricic, Marta Mitosinkova, Hilde T. Uggerud, Maria J. Sanz, Ivan Simmons, Ulrike Dragosits, Eiko Nemitz, Marsailidh Twigg, Netty van Dijk, Yannick Fauvel, Francisco Sanz, Martin Ferm, Cinzia Perrino, Maria Catrambone, David Leaver, Christine F. Braban, J. Neil Cape, Mathew R. Heal, and Mark A. Sutton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 875–914,Short summary
The DELTA® approach provided speciated, monthly data on reactive gases (NH3, HNO3, SO2, HCl) and aerosols (NH4+, NO3−, SO42−, Cl−, Na+) across Europe (2006–2010). Differences in spatial and temporal concentrations and patterns between geographic regions and four ecosystem types were captured. NH3 and NH4NO3 were dominant components, highlighting their growing relative importance in ecosystem impacts (acidification, eutrophication) and human health effects (NH3 as a precursor to PM2.5) in Europe.
Shuo Liu, Shuangxi Fang, Peng Liu, Miao Liang, Minrui Guo, and Zhaozhong Feng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 393–413,Short summary
We analyzed 26-year CH4 measurements at Mount Waliguan in the Tibetan Plateau, China. The CH4 increased ~ 133 parts per billion (ppb) with a rate of 5.1 ± 0.1 ppb yr-1 from 1994 to 2019. Major source regions were identified in northeast and southwest. The influence of human activities is more and more serious, and northern India has possibly become a stronger contributor than city regions were in the past. It has become urgent to control CH4 emissions in the Tibetan Plateau.
David D. Parrish, Richard G. Derwent, Steven T. Turnock, Fiona M. O’Connor, Johannes Staehelin, Susanne E. Bauer, Makoto Deushi, Naga Oshima, Kostas Tsigaridis, Tongwen Wu, and Jie Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The few ozone measurements made before the 1980s indicate that industrial development increased ozone concentrations by a factor of ~2 at northern mid-latitudes, which are now larger than at southern mid-latitudes. This difference was much smaller, and likely reversed, in the natural troposphere. Earth System Models find similar increases, but not higher pre-industrial ozone in the south. This disagreement may indicate that modeled natural ozone sources and/or deposition loss are inadequate.
Jun Zhou, Zhangwei Wang, Xiaoshan Zhang, Charles T. Driscoll, and Che-Jen Lin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 16117–16133,Short summary
Mercury (Hg) emissions from natural resources have a large uncertainty, which is mainly derived from the forest. A long-term and multiplot (10) study of soil–air fluxes at subtropical and temperate forests was conducted. Forest soils are an important atmospheric Hg source, especially for subtropical forests. The compensation points imply that the atmospheric Hg concentration plays a critical role in inhibiting Hg emissions from the forest floor. Climate change can enhance soil Hg emissions.
Wei Huang, Haiyan Li, Nina Sarnela, Liine Heikkinen, Yee Jun Tham, Jyri Mikkilä, Steven J. Thomas, Neil M. Donahue, Markku Kulmala, and Federico Bianchi
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We show full characterization of gaseous organic compounds in a boreal forest. Molecular composition and volatility of gaseous organic compounds with different oxidation extent (from volatile organic compounds to highly oxygenated organic molecules) were investigated and discussed. Our study provides a more comprehensive understanding of atmospheric organic compounds in the boreal forest, and new insights in interpreting ambient measurements or testing/improving parameterizations in models.
Yijing Chen, Qianli Ma, Weili Lin, Xiaobin Xu, Jie Yao, and Wei Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15969–15982,Short summary
CO is one of the major air pollutants. Our study showed that the long-term CO levels at a background station in one of the most developed areas of China decreased significantly and verified that this downward trend was attributed to the decrease in anthropogenic emissions, which indicated that the adopted pollution control policies were effective. Also, this decrease has an implication for the atmospheric chemistry considering the negative correlation between CO levels and OH radical's lifetime.
James D. Lee, Will S. Drysdale, Doug P. Finch, Shona E. Wilde, and Paul I. Palmer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15743–15759,Short summary
Efforts to prevent the COVID-19 virus spreading across the globe have included travel restrictions and the closure of workplaces, leading to a significant drop in emissions of primary air pollutants. This provides for a unique opportunity to examine how air pollutant concentrations respond to an abrupt and prolonged reduction. We examine how NO2 and O3 have been affected at several urban measurement sites in the UK. We look at the change in NO2 compared to previous years and the effect on O3.
Patrick A. Barker, Grant Allen, Martin Gallagher, Joseph R. Pitt, Rebecca E. Fisher, Thomas Bannan, Euan G. Nisbet, Stéphane J.-B. Bauguitte, Dominika Pasternak, Samuel Cliff, Marina B. Schimpf, Archit Mehra, Keith N. Bower, James D. Lee, Hugh Coe, and Carl J. Percival
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15443–15459,Short summary
Africa is estimated to account for approximately 52 % of global biomass burning (BB) carbon emissions. Despite this, there has been little previous in situ study of African BB emissions. This work presents BB emission factors for various atmospheric trace gases sampled from an aircraft in two distinct areas of Africa (Senegal and Uganda). Intracontinental variability in biomass burning methane emission is identified, which is attributed to difference in the specific fuel mixtures burnt.
W. Joe F. Acton, Zhonghui Huang, Brian Davison, Will S. Drysdale, Pingqing Fu, Michael Hollaway, Ben Langford, James Lee, Yanhui Liu, Stefan Metzger, Neil Mullinger, Eiko Nemitz, Claire E. Reeves, Freya A. Squires, Adam R. Vaughan, Xinming Wang, Zhaoyi Wang, Oliver Wild, Qiang Zhang, Yanli Zhang, and C. Nicholas Hewitt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15101–15125,Short summary
Air quality in Beijing is of concern to both policy makers and the general public. In order to address concerns about air quality it is vital that the sources of atmospheric pollutants are understood. This work presents the first top-down measurement of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in Beijing. These measurements are used to evaluate the emissions inventory and assess the impact of VOC emission from the city centre on atmospheric chemistry.
Eloise J. Slater, Lisa K. Whalley, Robert Woodward-Massey, Chunxiang Ye, James D. Lee, Freya Squires, James R. Hopkins, Rachel E. Dunmore, Marvin Shaw, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Alastair C. Lewis, Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa Kramer, William Bloss, Tuan Vu, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Siyao Yue, Lujie Ren, W. Joe F. Acton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Xinming Wang, Pingqing Fu, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14847–14871,Short summary
The paper details atmospheric chemistry in a megacity (Beijing), focussing on radicals which mediate the formation of secondary pollutants such as ozone and particles. Highly polluted conditions were experienced, including the highest ever levels of nitric oxide (NO), with simultaneous radical measurements. Radical concentrations were large during "haze" events, demonstrating active photochemistry. Modelling showed that our understanding of the chemistry at high NOx levels is incomplete.
Caihong Wu, Chaomin Wang, Sihang Wang, Wenjie Wang, Bin Yuan, Jipeng Qi, Baolin Wang, Hongli Wang, Chen Wang, Wei Song, Xinming Wang, Weiwei Hu, Shengrong Lou, Chenshuo Ye, Yuwen Peng, Zelong Wang, Yibo Huangfu, Yan Xie, Manni Zhu, Junyu Zheng, Xuemei Wang, Bin Jiang, Zhanyi Zhang, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14769–14785,Short summary
Based on measurements from an online mass spectrometer, we quantify volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations from numerous ions of the mass spectrometer, using information from laboratory-obtained calibration results. We find that most VOC concentrations are from oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs). We further show that these OVOCs also contribute significantly to OH reactivity. Our results suggest the important role of OVOCs in VOC emissions and chemistry in urban air.
Bert Verreyken, Crist Amelynck, Jérôme Brioude, Jean-François Müller, Niels Schoon, Nicolas Kumps, Aurélie Colomb, Jean-Marc Metzger, Christopher F. Lee, Theodore K. Koenig, Rainer Volkamer, and Trissevgeni Stavrakou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14821–14845,Short summary
Biomass burning (BB) plumes arriving at the Maïdo observatory located in the south-west Indian Ocean during August 2018 and August 2019 are studied using trace gas measurements, Lagrangian transport models and the CAMS near-real-time atmospheric composition service. We investigate (i) secondary production of volatile organic compounds during transport, (ii) efficacy of the CAMS model to reproduce the chemical makeup of BB plumes and (iii) the impact of BB on the remote marine boundary layer.
Geoffrey C. Toon, Jean-Francois L. Blavier, Keeyoon Sung, and Katelyn Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We report measurements of atmospheric propane (C3H8) from analysis of ground-based, infra-red solar absorption spectra measured from various sites. These measurements suggest that exploitation of natural gas fields is a major and growing source of propane in the USA. Also, there seem to be propane sources in large cities such as Los Angeles, possibly related to use of liquified petroleum gas (LPG).
Sarah E. Benish, Hao He, Xinrong Ren, Sandra J. Roberts, Ross J. Salawitch, Zhanqing Li, Fei Wang, Yuying Wang, Fang Zhang, Min Shao, Sihua Lu, and Russell R. Dickerson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14523–14545,Short summary
Airborne observations of ozone and related pollutants show smog was pervasive in spring 2016 over Hebei Province, China. We find high amounts of ozone precursors throughout and even above the PBL, continuing to generate ozone at high rates to be potentially transported downwind. Concentrations even in the rural areas of this highly industrialized province promote widespread ozone production, and we show that to improve air quality over Hebei both NOx and VOCs should be targeted.
Yixuan Gu, Fengxia Yan, Jianming Xu, Yuanhao Qu, Wei Gao, Fangfang He, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14361–14375,Short summary
High levels and statistically insignificant changes of ozone are detected at a remote monitoring site on Sheshan Island in Shanghai, China, from 2012 to 2017; 6-year observations suggest regional transport exerted minimum influence on the offshore oceanic air in September and October. Both city plumes and oceanic air inflows could contribute to ozone enhancements in Shanghai, and the latter are found to lead to 20–30 % increases in urban ozone concentrations based on WRF-Chem simulations.
Brooks, S., Moore, C., Lew, D., Lefer, B., Huey, G., and Tanner, D.: Temperature and sunlight controls of mercury oxidation and deposition atop the Greenland ice sheet, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 8295–8306, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-8295-2011, 2011.
Chen, G., Huey, L. G., Crawford, J. H., Olsen, J. R., Hutterli, M. A., Sjostedt, S., Tanner, D., Dibb, J., Lefer, B., Blake, N., Davis, D., and Stohl, A.: An assessment of the the polar HOx budget based on 2003 Summit Greenland field observations, Atmos. Environ., 41, 7806–7828, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.06.014, 2007.
Choi, S., Wang, Y., Salawitch, R. J., Canty, T., Joiner, J., Zeng, T., Kurosu, T. P., Chance, K., Richter, A., Huey, L. G., Liao, J., Neuman, J. A., Nowak, J. B., Dibb, J. E., Weinheimer, A. J., Diskin, G., Ryerson, T. B., da Silva, A., Curry, J., Kinnison, D., Tilmes, S., and Levelt, P. F.: Analysis of satellite-derived Arctic tropospheric BrO columns in conjunction with aircraft measurements during ARCTAS and ARCPAC, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 1255–1285, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-1255-2012, 2012.
Davis, D., Nowak, J. B., Chen, G., Buhr, M., Arimoto, R., Hogan, A., Eisele, F., Mauldin, L., Tanner, D., Shetter, R., Lefer, B., and McMurry, P.: Unexpected high levels of NO observed at South Pole, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 3625–3628, 2001.
Dibb, J. E.: Vertical mixing above Summit, Greenland: Insights into seasonal and high frequency variability from the radionuclide tracers 7Be and 210Pb, Atmos. Environ., 41, 5020–5030, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.12.005, 2007.
Dibb, J. E., Albert, M., Courville, Z., Anastasio, C., Galbavy, E. S., Atlas, E., Beyersdorf, A. J., Blake, D. R., Meinardi, S., Rowland, F. S., Swanson, A. L., Blake, N. J., Bocquet, F., Cohen, L., Helmig, D., Burkhart, J. F., Frey, M. M., Friel, D. K., Hutterli, M. A., Chen, G., Conway, T. J., and Oltmans, S. J.: An overview of air-snow exchange at Summit, Greenland: recent experiments and findings, Atmos. Environ., 41, 4995–5006, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.12.006, 2007.
Dibb, J. E., Ziemba, L. D., Luxford, J., and Beckman, P.: Bromide and other ions in the snow, firn air, and atmospheric boundary layer at Summit during GSHOX, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 9931–9942, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-9931-2010, 2010.
Grannas, A. M., Jones, A. E., Dibb, J., Ammann, M., Anastasio, C., Beine, H. J., Bergin, M., Bottenheim, J., Boxe, C. S., Carver, G., Chen, G., Crawford, J. H., Dominé, F., Frey, M. M., Guzmán, M. I., Heard, D. E., Helmig, D., Hoffmann, M. R., Honrath, R. E., Huey, L. G., Hutterli, M., Jacobi, H. W., Klán, P., Lefer, B., McConnell, J., Plane, J., Sander, R., Savarino, J., Shepson, P. B., Simpson, W. R., Sodeau, J. R., von Glasow, R., Weller, R., Wolff, E. W., and Zhu, T.: An overview of snow photochemistry: evidence, mechanisms and impacts, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 4329–4373, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-7-4329-2007, 2007.
Honrath, R. E., Peterson, M. C., Guo, S., Dibb, J. E., Shepson, P. B., and Campbell, B.: Evidence of NOx production within or upon ice particles in the Greenland snowpack, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 695–698, 1999.
Honrath, R. E., Peterson, M. C., Lu, Y., Dibb, J. E., Arsenault, M. A., Cullen, N. J., and Steffen, K.: Vertical fluxes of NOx, HONO and HNO3 above the snowpack at Summit, Greenland, Atmos. Environ., 36, 2629–2640, 2002.
Jones, A. E., Weller, R., Wolff, E. W., and Jacobi, H.-W.: Speciation and Rate of Photochemical NO and NO2 Production in Antarctic Snow, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 345–348, 2000.
Liao, J., Huey, L. G., Tanner, D. J., Brough, N., Brooks, S., Dibb, J. E., Stutz, J., Thomas, J. L., Lefer, B., Haman, C., and Gorham, K.: Observations of hydroxyl and peroxy radicals and the impact of BrO at Summit, Greenland in 2007 and 2008, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 8577–8591, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-8577-2011, 2011.
McElroy, C. T., McLinden, C. A., and McConnell, J. C.: Evidence for bromine monoxide in the free troposphere during the Arctic polar sunrise, Nature, 397, 338–341, 1999.
Ridley, B., Walega, J., Montzka, D., Grahek, F., Atlas, E., Flocke, F., Stroud, V., Deary, J., Gallant, A., Bottenheim, J., Anlauf, K., Worthy, D., Sumner, A. L., Splawn, B., and Shepson, P. B.: Is the Arctic surface layer a source and sink of NOx in winter/spring?, J. Atmos. Chem., 36, 1–22, 2000.
Roscoe, H. K., Brough, N., Jones, A. E., Wittrock, F., Richter, A., Van Roozendael, M., and Hendrick, F.: Resolution of an important discrepancy between remote and in-situ measurements of tropospheric BrO during Antarctic enhancements, Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., 5, 5419–5448, https://doi.org/10.5194/amtd-5-5419-2012, 2012.
Salawitch, R. J., Canty, T., Kurosu, T., Chance, K., Liang, Q., da Silva, A., Pawson, S., Nielsen, J. E., Rodriguez, J. M., Bhartia, P. K., Liu, X., Huey, L. G., Liao, J., Stickel, R. E., Tanner, D. J., Dibb, J. E., Simpson, W. R., Donohoue, D., Weinheimer, A., Flocke, F., Knapp, D., Montzka, D., Neuman, J. A., Nowak, J. B., Ryerson, T. B., Oltmans, S., Blake, D. R., Atlas, E. L., Kinnison, D. E., Tilmes, S., Pan, L. L., Hendrick, F., Van Roozendael, M., Kreher, K., Johnston, P. V., Gao, R. S., Johnson, B., Bui, T. P., Chen, G., Pierce, R. B., Crawford, J. H., and Jacob, D. J.: A new interpretation of total column BrO during Arctic spring, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L21805, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GL043798, 2010.
Scheuer, E., Talbot, R. W., Dibb, J. E., Seid, G. K., DeBell, L., and Lefer, B.: Seasonal distributions of fine aerosol sulfate in the North American Arctic basin during TOPSE, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 8370, https://doi.org/10/1029/2001JD001364, 2003.
Sjostedt, S. J., Huey, L. G., Tanner, D. J., Pieschl, J., Chen, G., Dibb, J. E., Lefer, B., Hutterli, M. A., Beyersdorf, A. J., Blake, N. J., Blake, D. R., Sueper, D., Ryerson, T., Burkhardt, J. and Stohl, A.: Observations of hydroxyl and the sum of peroxy radicals at Summit, Greenland during summer 2003, Atmos. Environ., 41, 5122–5137, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.06.065, 2007.
Stutz, J., Thomas, J. L., Hurlock, S. C., Schneider, M., von Glasow, R., Piot, M., Gorham, K., Burkhart, J. F., Ziemba, L., Dibb, J. E., and Lefer, B. L.: Longpath DOAS observations of surface BrO at Summit, Greenland, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 9899–9910, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-9899-2011, 2011.
Thomas, J. L., Stutz, J., Lefer, B., Huey, L. G., Toyota, K., Dibb, J. E., and von Glasow, R.: Modeling chemistry in and above snow at Summit, Greenland – Part 1: Model description and results, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 4899–4914, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-4899-2011, 2011.
Thomas, J. L., Dibb, J. E., Huey, L. G., Liao, J., Tanner, D., Lefer, B., von Glasow, R., and Stutz, J.: Modeling chemistry in and above snow at Summit, Greenland – Part 2: Impact of snowpack chemistry on the oxidation capacity of the boundary layer, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 6537–6554, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-6537-2012, 2012.
Theys, N., Van Roozendael, M., Hendrick, F., Yang, X., De Smedt, I., Richter, A., Begoin, M., Errera, Q., Johnston, P. V., Kreher, K., and De Mazière, M.: Global observations of tropospheric BrO columns using GOME-2 satellite data, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 1791–1811, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-1791-2011, 2011.
Yang, J., Honrath, R. E., Peterson, M. C., Dibb, J. E., Sumner, A. L., Shepson, P. B., Frey, M., Jacobi, H.-W., Swanson, A., and Blake, N.: Impacts of snowpack photochemistry on levels of OH and peroxy radicals at Summit, Greenland, Atmos. Environ., 36, 2523–2534, 2002.
Ziemba, L. D., Dibb, J. E., Griffin, R. J., Huey, L. G., and Beckman, P.: Observations of particle growth at a remote Arctic site, Atmos. Environ., 44, 1649–1657, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.01.032, 2010.