Articles | Volume 10, issue 19
08 Oct 2010
08 Oct 2010
Testing remote sensing on artificial observations: impact of drizzle and 3-D cloud structure on effective radius retrievals
T. Zinner et al.
Related subject area
Subject: Radiation | Research Activity: Remote Sensing | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Photovoltaic power potential in West Africa using long-term satellite dataA semi-empirical potential energy surface and line list for H216O extending into the near-ultravioletGlobal distribution and 14-year changes in erythemal irradiance, UV atmospheric transmission, and total column ozone for2005–2018 estimated from OMI and EPIC observationsBiomass-burning-induced surface darkening and its impact on regional meteorology in eastern ChinaAir pollution slows down surface warming over the Tibetan PlateauEstimation of hourly land surface heat fluxes over the Tibetan Plateau by the combined use of geostationary and polar-orbiting satellitesEstimations of global shortwave direct aerosol radiative effects above opaque water clouds using a combination of A-Train satellite sensorsUncertainty of atmospheric microwave absorption model: impact on ground-based radiometer simulations and retrievalsSimulated and observed horizontal inhomogeneities of optical thickness of Arctic stratusNet radiative effects of dust in the tropical North Atlantic based on integrated satellite observations and in situ measurementsComparison of global observations and trends of total precipitable water derived from microwave radiometers and COSMIC radio occultation from 2006 to 2013Characterizing energy budget variability at a Sahelian site: a test of NWP model behaviourScale dependence of cirrus horizontal heterogeneity effects on TOA measurements – Part I: MODIS brightness temperatures in the thermal infraredAerosol scattering effects on water vapor retrievals over the Los Angeles BasinDirectional, horizontal inhomogeneities of cloud optical thickness fields retrieved from ground-based and airbornespectral imagingAirborne observations of far-infrared upwelling radiance in the ArcticRetrieval of aerosol optical depth from surface solar radiation measurements using machine learning algorithms, non-linear regression and a radiative transfer-based look-up tableMicrowave signatures of ice hydrometeors from ground-based observations above Summit, GreenlandShortwave direct radiative effects of above-cloud aerosols over global oceans derived from 8 years of CALIOP and MODIS observationsRetrieving high-resolution surface solar radiation with cloud parameters derived by combining MODIS and MTSAT dataInstantaneous longwave radiative impact of ozone: an application on IASI/MetOp observationsA method to retrieve super-thin cloud optical depth over ocean background with polarized sunlightAirborne observations and simulations of three-dimensional radiative interactions between Arctic boundary layer clouds and ice floesDeriving polarization properties of desert-reflected solar spectra with PARASOL dataUsing IASI to simulate the total spectrum of outgoing long-wave radiancesInvestigation of the "elevated heat pump" hypothesis of the Asian monsoon using satellite observationsImproved retrieval of direct and diffuse downwelling surface shortwave flux in cloudless atmosphere using dynamic estimates of aerosol content and type: application to the LSA-SAF projectSurface-sensible and latent heat fluxes over the Tibetan Plateau from ground measurements, reanalysis, and satellite dataInfluence of local surface albedo variability and ice crystal shape on passive remote sensing of thin cirrusCombining MODIS, AVHRR and in situ data for evapotranspiration estimation over heterogeneous landscape of the Tibetan PlateauModeling polarized solar radiation from the ocean–atmosphere system for CLARREO inter-calibration applicationsHIRS channel 12 brightness temperature dataset and its correlations with major climate indicesPerformance of the Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) for temperature, water vapor, and trace gas retrievals: recent updates evaluated with IASI case studiesMulti-satellite aerosol observations in the vicinity of cloudsCLARA-SAL: a global 28 yr timeseries of Earth's black-sky surface albedoQuantitative comparison of the variability in observed and simulated shortwave reflectanceRegional radiative impact of volcanic aerosol from the 2009 eruption of Mt. RedoubtAirborne hyperspectral observations of surface and cloud directional reflectivity using a commercial digital cameraDirect and semi-direct radiative forcing of smoke aerosols over cloudsValidity of satellite measurements used for the monitoring of UV radiation risk on healthStatistics of vertical backscatter profiles of cirrus cloudsUsing surface remote sensors to derive radiative characteristics of Mixed-Phase Clouds: an example from M-PACEDetermination of land surface heat fluxes over heterogeneous landscape of the Tibetan Plateau by using the MODIS and in situ dataCirrus cloud-temperature interactions in the tropical tropopause layer: a case studyCharacteristics of water-vapour inversions observed over the Arctic by Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and radiosondesUse of satellite erythemal UV products in analysing the global UV changesEffects of absorbing aerosols in cloudy skies: a satellite study over the Atlantic OceanSpectrally-invariant behavior of zenith radiance around cloud edges simulated by radiative transferAssessment of the calibration performance of satellite visible channels using cloud targets: application to Meteosat-8/9 and MTSAT-1RDownscaling of METEOSAT SEVIRI 0.6 and 0.8 μm channel radiances utilizing the high-resolution visible channel
Ina Neher, Susanne Crewell, Stefanie Meilinger, Uwe Pfeifroth, and Jörg Trentmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12871–12888,Short summary
Photovoltaic power is one current option to meet the rising energy demand with low environmental impact. Global horizontal irradiance (GHI) is the fuel for photovoltaic power installations and needs to be evaluated to plan and dimension power plants. In this study, 35 years of satellite-based GHI data are analyzed over West Africa to determine their impact on photovoltaic power generation. The major challenges for the development of a solar-based power system in West Africa are then outlined.
Eamon K. Conway, Iouli E. Gordon, Jonathan Tennyson, Oleg L. Polyansky, Sergei N. Yurchenko, and Kelly Chance
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10015–10027,Short summary
Water vapour has a complex spectrum and absorbs from the microwave to the near-UV where it dissociates. There is limited knowledge of the absorption features in the near-UV, and there is a large disagreement for the available models and experiments. We created a new ab initio model that is in good agreement with observation at 363 nm. At lower wavelengths, our calculations suggest that the latest experiments overestimate absorption. This has implications for trace gas retrievals in the near-UV.
Jay Herman, Alexander Cede, Liang Huang, Jerald Ziemke, Omar Torres, Nickolay Krotkov, Matthew Kowalewski, and Karin Blank
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8351–8380,Short summary
The amount of erythemal irradiance reaching the Earth's surface has been calculated from ozone, aerosol, and reflectivity data obtained from OMI and DSCOVR/EPIC satellite instruments showing areas with high levels of solar UV radiation. Changes in erythemal irradiance, cloud transmission, aerosol transmission, and ozone absorption have been estimated for 14 years 2005–2018 in units of percent per year for 191 locations, mostly large cities, and from EPIC for the entire illuminated Earth.
Rong Tang, Xin Huang, Derong Zhou, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6177–6191,Short summary
Biomass-burning-induced large areas of dark char (i.e.
surface darkening) could influence the radiative energy balance. During the harvest season in eastern China, satellite retrieval shows that surface albedo was significantly decreased. Observational evidence of meteorological perturbations from the surface darkening is identified, which is further examined by model simulation. This work highlights the importance of burning-induced albedo change in weather forecast and regional climate.
Aolin Jia, Shunlin Liang, Dongdong Wang, Bo Jiang, and Xiaotong Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 881–899,Short summary
The Tibetan Plateau (TP) plays a vital role in regional and global climate change due to its location and orography. After generating a long-term surface radiation (SR) dataset, we characterized the SR spatiotemporal variation along with temperature. Evidence from multiple data sources indicated that the TP dimming was primarily driven by increased aerosols from human activities, and the cooling effect of aerosol loading offsets TP surface warming, revealing the human impact on regional warming.
Lei Zhong, Yaoming Ma, Zeyong Hu, Yunfei Fu, Yuanyuan Hu, Xian Wang, Meilin Cheng, and Nan Ge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5529–5541,Short summary
Fine-temporal-resolution turbulent heat fluxes at the plateau scale have significant importance for studying diurnal variation characteristics of atmospheric boundary and weather systems in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and its surroundings. Time series of land surface heat fluxes with high temporal resolution over the entire TP were derived. The derived surface heat fluxes proved to be in good agreement with in situ measurements and were superior to GLDAS flux products.
Meloë S. Kacenelenbogen, Mark A. Vaughan, Jens Redemann, Stuart A. Young, Zhaoyan Liu, Yongxiang Hu, Ali H. Omar, Samuel LeBlanc, Yohei Shinozuka, John Livingston, Qin Zhang, and Kathleen A. Powell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4933–4962,Short summary
Significant efforts are required to estimate the direct radiative effects of aerosols above clouds (DAREcloudy). We have used a combination of passive and active A-Train satellite sensors and derive mainly positive global and regional DAREcloudy values (e.g., global seasonal values between 0.13 and 0.26 W m-2). Despite differences in methods and sensors, the DAREcloudy values in this study are generally higher than previously reported. We discuss the primary reasons for these higher estimates.
Domenico Cimini, Philip W. Rosenkranz, Mikhail Y. Tretyakov, Maksim A. Koshelev, and Filomena Romano
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15231–15259,Short summary
The paper presents a general approach to quantify the uncertainty related to atmospheric absorption models. These models describe how the atmosphere interacts with radiation, and they have general implications for atmospheric sciences. The presented approach contributes to a better understanding of the total uncertainty affecting atmospheric radiative properties, thus reducing the chances of systematic errors when observations are exploited for weather forecast or climate trend derivations.
Michael Schäfer, Katharina Loewe, André Ehrlich, Corinna Hoose, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13115–13133,Short summary
Airborne observed horizontal fields of cloud optical thickness are compared with semi-idealized large eddy simulations of Arctic stratus. The comparison focuses on horizontal cloud inhomogeneities and directional features of the small-scale cloud structures. Using inhomogeneity parameters and autocorrelation analysis it is investigated, if the observed small-scale cloud inhomogeneities can be represented by the model. Forcings for cloud inhomogeneities are investigated in a sensitivity study.
Qianqian Song, Zhibo Zhang, Hongbin Yu, Seiji Kato, Ping Yang, Peter Colarco, Lorraine A. Remer, and Claire L. Ryder
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11303–11322,Short summary
Mineral dust is the most abundant atmospheric aerosol component in terms of dry mass. In this study, we integrate recent aircraft measurements of dust microphysical and optical properties with satellite retrievals of aerosol and radiative fluxes to quantify the dust direct radiative effects on the shortwave and longwave radiation at both the top of the atmosphere and the surface in the tropical North Atlantic during summer months.
Shu-Peng Ho, Liang Peng, Carl Mears, and Richard A. Anthes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 259–274,Short summary
In this study, we compare 7 years of atmospheric total precipitable water (TPW) derived from multiple microwave radiometers to collocated TPW estimates derived from COSMIC radio occultation under various atmospheric conditions over the oceans. Results show that these two TPW trends from independent observations are larger than previous estimates and are a strong indication of the positive water vapor–temperature feedback on a warming planet.
Anna Mackie, Paul I. Palmer, and Helen Brindley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15095–15119,Short summary
We compare the balance of solar and thermal radiation at the surface and the top of the atmosphere from a forecasting model to observations at a site in Niamey, Niger, in the Sahel. To interpret the energy budgets we examine other factors, such as cloud properties, water vapour and aerosols, which we use to understand the differences between the observation and model. We find that some differences are linked to lack of ice in clouds, underestimated aerosol loading and surface temperatures.
Thomas Fauchez, Steven Platnick, Kerry Meyer, Céline Cornet, Frédéric Szczap, and Tamás Várnai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8489–8508,Short summary
This study presents impact of cirrus cloud horizontal heterogeneity on simulated thermal infrared brightness temperatures at the top of the atmosphere for spatial resolutions ranging from 50 m to 10 km. The cirrus is generated by the 3DCLOUD code and the radiative transfer by the 3DMCPOL code. Brightness temperatures are mostly impacted by the horizontal transport effect and plane-parallel bias at high and coarse spatial resolutions, respectively, with a minimum around 100 m–250 m.
Zhao-Cheng Zeng, Qiong Zhang, Vijay Natraj, Jack S. Margolis, Run-Lie Shia, Sally Newman, Dejian Fu, Thomas J. Pongetti, Kam W. Wong, Stanley P. Sander, Paul O. Wennberg, and Yuk L. Yung
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2495–2508,Short summary
We propose a novel approach to describing the scattering effects of atmospheric aerosols using H2O retrievals in the near infrared. We found that the aerosol scattering effect is the primary contributor to the variations in the wavelength dependence of the H2O SCD retrievals and the scattering effects can be derived using H2O retrievals from multiple bands. This proposed method could potentially contribute towards reducing biases in greenhouse gas retrievals from space.
Michael Schäfer, Eike Bierwirth, André Ehrlich, Evelyn Jäkel, Frank Werner, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2359–2372,Short summary
Cloud optical thickness fields, retrieved from solar spectral radiance measurements, are used to investigate the directional structure of horizontal cloud inhomogeneities with scalar one-dimensional inhomogeneity parameters, two-dimensional auto-correlation functions, and two-dimensional Fourier analysis. The investigations reveal that it is not sufficient to quantify horizontal cloud inhomogeneities by one-dimensional inhomogeneity parameters; two-dimensional parameters are necessary.
Quentin Libois, Liviu Ivanescu, Jean-Pierre Blanchet, Hannes Schulz, Heiko Bozem, W. Richard Leaitch, Julia Burkart, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Andreas B. Herber, Amir A. Aliabadi, and Éric Girard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15689–15707,Short summary
The first airborne measurements performed with the FIRR are presented. Vertical profiles of upwelling spectral radiance in the far-infrared are measured in the Arctic atmosphere for the first time. They show the impact of the temperature inversion on the radiative budget of the atmosphere, especially in the far-infrared. The presence of ice clouds also significantly alters the far-infrared budget, highlighting the critical interplay between water vapour and clouds in this very dry region.
Jani Huttunen, Harri Kokkola, Tero Mielonen, Mika Esa Juhani Mononen, Antti Lipponen, Juha Reunanen, Anders Vilhelm Lindfors, Santtu Mikkonen, Kari Erkki Juhani Lehtinen, Natalia Kouremeti, Alkiviadis Bais, Harri Niska, and Antti Arola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8181–8191,Short summary
For a good estimate of the current forcing by anthropogenic aerosols, knowledge in past is needed. One option to lengthen time series is to retrieve aerosol optical depth from solar radiation measurements. We have evaluated several methods for this task. Most of the methods produce aerosol optical depth estimates with a good accuracy. However, machine learning methods seem to be the most applicable not to produce any systematic biases, since they do not need constrain the aerosol properties.
Claire Pettersen, Ralf Bennartz, Mark S. Kulie, Aronne J. Merrelli, Matthew D. Shupe, and David D. Turner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4743–4756,Short summary
We examined four summers of data from a ground-based atmospheric science instrument suite at Summit Station, Greenland, to isolate the signature of the ice precipitation. By using a combination of instruments with different specialities, we identified a passive microwave signature of the ice precipitation. This ice signature compares well to models using synthetic data characteristic of the site.
Zhibo Zhang, Kerry Meyer, Hongbin Yu, Steven Platnick, Peter Colarco, Zhaoyan Liu, and Lazaros Oreopoulos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2877–2900,Short summary
The frequency of occurrence and shortwave direct radiative effects (DRE) of above-cloud aerosols (ACAs) over global oceans are investigated using 8 years of collocated CALIOP and MODIS observations. We estimated that ACAs have a global ocean annual mean diurnally averaged cloudy-sky DRE of 0.015 W m−2 (range of −0.03 to 0.06 W m−2) at TOA. The DREs at surface and within atmosphere are −0.15 W m−2 (range of −0.09 to −0.21 W m−2), and 0.17 W m−2 (range of 0.11 to 0.24 W m−2), respectively.
Wenjun Tang, Jun Qin, Kun Yang, Shaomin Liu, Ning Lu, and Xiaolei Niu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2543–2557,Short summary
In this paper, we develop a new method to quickly retrieve high-resolution surface solar radiation (SSR) over China by combining MODIS and MTSAT data. The RMSEs of the retrieved SSR at hourly, daily, and monthly scales are about 98.5, 34.2, and 22.1 W m−2. The accuracy is comparable to or even higher than other two satellite radiation products. Finally, we derive an 8-year high-resolution SSR data set (hourly, 5 km) from 2007 to 2014, which would contribute to studies of land surface processes.
S. Doniki, D. Hurtmans, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, H. M. Worden, K. W. Bowman, and P.-F. Coheur
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12971–12987,
W. Sun, R. R. Baize, G. Videen, Y. Hu, and Q. Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11909–11918,Short summary
A method is reported for retrieving super-thin cloud optical depth with polarized light. It is found that near-backscatter p-polarized light is sensitive to clouds, but not to ocean conditions. Near-backscatter p-polarized intensity linearly relates to super-thin cloud optical depth. Based on these findings, super-thin cloud optical depth can be retrieved with little effect from surface reflection.
M. Schäfer, E. Bierwirth, A. Ehrlich, E. Jäkel, and M. Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8147–8163,
W. Sun, R. R. Baize, C. Lukashin, and Y. Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7725–7734,
E. C. Turner, H.-T. Lee, and S. F. B. Tett
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6561–6575,
M. M. Wonsick, R. T. Pinker, and Y. Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8749–8761,
X. Ceamanos, D. Carrer, and J.-L. Roujean
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8209–8232,
Q. Shi and S. Liang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5659–5677,
C. Fricke, A. Ehrlich, E. Jäkel, B. Bohn, M. Wirth, and M. Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1943–1958,
Y. Ma, Z. Zhu, L. Zhong, B. Wang, C. Han, Z. Wang, Y. Wang, L. Lu, P. M. Amatya, W. Ma, and Z. Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1507–1515,
W. Sun and C. Lukashin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10303–10324,
L. Shi, C. J. Schreck III, and V. O. John
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6907–6920,
M. J. Alvarado, V. H. Payne, E. J. Mlawer, G. Uymin, M. W. Shephard, K. E. Cady-Pereira, J. S. Delamere, and J.-L. Moncet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6687–6711,
T. Várnai, A. Marshak, and W. Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3899–3908,
A. Riihelä, T. Manninen, V. Laine, K. Andersson, and F. Kaspar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3743–3762,
Y. L. Roberts, P. Pilewskie, B. C. Kindel, D. R. Feldman, and W. D. Collins
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3133–3147,
C. L. Young, I. N. Sokolik, and J. Dufek
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 3699–3715,
A. Ehrlich, E. Bierwirth, M. Wendisch, A. Herber, and J.-F. Gayet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 3493–3510,
E. M. Wilcox
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 139–149,
F. Jégou, S. Godin-Beekman, M. P. Corrêa, C. Brogniez, F. Auriol, V. H. Peuch, M. Haeffelin, A. Pazmino, P. Saiag, F. Goutail, and E. Mahé
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 13377–13394,
P. Veglio and T. Maestri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 12925–12943,
G. de Boer, W. D. Collins, S. Menon, and C. N. Long
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 11937–11949,
Y. Ma, L. Zhong, B. Wang, W. Ma, X. Chen, and M. Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 10461–10469,
J. R. Taylor, W. J. Randel, and E. J. Jensen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 10085–10095,
A. Devasthale, J. Sedlar, and M. Tjernström
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 9813–9823,
I. Ialongo, A. Arola, J. Kujanpää, and J. Tamminen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 9649–9658,
K. Peters, J. Quaas, and N. Bellouin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 1393–1404,
J. C. Chiu, A. Marshak, Y. Knyazikhin, and W. J. Wiscombe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 11295–11303,
S.-H. Ham and B. J. Sohn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 11131–11149,
H. M. Deneke and R. A. Roebeling
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 9761–9772,
Ackerman, A. S., Kirkpatrick, M. P., Stevens, D. E., and Toown, O. B.: The impact of humidity above stratiform clouds on indirect aerosol climate forcing, Nature, 432, 1014–1017, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature03174, 2004.
Ackerman, A. S., Toon, O. B., Stevens, D. E., and Coakley, Jr., J. A.: Enhancement of cloud cover and suppression of nocturnal drizzle in stratocumulus polluted by haze. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1381, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002GL016634, 2003.
Ackerman, S. A., Strabala, K. I., Menzel, W. P., Frey, R. A., Moeller, C. C., and Gumley, L. E.: Discriminating clear-sky from clouds with MODIS. J. Geophys Res.-Atmos., 103(D24), 32141–32157, 1998.
Chang, F.-L. and Li, Z.: Retrieving vertical profiles of water-cloud droplet effective radius: Algorithm modification and preliminary application. J. Geophys. Res., 108, D24, 4763, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JD003906, 2003.
Chen R., Wood, R., Li, Z., Ferraro, R., and Chang, F.-L.: Studying the vertical variation of cloud droplet effective radius using ship and space-borne remote sensing data, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D00A02, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JD009596, 2008.
Hansen, J. E. and Travis, T. D.: Light scattering in planetary atmosphere, Space Sci. Rev., 16, 527–610, 1974.
Kato, S., Hinkelman, L. M., and Cheng, A.: Estimate of satellite-derived cloud optical thickness and effective radius errors and their effect on computed domain-averaged irradiances, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D17201, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD006668, 2006.
King, M.: Determination of the Scaled Optical Thickness of Clouds from Reflected Solar Radiation Measurements. J. Atmos. Sci, 44.13, 1734–1751, 1987.
Lebsock, M. D., Stephens, G. L., and Kummerow, C.: Multisensor satellite observations of aerosol effects on warm clouds, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D15205, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD009876, 2008.
Loeb, N. G., Varnai, T., and Winker, D. M.: Influence of subpixelscale cloud-top structure of reflectances from overcast stratiform cloud layers, J. Atmos. Sci., 55, 2960–2973, 1998.
Marshak, A., Platnick, S. E., Varnai, T., Wen, G., and Cahalan, R. F.: Impact of 3-D radiative effects on satellite retrievals of cloud droplet sizes, J. Geophys. Res., 111, DO9207, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD006686, 2006.
Mayer, B.: Radiative transfer in the cloudy atmosphere, Eur. Phys. J. Conferences, 1, 75–99, 2009.
Mayer, B., and Kylling, A.: Technical note: The libRadtran software package for radiative transfer calculations: description and examples of use, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 1855–1877, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-5-1855-2005, 2005.
Menzel, W. P., Frey, R., Zhang, H., Wylie, D., Moeller, C., Holz, R., Maddux, B., Baum, B. A., Strabala, K., and Gumley, L.: MODIS global cloud-top pressure and amount estimation: algorithm description and results, J. Appl. Meteor. Clim., 47, 1175–1198, 2008.
Minnis, P., Kratz, D. P., Coakley, J. A. Jr., King, M. D., Garber, D., Heck, P., Mayor, S., Young, D. F., and Arduini, R.: Cloud Optical Property Retrieval (Subsystem 4.3). "Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, Volume III: Cloud Analyses and Radiance Inversions (Subsystem 4)", edited by: CERES Science Team, NASA RP 1376 Vol. 3, 135–176, 1995.
Minnis, P., Arduini, R. F., Young, D. F., Ayers, J. K., Albracht, B. A., Sharon, T., Stevens, B.: An examination of the impact of drizzle drops on satellite retrieved effective particle sizes. Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Clouds and Precipitation, Bologna, Italy, July 2004.
Nakajima, T. and King, K. D.: Determination of the Optical Thickness and Effective Particle Radius of Clouds from Reflected Solar Radiation Measurements. Part 1: Theory, J. Atmos. Sci., 47, 1878–1893, 1990.
Platnick, S.: Vertical photon transport in cloud remote sensing problems. J. Geophys. Res., 105(D18), 22919–22935, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000JD900333, 2000.
Platnick, S., Li, J. Y., King, M. D., Gerber, H., and Hobbs, P. V: A solar reflectance method for retrieving the optical thickness and droplet size of liquid water clouds over snow and ice surfaces, J. Geophys. Res., 106(D14), 15185–15199, 2001.
Platnick, S., King, M. D., Ackerman, S. A., Menzel, W. P., Baum, B. A., Riedi, J. C., and Frey, R. A.: The MODIS cloud products: Algorithms and examples from Terra, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 41(2), 459-473, 2003.
Roebeling, R., Feijt, A., and Stammes, P.: Cloud property retrievals for climate monitoring: Implications of differences between Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) on METEOSAT-8 and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on NOAA-17, J. Geophys. Res., 111, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD006 990, 2006.
Stevens, B., Vali, G., Comstock, K., Wood, R., van Zanten, M. C., Austin, P. H., Bretherton, C. S., and Lenschow, d. H.: Pockets of open cells and drizzle in marine stratocumulus, Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc., 51–57, 2005.
Vant-Hull, B., Marshak, A., Remer, L., and Li, Z.: The effects of scattering angle and cumulus cloud geometry on satellite retrievals of cloud drop effective radius, Geosci. Remote S., 45(4), 1039–1045, 2007.
Varnai, T. and Marshak A.: Statistical analysis of the uncertainties in cloud optical depth retrievals caused by three-dimensional radiative effects, J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 1540–1548, 2001.
Varnai, T. and Marshak, A.: View angle dependence of cloud optical thickness retrieved by MODIS. J. Geophys. Res., 112, D06203, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD006912, 2007.
Wood, R., Comstock, K. K., Bretherton, C. S., Cornish, C., Tomlinson, J., Collins, D. R., and Fairall, C.: Open cellular structure in marine stratocumulus sheets, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D12207, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JD009371, 2008.
vanZanten, M. C., Stevens, B. B., Nuijens, L., Siebesma, A. P., Ackerman, A., Burnet, F., Cheng, A., Couvreux, F., Jiang, H., Khairoutdinov, M., Kogan, Y., Lewellen, D. C., Mechem, D., Nakamura, K., Noda, A., Shipway, B. J., Slawinska, J., Wang, S., and Wyszogrodzki, A.: Controls on precipitation and cloudiness in simulations of trade-wind cumulus as observed during RICO, submitted, J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 2010.
Zinner, T. and Mayer, B.: Remote sensing of stratocumulus clouds: Uncertainties and biases due to inhomogeneity, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D14209, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD006955, 2006.