Articles | Volume 12, issue 22
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 10833–10839, 2012
© Author(s) 2012. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article 16 Nov 2012
Research article | 16 Nov 2012
Overview of the 2007 and 2008 campaigns conducted as part of the Greenland Summit Halogen-HOx Experiment (GSHOX)
J. L. Thomas et al.
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Formaldehyde evolution in US wildfire plumes during the Fire Influence on Regional to Global Environments and Air Quality experiment (FIREX-AQ)Measurement report: Photochemical production and loss rates of formaldehyde and ozone across EuropeIs the ocean surface a source of nitrous acid (HONO) in the marine boundary layer?Measurement report: High contributions of halocarbon and aromatic compounds to atmospheric volatile organic compounds in an industrial areaMeasurement report: Fast photochemical production of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) over the rural North China Plain during haze events in autumnLong-term atmospheric emissions for the Coal Oil Point natural marine hydrocarbon seep field, offshore CaliforniaMeasurement report: Observation-based formaldehyde production rates and their relation to OH reactivity around the Arabian PeninsulaComment on “Isotopic evidence for dominant secondary production of HONO in near-ground wildfire plumes” by Chai et al. (2021)Measurement report: Regional characteristics of seasonal and long-term variations in greenhouse gases at Nainital, India, and Comilla, BangladeshNighttime and daytime dark oxidation chemistry in wildfire plumes: an observation and model analysis of FIREX-AQ aircraft dataThe effects of the COVID-19 lockdowns on the composition of the troposphere as seen by In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System (IAGOS) at FrankfurtWinter ClNO2 formation in the region of fresh anthropogenic emissions: seasonal variability and insights into daytime peaks in northern ChinaSpeciated atmospheric mercury at the Waliguan Global Atmosphere Watch station in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau: implication of dust-related sources for particulate bound mercuryMeasurement report: Variability in the composition of biogenic volatile organic compounds in a Southeastern US forest and their role in atmospheric reactivitySpatially and temporally resolved measurements of NOx fluxes by airborne eddy covariance over Greater LondonTemporary pause in the growth of atmospheric ethane and propane in 2015–2018Formation of condensable organic vapors from anthropogenic and biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is strongly perturbed by NOx in eastern ChinaSeasonal and diurnal variations in biogenic volatile organic compounds in highland and lowland ecosystems in southern KenyaOrigins and characterization of CO and O3 in the African upper troposphereExploration of the atmospheric chemistry of nitrous acid in a coastal city of southeastern China: Results from measurements across four seasonsThe Fires, Asian, and Stratospheric Transport-Las Vegas Ozone Study (FAST-LVOS)In situ ozone production is highly sensitive to volatile organic compounds in Delhi, IndiaRole of Criegee intermediates in the formation of sulfuric acid at a Mediterranean (Cape Corsica) site under influence of biogenic emissionsDynamics of gaseous oxidized mercury at Villum Research Station during the High Arctic summerIsotopic evidence for dominant secondary production of HONO in near-ground wildfire plumesOpinion: Papers that shaped tropospheric chemistryMeasurement report: Source apportionment of volatile organic compounds at the remote high-altitude Maïdo observatoryShipborne measurements of methane and carbon dioxide in the Middle East and Mediterranean areas and the contribution from oil and gas emissionsObservations of iodine monoxide over three summers at the Indian Antarctic bases of Bharati and MaitriUnexplored volatile organic compound emitted from petrochemical facilities: implications for ozone production and atmospheric chemistryAtmospheric Measurements at the Foot and the Summit of Mt. Tai – Part II: HONO Budget and Radical (ROx + NO3) Chemistry in the Lower Boundary LayerAtmospheric gaseous hydrochloric and hydrobromic acid in urban Beijing, China: detection, source identification and potential atmospheric impactsImpact of stratospheric air and surface emissions on tropospheric nitrous oxide during ATomSpectrometric measurements of atmospheric propane (C3H8)Air–sea exchange of acetone, acetaldehyde, DMS and isoprene at a UK coastal siteMeasurement report: Emissions of intermediate-volatility organic compounds from vehicles under real-world driving conditions in an urban tunnelInvestigations on the anthropogenic reversal of the natural ozone gradient between northern and southern midlatitudesMeasurement report: Molecular composition and volatility of gaseous organic compounds in a boreal forest – from volatile organic compounds to highly oxygenated organic moleculesBoreal forest fire CO and CH4 emission factors derived from tower observations in Alaska during the extreme fire season of 2015Chemical characterization of oxygenated organic compounds in the gas phase and particle phase using iodide CIMS with FIGAERO in urban airNew approach to evaluate satellite-derived XCO2 over oceans by integrating ship and aircraft observationsCentral role of nitric oxide in ozone production in the upper tropical troposphere over the Atlantic Ocean and western AfricaSesquiterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes dominate the VOC (C5–C20) emissions of downy birchesMeasurement report: Online measurement of gas-phase nitrated phenols utilizing a CI-LToF-MS: primary sources and secondary formationMeasurement report: In situ observations of deep convection without lightning during the tropical cyclone Florence 2018Reactive nitrogen around the Arabian Peninsula and in the Mediterranean Sea during the 2017 AQABA ship campaignMeasurement report: Long-term variations in surface NOx and SO2 from 2006 to 2016 at a background site in the Yangtze River Delta region, ChinaStratospheric carbon isotope fractionation and tropospheric histories of CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113 isotopologuesIsotopic compositions of atmospheric total gaseous mercury in 10 Chinese cities and implications for land surface emissionsObservations of speciated isoprene nitrates in Beijing: implications for isoprene chemistry
Jin Liao, Glenn M. Wolfe, Reem A. Hannun, Jason M. St. Clair, Thomas F. Hanisco, Jessica B. Gilman, Aaron Lamplugh, Vanessa Selimovic, Glenn S. Diskin, John B. Nowak, Hannah S. Halliday, Joshua P. DiGangi, Samuel R. Hall, Kirk Ullmann, Christopher D. Holmes, Charles H. Fite, Anxhelo Agastra, Thomas B. Ryerson, Jeff Peischl, Ilann Bourgeois, Carsten Warneke, Matthew M. Coggon, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Kanako Sekimoto, Alan Fried, Dirk Richter, Petter Weibring, Eric C. Apel, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Steven S. Brown, Caroline C. Womack, Michael A. Robinson, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Patrick R. Veres, and J. Andrew Neuman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18319–18331,Short summary
Formaldehyde (HCHO) is an important oxidant precursor and affects the formation of O3 and other secondary pollutants in wildfire plumes. We disentangle the processes controlling HCHO evolution from wildfire plumes sampled by NASA DC-8 during FIREX-AQ. We find that OH abundance rather than normalized OH reactivity is the main driver of fire-to-fire variability in HCHO secondary production and estimate an effective HCHO yield per volatile organic compound molecule oxidized in wildfire plumes.
Clara M. Nussbaumer, John N. Crowley, Jan Schuladen, Jonathan Williams, Sascha Hafermann, Andreas Reiffs, Raoul Axinte, Hartwig Harder, Cheryl Ernest, Anna Novelli, Katrin Sala, Monica Martinez, Chinmay Mallik, Laura Tomsche, Christian Plass-Dülmer, Birger Bohn, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18413–18432,Short summary
HCHO is an important atmospheric trace gas influencing the photochemical processes in the Earth’s atmosphere, including the budget of HOx and the abundance of tropospheric O3. This research presents the photochemical calculations of HCHO and O3 based on three field campaigns across Europe. We show that HCHO production via the oxidation of only four volatile organic compound precursors, i.e., CH4, CH3CHO, C5H8 and CH3OH, can balance the observed loss at all sites well.
Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa J. Kramer, Francis D. Pope, Chris Reed, James D. Lee, Lucy J. Carpenter, Lloyd D. J. Hollis, Stephen M. Ball, and William J. Bloss
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18213–18225,Short summary
Nitrous acid (HONO) is a key source of atmospheric oxidants. We evaluate if the ocean surface is a source of HONO for the marine boundary layer, using measurements from two contrasting coastal locations. We observed no evidence for a night-time ocean surface source, in contrast to previous work. This points to significant geographical variation in the predominant HONO formation mechanisms in marine environments, reflecting possible variability in the sea-surface microlayer composition.
Ahsan Mozaffar, Yan-Lin Zhang, Yu-Chi Lin, Feng Xie, Mei-Yi Fan, and Fang Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18087–18099,Short summary
We performed a long-term investigation of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in an industrial area in Nanjing, China. Followed by alkanes, halocarbons and aromatics were the most abundant VOC groups. Vehicle-related emissions were the major VOC sources in the study area. Aromatic and alkene VOCs were responsible for most of the atmospheric reactions.
Yulu Qiu, Zhiqiang Ma, Ke Li, Mengyu Huang, Jiujiang Sheng, Ping Tian, Jia Zhu, Weiwei Pu, Yingxiao Tang, Tingting Han, Huaigang Zhou, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17995–18010,Short summary
Photochemical pollution over the North China Plain (NCP) is attracting much concern. Our observations at a rural site in the NCP identified high peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) concentrations, even on cold days. Increased acetaldehyde concentration and hydroxyl radical production rates drive fast PAN formation. Moreover, our study emphasizes the importance of formaldehyde photolysis in PAN formation and calls for implementing strict volatile organic compound controls after summer over the NCP.
Ira Leifer, Christopher Melton, and Donald R. Blake
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17607–17629,Short summary
We demonstrate a novel application using air quality station data to derive 3-decade-averaged emissions from the Coal Oil Point (COP) seep field, a highly spatially and temporally variable geological migration system. Emissions were 19 Gg per year, suggesting that the COP seep field contributes 0.27 % of the global marine seep budget based on a recent estimate. This provides an advance over snapshot survey values by accounting for seasonal and interannual variations.
Dirk Dienhart, John N. Crowley, Efstratios Bourtsoukidis, Achim Edtbauer, Philipp G. Eger, Lisa Ernle, Hartwig Harder, Bettina Hottmann, Monica Martinez, Uwe Parchatka, Jean-Daniel Paris, Eva Y. Pfannerstill, Roland Rohloff, Jan Schuladen, Christof Stönner, Ivan Tadic, Sebastian Tauer, Nijing Wang, Jonathan Williams, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17373–17388,Short summary
We present the first ship-based in situ measurements of formaldehyde (HCHO), hydroxyl radicals (OH) and the OH reactivity around the Arabian Peninsula. Regression analysis of the HCHO production rate and the related OH chemistry revealed the regional HCHO yield αeff, which represents the different chemical regimes encountered. Highest values were found for the Arabian Gulf (also known as the Persian Gulf), which highlights this region as a hotspot of photochemical air pollution.
James M. Roberts
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16793–16795,Short summary
This comment provides evidence that recently reported measurements of the isotope composition of wildfire-derived oxides of nitrogen have a significant interference from other nitrogen compounds. In addition, the conceptual model used to interpret the results was missing several key reactions.
Shohei Nomura, Manish Naja, M. Kawser Ahmed, Hitoshi Mukai, Yukio Terao, Toshinobu Machida, Motoki Sasakawa, and Prabir K. Patra
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16427–16452,Short summary
Long-term measurements of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in India and Bangladesh unveiled specific characteristics in their variations in these regions. Plants including rice cultivated in winter and summer strongly affected seasonal variations and levels in CO2 and CH4. Long-term variability of GHGs showed quite different features in their growth rates from those in Mauna Loa. GHG trends in this region seemed to be hardly affected by El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO).
Zachary C. J. Decker, Michael A. Robinson, Kelley C. Barsanti, Ilann Bourgeois, Matthew M. Coggon, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Frank M. Flocke, Alessandro Franchin, Carley D. Fredrickson, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Samuel R. Hall, Hannah Halliday, Christopher D. Holmes, L. Gregory Huey, Young Ro Lee, Jakob Lindaas, Ann M. Middlebrook, Denise D. Montzka, Richard Moore, J. Andrew Neuman, John B. Nowak, Brett B. Palm, Jeff Peischl, Felix Piel, Pamela S. Rickly, Andrew W. Rollins, Thomas B. Ryerson, Rebecca H. Schwantes, Kanako Sekimoto, Lee Thornhill, Joel A. Thornton, Geoffrey S. Tyndall, Kirk Ullmann, Paul Van Rooy, Patrick R. Veres, Carsten Warneke, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Andrew J. Weinheimer, Elizabeth Wiggins, Edward Winstead, Armin Wisthaler, Caroline Womack, and Steven S. Brown
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16293–16317,Short summary
To understand air quality impacts from wildfires, we need an accurate picture of how wildfire smoke changes chemically both day and night as sunlight changes the chemistry of smoke. We present a chemical analysis of wildfire smoke as it changes from midday through the night. We use aircraft observations from the FIREX-AQ field campaign with a chemical box model. We find that even under sunlight typical
nighttimechemistry thrives and controls the fate of key smoke plume chemical processes.
Hannah Clark, Yasmine Bennouna, Maria Tsivlidou, Pawel Wolff, Bastien Sauvage, Brice Barret, Eric Le Flochmoën, Romain Blot, Damien Boulanger, Jean-Marc Cousin, Philippe Nédélec, Andreas Petzold, and Valérie Thouret
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16237–16256,Short summary
We examined 27 years of IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System) profiles at Frankfurt to see if there were unusual features during the spring of 2020 related to COVID-19 lockdowns in Europe. Increased ozone near the surface was partly linked to the reduction in emissions. Carbon monoxide decreased near the surface, but the impact of the lockdowns was offset by polluted air masses from elsewhere. There were small reductions in ozone and carbon monoxide in the free troposphere.
Men Xia, Xiang Peng, Weihao Wang, Chuan Yu, Zhe Wang, Yee Jun Tham, Jianmin Chen, Hui Chen, Yujing Mu, Chenglong Zhang, Pengfei Liu, Likun Xue, Xinfeng Wang, Jian Gao, Hong Li, and Tao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15985–16000,Short summary
ClNO2 is an important precursor of chlorine radical that affects photochemistry. However, its production and impact are not well understood. Our study presents field observations of ClNO2 at three sites in northern China. These observations provide new insights into nighttime processes that produce ClNO2 and the significant impact of ClNO2 on secondary pollutions during daytime. The results improve the understanding of photochemical pollution in the lower part of the atmosphere.
Hui Zhang, Xuewu Fu, Ben Yu, Baoxin Li, Peng Liu, Guoqing Zhang, Leiming Zhang, and Xinbin Feng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15847–15859,Short summary
Our observations of speciated atmospheric mercury at the Waliguan GAW Baseline Observatory show that concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) and particulate bound mercury (PBM) were elevated compared to the Northern Hemisphere background. We propose that the major sources of GEM and PBM were mainly related to anthropogenic emissions and desert dust sources. This study highlights that dust-related sources played an important role in the variations of PBM in the Tibetan Plateau.
Deborah F. McGlynn, Laura E. R. Barry, Manuel T. Lerdau, Sally E. Pusede, and Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15755–15770,Short summary
We present 1 year of hourly measurements of chemically resolved Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOCs) between 15 September 2019 and 15 September 2020, collected at a research tower in central Virginia. Concentrations of a range of BVOCs are described and examined for their impact on atmospheric reactivity. The majority of reactivity comes from α-pinene and limonene, highlighting the importance of both concentration and structure in assessing atmospheric impacts of emissions.
Adam R. Vaughan, James D. Lee, Stefan Metzger, David Durden, Alastair C. Lewis, Marvin D. Shaw, Will S. Drysdale, Ruth M. Purvis, Brian Davison, and C. Nicholas Hewitt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15283–15298,Short summary
Validating emissions estimates of atmospheric pollutants is a vital pathway towards reducing urban concentrations of air pollution and ensuring effective legislative controls are implemented. The work presented here highlights a strategy capable of quantifying and spatially disaggregating NOx emissions over challenging urban terrain. This work shows great scope as a tool for emission inventory validation and independent generation of high-resolution surface emissions on a city-wide scale.
Hélène Angot, Connor Davel, Christine Wiedinmyer, Gabrielle Pétron, Jashan Chopra, Jacques Hueber, Brendan Blanchard, Ilann Bourgeois, Isaac Vimont, Stephen A. Montzka, Ben R. Miller, James W. Elkins, and Detlev Helmig
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15153–15170,Short summary
After a multidecadal global decline in atmospheric abundance of ethane and propane (precursors of tropospheric ozone and aerosols), previous work showed a reversal of this trend in 2009–2015 in the Northern Hemisphere due to the growth in oil and natural gas production in North America. Here we show a temporary pause in the growth of atmospheric ethane and propane in 2015–2018 and highlight the critical need for additional top-down studies to further constrain ethane and propane emissions.
Yuliang Liu, Wei Nie, Yuanyuan Li, Dafeng Ge, Chong Liu, Zhengning Xu, Liangduo Chen, Tianyi Wang, Lei Wang, Peng Sun, Ximeng Qi, Jiaping Wang, Zheng Xu, Jian Yuan, Chao Yan, Yanjun Zhang, Dandan Huang, Zhe Wang, Neil M. Donahue, Douglas Worsnop, Xuguang Chi, Mikael Ehn, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14789–14814,Short summary
Oxygenated organic molecules (OOMs) are crucial intermediates linking volatile organic compounds to secondary organic aerosols. Using nitrate time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometry in eastern China, we performed positive matrix factorization (PMF) on binned OOM mass spectra. We reconstructed over 1000 molecules from 14 derived PMF factors and identified about 72 % of the observed OOMs as organic nitrates, highlighting the decisive role of NOx in OOM formation in populated areas.
Yang Liu, Simon Schallhart, Ditte Taipale, Toni Tykkä, Matti Räsänen, Lutz Merbold, Heidi Hellén, and Petri Pellikka
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14761–14787,Short summary
We studied the mixing ratio of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in a humid highland and dry lowland African ecosystem in Kenya. The mixing ratio of monoterpenoids was similar to that measured in the relevant ecosystems in western and southern Africa, while that of isoprene was lower. Modeling the emission factors (EFs) for BVOCs from the lowlands, the EFs for isoprene and β-pinene agreed well with what is assumed in the MEGAN, while those of α-pinene and limonene were higher.
Victor Lannuque, Bastien Sauvage, Brice Barret, Hannah Clark, Gilles Athier, Damien Boulanger, Jean-Pierre Cammas, Jean-Marc Cousin, Alain Fontaine, Eric Le Flochmoën, Philippe Nédélec, Hervé Petetin, Isabelle Pfaffenzeller, Susanne Rohs, Herman G. J. Smit, Pawel Wolff, and Valérie Thouret
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14535–14555,Short summary
The African intertropical troposphere is one of the world areas where the increase in ozone mixing ratio has been most pronounced since 1980 and where high carbon monoxide mixing ratios are found in altitude. In this article, IAGOS aircraft measurements, IASI satellite instrument observations, and SOFT-IO model products are used to explore the seasonal distribution variations and the origin of ozone and carbon monoxide over the African upper troposphere.
Baoye Hu, Jun Duan, Youwei Hong, Lingling Xu, Mengren Li, Yahui Bian, Min Qin, Wu Fang, Pinhua Xie, and Jinsheng Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
There has been a lack of research into HONO in coastal cities with low concentrations of PM2.5, but strong sunlight and high humidity. Insufficient research on coastal cities with good air quality has resulted in certain obstacles to assessing the photochemical processes in these areas. Furthermore, HONO contributes to the atmospheric photochemistry depending on the season. Therefore, observations of HONO across four seasons in the southeastern coastal area of China are urgently needed.
Andrew O. Langford, Christoph J. Senff, Raul J. Alvarez II, Ken C. Aikin, Sunil Baidar, Timothy A. Bonin, W. Alan Brewer, Jerome Brioude, Steven S. Brown, Joel D. Burley, Dani J. Caputi, Stephen A. Conley, Patrick D. Cullis, Zachary C. J. Decker, Stéphanie Evan, Guillaume Kirgis, Meiyun Lin, Mariusz Pagowski, Jeff Peischl, Irina Petropavlovskikh, R. Bradley Pierce, Thomas B. Ryerson, Scott P. Sandberg, Chance W. Sterling, Ann W. Weickmann, and Li Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The Fires, Asian, and Stratospheric Transport-Las Vegas Ozone Study (FAST-LVOS) combined lidar, aircraft, and in-situ measurements with global models to investigate the contributions of stratospheric intrusions, regional and Asian pollution, and wildfires on background ozone in the Southwestern U.S. during May and June. The study demonstrated that these processes contributed to background ozone levels that exceeded 70% of the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standard during the 6-week campaign.
Beth S. Nelson, Gareth J. Stewart, Will S. Drysdale, Mike J. Newland, Adam R. Vaughan, Rachel E. Dunmore, Pete M. Edwards, Alastair C. Lewis, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, W. Joe Acton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Leigh R. Crilley, Mohammed S. Alam, Ülkü A. Şahin, David C. S. Beddows, William J. Bloss, Eloise Slater, Lisa K. Whalley, Dwayne E. Heard, James M. Cash, Ben Langford, Eiko Nemitz, Roberto Sommariva, Sam Cox, Shivani, Ranu Gadi, Bhola R. Gurjar, James R. Hopkins, Andrew R. Rickard, and James D. Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13609–13630,Short summary
Ozone production at an urban site in Delhi is sensitive to volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations, particularly those of the aromatic, monoterpene, and alkene VOC classes. The change in ozone production by varying atmospheric pollutants according to their sources, as defined in an emissions inventory, is investigated. The study suggests that reducing road transport emissions alone does not reduce reactive VOCs in the atmosphere enough to perturb an increase in ozone production.
Alexandre Kukui, Michel Chartier, Jinhe Wang, Hui Chen, Sébastien Dusanter, Stéphane Sauvage, Vincent Michoud, Nadine Locoge, Valérie Gros, Thierry Bourrianne, Karine Sellegri, and Jean-Marc Pichon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13333–13351,Short summary
Sulfuric acid, H2SO4, plays a key role in formation of secondary atmospheric aerosol particles. It is generally accepted that the major atmospheric source of H2SO4 is the reaction of OH radicals with SO2. In this study, importance of an additional H2SO4 source via oxidation of SO2 by stabilized Criegee intermediates was estimated based on measurements at a remote site on Cape Corsica. It was found that the oxidation of SO2 by SCI may be an important source of H2SO4, especially during nighttime.
Jakob Boyd Pernov, Bjarne Jensen, Andreas Massling, Daniel Charles Thomas, and Henrik Skov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13287–13309,Short summary
Atmospheric mercury species (GEM, GOM, PHg) are important constituents in the High Arctic due to their detrimental effects on human and ecosystem health. However, understanding their behavior in the High Arctic summer remains lacking. This research investigates the dynamics of mercury oxidation in the High Arctic summer. The cold, dry, sunlit free troposphere was associated with events of high GOM in the High Arctic summer, while individual events yielded unique origins.
Jiajue Chai, Jack E. Dibb, Bruce E. Anderson, Claire Bekker, Danielle E. Blum, Eric Heim, Carolyn E. Jordan, Emily E. Joyce, Jackson H. Kaspari, Hannah Munro, Wendell W. Walters, and Meredith G. Hastings
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13077–13098,Short summary
Nitrous acid (HONO) derived from wildfire emissions plays a key role in controlling atmospheric oxidation chemistry. However, the HONO budget remains poorly constrained. By combining the field-observed concentrations and novel isotopic composition (N and O) of HONO and nitrogen oxides (NOx), we quantitatively constrained the relative contribution of each pathway to secondary HONO production and the relative importance of major atmospheric oxidants (ozone versus peroxy) in aged wildfire smoke.
Paul S. Monks, A. R. Ravishankara, Erika von Schneidemesser, and Roberto Sommariva
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12909–12948,Short summary
Which published papers have transformed our understanding of the chemical processes in the troposphere and shaped the field of atmospheric chemistry? We explore how these papers have shaped the development of the field of atmospheric chemistry and identify the major landmarks in the field of atmospheric chemistry through the lens of those papers' impact on science, legislation and environmental events.
Bert Verreyken, Crist Amelynck, Niels Schoon, Jean-François Müller, Jérôme Brioude, Nicolas Kumps, Christian Hermans, Jean-Marc Metzger, Aurélie Colomb, and Trissevgeni Stavrakou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12965–12988,Short summary
We present a 2-year dataset of trace gas concentrations, specifically an array of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), recorded at the Maïdo observatory, a remote tropical high-altitude site located on a small island in the southwest Indian Ocean. We found that island-scale transport is an important driver for the daily cycle of VOC concentrations. During the day, surface emissions from the island affect the atmospheric composition at Maïdo greatly, while at night this impact is strongly reduced.
Jean-Daniel Paris, Aurélie Riandet, Efstratios Bourtsoukidis, Marc Delmotte, Antoine Berchet, Jonathan Williams, Lisa Ernle, Ivan Tadic, Hartwig Harder, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12443–12462,Short summary
We measured atmospheric methane and CO2 by ship in the Middle East. We probe the origin of methane with a combination of light alkane measurements and modeling. We find strong influence from nearby oil and gas production over the Arabian Gulf. Comparing our data to inventories indicates that inventories overestimate sources from the upstream gas industry but underestimate emissions from oil extraction and processing. The Red Sea was under a complex mixture of sources due to human activity.
Anoop S. Mahajan, Mriganka S. Biswas, Steffen Beirle, Thomas Wagner, Anja Schönhardt, Nuria Benavent, and Alfonso Saiz-Lopez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11829–11842,Short summary
Iodine plays a vital role in oxidation chemistry over Antarctica, with past observations showing highly elevated levels of iodine oxide (IO) leading to severe depletion of boundary layer ozone. We present IO observations over three summers (2015–2017) at the Indian Antarctic bases of Bharati and Maitri. IO was observed during all campaigns with mixing ratios below 2 pptv, which is lower than the peak levels observed in West Antarctica, showing the differences in regional chemistry and emissions.
Chinmoy Sarkar, Gracie Wong, Anne Mielnik, Sanjeevi Nagalingam, Nicole Jenna Gross, Alex B. Guenther, Taehyoung Lee, Taehyun Park, Jihee Ban, Seokwon Kang, Jin-Soo Park, Joonyoung Ahn, Danbi Kim, Hyunjae Kim, Jinsoo Choi, Beom-Keun Seo, Jong-Ho Kim, Jeong-Ho Kim, Soo Bog Park, and Saewung Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11505–11518,Short summary
We present experimental proofs illustrating the emission of an unexplored volatile organic compound, tentatively assigned as ketene, in an industrial facility in South Korea. The emission of such a compound has rarely been reported, but our experimental data show that the emission rate is substantial. It potentially has tremendous implications for regional air quality and public health, as it is highly reactive and toxic at the same time.
Chaoyang Xue, Can Ye, Jörg Kleffmann, Wenjin Zhang, Xiaowei He, Pengfei Liu, Chenglong Zhang, Xiaoxi Zhao, Chengtang Liu, Zhuobiao Ma, Junfeng Liu, Jinhe Wang, Keding Lu, Valéry Catoire, Abdelwahid Mellouki, and Yujing Mu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Nitrous acid (HONO) and related parameters were measured at the foot and the summit of Mt. Tai in the summer of 2018. Based on measurements at the foot station, we utilized a box model to explore the HONO budget and radical chemistry. Nitrate radical (NO3) chemistry was highlighted. Roles of HONO in the oxidizing capacity of the lower and the upper boundary layers were also compared.
Xiaolong Fan, Jing Cai, Chao Yan, Jian Zhao, Yishuo Guo, Chang Li, Kaspar R. Dällenbach, Feixue Zheng, Zhuohui Lin, Biwu Chu, Yonghong Wang, Lubna Dada, Qiaozhi Zha, Wei Du, Jenni Kontkanen, Theo Kurtén, Siddhart Iyer, Joni T. Kujansuu, Tuukka Petäjä, Douglas R. Worsnop, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Yongchun Liu, Federico Bianchi, Yee Jun Tham, Lei Yao, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11437–11452,Short summary
We observed significant concentrations of gaseous HBr and HCl throughout the winter and springtime in urban Beijing, China. Our results indicate that gaseous HCl and HBr are most likely originated from anthropogenic emissions such as burning activities, and the gas–aerosol partitioning may play a crucial role in contributing to the gaseous HCl and HBr. These observations suggest that there is an important recycling pathway of halogen species in inland megacities.
Yenny Gonzalez, Róisín Commane, Ethan Manninen, Bruce C. Daube, Luke D. Schiferl, J. Barry McManus, Kathryn McKain, Eric J. Hintsa, James W. Elkins, Stephen A. Montzka, Colm Sweeney, Fred Moore, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano Jost, Thomas B. Ryerson, Ilann Bourgeois, Jeff Peischl, Chelsea R. Thompson, Eric Ray, Paul O. Wennberg, John Crounse, Michelle Kim, Hannah M. Allen, Paul A. Newman, Britton B. Stephens, Eric C. Apel, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Benjamin A. Nault, Eric Morgan, and Steven C. Wofsy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11113–11132,Short summary
Vertical profiles of N2O and a variety of chemical species and aerosols were collected nearly from pole to pole over the oceans during the NASA Atmospheric Tomography mission. We observed that tropospheric N2O variability is strongly driven by the influence of stratospheric air depleted in N2O, especially at middle and high latitudes. We also traced the origins of biomass burning and industrial emissions and investigated their impact on the variability of tropospheric N2O.
Geoffrey C. Toon, Jean-Francois L. Blavier, Keeyoon Sung, and Katelyn Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10727–10743,Short summary
We report measurements of atmospheric propane (C3H8) from analysis of ground-based infra-red solar absorption spectra measured from various sites by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) MkIV interferometer. These measurements suggest that exploitation of natural gas fields is a major and growing source of propane in the USA. Also, there seem to be propane sources in large cities such as Los Angeles, possibly related to use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).
Daniel P. Phillips, Frances E. Hopkins, Thomas G. Bell, Peter S. Liss, Philip D. Nightingale, Claire E. Reeves, Charel Wohl, and Mingxi Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10111–10132,Short summary
We present the first measurements of the rate of transfer (flux) of three gases between the atmosphere and the ocean, using a direct flux measurement technique, at a coastal site. We show greater atmospheric loss of acetone and acetaldehyde into the ocean than estimated by global models for the open water; importantly, the acetaldehyde transfer direction is opposite to the model estimates. Measured dimethylsulfide fluxes agreed with a recent model. Isoprene fluxes were too weak to be measured.
Hua Fang, Xiaoqing Huang, Yanli Zhang, Chenglei Pei, Zuzhao Huang, Yujun Wang, Yanning Chen, Jianhong Yan, Jianqiang Zeng, Shaoxuan Xiao, Shilu Luo, Sheng Li, Jun Wang, Ming Zhu, Xuewei Fu, Zhenfeng Wu, Runqi Zhang, Wei Song, Guohua Zhang, Weiwei Hu, Mingjin Tang, Xiang Ding, Xinhui Bi, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10005–10013,Short summary
A tunnel test was initiated to measure the vehicular IVOC emissions under real-world driving conditions. Higher SOA formation estimated from vehicular IVOCs compared to those from traditional VOCs emphasized the greater importance of IVOCs in modulating urban SOA. The results also revealed that non-road diesel-fueled engines greatly contributed to IVOCs in China.
David D. Parrish, Richard G. Derwent, Steven T. Turnock, Fiona M. O'Connor, Johannes Staehelin, Susanne E. Bauer, Makoto Deushi, Naga Oshima, Kostas Tsigaridis, Tongwen Wu, and Jie Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9669–9679,Short summary
The few ozone measurements made before the 1980s indicate that industrial development increased ozone concentrations by a factor of ~ 2 at northern midlatitudes, which are now larger than at southern midlatitudes. This difference was much smaller, and likely reversed, in the pre-industrial atmosphere. Earth system models find similar increases, but not higher pre-industrial ozone in the south. This disagreement may indicate that modeled natural ozone sources and/or deposition loss are inadequate.
Wei Huang, Haiyan Li, Nina Sarnela, Liine Heikkinen, Yee Jun Tham, Jyri Mikkilä, Steven J. Thomas, Neil M. Donahue, Markku Kulmala, and Federico Bianchi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8961–8977,Short summary
We show full characterization of gaseous organic compounds in a boreal forest. Molecular composition and volatility of gaseous organic compounds with different oxidation extents (from volatile organic compounds to highly oxygenated organic molecules) were investigated and discussed. We provide a more comprehensive understanding of atmospheric organic compounds in this boreal forest and new insights into interpreting ambient measurements or testing and improving parameterizations in models.
Elizabeth B. Wiggins, Arlyn Andrews, Colm Sweeney, John B. Miller, Charles E. Miller, Sander Veraverbeke, Roisin Commane, Steven Wofsy, John M. Henderson, and James T. Randerson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8557–8574,Short summary
We analyzed high-resolution trace gas measurements collected from a tower in Alaska during a very active fire season to improve our understanding of trace gas emissions from boreal forest fires. Our results suggest previous studies may have underestimated emissions from smoldering combustion in boreal forest fires.
Chenshuo Ye, Bin Yuan, Yi Lin, Zelong Wang, Weiwei Hu, Tiange Li, Wei Chen, Caihong Wu, Chaomin Wang, Shan Huang, Jipeng Qi, Baolin Wang, Chen Wang, Wei Song, Xinming Wang, E Zheng, Jordan E. Krechmer, Penglin Ye, Zhanyi Zhang, Xuemei Wang, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8455–8478,Short summary
We performed measurements of gaseous and particulate organic compounds using a state-of-the-art online mass spectrometer in urban air. Using the dataset, we provide a holistic chemical characterization of oxygenated organic compounds in the polluted urban atmosphere, which can serve as a reference for the future field measurements of organic compounds in cities.
Astrid Müller, Hiroshi Tanimoto, Takafumi Sugita, Toshinobu Machida, Shin-ichiro Nakaoka, Prabir K. Patra, Joshua Laughner, and David Crisp
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8255–8271,Short summary
Over oceans, high uncertainties in satellite CO2 retrievals exist due to limited reference data. We combine commercial ship and aircraft observations and, with the aid of model calculations, obtain column-averaged mixing ratios of CO2 (XCO2) data over the Pacific Ocean. This new dataset has great potential as a robust reference for XCO2 measured from space and can help to better understand changes in the carbon cycle in response to climate change using satellite observations.
Ivan Tadic, Clara M. Nussbaumer, Birger Bohn, Hartwig Harder, Daniel Marno, Monica Martinez, Florian Obersteiner, Uwe Parchatka, Andrea Pozzer, Roland Rohloff, Martin Zöger, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8195–8211,Short summary
Although mechanisms of tropospheric ozone (O3) formation are well understood, studies reporting on ozone formation derived from field measurements are challenging and remain sparse in number. We use airborne measurements to quantify nitric oxide (NO) and O3 distributions in the upper troposphere over the Atlantic Ocean and western Africa and compare our measurements to model simulations. Our results show that NO and ozone formation are greatest over the tropical areas of western Africa.
Heidi Hellén, Arnaud P. Praplan, Toni Tykkä, Aku Helin, Simon Schallhart, Piia P. Schiestl-Aalto, Jaana Bäck, and Hannele Hakola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8045–8066,Short summary
Even though terpene emissions of boreal needle trees have been studied quite intensively, there is less knowledge of the emissions of broadleaved deciduous trees and emissions of larger terpenes and oxygenated volatile organic compounds. Here we studied downy birch (Betula pubescens) emissions, and especially sesquiterpene and oxygenated sesquiterpene emissions were found to be high. These emissions may have significant effects on secondary organic aerosol formation in boreal areas.
Kai Song, Song Guo, Haichao Wang, Ying Yu, Hui Wang, Rongzhi Tang, Shiyong Xia, Yuanzheng Gong, Zichao Wan, Daqi Lv, Rui Tan, Wenfei Zhu, Ruizhe Shen, Xin Li, Xuena Yu, Shiyi Chen, Liming Zeng, and Xiaofeng Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7917–7932,Short summary
Nitrated phenols (NPs) are crucial components of brown carbon. To comprehend the constitutes and sources of NPs in winter of Beijing, their concentrations were measured by a CI-LToF-MS. The secondary formation process was simulated by a box model. NPs were mainly influenced by primary emissions and regional transport. Primary emitted phenol rather than benzene oxidation was crucial in the heavy pollution episode in Beijing. This provides more insight into pollution control strategies of NPs.
Clara M. Nussbaumer, Ivan Tadic, Dirk Dienhart, Nijing Wang, Achim Edtbauer, Lisa Ernle, Jonathan Williams, Florian Obersteiner, Isidoro Gutiérrez-Álvarez, Hartwig Harder, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7933–7945,Short summary
Lightning over continental and coastal areas is frequent and accompanied by deep convection, while lightning over marine areas and particularly in tropical cyclones is rare. This research presents in situ observations of the tropical storm Florence 2018 near Cabo Verde. We show the absence of lightning in the tropical storm despite the occurrence of deep convective processes by atmospheric trace gas measurements of O3, NO, CO, H2O2, DMS and CH2I.
Nils Friedrich, Philipp Eger, Justin Shenolikar, Nicolas Sobanski, Jan Schuladen, Dirk Dienhart, Bettina Hottmann, Ivan Tadic, Horst Fischer, Monica Martinez, Roland Rohloff, Sebastian Tauer, Hartwig Harder, Eva Y. Pfannerstill, Nijing Wang, Jonathan Williams, James Brooks, Frank Drewnick, Hang Su, Guo Li, Yafang Cheng, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7473–7498,Short summary
This paper uses NOx and NOz measurements from the 2017 AQABA ship campaign in the Mediterranean Sea and around the Arabian Peninsula to examine the influence e.g. of emissions from shipping and oil and gas production. Night-time losses of NOx dominated in the Arabian Gulf and in the Red Sea, whereas daytime losses were more important in the Mediterranean Sea. Nitric acid and organic nitrates were the most prevalent components of NOz.
Qingqing Yin, Qianli Ma, Weili Lin, Xiaobin Xu, and Jie Yao
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
China has been experiencing rapid changes in emissions of air pollutants in recent decades. NOX and SO2 measurements from 2006 to 2016 at the Lin'an WMO GAW station were used to characterize the seasonal and diurnal variations and study the long-term trends. This study reaffirms China's success in controlling both NOX and SO2 in the YRD but indicate at the same time a necessity to strengthen the NOX emission control.
Max Thomas, Johannes C. Laube, Jan Kaiser, Samuel Allin, Patricia Martinerie, Robert Mulvaney, Anna Ridley, Thomas Röckmann, William T. Sturges, and Emmanuel Witrant
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6857–6873,Short summary
CFC gases are destroying the Earth's life-protecting ozone layer. We improve understanding of CFC destruction by measuring the isotopic fingerprint of the carbon in the three most abundant CFCs. These are the first such measurements in the main region where CFCs are destroyed – the stratosphere. We reconstruct the atmospheric isotope histories of these CFCs back to the 1950s by measuring air extracted from deep snow and using a model. The model and the measurements are generally consistent.
Xuewu Fu, Chen Liu, Hui Zhang, Yue Xu, Hui Zhang, Jun Li, Xiaopu Lyu, Gan Zhang, Hai Guo, Xun Wang, Leiming Zhang, and Xinbin Feng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6721–6734,Short summary
TGM concentrations and isotopic compositions in 10 Chinese cities showed strong seasonality with higher TGM concentrations and Δ199Hg and lower δ202Hg in summer. We found the seasonal variations in TGM concentrations and isotopic compositions were highly related to regional surface Hg(0) emissions, suggesting land surface Hg(0) emissions are an important source of atmospheric TGM that contribute dominantly to the seasonal variations in TGM concentrations and isotopic compositions.
Claire E. Reeves, Graham P. Mills, Lisa K. Whalley, W. Joe F. Acton, William J. Bloss, Leigh R. Crilley, Sue Grimmond, Dwayne E. Heard, C. Nicholas Hewitt, James R. Hopkins, Simone Kotthaus, Louisa J. Kramer, Roderic L. Jones, James D. Lee, Yanhui Liu, Bin Ouyang, Eloise Slater, Freya Squires, Xinming Wang, Robert Woodward-Massey, and Chunxiang Ye
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6315–6330,Short summary
The impact of isoprene on atmospheric chemistry is dependent on how its oxidation products interact with other pollutants, specifically nitrogen oxides. Such interactions can lead to isoprene nitrates. We made measurements of the concentrations of individual isoprene nitrate isomers in Beijing and used a model to test current understanding of their chemistry. We highlight areas of uncertainty in understanding, in particular the chemistry following oxidation of isoprene by the nitrate radical.
Brooks, S., Moore, C., Lew, D., Lefer, B., Huey, G., and Tanner, D.: Temperature and sunlight controls of mercury oxidation and deposition atop the Greenland ice sheet, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 8295–8306, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-8295-2011, 2011.
Chen, G., Huey, L. G., Crawford, J. H., Olsen, J. R., Hutterli, M. A., Sjostedt, S., Tanner, D., Dibb, J., Lefer, B., Blake, N., Davis, D., and Stohl, A.: An assessment of the the polar HOx budget based on 2003 Summit Greenland field observations, Atmos. Environ., 41, 7806–7828, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.06.014, 2007.
Choi, S., Wang, Y., Salawitch, R. J., Canty, T., Joiner, J., Zeng, T., Kurosu, T. P., Chance, K., Richter, A., Huey, L. G., Liao, J., Neuman, J. A., Nowak, J. B., Dibb, J. E., Weinheimer, A. J., Diskin, G., Ryerson, T. B., da Silva, A., Curry, J., Kinnison, D., Tilmes, S., and Levelt, P. F.: Analysis of satellite-derived Arctic tropospheric BrO columns in conjunction with aircraft measurements during ARCTAS and ARCPAC, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 1255–1285, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-1255-2012, 2012.
Davis, D., Nowak, J. B., Chen, G., Buhr, M., Arimoto, R., Hogan, A., Eisele, F., Mauldin, L., Tanner, D., Shetter, R., Lefer, B., and McMurry, P.: Unexpected high levels of NO observed at South Pole, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 3625–3628, 2001.
Dibb, J. E.: Vertical mixing above Summit, Greenland: Insights into seasonal and high frequency variability from the radionuclide tracers 7Be and 210Pb, Atmos. Environ., 41, 5020–5030, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.12.005, 2007.
Dibb, J. E., Albert, M., Courville, Z., Anastasio, C., Galbavy, E. S., Atlas, E., Beyersdorf, A. J., Blake, D. R., Meinardi, S., Rowland, F. S., Swanson, A. L., Blake, N. J., Bocquet, F., Cohen, L., Helmig, D., Burkhart, J. F., Frey, M. M., Friel, D. K., Hutterli, M. A., Chen, G., Conway, T. J., and Oltmans, S. J.: An overview of air-snow exchange at Summit, Greenland: recent experiments and findings, Atmos. Environ., 41, 4995–5006, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.12.006, 2007.
Dibb, J. E., Ziemba, L. D., Luxford, J., and Beckman, P.: Bromide and other ions in the snow, firn air, and atmospheric boundary layer at Summit during GSHOX, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 9931–9942, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-9931-2010, 2010.
Grannas, A. M., Jones, A. E., Dibb, J., Ammann, M., Anastasio, C., Beine, H. J., Bergin, M., Bottenheim, J., Boxe, C. S., Carver, G., Chen, G., Crawford, J. H., Dominé, F., Frey, M. M., Guzmán, M. I., Heard, D. E., Helmig, D., Hoffmann, M. R., Honrath, R. E., Huey, L. G., Hutterli, M., Jacobi, H. W., Klán, P., Lefer, B., McConnell, J., Plane, J., Sander, R., Savarino, J., Shepson, P. B., Simpson, W. R., Sodeau, J. R., von Glasow, R., Weller, R., Wolff, E. W., and Zhu, T.: An overview of snow photochemistry: evidence, mechanisms and impacts, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 4329–4373, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-7-4329-2007, 2007.
Honrath, R. E., Peterson, M. C., Guo, S., Dibb, J. E., Shepson, P. B., and Campbell, B.: Evidence of NOx production within or upon ice particles in the Greenland snowpack, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 695–698, 1999.
Honrath, R. E., Peterson, M. C., Lu, Y., Dibb, J. E., Arsenault, M. A., Cullen, N. J., and Steffen, K.: Vertical fluxes of NOx, HONO and HNO3 above the snowpack at Summit, Greenland, Atmos. Environ., 36, 2629–2640, 2002.
Jones, A. E., Weller, R., Wolff, E. W., and Jacobi, H.-W.: Speciation and Rate of Photochemical NO and NO2 Production in Antarctic Snow, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 345–348, 2000.
Liao, J., Huey, L. G., Tanner, D. J., Brough, N., Brooks, S., Dibb, J. E., Stutz, J., Thomas, J. L., Lefer, B., Haman, C., and Gorham, K.: Observations of hydroxyl and peroxy radicals and the impact of BrO at Summit, Greenland in 2007 and 2008, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 8577–8591, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-8577-2011, 2011.
McElroy, C. T., McLinden, C. A., and McConnell, J. C.: Evidence for bromine monoxide in the free troposphere during the Arctic polar sunrise, Nature, 397, 338–341, 1999.
Ridley, B., Walega, J., Montzka, D., Grahek, F., Atlas, E., Flocke, F., Stroud, V., Deary, J., Gallant, A., Bottenheim, J., Anlauf, K., Worthy, D., Sumner, A. L., Splawn, B., and Shepson, P. B.: Is the Arctic surface layer a source and sink of NOx in winter/spring?, J. Atmos. Chem., 36, 1–22, 2000.
Roscoe, H. K., Brough, N., Jones, A. E., Wittrock, F., Richter, A., Van Roozendael, M., and Hendrick, F.: Resolution of an important discrepancy between remote and in-situ measurements of tropospheric BrO during Antarctic enhancements, Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., 5, 5419–5448, https://doi.org/10.5194/amtd-5-5419-2012, 2012.
Salawitch, R. J., Canty, T., Kurosu, T., Chance, K., Liang, Q., da Silva, A., Pawson, S., Nielsen, J. E., Rodriguez, J. M., Bhartia, P. K., Liu, X., Huey, L. G., Liao, J., Stickel, R. E., Tanner, D. J., Dibb, J. E., Simpson, W. R., Donohoue, D., Weinheimer, A., Flocke, F., Knapp, D., Montzka, D., Neuman, J. A., Nowak, J. B., Ryerson, T. B., Oltmans, S., Blake, D. R., Atlas, E. L., Kinnison, D. E., Tilmes, S., Pan, L. L., Hendrick, F., Van Roozendael, M., Kreher, K., Johnston, P. V., Gao, R. S., Johnson, B., Bui, T. P., Chen, G., Pierce, R. B., Crawford, J. H., and Jacob, D. J.: A new interpretation of total column BrO during Arctic spring, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L21805, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GL043798, 2010.
Scheuer, E., Talbot, R. W., Dibb, J. E., Seid, G. K., DeBell, L., and Lefer, B.: Seasonal distributions of fine aerosol sulfate in the North American Arctic basin during TOPSE, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 8370, https://doi.org/10/1029/2001JD001364, 2003.
Sjostedt, S. J., Huey, L. G., Tanner, D. J., Pieschl, J., Chen, G., Dibb, J. E., Lefer, B., Hutterli, M. A., Beyersdorf, A. J., Blake, N. J., Blake, D. R., Sueper, D., Ryerson, T., Burkhardt, J. and Stohl, A.: Observations of hydroxyl and the sum of peroxy radicals at Summit, Greenland during summer 2003, Atmos. Environ., 41, 5122–5137, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.06.065, 2007.
Stutz, J., Thomas, J. L., Hurlock, S. C., Schneider, M., von Glasow, R., Piot, M., Gorham, K., Burkhart, J. F., Ziemba, L., Dibb, J. E., and Lefer, B. L.: Longpath DOAS observations of surface BrO at Summit, Greenland, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 9899–9910, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-9899-2011, 2011.
Thomas, J. L., Stutz, J., Lefer, B., Huey, L. G., Toyota, K., Dibb, J. E., and von Glasow, R.: Modeling chemistry in and above snow at Summit, Greenland – Part 1: Model description and results, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 4899–4914, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-4899-2011, 2011.
Thomas, J. L., Dibb, J. E., Huey, L. G., Liao, J., Tanner, D., Lefer, B., von Glasow, R., and Stutz, J.: Modeling chemistry in and above snow at Summit, Greenland – Part 2: Impact of snowpack chemistry on the oxidation capacity of the boundary layer, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 6537–6554, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-6537-2012, 2012.
Theys, N., Van Roozendael, M., Hendrick, F., Yang, X., De Smedt, I., Richter, A., Begoin, M., Errera, Q., Johnston, P. V., Kreher, K., and De Mazière, M.: Global observations of tropospheric BrO columns using GOME-2 satellite data, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 1791–1811, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-1791-2011, 2011.
Yang, J., Honrath, R. E., Peterson, M. C., Dibb, J. E., Sumner, A. L., Shepson, P. B., Frey, M., Jacobi, H.-W., Swanson, A., and Blake, N.: Impacts of snowpack photochemistry on levels of OH and peroxy radicals at Summit, Greenland, Atmos. Environ., 36, 2523–2534, 2002.
Ziemba, L. D., Dibb, J. E., Griffin, R. J., Huey, L. G., and Beckman, P.: Observations of particle growth at a remote Arctic site, Atmos. Environ., 44, 1649–1657, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.01.032, 2010.