Articles | Volume 11, issue 8
Research article 21 Apr 2011
Research article | 21 Apr 2011
The annual cycle in lower stratospheric temperatures revisited
S. Fueglistaler et al.
Related subject area
Subject: Dynamics | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling | Altitude Range: Stratosphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Reappraising the appropriate calculation of a common meteorological quantity: potential temperatureImpact of Lagrangian transport on lower-stratospheric transport timescales in a climate modelRole of equatorial waves and convective gravity waves in the 2015/16 quasi-biennial oscillation disruptionSensitivity of the Southern Hemisphere circumpolar jet response to Antarctic ozone depletion: prescribed versus interactive chemistryCharacterizing quasi-biweekly variability of the Asian monsoon anticyclone using potential vorticity and large-scale geopotential height fieldClimatological impact of the Brewer–Dobson circulation on the N2O budget in WACCM, a chemical reanalysis and a CTM driven by four dynamical reanalysesPolar stratospheric clouds initiated by mountain waves in a global chemistry–climate model: a missing piece in fully modelling polar stratospheric ozone depletionUsing the climate feedback response analysis method to quantify climate feedbacks in the middle atmosphereDeep-convective influence on the upper troposphere–lower stratosphere composition in the Asian monsoon anticyclone region: 2017 StratoClim campaign resultsThe effect of interactive ozone chemistry on weak and strong stratospheric polar vortex eventsInfluence of ENSO on entry stratospheric water vapor in coupled chemistry-ocean CCMI and CMIP6 modelsLagrangian gravity wave spectra in the lower stratosphere of current (re)analysesRepresentation of the equatorial stratopause semiannual oscillation in global atmospheric reanalysesA convolution of observational and model data to estimate age of air spectra in the northern hemispheric lower stratosphereSensitivity of age of air trends to the derivation method for non-linear increasing inert SF6Adding value to extended-range forecasts in northern Europe by statistical post-processing using stratospheric observationsPropagation of gravity waves and its effects on pseudomomentum flux in a sudden stratospheric warming eventFuture trends in stratosphere-to-troposphere transport in CCMI modelsSimulating age of air and the distribution of SF6 in the stratosphere with the SILAM modelA tropospheric pathway of the stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) impact on the boreal winter polar vortexTemperature and tropopause characteristics from reanalyses data in the tropical tropopause layerThe efficiency of transport into the stratosphere via the Asian and North American summer monsoon circulationsEvidence of small-scale quasi-isentropic mixing in ridges of extratropical baroclinic wavesThe effect of atmospheric nudging on the stratospheric residual circulation in chemistry–climate modelsOn the representation of major stratospheric warmings in reanalysesInfluence of Arctic stratospheric ozone on surface climate in CCMI modelsQuantification of water vapour transport from the Asian monsoon to the stratosphereExtratropical age of air trends and causative factors in climate projection simulationsComposite analysis of the tropopause inversion layer in extratropical baroclinic wavesLagrangian simulations of the transport of young air masses to the top of the Asian monsoon anticyclone and into the tropical pipeDeriving stratospheric age of air spectra using an idealized set of chemically active trace gasesThe global diabatic circulation of the stratosphere as a metric for the Brewer–Dobson circulationThe importance of interactive chemistry for stratosphere–troposphere couplingFrom ERA-Interim to ERA5: the considerable impact of ECMWF's next-generation reanalysis on Lagrangian transport simulationsOn the value of reanalyses prior to 1979 for dynamical studies of stratosphere–troposphere couplingThe influence of mixing on the stratospheric age of air changes in the 21st centuryStructural changes in the shallow and transition branch of the Brewer–Dobson circulation induced by El NiñoQuantifying the variability of the annular modes: reanalysis uncertainty vs. sampling uncertaintyResponse of Arctic ozone to sudden stratospheric warmingsLong-range transport of volcanic aerosol from the 2010 Merapi tropical eruption to AntarcticaComparison of mean age of air in five reanalyses using the BASCOE transport modelDetection of a climatological short break in the polar night jet in early winter and its relation to cooling over SiberiaNo robust evidence of future changes in major stratospheric sudden warmings: a multi-model assessment from CCMISensitivities of modelled water vapour in the lower stratosphere: temperature uncertainty, effects of horizontal transport and small-scale mixingSurface impacts of the Quasi Biennial OscillationBifurcation of potential vorticity gradients across the Southern Hemisphere stratospheric polar vortexEl Niño Southern Oscillation influence on the Asian summer monsoon anticycloneA comparison of the momentum budget in reanalysis datasets during sudden stratospheric warming eventsA novel method for the extraction of local gravity wave parameters from gridded three-dimensional data: description, validation, and applicationQuantifying the effect of mixing on the mean age of air in CCMVal-2 and CCMI-1 models
Manuel Baumgartner, Ralf Weigel, Allan H. Harvey, Felix Plöger, Ulrich Achatz, and Peter Spichtinger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15585–15616,Short summary
The potential temperature is routinely used in atmospheric science. We review its derivation and suggest a new potential temperature, based on a temperature-dependent parameterization of the dry air's specific heat capacity. Moreover, we compare the new potential temperature to the common one and discuss the differences which become more important at higher altitudes. Finally, we indicate some consequences of using the new potential temperature in typical applications.
Edward J. Charlesworth, Ann-Kristin Dugstad, Frauke Fritsch, Patrick Jöckel, and Felix Plöger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15227–15245,Short summary
Modeling the stratosphere requires models with good representations of chemical transport. To do this, nearly all models divide the atmosphere into boxes. This creates some unwanted problems. However, the only other option is to divide the atmosphere into balloons, and this method is very complicated. Here, we use a model which uses this balloon-like method to estimate the impacts of this method on chemical transport. We find significant differences in sensitive regions of the stratosphere.
Min-Jee Kang, Hye-Yeong Chun, and Rolando R. Garcia
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14669–14693,Short summary
In winter 2015/16, the descent of the westerly quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) jet was interrupted by easterly winds. We find that Rossby–gravity and inertia–gravity waves weaken the jet core in early stages, and small-scale convective gravity waves, as well as horizontal and vertical components of Rossby waves, reverse the wind sign in later stages. The strong negative wave forcing in the tropics results from the enhanced convection, an anomalous wind profile, and barotropic instability.
Sabine Haase, Jaika Fricke, Tim Kruschke, Sebastian Wahl, and Katja Matthes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14043–14061,Short summary
Ozone depletion over Antarctica was shown to influence the tropospheric jet in the Southern Hemisphere. We investigate the atmospheric response to ozone depletion comparing climate model ensembles with interactive and prescribed ozone fields. We show that allowing feedbacks between ozone chemistry and model physics as well as including asymmetries in ozone leads to a strengthened ozone depletion signature in the stratosphere but does not significantly affect the tropospheric jet position.
Arata Amemiya and Kaoru Sato
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13857–13876,Short summary
The spatial pattern of subseasonal variability of the Asian monsoon anticyclone (AMA) is analyzed using long-term reanalysis data, integrating two different views using potential vorticity and the geopotential height anomaly. This study provides a link between two existing description of the Asian monsoon anticyclone, which is important for the understanding of the whole life cycle of its characteristic subseasonal variability pattern.
Daniele Minganti, Simon Chabrillat, Yves Christophe, Quentin Errera, Marta Abalos, Maxime Prignon, Douglas E. Kinnison, and Emmanuel Mahieu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12609–12631,Short summary
The climatology of the N2O transport budget in the stratosphere is studied in the transformed Eulerian mean framework across a variety of datasets: a chemistry climate model, a chemistry transport model driven by four reanalyses and a chemical reanalysis. The impact of vertical advection on N2O agrees well in the datasets, but horizontal mixing presents large differences above the Antarctic and in the whole Northern Hemisphere.
Andrew Orr, J. Scott Hosking, Aymeric Delon, Lars Hoffmann, Reinhold Spang, Tracy Moffat-Griffin, James Keeble, Nathan Luke Abraham, and Peter Braesicke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12483–12497,Short summary
Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are clouds found in the Antarctic winter stratosphere and are implicated in the formation of the ozone hole. These clouds can sometimes be formed or enhanced by mountain waves, formed as air passes over hills or mountains. However, this important mechanism is missing in coarse-resolution climate models, limiting our ability to simulate ozone. This study examines an attempt to include the effects of mountain waves and their impact on PSCs and ozone.
Maartje Sanne Kuilman, Qiong Zhang, Ming Cai, and Qin Wen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12409–12430,Short summary
In this study, we quantify the temperature changes in the middle atmosphere due to different feedback processes using the climate feedback response analysis method. We have found that the change due to the increase in CO2 alone cools the middle atmosphere. The combined effect of the different feedbacks causes the atmosphere to cool less. The ozone feedback is the most important feedback process, while the cloud, water vapour and albedo feedback play only a minor role.
Silvia Bucci, Bernard Legras, Pasquale Sellitto, Francesco D'Amato, Silvia Viciani, Alessio Montori, Antonio Chiarugi, Fabrizio Ravegnani, Alexey Ulanovsky, Francesco Cairo, and Fred Stroh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12193–12210,Short summary
The paper presents and evaluates a transport analysis method to study the convective injection of air in the upper troposphere–lower stratosphere of the Asian monsoon anticyclone region. The approach is thereby used to analyse the trace gas data collected during the StratoClim aircraft campaign. The results showed that fresh convective air can be injected fast at a high level of the atmosphere (above 17 km), with potential impacts on the stratospheric chemistry of the Northern Hemisphere.
Jessica Oehrlein, Gabriel Chiodo, and Lorenzo M. Polvani
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10531–10544,Short summary
Winter winds in the stratosphere 10–50 km above the surface impact climate at the surface. Prior studies suggest that this interaction between the stratosphere and the surface is affected by ozone. We compare two ways of including ozone in computer simulations of climate. One method is more realistic but more expensive. We find that the method of including ozone in simulations affects the surface climate when the stratospheric winds are unusually weak but not when they are unusually strong.
Chaim Israel Garfinkel, Ohad Harari, Shlomi Ziskin, Jian Rao, Olaf Morgenstern, Guang Zeng, Simone Tilmes, Doug Kinnison, Fiona M. O'Connor, Neal Butchart, Makoto Deushi, Patrick Jöckel, and Andrea Pozzer
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Water vapor is the dominant greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, and the dominant mode of variability in the ocean-atmosphere system is El Nino. The connection between El Nino and water vapor above ~17km is unclear, with single model studies reaching a range of conclusions. This study examines this connection in 12 different models. While there are substantial differences among the models, all models appear to capture the fundamental physical processes correctly.
Aurélien Podglajen, Albert Hertzog, Riwal Plougonven, and Bernard Legras
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9331–9350,Short summary
Thanks to the increase in resolution, numerical weather prediction models resolve a growing fraction of the gravity wave (GW) spectrum. Here, we assess the representation of Lagrangian GW fluctuations by comparing trajectories in the models to long-duration balloon observations. Most characteristics of the observed GW spectrum, such as near-inertial oscillations, are qualitatively present. However, the variability remains underestimated, emphasizing the continuous need for GW parameterizations.
Yoshio Kawatani, Toshihiko Hirooka, Kevin Hamilton, Anne K. Smith, and Masatomo Fujiwara
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9115–9133,Short summary
This paper reports on a project to compare the representation of the semiannual oscillation (SAO) among six major global atmospheric reanalyses and with recent satellite observations. The differences among the zonal mean zonal wind as represented by the various reanalyses display a prominent equatorial maximum that increases with height. It is shown that assimilation of satellite temperature measurements is crucial for the realistic representation of the tropical upper stratospheric circulation.
Marius Hauck, Harald Bönisch, Peter Hoor, Timo Keber, Felix Ploeger, Tanja J. Schuck, and Andreas Engel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8763–8785,Short summary
This study features an extended inversion method that includes transport across the extratropical tropopause to derive age spectra in the lowermost stratosphere from in situ trace gas measurements. The refined method is validated in a model setup and applied to data gained with the HALO research aircraft. Results are congruent with the findings of previous studies so that the method provides a promising toolset for the analysis of stratospheric dynamics based on observations in the future.
Frauke Fritsch, Hella Garny, Andreas Engel, Harald Bönisch, and Roland Eichinger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8709–8725,Short summary
We test two methods to derive age of air as a diagnostic of the Brewer–Dobson circulation from non-linear increasing trace gases such as SF6 using a chemistry-climate model and observations. Both the model and the observations show systematic variation of the age of air trend dependent on the chosen assumptions that are required when deriving age of air from measurements. This provides insight into the differences in age of air trends of observations and models.
Natalia Korhonen, Otto Hyvärinen, Matti Kämäräinen, David S. Richardson, Heikki Järvinen, and Hilppa Gregow
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8441–8451,Short summary
Reanalysis data of the strength of the polar vortex is applied in the post-processing of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) winter surface temperature forecasts for weeks 3–4 and 5–6 over northern Europe. In this way, the skill scores of these forecasts are slightly improved. It is also found that, in cases where the polar vortex was weak at the start of the forecast, the mean skill scores of these forecasts were higher than average.
In-Sun Song, Changsup Lee, Hye-Yeong Chun, Jeong-Han Kim, Geonhwa Jee, Byeong-Gwon Song, and Julio T. Bacmeister
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7617–7644,Short summary
A modeling study on the effects of propagation of atmospheric gravity waves is carried out for the 2009 sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) event. It is found that gravity-wave-induced momentum fluxes are significantly affected by horizontal refraction and the Earth's curvature effects. Gravity wave convergence and effects of ray geometry also have some impact. In the evolution of the SSW, significantly enhanced momentum fluxes are likely to change nonlocally nearby large-scale vortex structures.
Marta Abalos, Clara Orbe, Douglas E. Kinnison, David Plummer, Luke D. Oman, Patrick Jöckel, Olaf Morgenstern, Rolando R. Garcia, Guang Zeng, Kane A. Stone, and Martin Dameris
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6883–6901,Short summary
A set of state-of-the art chemistry–climate models is used to examine future changes in downward transport from the stratosphere, a key contributor to tropospheric ozone. The acceleration of the stratospheric circulation results in increased stratosphere-to-troposphere transport. In the subtropics, downward advection into the troposphere is enhanced due to climate change. At higher latitudes, the ozone reservoir above the tropopause is enlarged due to the stronger circulation and ozone recovery.
Rostislav Kouznetsov, Mikhail Sofiev, Julius Vira, and Gabriele Stiller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5837–5859,Short summary
Estimates of the age of stratospheric air (AoA), its distribution, and trends, obtained by different experimental methods, differ among each other. AoA derived form MIPAS satellite observations, the richest observational dataset on sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) in the stratosphere, are a clear outlier. With multi-decade simulations of AoA and SF6 in the stratosphere, we show that the origin of the discrepancy is in a methodology of deriving AoA from observations rather than in observational data.
Koji Yamazaki, Tetsu Nakamura, Jinro Ukita, and Kazuhira Hoshi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5111–5127,Short summary
It has been well known that the stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) affects the winter Arctic polar vortex. This relation has been explained through stratospheric processes. We show that a tropospheric process also plays a role, especially in early winter, based on data analysis and numerical simulations. The QBO modifies tropical convection, which affects planetary waves in the midlatitude troposphere, then modulating vertical propagation and the polar vortex.
Susann Tegtmeier, James Anstey, Sean Davis, Rossana Dragani, Yayoi Harada, Ioana Ivanciu, Robin Pilch Kedzierski, Kirstin Krüger, Bernard Legras, Craig Long, James S. Wang, Krzysztof Wargan, and Jonathon S. Wright
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 753–770,Short summary
The tropical tropopause layer is an important atmospheric region right in between the troposphere and the stratosphere. We evaluate the representation of this layer in reanalyses data sets, which create a complete picture of the state of Earth's atmosphere using atmospheric modeling and available observations. The recent reanalyses show realistic temperatures in the tropical tropopause layer. However, where the temperature is lowest, the so-called cold point, the reanalyses are too cold.
Xiaolu Yan, Paul Konopka, Felix Ploeger, Aurélien Podglajen, Jonathon S. Wright, Rolf Müller, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15629–15649,Short summary
The Asian and North American summer monsoons (ASM and NASM) have considerable influence on stratospheric chemistry and physics. More air mass is transported from the monsoon regions to the tropical stratosphere when the tracers are released clearly below the tropopause than when they are released close to the tropopause. Results for different altitudes of air origin reveal two transport pathways (monsoon and tropical) from the upper troposphere over the monsoon regions to the tropical pipe.
Daniel Kunkel, Peter Hoor, Thorsten Kaluza, Jörn Ungermann, Björn Kluschat, Andreas Giez, Hans-Christoph Lachnitt, Martin Kaufmann, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12607–12630,Short summary
In this study we present a mixing process around the tropopause in extratropical baroclinic waves. We analyze airborne data from a flight during the WISE campaign in autumn 2017 over the North Atlantic. We use idealized experiments to study the mixing process. Although the process occurs on a small geographical scale, it might be of importance due to its relation to a frequent feature of the extratropical UTLS. The process is relevant for STE but is not fully included in climatologies.
Andreas Chrysanthou, Amanda C. Maycock, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sandip Dhomse, Hella Garny, Douglas Kinnison, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Makoto Deushi, Rolando R. Garcia, Patrick Jöckel, Oliver Kirner, Giovanni Pitari, David A. Plummer, Laura Revell, Eugene Rozanov, Andrea Stenke, Taichu Y. Tanaka, Daniele Visioni, and Yousuke Yamashita
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11559–11586,Short summary
We perform the first multi-model comparison of the impact of nudged meteorology on the stratospheric residual circulation (RC) in chemistry–climate models. Nudging meteorology does not constrain the mean strength of RC compared to free-running simulations, and despite the lack of agreement in the mean circulation, nudging tightly constrains the inter-annual variability in the tropical upward mass flux in the lower stratosphere. In summary, nudging strongly affects the representation of RC.
Blanca Ayarzagüena, Froila M. Palmeiro, David Barriopedro, Natalia Calvo, Ulrike Langematz, and Kiyotaka Shibata
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9469–9484,Short summary
Sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs) are abrupt rises in the wintertime polar stratosphere that also affect the troposphere. Their study is hampered by the limited observations in the stratosphere and mostly relies on reanalyses, i.e., models that include observations. Here we compare the representation of SSWs by the most used reanalyses. SSW results are consistent across reanalyses but some differences are found, in particular before the satellite era.
Ohad Harari, Chaim I. Garfinkel, Shlomi Ziskin Ziv, Olaf Morgenstern, Guang Zeng, Simone Tilmes, Douglas Kinnison, Makoto Deushi, Patrick Jöckel, Andrea Pozzer, Fiona M. O'Connor, and Sean Davis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9253–9268,Short summary
Ozone depletion in the Antarctic has been shown to influence surface conditions, but the effects of ozone depletion in the Arctic on surface climate are unclear. We show that Arctic ozone does influence surface climate in both polar regions and tropical regions, though the proximate cause of these surface impacts is not yet clear.
Matthias Nützel, Aurélien Podglajen, Hella Garny, and Felix Ploeger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8947–8966,Short summary
We investigate the transport pathways of water vapour from the upper troposphere in the Asian monsoon region to the stratosphere. In the employed chemistry-transport model we use a tagging method, such that the impact of different source regions on the stratospheric water vapour budget can be quantified. A key finding is that the Asian monsoon (compared to other source regions) is very efficient in transporting air masses and water vapour to the tropical and extratropical stratosphere.
Petr Šácha, Roland Eichinger, Hella Garny, Petr Pišoft, Simone Dietmüller, Laura de la Torre, David A. Plummer, Patrick Jöckel, Olaf Morgenstern, Guang Zeng, Neal Butchart, and Juan A. Añel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7627–7647,Short summary
Climate models robustly project a Brewer–Dobson circulation (BDC) acceleration in the course of climate change. Analyzing mean age of stratospheric air (AoA) from a subset of climate projection simulations, we find a remarkable agreement in simulating the largest AoA trends in the extratropical stratosphere. This is shown to be related with the upward shift of the circulation, resulting in a so-called stratospheric shrinkage, which could be one of the so-far-omitted BDC acceleration drivers.
Thorsten Kaluza, Daniel Kunkel, and Peter Hoor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6621–6636,Short summary
We present a comprehensive mean evolution of the tropopause inversion layer in mid-latitudes, an atmospheric feature that is located in the region that separates the well-mixed troposphere and the stably stratified stratosphere. We counter-intuitively find this region, which is expected to stabilise atmospheric flow, to exhibit favourable conditions for turbulent exchange between troposphere and stratosphere. This is an important result concerning the overall assessment of exchange processes.
Bärbel Vogel, Rolf Müller, Gebhard Günther, Reinhold Spang, Sreeharsha Hanumanthu, Dan Li, Martin Riese, and Gabriele P. Stiller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6007–6034,Short summary
We identified the transport pathways of air masses from the region of the Asian monsoon (e.g. pollution and greenhouse gases caused by increasing population and growing industries in Asia) into the lower stratosphere. Even small changes of the chemical composition of the lower stratosphere have an impact on surface climate (e.g. surface temperatures). Therefore, it is important to identify transport pathways to the stratosphere to allow potential environmental risks to be assessed.
Marius Hauck, Frauke Fritsch, Hella Garny, and Andreas Engel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5269–5291,Short summary
The paper presents a modified method to invert mixing ratios of chemically active tracers into stratospheric age spectra. It features an imposed seasonal cycle to include transport seasonality into the spectra. An idealized set of tracers from a model is used as proof of concept and results are in good agreement with the model reference, except for the lowermost stratosphere. Applicability is studied with focus on number of tracers and error tolerance, providing a starting point for future work.
Marianna Linz, Marta Abalos, Anne Sasha Glanville, Douglas E. Kinnison, Alison Ming, and Jessica L. Neu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5069–5090,Short summary
The stratospheric circulation is important for transporting ozone and water vapor, and models of the stratosphere differ. The metrics used to compare models are inconsistent between studies and cannot be calculated from observational data. In this paper, we explore a metric for the circulation that can be calculated from observations and examine how it relates to the more commonly used metrics. We find substantial differences in the upper and lower stratosphere depending on the choice of metric.
Sabine Haase and Katja Matthes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3417–3432,Short summary
The Antarctic ozone hole influences surface climate in the Southern Hemisphere. Recent studies have shown that stratospheric ozone depletion in the Arctic can also affect the surface. We evaluate the importance of the direct and indirect representation of ozone variability in a climate model for this surface response. We show that allowing feedbacks between ozone chemistry, radiation, and dynamics enhances and prolongs the surface response to Northern Hemisphere spring ozone depletion.
Lars Hoffmann, Gebhard Günther, Dan Li, Olaf Stein, Xue Wu, Sabine Griessbach, Yi Heng, Paul Konopka, Rolf Müller, Bärbel Vogel, and Jonathon S. Wright
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3097–3124,Short summary
ECMWF's new ERA5 reanalysis provides higher spatiotemporal resolution, yielding an improved representation of meso- and synoptic-scale features of the atmosphere. We assessed the impact of this challenging new data set on Lagrangian trajectory calculations for the free troposphere and stratosphere. Key findings are considerable transport deviations between the ERA5 and ERA-Interim simulations as well as significantly improved conservation of potential temperature in the stratosphere for ERA5.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2749–2764,Short summary
Studies of the dynamics of stratosphere–troposphere coupling benefit from long observational records in order to distinguish common dynamical features from unrelated atmospheric variability. On the basis of a comparison between a range of reanalysis products, this study argues that the period from 1958 to 1979 is of significant value in the Northern Hemisphere for this purpose, despite the lack of global satellite records.
Roland Eichinger, Simone Dietmüller, Hella Garny, Petr Šácha, Thomas Birner, Harald Bönisch, Giovanni Pitari, Daniele Visioni, Andrea Stenke, Eugene Rozanov, Laura Revell, David A. Plummer, Patrick Jöckel, Luke Oman, Makoto Deushi, Douglas E. Kinnison, Rolando Garcia, Olaf Morgenstern, Guang Zeng, Kane Adam Stone, and Robyn Schofield
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 921–940,Short summary
To shed more light upon the changes in stratospheric circulation in the 21st century, climate projection simulations of 10 state-of-the-art global climate models, spanning from 1960 to 2100, are analyzed. The study shows that in addition to changes in transport, mixing also plays an important role in stratospheric circulation and that the properties of mixing vary over time. Furthermore, the influence of mixing is quantified and a dynamical framework is provided to understand the changes.
Mohamadou Diallo, Paul Konopka, Michelle L. Santee, Rolf Müller, Mengchu Tao, Kaley A. Walker, Bernard Legras, Martin Riese, Manfred Ern, and Felix Ploeger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 425–446,Short summary
This paper assesses the structural changes in the shallow and transition branches of the BDC induced by El Nino using the Lagrangian model simulations driven by ERAi and JRA-55 combined with MLS observations. We found a clear evidence of a weakening of the transition branch due to an upward shift in the dissipation height of the planetary and gravity waves and a strengthening of the shallow branch due to enhanced GW breaking in the tropics–subtropics and PW breaking at high latitudes.
Edwin P. Gerber and Patrick Martineau
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17099–17117,Short summary
The annular modes characterize the variability of the extratropical circulation. We show that they are extremely consistent across all reanalyses during the satellite era (1979 onward). Consequently, uncertainty in the annual cycle of variability of the tropospheric jet streams and their coupling with the stratospheric polar vortices is dominated by sampling uncertainty. Pre-satellite reanalysis of the Northern Hemisphere appears to be of high quality and can help reduce this uncertainty.
Alvaro de la Cámara, Marta Abalos, Peter Hitchcock, Natalia Calvo, and Rolando R. Garcia
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16499–16513,Short summary
Long chemistry–climate runs are used to investigate the changes that sudden stratospheric warmings (extreme and fast disruptions of the wintertime stratospheric polar vortex) induce on Arctic ozone. Ozone increases rapidly during the onset of the events, driven by deep changes in the stratospheric transport circulation. These anomalies decay slowly, particularly in the lower stratosphere where they can last up to 2 months. Irreversible mixing makes an important contribution to this behavior.
Xue Wu, Sabine Griessbach, and Lars Hoffmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15859–15877,Short summary
Volcanic aerosol is an important source of sulfur for Antarctica, where local sources of sulfur are rare. Midlatitude and high-latitude volcanism can directly influence the aerosol budget of the polar stratosphere, but tropical volcanic eruptions can also enhance polar aerosols by transport. Our study investigates pathway and transport processes of volcanic aerosol from the tropics to the lower stratosphere over Antarctica by combining Lagrangian transport simulation and satellite observations.
Simon Chabrillat, Corinne Vigouroux, Yves Christophe, Andreas Engel, Quentin Errera, Daniele Minganti, Beatriz M. Monge-Sanz, Arjo Segers, and Emmanuel Mahieu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14715–14735,Short summary
Mean age of stratospheric air is computed for the period 1989–2015 with a kinematic transport model which uses surface pressure and wind fields from five reanalyses: ERA-I, MERRA-2, MERRA, CFSR, JRA-55. The spread between the resulting datasets is as large as in climate model intercomparisons; the age trends have large disagreement and depend strongly on the considered period. We highlight the need for similar studies using diabatic transport models which also use temperature and heating rates.
Yuta Ando, Koji Yamazaki, Yoshihiro Tachibana, Masayo Ogi, and Jinro Ukita
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12639–12661,Short summary
We found the climatological strong stratospheric westerly circumpolar wind stops increasing temporarily during November, when the upward propagation of large-scale atmospheric waves from the troposphere increases. The propagation of atmospheric waves, which is strongest over Siberia, is related to strengthening of the low pressure. Longitudinally asymmetric forcing by land–sea heating contrasts caused by their different heat capacities might cause the strengthening of the low pressure.
Blanca Ayarzagüena, Lorenzo M. Polvani, Ulrike Langematz, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Slimane Bekki, Neal Butchart, Martin Dameris, Makoto Deushi, Steven C. Hardiman, Patrick Jöckel, Andrew Klekociuk, Marion Marchand, Martine Michou, Olaf Morgenstern, Fiona M. O'Connor, Luke D. Oman, David A. Plummer, Laura Revell, Eugene Rozanov, David Saint-Martin, John Scinocca, Andrea Stenke, Kane Stone, Yousuke Yamashita, Kohei Yoshida, and Guang Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11277–11287,Short summary
Stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs) are natural major disruptions of the polar stratospheric circulation that also affect surface weather. In the literature there are conflicting claims as to whether SSWs will change in the future. The confusion comes from studies using different models and methods. Here we settle the question by analysing 12 models with a consistent methodology, to show that no robust changes in frequency and other features are expected over the 21st century.
Liubov Poshyvailo, Rolf Müller, Paul Konopka, Gebhard Günther, Martin Riese, Aurélien Podglajen, and Felix Ploeger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8505–8527,Short summary
Water vapour (H2O) in the UTLS is a key player for global radiation, which is critical for predictions of future climate change. We investigate the effects of current uncertainties in tropopause temperature, horizontal transport and small-scale mixing on simulated H2O, using the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere. Our sensitivity studies provide new insights into the leading processes controlling stratospheric H2O, important for assessing and improving climate model projections.
Lesley J. Gray, James A. Anstey, Yoshio Kawatani, Hua Lu, Scott Osprey, and Verena Schenzinger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8227–8247,Short summary
A major phenomenon in the stratosphere is the Quasi Biennial Oscillation (QBO). Although a feature of the equatorial stratosphere, its influence extends to surface weather at both equatorial and mid latitudes. Improved knowledge of mechanisms of influence should help to improve weather forecasts. In this paper, QBO impacts at the surface are characterized and dominant mechanisms explored. Three pathways are identified, referred to as the tropical, subtropical and polar routes.
Jonathan Conway, Greg Bodeker, and Chris Cameron
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8065–8077,Short summary
Strong westerly winds occur in the stratosphere during winter and spring. These winds, the polar vortex, limit how much air is mixed between mid- and high-latitudes. We present a new view of the polar vortex mixing barrier in the Southern Hemisphere, revealing a frequent double-walled barrier with two distinct regions of weak mixing. This double-walled structure is expected to alter the spatial and temporal variation of trace gas concentrations (e.g. ozone) across the polar vortex.
Xiaolu Yan, Paul Konopka, Felix Ploeger, Mengchu Tao, Rolf Müller, Michelle L. Santee, Jianchun Bian, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8079–8096,Short summary
Many works investigate the impact of ENSO on the troposphere. However, only a few works check the impact of ENSO at higher altitudes. Here, we analyse the impact of ENSO on the vicinity of the tropopause using reanalysis, satellite, in situ and model data. We find that ENSO shows the strongest signal in winter, but its impact can last until early the next summer. The ENSO anomaly is insignificant in late summer. Our study can help to understand the atmosphere propagation after ENSO.
Patrick Martineau, Seok-Woo Son, Masakazu Taguchi, and Amy H. Butler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7169–7187,Short summary
This study evaluates the agreement between eight reanalysis datasets by comparing zonal-mean zonal winds and the forcing terms of the zonal-mean momentum equation during sudden stratospheric warming events. Results show that the spread between datasets increases exponentially with height and is largest during the most intense sudden stratospheric warming events. The largest uncertainties arise from differences in the mean meridional circulation and horizontal fluxes of momentum by eddies.
Lena Schoon and Christoph Zülicke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6971–6983,Short summary
Different kinds of waves are the subject of intense research because they are suspected to steer several different atmospheric phenomena. To analyse the effects of waves, wave packet characteristics have to be known. We introduce a new tool to study wave packets locally: Unified Wave Diagnostics (UWaDi). To show the advantages of UWaDi, a sudden stratospheric warming period in 2016 is analysed for different background wind conditions, revealing gravity waves emitted from a jet exit region.
Simone Dietmüller, Roland Eichinger, Hella Garny, Thomas Birner, Harald Boenisch, Giovanni Pitari, Eva Mancini, Daniele Visioni, Andrea Stenke, Laura Revell, Eugene Rozanov, David A. Plummer, John Scinocca, Patrick Jöckel, Luke Oman, Makoto Deushi, Shibata Kiyotaka, Douglas E. Kinnison, Rolando Garcia, Olaf Morgenstern, Guang Zeng, Kane Adam Stone, and Robyn Schofield
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6699–6720,
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