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ACP | Articles | Volume 20, issue 14
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8923–8938, 2020
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8923–8938, 2020
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 28 Jul 2020

Research article | 28 Jul 2020

Statistical response of middle atmosphere composition to solar proton events in WACCM-D simulations: the importance of lower ionospheric chemistry

Niilo Kalakoski et al.

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Validation of TROPOMI Surface UV Radiation Product
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Odd hydrogen response thresholds for indication of solar proton and electron impact in the mesosphere and stratosphere
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Is there a direct solar proton impact on lower stratospheric ozone?
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Cited articles

Andersson, M. E., Verronen, P. T., Marsh, D. R., Päivärinta, S.-M., and Plane, J. M. C.: WACCM-D – Improved modeling of nitric acid and active chlorine during energetic particle precipitation, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 121, 10328–10341,, 2016. a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i
Calisto, M., Usoskin, I., and Rozanov, E.: Influence of a Carrington-like event on the atmospheric chemistry, temperature and dynamics: revised, Environ. Res. Lett., 8, 045010,, 2013. a
Damiani, A., Funke, B., Marsh, D. R., López-Puertas, M., Santee, M. L., Froidevaux, L., Wang, S., Jackman, C. H., von Clarmann, T., Gardini, A., Cordero, R. R., and Storini, M.: Impact of January 2005 solar proton events on chlorine species, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 4159–4179,, 2012. a
Denton, M. H., Kivi, R., Ulich, T., Clilverd, M. A., Rodger, C. J., and von der Gathen, P.: Northern hemisphere stratospheric ozone depletion caused by solar proton events: the role of the polar vortex, Geophys. Res. Lett., 45, 2115–2124, 2018. a, b
Funke, B., Baumgaertner, A., Calisto, M., Egorova, T., Jackman, C. H., Kieser, J., Krivolutsky, A., López-Puertas, M., Marsh, D. R., Reddmann, T., Rozanov, E., Salmi, S.-M., Sinnhuber, M., Stiller, G. P., Verronen, P. T., Versick, S., von Clarmann, T., Vyushkova, T. Y., Wieters, N., and Wissing, J. M.: Composition changes after the ”Halloween” solar proton event: the High Energy Particle Precipitation in the Atmosphere (HEPPA) model versus MIPAS data intercomparison study, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 9089–9139,, 2011. a, b, c, d
Publications Copernicus
Short summary
Effects of solar proton events (SPEs) on middle atmosphere chemistry were studied using the WACCM-D chemistry–climate model, including an improved representation of lower ionosphere ion chemistry. This study includes 66 events in the years 1989–2012 and uses a statistical approach to determine the impact of the improved chemistry scheme. The differences shown highlight the importance of ion chemistry in models used to study energetic particle precipitation.
Effects of solar proton events (SPEs) on middle atmosphere chemistry were studied using the...
Final-revised paper