Articles | Volume 11, issue 2
© Author(s) 2011. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2011. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Simultaneous HONO measurements in and above a forest canopy: influence of turbulent exchange on mixing ratio differences
University of Bayreuth, Atmospheric Chemistry Research Laboratory, 95440 Bayreuth, Germany
Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Biogeochemistry Department, P.O. Box 3060, 55020 Mainz, Germany
University of Bayreuth, Department of Micrometeorology, 95440 Bayreuth, Germany
Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Biogeochemistry Department, P.O. Box 3060, 55020 Mainz, Germany
University of Bayreuth, Atmospheric Chemistry Research Laboratory, 95440 Bayreuth, Germany
University of Bayreuth, Atmospheric Chemistry Research Laboratory, 95440 Bayreuth, Germany
Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, 30625 Hannover, Germany
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Elucidate the formation mechanism of particulate nitrate based on direct radical observations in the Yangtze River Delta summer 2019Pandemic restrictions in 2020 highlight the significance of non-road NOx sources in central LondonMeasurement report: Emission factors of NH3 and NHx for wildfires and agricultural fires in the United StatesExperimental chemical budgets of OH, HO2, and RO2 radicals in rural air in western Germany during the JULIAC campaign 2019Chemical and dynamical identification of emission outflows during the HALO campaign EMeRGe in Europe and AsiaFlaring efficiencies and NOx emission ratios measured for offshore oil and gas facilities in the North SeaMeasurement report: Long-range transport and the fate of dimethyl sulfide oxidation products in the free troposphere derived from observations at the high-altitude research station Chacaltaya (5240 m a.s.l.) in the Bolivian AndesFormaldehyde and hydroperoxide distribution around the Arabian Peninsula – evaluation of EMAC model results with ship-based measurementsHeterogeneity and chemical reactivity of the remote troposphere defined by aircraft measurements – correctedFundamental oxidation processes in the remote marine atmosphere investigated using the NO–NO2–O3 photostationary stateEmission factors and evolution of SO2 measured from biomass burning in wildfires and agricultural firesThe unexpected high frequency of nocturnal surface ozone enhancement events over China: characteristics and mechanismsSource apportionment of VOCs, IVOCs and SVOCs by positive matrix factorization in suburban Livermore, CaliforniaMeasurement report: Intra- and interannual variability and source apportionment of volatile organic compounds during 2018–2020 in Zhengzhou, central ChinaFormation and impacts of nitryl chloride in Pearl River DeltaMultidecadal increases in global tropospheric ozone derived from ozonesonde and surface site observations: can models reproduce ozone trends?What caused ozone pollution during the 2022 Shanghai lockdown? Insights from ground and satellite observationsReal-time measurements of NMVOCs in the central IGB, Lucknow, India: Source characterization and their role in O3 and SOA formationAmmonium adduct chemical ionization to investigate anthropogenic oxygenated gas-phase organic compounds in urban airAtmospheric biogenic volatile organic compounds in the Alaskan Arctic tundra: constraints from measurements at Toolik Field StationAre dense networks of low-cost nodes really useful for monitoring air pollution? A case study in StaffordshireHigh emission rates and strong temperature response make boreal wetlands a large source of terpenesTechnical note: Northern midlatitude baseline ozone – long-term changes and the COVID-19 impactQuantifying the importance of vehicle ammonia emissions in an urban area of northeastern USA utilizing nitrogen isotopesSeasonal variation in nitryl chloride and its relation to gas-phase precursors during the JULIAC campaign in GermanyMeasurement report: Production and loss of atmospheric formaldehyde at a suburban site of Shanghai in summertimeO3-precursor relationship over multiple patterns of time scale: A case study in Zibo, Shandong Province, ChinaRadical chemistry in the Pearl River Delta: observations and modeling of OH and HO2 radicals in Shenzhen in 2018Reconciling the total carbon budget for boreal forest wildfire emissions using airborne observationsSummer variability of the atmospheric NO2 : NO ratio at Dome C on the East Antarctic PlateauMeasurement report: Ambient volatile organic compound (VOC) pollution in urban Beijing: characteristics, sources, and implications for pollution controlMass spectrometric measurements of ambient ions and estimation of gaseous sulfuric acid in the free troposphere and lowermost stratosphere during the CAFE-EU/BLUESKY campaignSpringtime nitrogen oxides and tropospheric ozone in Svalbard: results from the measurement station networkMeasurement report: Observations of long-lived volatile organic compounds from the 2019–2020 Australian wildfires during the COALA campaignComposition and reactivity of volatile organic compounds in the South Coast Air Basin and San Joaquin Valley of CaliforniaAnalysis of regional CO2 contributions at the high Alpine observatory Jungfraujoch by means of atmospheric transport simulations and δ13CVariations and sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in urban region: insights from measurements on a tall towerTropical peat fire emissions: 2019 field measurements in Sumatra and Borneo and synthesis with previous studiesSulfuric acid in the Amazon basin: measurements and evaluation of existing sulfuric acid proxiesSeasonal variation in oxygenated organic molecules in urban Beijing and their contribution to secondary organic aerosolOxygenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as significant but varied contributors to VOC emissions from vehiclesThe impacts of wildfires on ozone production and boundary layer dynamics in California's Central ValleyDistribution of hydrogen peroxide over Europe during the BLUESKY aircraft campaignEddy covariance measurements highlight sources of nitrogen oxide emissions missing from inventories for central LondonBudget of nitrous acid (HONO) at an urban site in the fall season of Guangzhou, ChinaLong-term trend of ozone pollution in China during 2014–2020: distinct seasonal and spatial characteristics and ozone sensitivityInvestigation of new particle formation mechanisms and aerosol processes at Marambio Station, Antarctic PeninsulaMeasurement report: Variations in surface SO2 and NOx mixing ratios from 2004 to 2016 at a background site in the North China PlainFate of the nitrate radical at the summit of a semi-rural mountain site in Germany assessed with direct reactivity measurementsSpatiotemporal variations of the δ(O2 ∕ N2), CO2 and δ(APO) in the troposphere over the western North Pacific
Tianyu Zhai, Keding Lu, Haichao Wang, Shengrong Lou, Xiaorui Chen, Renzhi Hu, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2379–2391,Short summary
Particulate nitrate is a growing issue in air pollution. Based on comprehensive field measurement, we show heavy nitrate pollution in eastern China in summer. OH reacting with NO2 at daytime dominates nitrate formation on clean days, while N2O5 hydrolysis largely enhances and become comparable with that of OH reacting with O2 on polluted days (67.2 % and 30.2 %). Model simulation indicates that VOC : NOx = 2 : 1 is effective in mitigating the O3 and nitrate pollution coordinately.
Samuel J. Cliff, Will Drysdale, James D. Lee, Carole Helfter, Eiko Nemitz, Stefan Metzger, and Janet F. Barlow
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2315–2330,Short summary
Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) to the atmosphere are an ongoing air quality issue. This study directly measures emissions of NOx and carbon dioxide from a tall tower in central London during the coronavirus pandemic. It was found that transport NOx emissions had reduced by >73 % since 2017 as a result of air quality policy and reduced congestion during coronavirus restrictions. During this period, central London was thought to be dominated by point-source heat and power generation emissions.
Laura Tomsche, Felix Piel, Tomas Mikoviny, Claus J. Nielsen, Hongyu Guo, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Melinda K. Schueneman, Jose L. Jimenez, Hannah Halliday, Glenn Diskin, Joshua P. DiGangi, John B. Nowak, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, Emily Gargulinski, Amber J. Soja, and Armin Wisthaler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2331–2343,Short summary
Ammonia (NH3) is an important trace gas in the atmosphere and fires are among the poorly investigated sources. During the 2019 Fire Influence on Regional to Global Environments and Air Quality (FIREX-AQ) aircraft campaign, we measured gaseous NH3 and particulate ammonium (NH4+) in smoke plumes emitted from 6 wildfires in the Western US and 66 small agricultural fires in the Southeastern US. We herein present a comprehensive set of emission factors of NH3 and NHx, where NHx = NH3 + NH4+.
Changmin Cho, Hendrik Fuchs, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Frank Holland, William J. Bloss, Birger Bohn, Hans-Peter Dorn, Marvin Glowania, Thorsten Hohaus, Lu Liu, Paul S. Monks, Doreen Niether, Franz Rohrer, Roberto Sommariva, Zhaofeng Tan, Ralf Tillmann, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Anna Novelli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2003–2033,Short summary
With this study, we investigated the processes leading to the formation, destruction, and recycling of radicals for four seasons in a rural environment. Complete knowledge of their chemistry is needed if we are to predict the formation of secondary pollutants from primary emissions. The results highlight a still incomplete understanding of the paths leading to the formation of the OH radical, which has been observed in several other environments as well and needs to be further investigated.
Eric Förster, Harald Bönisch, Marco Neumaier, Florian Obersteiner, Andreas Zahn, Andreas Hilboll, Anna B. Kalisz Hedegaard, Nikos Daskalakis, Alexandros Panagiotis Poulidis, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Michael Lichtenstern, and Peter Braesicke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1893–1918,Short summary
The airborne megacity campaign EMeRGe provided an unprecedented amount of trace gas measurements. We combine measured volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with trajectory-modelled emission uptakes to identify potential source regions of pollution. We also characterise the chemical fingerprints (e.g. biomass burning and anthropogenic signatures) of the probed air masses to corroborate the contributing source regions. Our approach is the first large-scale study of VOCs originating from megacities.
Jacob T. Shaw, Amy Foulds, Shona Wilde, Patrick Barker, Freya A. Squires, James Lee, Ruth Purvis, Ralph Burton, Ioana Colfescu, Stephen Mobbs, Samuel Cliff, Stéphane J.-B. Bauguitte, Stuart Young, Stefan Schwietzke, and Grant Allen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1491–1509,Short summary
Flaring is used by the oil and gas sector to dispose of unwanted natural gas or for safety. However, few studies have assessed the efficiency with which the gas is combusted. We sampled flaring emissions from offshore facilities in the North Sea. Average measured flaring efficiencies were ~ 98 % but with a skewed distribution, including many flares of lower efficiency. NOx and ethane emissions were also measured. Inefficient flaring practices could be a target for mitigating carbon emissions.
Wiebke Scholz, Jiali Shen, Diego Aliaga, Cheng Wu, Samara Carbone, Isabel Moreno, Qiaozhi Zha, Wei Huang, Liine Heikkinen, Jean Luc Jaffrezo, Gaelle Uzu, Eva Partoll, Markus Leiminger, Fernando Velarde, Paolo Laj, Patrick Ginot, Paolo Artaxo, Alfred Wiedensohler, Markku Kulmala, Claudia Mohr, Marcos Andrade, Victoria Sinclair, Federico Bianchi, and Armin Hansel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 895–920,Short summary
Dimethyl sulfide (DMS), emitted from the ocean, is the most abundant biogenic sulfur emission into the atmosphere. OH radicals, among others, can oxidize DMS to sulfuric and methanesulfonic acid, which are relevant for aerosol formation. We quantified DMS and nearly all DMS oxidation products with novel mass spectrometric instruments for gas and particle phase at the high mountain station Chacaltaya (5240 m a.s.l.) in the Bolivian Andes in free tropospheric air after long-range transport.
Dirk Dienhart, Bettina Brendel, John N. Crowley, Philipp G. Eger, Hartwig Harder, Monica Martinez, Andrea Pozzer, Roland Rohloff, Jan Schuladen, Sebastian Tauer, David Walter, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 119–142,Short summary
Formaldehyde and hydroperoxide measurements were performed in the marine boundary layer around the Arabian Peninsula and highlight the Suez Canal and Arabian (Persian) Gulf as a hotspot of photochemical air pollution. A comparison with the EMAC model shows that the formaldehyde results match within a factor of 2, while hydrogen peroxide was overestimated by more than a factor of 5, which revealed enhanced HOx (OH+HO2) radicals in the simulation and an underestimation of dry deposition velocites.
Hao Guo, Clare M. Flynn, Michael J. Prather, Sarah A. Strode, Stephen D. Steenrod, Louisa Emmons, Forrest Lacey, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Arlene M. Fiore, Gus Correa, Lee T. Murray, Glenn M. Wolfe, Jason M. St. Clair, Michelle Kim, John Crounse, Glenn Diskin, Joshua DiGangi, Bruce C. Daube, Roisin Commane, Kathryn McKain, Jeff Peischl, Thomas B. Ryerson, Chelsea Thompson, Thomas F. Hanisco, Donald Blake, Nicola J. Blake, Eric C. Apel, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, James W. Elkins, Eric J. Hintsa, Fred L. Moore, and Steven C. Wofsy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 99–117,Short summary
We have prepared a unique and unusual result from the recent ATom aircraft mission: a measurement-based derivation of the production and loss rates of ozone and methane over the ocean basins. These are the key products of chemistry models used in assessments but have thus far lacked observational metrics. It also shows the scales of variability of atmospheric chemical rates and provides a major challenge to the atmospheric models.
Simone T. Andersen, Beth S. Nelson, Katie A. Read, Shalini Punjabi, Luis Neves, Matthew J. Rowlinson, James Hopkins, Tomás Sherwen, Lisa K. Whalley, James D. Lee, and Lucy J. Carpenter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15747–15765,Short summary
The cycling of NO and NO2 is important to understand to be able to predict O3 concentrations in the atmosphere. We have used long-term measurements from the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory together with model outputs to investigate the cycling of nitrogen oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in very clean marine air. This study shows that we understand the processes occurring in very clean air, but with small amounts of pollution in the air, known chemistry cannot explain what is observed.
Pamela S. Rickly, Hongyu Guo, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jose L. Jimenez, Glenn M. Wolfe, Ryan Bennett, Ilann Bourgeois, John D. Crounse, Jack E. Dibb, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Maximilian Dollner, Emily M. Gargulinski, Samuel R. Hall, Hannah S. Halliday, Thomas F. Hanisco, Reem A. Hannun, Jin Liao, Richard Moore, Benjamin A. Nault, John B. Nowak, Jeff Peischl, Claire E. Robinson, Thomas Ryerson, Kevin J. Sanchez, Manuel Schöberl, Amber J. Soja, Jason M. St. Clair, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Kirk Ullmann, Paul O. Wennberg, Bernadett Weinzierl, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, Edward L. Winstead, and Andrew W. Rollins
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15603–15620,Short summary
Biomass burning sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission factors range from 0.27–1.1 g kg-1 C. Biomass burning SO2 can quickly form sulfate and organosulfur, but these pathways are dependent on liquid water content and pH. Hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMS) appears to be directly emitted from some fire sources but is not the sole contributor to the organosulfur signal. It is shown that HMS and organosulfur chemistry may be an important S(IV) reservoir with the fate dependent on the surrounding conditions.
Cheng He, Xiao Lu, Haolin Wang, Haichao Wang, Yan Li, Guowen He, Yuanping He, Yurun Wang, Youlang Zhang, Yiming Liu, Qi Fan, and Shaojia Fan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15243–15261,Short summary
We report that nocturnal ozone enhancement (NOE) events are observed at a high annual frequency of 41 % over 800 sites in China in 2014–2019 (about 50 % higher than that over Europe or the US). High daytime ozone provides a rich ozone source in the nighttime residual layer, determining the overall high frequency of NOE events in China, and enhanced atmospheric mixing then triggers NOE events by allowing the ozone-rich air in the residual layer to be mixed into the nighttime boundary layer.
Rebecca A. Wernis, Nathan M. Kreisberg, Robert J. Weber, Greg T. Drozd, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14987–15019,Short summary
We measured volatile and intermediate-volatility gases and semivolatile gas- and particle-phase compounds in the atmosphere during an 11 d period in a Bay Area suburb. We separated compounds based on variability in time to arrive at 13 distinct sources. Some compounds emitted from plants are found in greater quantities as fragrance compounds in consumer products. The wide volatility range of these measurements enables the construction of more complete source profiles.
Shijie Yu, Shenbo Wang, Ruixin Xu, Dong Zhang, Meng Zhang, Fangcheng Su, Xuan Lu, Xiao Li, Ruiqin Zhang, and Lingling Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14859–14878,Short summary
In this study, the hourly data of 57 VOC species were collected during 2018–2020 at an urban site in Zhengzhou, China. The research of concentrations, source apportionment, and atmospheric environmental implications clearly elucidated the differences in major reactants observed in different seasons and years. Therefore, the control strategy should focus on key species and sources among interannual and seasonal variations. The results can provide references to develop control strategies.
Haichao Wang, Bin Yuan, E Zheng, Xiaoxiao Zhang, Jie Wang, Keding Lu, Chenshuo Ye, Lei Yang, Shan Huang, Weiwei Hu, Suxia Yang, Yuwen Peng, Jipeng Qi, Sihang Wang, Xianjun He, Yubin Chen, Tiange Li, Wenjie Wang, Yibo Huangfu, Xiaobing Li, Mingfu Cai, Xuemei Wang, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14837–14858,Short summary
We present intensive field measurement of ClNO2 in the Pearl River Delta in 2019. Large variation in the level, formation, and atmospheric impacts of ClNO2 was found in different air masses. ClNO2 formation was limited by the particulate chloride (Cl−) and aerosol surface area. Our results reveal that Cl− originated from various anthropogenic emissions rather than sea sources and show minor contribution to the O3 pollution and photochemistry.
Amy Christiansen, Loretta J. Mickley, Junhua Liu, Luke D. Oman, and Lu Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14751–14782,Short summary
Understanding tropospheric ozone trends is crucial for accurate predictions of future air quality and climate, but drivers of trends are not well understood. We analyze global tropospheric ozone trends since 1980 using ozonesonde and surface measurements, and we evaluate two models for their ability to reproduce trends. We find observational evidence of increasing tropospheric ozone, but models underestimate these increases. This hinders our ability to estimate ozone radiative forcing.
Yue Tan and Tao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14455–14466,Short summary
We present a timely analysis of the effects of the recent lockdown in Shanghai on ground-level ozone (O3). Despite a huge reduction in human activity, O3 concentrations frequently exceeded the O3 air quality standard during the 2-month lockdown, implying that future emission reductions similar to those that occurred during the lockdown will not be sufficient to eliminate O3 pollution in many urban areas without the imposition of additional VOC controls or substantial decreases in NOx emissions.
Vaishali Jain, Sachchida N. Tripathi, Nidhi Tripathi, Mansi Gupta, Lokesh K. Sahu, Vishnu Murari, Sreenivas Gaddamidi, Ashutosh K. Shukla, and Andre S. H. Prevot
This research chemically characterises 173 different NMVOCs (non-methane volatile organic compounds) measured in real-time for three seasons in the urban city of the central Indo-Gangetic Basin of India, Lucknow. Receptor modelling is used to analyze probable sources of NMVOCs and their crucial role in forming ozone and secondary organic aerosols. It is observed that vehicular emissions and solid fuel combustion are the most contributing towards the emission of primary and secondary NMVOCs.
Peeyush Khare, Jordan E. Krechmer, Jo E. Machesky, Tori Hass-Mitchell, Cong Cao, Junqi Wang, Francesca Majluf, Felipe Lopez-Hilfiker, Sonja Malek, Will Wang, Karl Seltzer, Havala O. T. Pye, Roisin Commane, Brian C. McDonald, Ricardo Toledo-Crow, John E. Mak, and Drew R. Gentner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14377–14399,Short summary
Ammonium adduct chemical ionization is used to examine the atmospheric abundances of oxygenated volatile organic compounds associated with emissions from volatile chemical products, which are now key contributors of reactive precursors to ozone and secondary organic aerosols in urban areas. The application of this valuable measurement approach in densely populated New York City enables the evaluation of emissions inventories and thus the role these oxygenated compounds play in urban air quality.
Vanessa Selimovic, Damien Ketcherside, Sreelekha Chaliyakunnel, Catherine Wielgasz, Wade Permar, Hélène Angot, Dylan B. Millet, Alan Fried, Detlev Helmig, and Lu Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14037–14058,Short summary
Arctic warming has led to an increase in plants that emit gases in response to stress, but how these gases affect regional chemistry is largely unknown due to lack of observational data. Here we present the most comprehensive gas-phase measurements for this area to date and compare them to predictions from a global transport model. We report 78 gas-phase species and investigate their importance to atmospheric chemistry in the area, with broader implications for similar plant types.
Louise Bøge Frederickson, Ruta Sidaraviciute, Johan Albrecht Schmidt, Ole Hertel, and Matthew Stanley Johnson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13949–13965,Short summary
Low-cost sensors see additional pollution that is not seen with traditional regional air quality monitoring stations. This additional local pollution is sufficient to cause exceedance of the World Health Organization exposure thresholds. Analysis shows that a significant amount of the NO2 pollution we observe is local, mainly due to road traffic. This article demonstrates how networks of nodes containing low-cost pollution sensors can powerfully extend existing monitoring programmes.
Lejish Vettikkat, Pasi Miettinen, Angela Buchholz, Pekka Rantala, Hao Yu, Simon Schallhart, Roger Seco, Elisa Männistö, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Alex B. Guenther, and Siegfried Schobesberger
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Wetlands cover a substantial fraction of the land mass in the northern latitudes: from Northern Europe to Siberia and Canada. Yet, terpene emissions from wetlands have remained understudied. For our study, we used a state-of-the-art measurement technique to quantify ecosystem emissions from a boreal wetland during an unusually warm spring/summer. We found that terpene emissions from this wetland were (a) stronger overall and (b) even more strongly dependent on temperature than commonly thought.
David D. Parrish, Richard G. Derwent, Ian C. Faloona, and Charles A. Mims
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13423–13430,Short summary
Accounting for the continuing long-term decrease of pollution ozone and the large 2020 Arctic stratospheric ozone depletion event improves estimates of background ozone changes caused by COVID-19-related emission reductions; they are smaller than reported earlier. Cooperative, international emission control efforts aimed at maximizing the ongoing decrease in hemisphere-wide background ozone may be the most effective approach to improving ozone pollution in northern midlatitude countries.
Wendell W. Walters, Madeline Karod, Emma Willcocks, Bok H. Baek, Danielle E. Blum, and Meredith G. Hastings
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13431–13448,Short summary
Atmospheric ammonia and its products are a significant source of urban haze and nitrogen deposition. We have investigated the seasonal source contributions to a mid-sized city in the northeastern US megalopolis utilizing geospatial statistical analysis and novel isotopic constraints, which indicate that vehicle emissions were significant components of the urban-reduced nitrogen budget. Reducing vehicle ammonia emissions should be considered to improve ecosystems and human health.
Zhaofeng Tan, Hendrik Fuchs, Andreas Hofzumahaus, William J. Bloss, Birger Bohn, Changmin Cho, Thorsten Hohaus, Frank Holland, Chandrakiran Lakshmisha, Lu Liu, Paul S. Monks, Anna Novelli, Doreen Niether, Franz Rohrer, Ralf Tillmann, Thalassa S. E. Valkenburg, Vaishali Vardhan, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Roberto Sommariva
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13137–13152,Short summary
During the 2019 JULIAC campaign, ClNO2 was measured at a rural site in Germany in different seasons. The highest ClNO2 level was 1.6 ppbv in September. ClNO2 production was more sensitive to the availability of NO2 than O3. The average ClNO2 production efficiency was up to 18 % in February and September and down to 3 % in December. These numbers are at the high end of the values reported in the literature, indicating the importance of ClNO2 chemistry in rural environments in midwestern Europe.
Yizhen Wu, Juntao Huo, Gan Yang, Yuwei Wang, Lihong Wang, Shijian Wu, Lei Yao, Qingyan Fu, and Lin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Based on a field campaign at a suburban area of Shanghai during summer, 2021, we calculated formaldehyde (HCHO) production rates from 24 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In addition, HCHO photolysis, reactions with OH radicals, and dry deposition, were considered for the estimation of HCHO loss rates. Our results reveal the key precursors of HCHO and suggest that HCHO wet deposition may be an important loss term in rainy days, which needs to be further investigated.
Zhensen Zheng, Kangwei Li, Bo Xu, Jianping Dou, Liming Li, Guotao Zhang, Shijie Li, Chunmei Geng, Wen Yang, Merched Azzi, and Zhipeng Bai
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Previous box model studies applied different timescales of observational datasets to identify the O3-precursor relationship, but there is a lack of comparison among these different timescales upon the impact of O3 formation chemistry. Through a case study at Zibo of China, we find that the O3 formation regime showed overall consistency but non-negligible variability among various patterns of timescale. This would be complementary in developing more accurate O3 pollution control strategy.
Xinping Yang, Keding Lu, Xuefei Ma, Yue Gao, Zhaofeng Tan, Haichao Wang, Xiaorui Chen, Xin Li, Xiaofeng Huang, Lingyan He, Mengxue Tang, Bo Zhu, Shiyi Chen, Huabin Dong, Limin Zeng, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12525–12542,Short summary
We present the OH and HO2 radical observations at the Shenzhen site (Pearl River Delta, China) in the autumn of 2018. The diurnal maxima were 4.5 × 106 cm−3 for OH and 4.2 × 108 cm−3 for HO2 (including an estimated interference of 23 %–28 % from RO2 radicals during the daytime). The OH underestimation was identified again, and it was attributable to the missing OH sources. HO2 heterogeneous uptake, ROx sources and sinks, and the atmospheric oxidation capacity were evaluated as well.
Katherine L. Hayden, Shao-Meng Li, John Liggio, Michael J. Wheeler, Jeremy J. B. Wentzell, Amy Leithead, Peter Brickell, Richard L. Mittermeier, Zachary Oldham, Cristian M. Mihele, Ralf M. Staebler, Samar G. Moussa, Andrea Darlington, Mengistu Wolde, Daniel Thompson, Jack Chen, Debora Griffin, Ellen Eckert, Jenna C. Ditto, Megan He, and Drew R. Gentner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12493–12523,Short summary
In this study, airborne measurements provided the most detailed characterization, to date, of boreal forest wildfire emissions. Measurements showed a large diversity of air pollutants expanding the volatility range typically reported. A large portion of organic species was unidentified, likely comprised of complex organic compounds. Aircraft-derived emissions improve wildfire chemical speciation and can support reliable model predictions of pollution from boreal forest wildfires.
Albane Barbero, Roberto Grilli, Markus M. Frey, Camille Blouzon, Detlev Helmig, Nicolas Caillon, and Joël Savarino
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12025–12054,Short summary
The high reactivity of the summer Antarctic boundary layer results in part from the emissions of nitrogen oxides produced during photo-denitrification of the snowpack, but its underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. The results of this study suggest that more NO2 is produced from the snowpack early in the photolytic season, possibly due to stronger UV irradiance caused by a smaller solar zenith angle near the solstice.
Lulu Cui, Di Wu, Shuxiao Wang, Qingcheng Xu, Ruolan Hu, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11931–11944,Short summary
A 1-year campaign was conducted to characterize VOCs at a Beijing urban site during different episodes. VOCs from fuel evaporation and diesel exhaust, particularly toluene, xylenes, trans-2-butene, acrolein, methyl methacrylate, vinyl acetate, 1-butene, and 1-hexene, were the main contributors. VOCs from diesel exhaust as well as coal and biomass combustion were found to be the dominant contributors for SOAFP, particularly the VOC species toluene, 1-hexene, xylenes, ethylbenzene, and styrene.
Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Martin Heinritzi, Manuel Granzin, Timo Keber, Andreas Kürten, Katharina Kaiser, Johannes Schneider, and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11781–11794,Short summary
We present measurements of ambient ions in the free troposphere and lower stratosphere over Europe in spring 2020. We observed nitrate and hydrogen sulfate, amongst others. From their ratio, the number concentrations of gaseous sulfuric acid were inferred. Nitrate increased towards the stratosphere, whilst sulfuric acid was slightly decreased there. The average values for sulfuric acid were 1.9 to 7.8 × 105 cm-3. Protonated pyridine was identified in an altitude range of 4.6 to 8.5 km.
Alena Dekhtyareva, Mark Hermanson, Anna Nikulina, Ove Hermansen, Tove Svendby, Kim Holmén, and Rune Grand Graversen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11631–11656,Short summary
Despite decades of industrial activity in Svalbard, there is no continuous air pollution monitoring in the region’s settlements except Ny-Ålesund. The NOx and O3 observations from the three-station network have been compared for the first time in this study. It has been shown how the large-scale weather regimes control the synoptic meteorological conditions and determine the atmospheric long-range transport pathways and efficiency of local air pollution dispersion.
Asher P. Mouat, Clare Paton-Walsh, Jack B. Simmons, Jhonathan Ramirez-Gamboa, David W. T. Griffith, and Jennifer Kaiser
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11033–11047,Short summary
We examine emissions of volatile organic compounds from 2020 wildfires in forested regions of Australia (AU). We find that biomass burning in temperate regions of the US and AU emit similar species in similar proportion, both in natural and lab settings. This suggests studies of wildfires in one region may be used to help improve air quality models in other parts of the world. We observe time series of ozone and nitrogen dioxide. Last, we look at which compounds contribute most to OH reactivity.
Shang Liu, Barbara Barletta, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Alan Fried, Jeff Peischl, Simone Meinardi, Matthew Coggon, Aaron Lamplugh, Jessica B. Gilman, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Carsten Warneke, Eric C. Apel, Alan J. Hills, Ilann Bourgeois, James Walega, Petter Weibring, Dirk Richter, Toshihiro Kuwayama, Michael FitzGibbon, and Donald Blake
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10937–10954,Short summary
California’s ozone persistently exceeds the air quality standards. We studied the spatial distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that produce ozone over the most polluted regions in California using aircraft measurements. We find that the oxygenated VOCs have the highest ozone formation potential. Spatially, biogenic VOCs are important during high ozone episodes in the South Coast Air Basin, while dairy emissions may be critical for ozone production in San Joaquin Valley.
Simone M. Pieber, Béla Tuzson, Stephan Henne, Ute Karstens, Christoph Gerbig, Frank-Thomas Koch, Dominik Brunner, Martin Steinbacher, and Lukas Emmenegger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10721–10749,Short summary
Understanding regional greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere is a prerequisite to mitigate climate change. In this study, we investigated the regional contributions of carbon dioxide (CO2) at the location of the high Alpine observatory Jungfraujoch (JFJ, Switzerland, 3580 m a.s.l.). To this purpose, we combined receptor-oriented atmospheric transport simulations for CO2 concentration in the period 2009–2017 with stable carbon isotope (δ13C–CO2) information.
Xiao-Bing Li, Bin Yuan, Sihang Wang, Chunlin Wang, Jing Lan, Zhijie Liu, Yongxin Song, Xianjun He, Yibo Huangfu, Chenglei Pei, Peng Cheng, Suxia Yang, Jipeng Qi, Caihong Wu, Shan Huang, Yingchang You, Ming Chang, Huadan Zheng, Wenda Yang, Xuemei Wang, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10567–10587,Short summary
High-time-resolution measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were made using an online mass spectrometer at a 600 m tall tower in urban region. Compositions, temporal variations, and sources of VOCs were quantitatively investigated in this study. We find that VOC measurements in urban regions aloft could better characterize source characteristics of anthropogenic emissions. Our results could provide important implications in making future strategies for control of VOCs.
Robert J. Yokelson, Bambang H. Saharjo, Chelsea E. Stockwell, Erianto I. Putra, Thilina Jayarathne, Acep Akbar, Israr Albar, Donald R. Blake, Laura L. B. Graham, Agus Kurniawan, Simone Meinardi, Diah Ningrum, Ati D. Nurhayati, Asmadi Saad, Niken Sakuntaladewi, Eko Setianto, Isobel J. Simpson, Elizabeth A. Stone, Sigit Sutikno, Andri Thomas, Kevin C. Ryan, and Mark A. Cochrane
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10173–10194,Short summary
Fire plus non-fire GHG emissions associated with draining peatlands are the largest per area of any land use change considered by the IPCC. To characterize average and variability for tropical peat fire emissions, highly mobile smoke sampling teams were deployed across four Indonesian provinces to explore an extended interannual, climatic, and spatial range. Large adjustments to IPCC-recommended emissions are suggested. Lab data bolster an extensive emissions database for tropical peat fires.
Deanna C. Myers, Saewung Kim, Steven Sjostedt, Alex B. Guenther, Roger Seco, Oscar Vega Bustillos, Julio Tota, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, and James N. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10061–10076,Short summary
We present the first measurements of gas-phase sulfuric acid from the Amazon basin and evaluate the efficacy of existing sulfuric acid parameterizations in this understudied region. Sulfuric acid is produced during the daytime and nighttime, though current proxies underestimate nighttime production. These results illustrate the need for better parameterizations of sulfuric acid and its precursors that are informed by measurements across a broad range of locations.
Yishuo Guo, Chao Yan, Yuliang Liu, Xiaohui Qiao, Feixue Zheng, Ying Zhang, Ying Zhou, Chang Li, Xiaolong Fan, Zhuohui Lin, Zemin Feng, Yusheng Zhang, Penggang Zheng, Linhui Tian, Wei Nie, Zhe Wang, Dandan Huang, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Lei Yao, Lubna Dada, Federico Bianchi, Jingkun Jiang, Yongchun Liu, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10077–10097,Short summary
Gaseous oxygenated organic molecules (OOMs) are able to form atmospheric aerosols, which will impact on human health and climate change. Here, we find that OOMs in urban Beijing are dominated by anthropogenic sources, i.e. aromatic (29 %–41 %) and aliphatic (26 %–41 %) OOMs. They are also the main contributors to the condensational growth of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). Therefore, the restriction on anthropogenic VOCs is crucial for the reduction of SOAs and haze formation.
Sihang Wang, Bin Yuan, Caihong Wu, Chaomin Wang, Tiange Li, Xianjun He, Yibo Huangfu, Jipeng Qi, Xiao-Bing Li, Qing'e Sha, Manni Zhu, Shengrong Lou, Hongli Wang, Thomas Karl, Martin Graus, Zibing Yuan, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9703–9720,Short summary
Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from vehicles are measured using online mass spectrometers. Differences between gasoline and diesel vehicles are observed with higher emission factors of most oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) and heavier aromatics from diesel vehicles. A higher aromatics / toluene ratio could provide good indicators to distinguish emissions from both vehicle types. We show that OVOCs account for significant contributions to VOC emissions from vehicles, especially diesel vehicles.
Keming Pan and Ian C. Faloona
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9681–9702,Short summary
This work represents a unique analysis of 10 existing air quality network sites and meteorological sites, two AmeriFlux sites, and a radio acoustic sounding system in the Central Valley of California during five consecutive fire seasons, June through September, from 2016 to 2020. We find that the ozone production rate increases by ~ 50 % during wildfire influenced periods. Wildfire smoke also decreases the heat flux by 30 % and results in 12 % lower mixed-layer height.
Zaneta T. Hamryszczak, Andrea Pozzer, Florian Obersteiner, Birger Bohn, Benedikt Steil, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9483–9497,Short summary
Hydrogen peroxide plays a pivotal role in the chemistry of the atmosphere. Together with organic hydroperoxides, it forms a reservoir for peroxy radicals, which are known to be the key contributors to the self-cleaning processes of the atmosphere. Hydroperoxides were measured over Europe during the BLUESKY campaign in May–June 2020. The paper gives an overview of the distribution of the species in the troposphere and investigates the impact of wet scavenging and deposition on the budget of H2O2.
Will S. Drysdale, Adam R. Vaughan, Freya A. Squires, Sam J. Cliff, Stefan Metzger, David Durden, Natchaya Pingintha-Durden, Carole Helfter, Eiko Nemitz, C. Sue B. Grimmond, Janet Barlow, Sean Beevers, Gregor Stewart, David Dajnak, Ruth M. Purvis, and James D. Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9413–9433,Short summary
Measurements of NOx emissions are important for a good understanding of air quality. While there are many direct measurements of NOx concentration, there are very few measurements of its emission. Measurements of emissions provide constraints on emissions inventories and air quality models. This article presents measurements of NOx emission from the BT Tower in central London in 2017 and compares them with inventories, finding that they underestimate by a factor of ∼1.48.
Yihang Yu, Peng Cheng, Huirong Li, Wenda Yang, Baobin Han, Wei Song, Weiwei Hu, Xinming Wang, Bin Yuan, Min Shao, Zhijiong Huang, Zhen Li, Junyu Zheng, Haichao Wang, and Xiaofang Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8951–8971,Short summary
We have investigated the budget of HONO at an urban site in Guangzhou. Budget and comprehensive uncertainty analysis suggest that at such locations as ours, HONO direct emissions and NO + OH can become comparable or even surpass other HONO sources that typically receive greater attention and interest, such as the NO2 heterogeneous source and the unknown daytime photolytic source. Our findings emphasize the need to reduce the uncertainties of both conventional and novel HONO sources and sinks.
Wenjie Wang, David D. Parrish, Siwen Wang, Fengxia Bao, Ruijing Ni, Xin Li, Suding Yang, Hongli Wang, Yafang Cheng, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8935–8949,Short summary
Tropospheric ozone is an air pollutant that is detrimental to human health, vegetation and ecosystem productivity. A comprehensive characterisation of the spatial and temporal distribution of tropospheric ozone is critical to our understanding of these issues. Here we summarise this distribution over China from the available observational records to the extent possible. This study provides insights into efficient future ozone control strategies in China.
Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Lubna Dada, Eija Asmi, Janne Lampilahti, Tommy Chan, Jonathan E. Ferrara, Gustavo E. Copes, German Pérez-Fogwill, Luis Barreira, Minna Aurela, Douglas R. Worsnop, Tuija Jokinen, and Mikko Sipilä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8417–8437,Short summary
Understanding how aerosols form is crucial for correctly modeling the climate and improving future predictions. This work provides extensive analysis of aerosol particles and their precursors at Marambio Station, Antarctic Peninsula. We show that sulfuric acid, ammonia, and dimethylamine are key contributors to the frequent new particle formation events observed at the site. We discuss nucleation mechanisms and highlight the need for targeted measurement to fully understand these processes.
Xueli Liu, Liang Ran, Weili Lin, Xiaobin Xu, Zhiqiang Ma, Fan Dong, Di He, Liyan Zhou, Qingfeng Shi, and Yao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7071–7085,Short summary
Significant decreases in annual mean NOx from 2011 to 2016 and SO2 from 2008 to 2016 confirm the effectiveness of relevant control measures on the reduction in NOx and SO2 emissions in the North China Plain (NCP). NOx at SDZ had a weaker influence than SO2 on the emission reduction in Beijing and other areas in the NCP. An increase in the number of motor vehicles and weak traffic restrictions have caused vehicle emissions of NOx, which indicates that NOx emission control should be strengthened.
Patrick Dewald, Clara M. Nussbaumer, Jan Schuladen, Akima Ringsdorf, Achim Edtbauer, Horst Fischer, Jonathan Williams, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7051–7069,Short summary
We measured the gas-phase reactivity of the NO3 radical on the summit (825 m a.s.l.) of a semi-rural mountain in southwestern Germany in July 2021. The impact of VOC-induced NO3 losses (mostly monoterpenes) competing with a loss by reaction with NO and photolysis throughout the diel cycle was estimated. Besides chemistry, boundary layer dynamics and plant-physiological processes presumably have a great impact on our observations, which were compared to previous NO3 measurements at the same site.
Shigeyuki Ishidoya, Kazuhiro Tsuboi, Yosuke Niwa, Hidekazu Matsueda, Shohei Murayama, Kentaro Ishijima, and Kazuyuki Saito
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6953–6970,Short summary
The atmospheric O2 / N2 ratio and CO2 concentration over the western North Pacific are presented. We found significant modification of the seasonal APO cycle in the middle troposphere due to the interhemispheric mixing of air. APO driven by the net marine biological activities indicated annual sea–air O2 flux during El Niño. Terrestrial biospheric and oceanic CO2 uptakes during 2012–2019 were estimated to be 1.8 and 2.8 Pg C a−1, respectively.
Alicke, B., Platt, U., and Stutz, J.: Impact of nitrous acid photolysis on the total hydroxyl radical budget during the Limitation of Oxidant Production Pianura/Padana Produzione di Ozono study in Milan, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 8196, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000JD000075, 2002.
Ammann, M., Kalberer, M., Arens, F., Lavanchy, V., Gäggler, H. W., and Baltensperger, U.: Nitrous acid formation on soot particles: Surface chemistry and the effect of humidity, J. Aerosol. Sci., 29, 1031–1032, 1998.
Ammann, M., Rössler, E., Strekowski, R., and George, C.: Nitrogen dioxide multiphase chemistry: Uptake kinetics on aqueous solutions containing phenolic compounds, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 7, 2513–2518, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-7-2513-2005, 2005.
Andrés-Hernández, M. D., Notholt, J., Hjorth, J., and Schrems, O.: A DOAS study on the origin of nitrous acid at urban and non-urban sites, Atmos. Environ., 30, 175–180, 1996.
Arens, F., Gutzwiller, L., Baltensperger, U., Gäggler, H. W., and Ammann, M.: Heterogeneous reaction of NO2 on diesel soot particles, Environ. Sci. Technol., 35, 2191–2199, 2001.
Arens, F., Gutzwiller, L., Gäggeler, H. W., and Ammann, M.: The reaction of NO2 with solid anthrarobin (1,2,10-trihydroxy-anthracene), Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 4, 3684–3690, 2002.
Aubin, D. G., and Abbatt, J. P. D.: Interaction of NO2 with hydrocarbon soot: focus on HONO yield, surface modification, and mechanism, J. Phys. Chem. A, 111, 6263–6273, 2007.
Ayers, G. P.: Comment on regression analysis of air quality data, Atmos. Environ., 35, 2423–2425, 2001.
Baldocchi, D., Falge, E., Gu, L., Olson, R., Hollinger, D., Running, S., Anthoni, P., Bernhofer, C., Davis, K., Evans, R., Fuentes, J., Goldstein, A., Katul, G., Law, B., Lee, X., Malhi, Y., Meyers, T., Munger, W., Oechel, W., Paw U, K. T., Pilegaard, K., Schmid, H. P., Valentini, R., Verma, S., Vesala, T., Wilson, K., and Wofsy, S.: FLUXNET: A new tool to study the temporal and spatial variability of ecosystem-scale carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy flux densities, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 82, 2415–2434, 2001.
Bejan, I., Aal, Y. A. E., Barnes, I., Benter, T., Bohn, B., Wiesen, P., and Kleffmann, J.: The photolysis of ortho-nitrophenols: a new gas phase source of HONO, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 8, 2028–2035, https://doi.org/10.1039/b516590c, 2006.
Bröske, R., Kleffmann, J., and Wiesen, P.: Heterogeneous conversion of NO2 on secondary organic aerosol surfaces: A possible source of nitrous acid (HONO) in the atmosphere?, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 469–474, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-3-469-2003, 2003.
Burkhardt, J. and Eiden, R.: Thin water films on coniferous needles, Atmos. Environ., 28, 2001–2017, 1994.
Calvert, J. G., Yarwood, G., and Dunker, A. M.: An evaluation of the mechanism of nitrous acid formation in the urban atmosphere, Res. Chem. Intermediat., 20, 463–502, 1994.
Febo, A., Perrino, C., and Allegrini, I.: Measurement of nitrous acid in Milan, Italy, by DOAS and diffusion denuders, Atmos. Environ., 30 3599–3609, 1996.
Finlayson-Pitts, B. J., Wingen, L. M., Sumner, A. L., Syomin, D., and Ramazan, K. A.: The heterogeneous hydrolysis of NO2 in laboratory systems and in outdoor and indoor atmospheres: An integrated mechanism, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 5, 223–242, 2003.
Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.: Reactions at surfaces in the atmosphere: integration of experiments and theory as necessary (but not necessarily sufficient) for predicting the physical chemistry of aerosols, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 11, 7760–7779, 2009.
Foken, T.: Micrometeorology, Springer, Berlin-Heidelberg, Germany, 308 pp., 2008.
Foken, T., Meixner, F. X. ,Falge, E. Zetzsch, C., Serafimovich, A., Bargsten, A., Behrendt, T., Biermann, T., Breuninger, C., Gerken, T., Hunner, M., Lehmann-Pape, L., Hens, K., Jocher, G., Kesselmeier, J., Lüers, J., Mayer, J.-C., Moravek, A., Plake, D., Riederer, M., Rütz, F., Scheibe, M., Schier, S., Siebicke, L., Sörgel, M., Staudt, K., Trebs, I., Tsokankunku, A., Welling, M., Wolf, V. and Zhu, Z.: Atmospheric transport and chemistry in forest ecosystems-overview of the EGER-project, in preparation, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., 2011.
Frankenberger, E.: Untersuchungen über den Vertikalaustausch in den unteren Dekametern der Atmosphäre, Annalen der Meteorologie, 4, 358–374, 1951.
George, C., Strekowski, R. S., Kleffmann, J., Stemmler, K., and Ammann, M.: Photoenhanced uptake of gaseous NO2 on solid organic compounds: a photochemical source of HONO?, Faraday Discuss., 130, 195–210, 2005.
Gerstberger, P., Foken, T., and Kalbitz, K.: The Lehstenbach and Steinkreuz catchments in NE Bavaria, in: Biogeochemistry of forested catchments in a changing environment: a German case study, edited by: Matzner, E., Ecological Studies, Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, 15–44, 2004.
Gower, S. T., Kucharik, C. J., and Norman, J. M.: Direct and indirect estimation of leaf area index, fAPAR, and net primary production of terrestrial ecosystems, Remote. Sens. Environ., 70, 29–51, 1999.
Gustafsson, R. J., Orlov, A., Griffiths, P. T., Cox, R. A., and Lambert, R. M.: Reduction of NO2 to nitrous acid on illuminated titanium dioxide aerosol surfaces: implications for photocatalysis and atmospheric chemistry, Chem. Commun., 37, 3936–3938, 2006.
Gustafsson, R. J., Kyriakou, G., and Lambert, R. M.: The molecular mechanism of tropospheric nitrous acid production on mineral dust surfaces, Chem. Phys. Chem., 9, 1390–1393, 2008.
Gutzwiller, L., Arens, F., Baltensberger, U., Gäggler, H. W., and Ammann, M.: Significance of semivolatile diesel exhaust organics for secondary HONO formation, Environ. Sci. Technol., 36, 677–682, 2002a.
Gutzwiller, L., George, C., Rössler, E., and Ammann, M.: Reaction kinetics of NO2 with resorcinol and 2,7-naphthalenediol in the aqueous phase at different pH, J. Phys. Chem. A, 106, 12045-12050, 2002b.
Hanst, P. L., Spence, J. W., and Miller, M.: Atmospheric chemistry of n-nitroso dimethylamine, Environ. Sci. Technol., 11 403–405, 1977.
Harrison, R. M. and Kitto, A.-M. N.: Evidence for a surface source of atmospheric nitrous acid, Atmos. Environ., 28, 1089–1094, 1994.
He, Y., Zhou, X., Hou, J., Gao, H., and Bertman, S. B.: Importance of dew in controlling the air-surface exchange of HONO in rural forested environments, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L02813, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL024348, 2006.
Heland, J., Kleffmann, J., Kurtenbach, R., and Wiesen, P.: A new instrument to measure gaseous nitrous acid (HONO) in the atmosphere, Environ. Sci. Technol., 35, 3207–3212, 2001.
Holmes, P., Lumley, J. L., and Berkooz, G.: Turbulence, coherent structures, dynamical systems and symmetry, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 420 pp., 1996.
Jenkin, M. E., Cox, R. A., and Williams, D. J.: Laboratory studies of the kinetics of formation of nitrous acid from the thermal reaction of nitrogen dioxide and water vapour, Atmos. Environ., 22, 487–498, 1988.
Killus, J. P. and Whitten, G. Z.: Background reactivity in smog chambers, Int. J. Chem. Kinet., 22, 547–575, 1990.
Kleffmann, J., Becker, K. H., and Wiesen, P.: Heterogeneous NO2 conversion processes on acid surfaces: possible atmospheric implications, Atmos. Environ., 32, 2721–2729, 1998.
Kleffmann, J., Becker, K. H., Lackhoff, M., and Wiesen, P.: Heterogeneous conversion of NO2 on carbonaceous surfaces, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 1, 5443–5450, 1999.
Kleffmann, J., Heland, J., Kurtenbach, R., Lörzer, J., and Wiesen, P.: A new instrument (LOPAP) for the detection of nitrous acid (HONO), Environ. Sci. Pollut. R., 4, 48–54, 2002. Kleffmann, J., Kurtenbach, R., Lörzer, J., Wiesen, P., Kalthoff, N., Vogel, B., and Vogel, H.: Measured and simulated vertical profiles of nitrous acid – Part I: Field measurements, Atmos. Environ., 37, 2949–2955, 2003.
Kleffmann, J., Benter, T., and Wiesen, P.: Heterogeneous reaction of nitric acid with nitric oxide on glass surfaces under simulated atmospheric conditions, J. Phys. Chem. A, 108, 5793–5799, 2004.
Kleffmann, J., Gavriloaiei, T., Hofzumahaus, A., Holland, F., Koppmann, R., Rupp, L., Schlosser, E., Siese, M., and Wahner, A.: Daytime formation of nitrous acid: A major source of OH radicals in a forest, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L05818, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL022524, 2005.
Kleffmann, J.: Manual LOPAP-3, version 1.3.0, Bergische Universität Wuppertal, QUMA Elektronik & Analytik GmbH, Wuppertal, Germany, 2006.
Kleffmann, J., Lörzer, J. C., Wiesen, P., Kern, C., Trick, S., Volkamer, R., Rodenas, M., and Wirtz, K.: Intercomparison of the DOAS and LOPAP techniques for the detection of nitrous acid (HONO), Atmos. Environ., 40, 3640–3652, 2006.
Kleffmann, J.: Daytime sources of nitrous acid (HONO) in the atmospheric boundary layer, Chem. Phys. Chem., 8, 1137–1144, 2007.
Klemm, O., Burkhardt, J., and Gerchau, J.: Leaf wetness: A quantifiable parameter in deposition studies, in: Proceedings of the EUROTRAC-2 Symposium 98: Transport and chemical transformation in the troposphere, edited by: Borell, P. M. and Borell, P., WIT press, Southampton, UK, 238–242, 1999.
Kraus, A. and Hofzumahaus, A.: Field measurements of atmospheric photolysis frequencies for O3, NO2, HCHO, CH3CHO, H2O2, and HONO by UV spectroradiometry, J. Atmos. Chem., 31, 161–180, 1998.
Lammel, G. and Perner, D.: The atmospheric aerosol as a source of nitrous acid in the polluted atmosphere, J. Aerosol. Sci., 19, 1199–1202, 1988.
Lammel, G. and Cape, J. N.: Nitrous acid and nitrite in the atmosphere, Chem. Soc. Rev., 25, 361–369, 1996.
Lammel, G.: Formation of nitrous acid: Parameterisation and comparison with observations, Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany, report No. 286, 36, 1999.
Legendre, P. and Legendre, L.: Numerical ecology, 2nd English ed., Developments in environmental modelling, Elsevier Science BV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1998.
Monge, M. E., D'Anna, B., Mazri, L., Giroir-Fendler, A., Ammann, M., Donaldson, D. J., and George, C.: Light changes the atmospheric reactivity of soot, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 107, 6605–6609, 2010.
Moravek, A.: Vertical distribution of reactive and non-reactive trace gases in and above a spruce canopy, master thesis, University Karlsruhe, Germany, 124 pp., 2008.
Ndour, M., D'Anna, B., George, C., Ka, O., Balkanski, Y., Kleffmann, J., Stemmler, K., and Ammann, M.: Photoenhanced uptake of NO2 on mineral dust: Laboratory experiments and model simulations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L05812, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL032006, 2008.
Notholt, J., Hjorth, J., and Raes, F.: Formation of HNO2 on aerosol surfaces during foggy periods in the presence of NO and NO2, Atmos. Environ., 26, 211–217, 1992.
Oren, R., Schulze, E.-D., Matyssek, R., and Zimmermann, R.: Estimating photosynthetic rate and annual carbon gain in conifers from specific leaf weight and leaf biomass, Oecologia, 70, 187–193, 1986.
Perner, D. and Platt, U.: Detection of nitrous acid in the atmosphere by differential optical absorption, Geophys. Res. Lett., 6, 917–920, 1979.
Pitts Jr., J. N., Biermann, H. W., Winer, A. M., and Tuazon, E. C.: Spectroscopic identification and measurement of gaseous nitrous acid in dilute auto exhaust, Atmos. Environ., 18, 847–854, 1984.
Pitts Jr., J. N., Grosjean, D., Cauwenberghe, K. V., Schmid, J. P., and Fitz, D. R.: Photooxidation of aliphatic amines under simulated atmospheric conditions: formation of nitrosamines, nitramines, amides, and photochemical oxidant, Environ. Sci. Technol., 12 946–953, 1978.
Qin, M., Xie, P., Su, H., Gu, J., Peng, F., Li, S., Zeng, L., Liu, J., Liu, W., and Zhang, Y.: An observational study of the HONO–NO2 coupling at an urban site in Guangzhou City, South China, Atmos. Environ., 43, 5731–5742, 2009.
Reisinger, A. R.: Observations of HNO2 in the polluted winter atmosphere: possible heterogeneous production on aerosols, Atmos. Environ., 34, 3865–3874, 2000.
Rohrer, F., Bohn, B., Brauers, T., Bruning, D., Johnen, F.-J., Wahner, A., and Kleffmann, J.: Characterisation of the photolytic HONO-source in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 2189–2201, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-5-2189-2005, 2005.
Rubio, M. A., Lissi, E., and Villena, G.: Nitrite in rain and dew in Santiago city, Chile. Its possible impact on the early morning start of the photochemical smog, Atmos. Environ., 36, 293–297, 2002.
Rubio, M. A., Lissi, E., and Villena, G.: Factors determining the concentration of nitrite in dew from Santiago, Chile, Atmos. Environ., 42, 7651–7656, 2008.
Sakamaki, F., Hatakeyama, S., and Akimoto, H.: Formation of nitrous acid and nitric oxide in the heterogeneous dark reaction of nitrogen dioxide and water vapour, Int. J. Chem. Kinet., 15, 1013–1029, 1983.
Saliba, N. A., Yang, H., and Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.: Reaction of gaseous nitric oxide with nitric acid on silica surfaces in the presence of water at room temperature, J. Phys. Chem. A, 105, 10339–10346, 2001.
Sander, R.: Compilation of Henry's law constants for inorganic and organic species of potential importance in environmental chemistry, available at: http://www.mpch-mainz.mpg.de/ sander/res/henry.html, last access: 4 January 2011, 1999.
Serafimovich, A., Siebicke, L., Staudt, K., Lüers, J., Biermann, T., Schier, S., Mayer, J.-C., Foken, T.: ExchanGE processes in mountainous Regions (EGER) Documentation of the Intensive Observation Period (IOP1) September, 6th to October, 7th 2007, Arbeitsergebnisse Nr. 36, Bayreuth, Germany, print ISSN 1614-8916; internet ISSN 1614-8924, 2008.
Serafimovich, A., Thomas, C., and Foken, T.: Vertical and horizontal transport of energy and matter by coherent motions in a tall spruce canopy, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., in review, 2011.
Sjödin, Å: Studies of the diurnal variation of nitrous acid in urban air, Environ. Sci. Technol., 22, 1086–1089, 1988.
Sleiman, M., Gundel, L. A., Pankow, J. F., Jacob, P., Singer, B. C., and Destaillats, H.: Formation of carcinogens indoors by surface-mediated reactions of nicotine with nitrous acid, leading to potential thirdhand smoke hazards, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 107, 6576–6581, 2010.
Sokal, R. R. and Rohlf, F. J.: Biometry – The principles and practice of statistics in biological research, 3rd ed., W. H. Freeman, New York, USA, 1995.
Sonntag, D.: Important new values of the physical constants of 1986, vapor pressure formulations based on the ITS-90 and psychrometer formulae, Z. Meteorol., 70, 340–344, 1990.
Staudt, K. and Foken, T.: Documentation of reference data for the experimental areas of the Bayreuth Centre for Ecology and Environmental Research (BayCEER) at the Waldstein site, University of Bayreuth, Dept. of Micrometeorology Bayreuth, report No. 37, print ISSN 1614-8916; internet ISSN 1614–8924, 2007.
Staudt, K., Falge, E., Pyles, R. D., Paw U, K. T., and Foken, T.: Sensitivity and predictive uncertainty of the ACASA model at a spruce forest site, Biogeosciences, 7, 3685–3705, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-7-3685-2010, 2010.
Stemmler, K., Ammann, M., Donders, C., Kleffmann, J., and George, C.: Photosensitized reduction of nitrogen dioxide on humic acid as a source of nitrous acid, Nature, 440, 195–198, 2006.
Stemmler, K., Ammann, M., Elshorbany, Y., Kleffmann, J., Ndour, M., D'Anna, B., George, C., and Bohn, B.: Light induced conversion of nitrogen dioxide into nitrous acid on submicron humic acid aerosol, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 4237–4248, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-7-4237-2007, 2007.
Stull, R. B.: An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology, Atmospheric and Oceanographic Sciences Library, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 670 pp., 1988.
Stutz, J., Alicke, B., and Neftel, A.: Nitrous acid formation in the urban atmosphere: Gradient measurements of NO2 and HONO over grass in Milan, Italy, J. Geophys. Res., 107(D22), 8192, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD000390, 2002.
Stutz, J., Alicke, B., Ackermann, R., Geyer, A., Wang, S., White, A. B., Williams, E. J., Spicer, C. W., and Fast, J. D.: Relative humidity dependence of HONO chemistry in urban areas, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D03307, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JD004135, 2004.
Su, H., Cheng, Y. F., Cheng, P., Zhang, Y. H., Dong, S., Zeng, L. M., Wang, X., Slanina, J., Shao, M., and Wiedensohler, A.: Observation of nighttime nitrous acid (HONO) formation at a non-urban site during PRIDE-PRD2004 in China, Atmos. Environ., 42, 6219–6232, 2008.
Svensson, R., Ljungström, E., and Lindqvist, O.: Kinetics of the reaction between nitrogen dioxide and water vapour, Atmos. Environ., 21 1529–1539, 1987.
Thomas, C. and Foken, T.: Detection of long-term coherent exchange over spruce forest using wavelet analysis, Theor. Appl. Climatol., 80, 91–104, 2005.
Thomas, C. and Foken, T.: Flux contribution of coherent structures and its implications for the exchange of energy and matter in a tall spruce canopy Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., 123, 317–337, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10546-006-9144-7, 2007.
Trebs, I., Bohn, B., Ammann, C., Rummel, U., Blumthaler, M., Königstedt, R., Meixner, F. X., Fan, S., and Andreae, M. O.: Relationship between the NO2 photolysis frequency and the solar global irradiance, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 2, 725–739, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-2-725-2009, 2009.
Trick, S.: Formation of nitrous acid on urban surfaces – a physical-chemical perspective, Ph.D. thesis, University Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany, 290 pp., 2004.
Veitel, H.: Vertical profiles of NO2 and HONO in the boundary layer, Ph.D. thesis, University Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany, 270 pp., 2002.
Vogel, B., Vogel, H., Kleffmann, J., and Kurtenbach, R.: Measured and simulated vertical profiles of nitrous acid – Part II. Model simulations and indications for a photolytic source, Atmos. Environ., 37, 2957–2966, 2003.
Wainmann, T., Weschler, C. J., Lioy, P. J., and Zhang, J.: Effects of surface type and relative humidity on the production and concentration of nitrous acid in a model indoor environment, Environ. Sci. Technol., 35, 2200–2206, 2001.
Wolff, V., Trebs, I., Foken, T., and Meixner, F. X.: Exchange of reactive nitrogen compounds: concentrations and fluxes of total ammonium and total nitrate above a spruce canopy, Biogeosciences, 7, 1729–1744, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-7-1729-2010, 2010.
Yu, Y., Galle, B., Hodson, E., Panday, A., Prinn, R., and Wang, S.: Observations of high rates of NO2 – HONO conversion in the nocturnal atmospheric boundary layer in Kathmandu, Nepal, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 6401–6415, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-6401-2009, 2009.
Zhang, N., Zhou, X., Shepson, P. B., Gao, H., Alaghmand, M., and Stirm, B.: Aircraft measurement of HONO vertical profiles over a forested region, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L15820, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL038999, 2009.
Zhou, X., Civerolo, K., Dai, H., Huang, G., Schwab, J., and Demerjian, K.: Summertime nitrous acid chemistry in the atmospheric boundary layer at a rural site in New York State, J. Geophys. Res., 107(D21), 4590, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD001539 , 2002a.
Zhou, X., He, Y., Huang, G., Thornberry, T. D., Carroll, M. A., and Bertman, S. B.: Photochemical production of nitrous acid on glass sample manifold surface, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(14), 1681, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002GL015080, 2002b.
Zhou, X., Gao, H., He, Y., Huang, G., Bertman, S. B., Civerolo, K., and Schwab, J.: Nitric acid photolysis on surfaces in low-NOx environments: Significant atmospheric implications, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(23), 2217, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003GL018620, 2003.
- Metadata XML