Articles | Volume 20, issue 17
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Treatment of non-ideality in the SPACCIM multiphase model – Part 2: Impacts on the multiphase chemical processing in deliquesced aerosol particles
Ahmad Jhony Rusumdar
Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (TROPOS), 04318 Leipzig, Germany
now at: FERCHAU Engineering, Niederlassung Karlsruhe, 76185 Karlsruhe, Germany
Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (TROPOS), 04318 Leipzig, Germany
No articles found.
Jean-Philippe Putaud, Enrico Pisoni, Alexander Mangold, Christoph Hueglin, Jean Sciare, Michael Pikridas, Chrysanthos Savvides, Jakub Ondracek, Saliou Mbengue, Alfred Wiedensohler, Kay Weinhold, Maik Merkel, Laurent Poulain, Dominik van Pinxteren, Hartmut Herrmann, Andreas Massling, Claus Nordstroem, Andrés Alastuey, Cristina Reche, Noemí Pérez, Sonia Castillo, Mar Sorribas, Jose Antonio Adame, Tuukka Petaja, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Jarkko Niemi, Véronique Riffault, Joel F. de Brito, Augustin Colette, Olivier Favez, Jean-Eudes Petit, Valérie Gros, Maria I. Gini, Stergios Vratolis, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Evangelia Diapouli, Hugo Denier van der Gon, Karl Espen Yttri, and Wenche Aas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10145–10161,Short summary
Many European people are still exposed to levels of air pollution that can affect their health. COVID-19 lockdowns in 2020 were used to assess the impact of the reduction in human mobility on air pollution across Europe by comparing measurement data with values that would be expected if no lockdown had occurred. We show that lockdown measures did not lead to consistent decreases in the concentrations of fine particulate matter suspended in the air, and we investigate why.
Andrea Cuesta-Mosquera, Kristina Glojek, Griša Močnik, Luka Drinovec, Asta Gregorič, Martin Rigler, Matej Ogrin, Baseerat Romshoo, Kay Weinhold, Maik Merkel, Dominik van Pinxteren, Hartmut Herrmann, Alfred Wiedensohler, Mira Pöhlker, and Thomas Müller
This study evaluated the air pollution and climate impacts of residential wood burning particle emissions from a location in rural Europe. The authors investigate the physical properties that connect these emissions with climate change, through the evaluation of atmospheric radiative impacts via simple calculations. The study contributes to reducing the lack of information that produces large uncertainties in understanding the climate impacts of air pollution from anthropogenic sources.
Sebastian Zeppenfeld, Manuela van Pinxteren, Markus Hartmann, Moritz Zeising, Astrid Bracher, and Hartmut Herrmann
Marine carbohydrates are produced in the surface of the ocean, enter the atmophere as part of sea spray aerosol particles and potentially contribute to the formation of clouds. Here, we present the results of a sea-air transfer study of marine carbohydrates conducted in the high Arctic. Besides a chemo-selective transfer, we observed a quick atmospheric aging of carbohydrates, possibly as a result of both biotic and abiotic processes.
Samira Atabakhsh, Laurent Poulain, Gang Chen, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Mira Pöhlker, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6963–6988,Short summary
The study focuses on the aerosol chemical variations found in the rural-background station of Melpitz based on ACSM and MAAP measurements. Source apportionment on both organic aerosol (OA) and black carbon (eBC) was performed, and source seasonality was also linked to air mass trajectories. Overall, three anthropogenic sources were identified in OA and eBC plus two additional aged OA. Our results demonstrate the influence of transported coal-combustion-related OA even during summer time.
Manuela van Pinxteren, Sebastian Zeppenfeld, Khanneh Wadinga Fomba, Nadja Triesch, Sanja Frka, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6571–6590,Short summary
Important marine organic carbon compounds were identified in the Atlantic Ocean and marine aerosol particles. These compounds were strongly enriched in the atmosphere. Their enrichment was, however, not solely explained via sea-to-air transfer but also via atmospheric in situ formation. The identified compounds constituted about 50 % of the organic carbon on the aerosol particles, and a pronounced coupling between ocean and atmosphere for this oligotrophic region could be concluded.
Yuan Wang, Silvia Henning, Laurent Poulain, Chunsong Lu, Frank Stratmann, Yuying Wang, Shengjie Niu, Mira L. Pöhlker, Hartmut Herrmann, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15943–15962,Short summary
Aerosol particle activation affects cloud, precipitation, radiation, and thus the global climate. Its long-term measurements are important but still scarce. In this study, more than 4 years of measurements at a central European station were analyzed. The overall characteristics and seasonal changes of aerosol particle activation are summarized. The power-law fit between particle hygroscopicity factor and diameter was recommended for predicting cloud condensation nuclei number concentration.
Lady Mateus-Fontecha, Angela Vargas-Burbano, Rodrigo Jimenez, Nestor Y. Rojas, German Rueda-Saa, Dominik van Pinxteren, Manuela van Pinxteren, Khanneh Wadinga Fomba, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8473–8495,Short summary
This study reports the chemical composition of regionally representative PM2.5 in an area densely populated and substantially industrialized, located in the inter-Andean valley, with the highest sugarcane yield in the world and where sugarcane is burned and harvested year round. We found that sugarcane burning is not portrayed as a distinguishable sample composition component. Instead, the composition analysis revealed multiple associations among sugarcane burning components and other sources.
Manuela van Pinxteren, Tiera-Brandy Robinson, Sebastian Zeppenfeld, Xianda Gong, Enno Bahlmann, Khanneh Wadinga Fomba, Nadja Triesch, Frank Stratmann, Oliver Wurl, Anja Engel, Heike Wex, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5725–5742,Short summary
A class of marine particles (transparent exopolymer particles, TEPs) that is ubiquitously found in the world oceans was measured for the first time in ambient marine aerosol particles and marine cloud waters in the tropical Atlantic Ocean. TEPs are likely to have good properties for influencing clouds. We show that TEPs are transferred from the ocean to the marine atmosphere via sea-spray formation and our results suggest that they can also form directly in aerosol particles and in cloud water.
Kristina Glojek, Griša Močnik, Honey Dawn C. Alas, Andrea Cuesta-Mosquera, Luka Drinovec, Asta Gregorič, Matej Ogrin, Kay Weinhold, Irena Ježek, Thomas Müller, Martin Rigler, Maja Remškar, Dominik van Pinxteren, Hartmut Herrmann, Martina Ristorini, Maik Merkel, Miha Markelj, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5577–5601,Short summary
A pilot study to determine the emissions of wood burning under
real-world laboratoryconditions was conducted. We found that measured black carbon (eBC) and particulate matter (PM) in rural shallow terrain depressions with residential wood burning could be much greater than predicted by models. The exceeding levels are a cause for concern since similar conditions can be expected in numerous hilly and mountainous regions across Europe, where approximately 20 % of the total population lives.
Nabil Deabji, Khanneh Wadinga Fomba, Souad El Hajjaji, Abdelwahid Mellouki, Laurent Poulain, Sebastian Zeppenfeld, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18147–18174,Short summary
Mountain and high-altitude sites provide representative data for the lower free troposphere, various pathways for aerosol interactions, and changing boundary layer heights useful in understanding atmospheric composition. However, only few studies exist in African regions despite diversity in both natural and anthropogenic emissions. This study provides detailed atmospheric studies in the northern African high-altitude region.
Stefano Galmarini, Paul Makar, Olivia E. Clifton, Christian Hogrefe, Jesse O. Bash, Roberto Bellasio, Roberto Bianconi, Johannes Bieser, Tim Butler, Jason Ducker, Johannes Flemming, Alma Hodzic, Christopher D. Holmes, Ioannis Kioutsioukis, Richard Kranenburg, Aurelia Lupascu, Juan Luis Perez-Camanyo, Jonathan Pleim, Young-Hee Ryu, Roberto San Jose, Donna Schwede, Sam Silva, and Ralf Wolke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15663–15697,Short summary
This technical note presents the research protocols for phase 4 of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII4). This initiative has three goals: (i) to define the state of wet and dry deposition in regional models, (ii) to evaluate how dry deposition influences air concentration and flux predictions, and (iii) to identify the causes for prediction differences. The evaluation compares LULC-specific dry deposition and effective conductances and fluxes.
Andreas Tilgner, Thomas Schaefer, Becky Alexander, Mary Barth, Jeffrey L. Collett Jr., Kathleen M. Fahey, Athanasios Nenes, Havala O. T. Pye, Hartmut Herrmann, and V. Faye McNeill
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13483–13536,Short summary
Feedbacks of acidity and atmospheric multiphase chemistry in deliquesced particles and clouds are crucial for the tropospheric composition, depositions, climate, and human health. This review synthesizes the current scientific knowledge on these feedbacks using both inorganic and organic aqueous-phase chemistry. Finally, this review outlines atmospheric implications and highlights the need for future investigations with respect to reducing emissions of key acid precursors in a changing world.
R. Anthony Cox, Markus Ammann, John N. Crowley, Paul T. Griffiths, Hartmut Herrmann, Erik H. Hoffmann, Michael E. Jenkin, V. Faye McNeill, Abdelwahid Mellouki, Christopher J. Penkett, Andreas Tilgner, and Timothy J. Wallington
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13011–13018,Short summary
The term open-air factor was coined in the 1960s, establishing that rural air had powerful germicidal properties possibly resulting from immediate products of the reaction of ozone with alkenes, unsaturated compounds ubiquitously present in natural and polluted environments. We have re-evaluated those early experiments, applying the recently substantially improved knowledge, and put them into the context of the lifetime of aerosol-borne pathogens that are so important in the Covid-19 pandemic.
Markus Hartmann, Xianda Gong, Simonas Kecorius, Manuela van Pinxteren, Teresa Vogl, André Welti, Heike Wex, Sebastian Zeppenfeld, Hartmut Herrmann, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11613–11636,Short summary
Ice-nucleating particles (INPs) are not well characterized in the Arctic despite their importance for the Arctic energy budget. Little is known about their nature (mineral or biological) and sources (terrestrial or marine, long-range transport or local). We find indications that, at the beginning of the melt season, a local, biogenic, probably marine source is likely, but significant enrichment of INPs has to take place from the ocean to the aerosol phase.
Anke Mutzel, Yanli Zhang, Olaf Böge, Maria Rodigast, Agata Kolodziejczyk, Xinming Wang, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8479–8498,Short summary
This study investigates secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and particle growth from α-pinene, limonene, and m-cresol oxidation through NO3 and OH radicals and the effect of relative humidity. The formed SOA is comprehensively characterized with respect to the content of OC / EC, WSOC, SOA-bound peroxides, and SOA marker compounds. The findings present new insights and implications of nighttime chemistry, which can form SOA more efficiently than OH radical reaction during daytime.
Matthias Faust, Ralf Wolke, Steffen Münch, Roger Funk, and Kerstin Schepanski
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2205–2220,Short summary
Trajectory dispersion models are powerful and intuitive tools for tracing air pollution through the atmosphere. But the turbulent nature of the atmospheric boundary layer makes it challenging to provide accurate predictions near the surface. To overcome this, we propose an approach using wind and turbulence information at high temporal resolution. Finally, we demonstrate the strength of our approach in a case study on dust emissions from agriculture.
Abdelwahid Mellouki, Markus Ammann, R. Anthony Cox, John N. Crowley, Hartmut Herrmann, Michael E. Jenkin, V. Faye McNeill, Jürgen Troe, and Timothy J. Wallington
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4797–4808,Short summary
Volatile organic compounds play an important role in atmospheric chemistry. This article, the eighth in the series, presents kinetic and photochemical data sheets evaluated by the IUPAC Task Group on Atmospheric Chemical Kinetic Data Evaluation. It covers the gas-phase reactions of organic species with four, or more, carbon atoms (≥ C4) including thermal reactions of closed-shell organic species with HO and NO3 radicals and their photolysis. These data are important for atmospheric models.
Nadja Triesch, Manuela van Pinxteren, Sanja Frka, Christian Stolle, Tobias Spranger, Erik Hans Hoffmann, Xianda Gong, Heike Wex, Detlef Schulz-Bull, Blaženka Gašparović, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4267–4283,Short summary
To investigate the source of lipids and their representatives in the marine atmosphere, concerted measurements of seawater and submicrometer aerosol particle sampling were carried out on the Cabo Verde islands. This field study describes the biogenic sources of lipids, their selective transfer from the ocean into the atmosphere and their enrichment as part of organic matter. A strong enrichment of the studied representatives of the lipid classes on submicrometer aerosol particles was observed.
Laurent Poulain, Benjamin Fahlbusch, Gerald Spindler, Konrad Müller, Dominik van Pinxteren, Zhijun Wu, Yoshiteru Iinuma, Wolfram Birmili, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3667–3684,Short summary
We present results from source apportionment analysis on the carbonaceous aerosol particles, including organic aerosol (OA) and equivalent black carbon (eBC), allowing us to distinguish local emissions from long-range transport for OA and eBC sources. By merging online chemical measurements and considering particle number size distribution, the different air masses reaching the sampling place were described and discussed, based on their respective chemical composition and size distribution.
Jing Dou, Peter A. Alpert, Pablo Corral Arroyo, Beiping Luo, Frederic Schneider, Jacinta Xto, Thomas Huthwelker, Camelia N. Borca, Katja D. Henzler, Jörg Raabe, Benjamin Watts, Hartmut Herrmann, Thomas Peter, Markus Ammann, and Ulrich K. Krieger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 315–338,Short summary
Photochemistry of iron(III) complexes plays an important role in aerosol aging, especially in the lower troposphere. Ensuing radical chemistry leads to decarboxylation, and the production of peroxides, and oxygenated volatile compounds, resulting in particle mass loss due to release of the volatile products to the gas phase. We investigated kinetic transport limitations due to high particle viscosity under low relative humidity conditions. For quantification a numerical model was developed.
Nadja Triesch, Manuela van Pinxteren, Anja Engel, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 163–181,Short summary
To investigate the sources of free amino acids (FAAs) in the marine atmosphere, concerted measurements (the simultaneous investigation of seawater, size-segregated aerosol particles and cloud water) were performed at the Cabo Verde islands. This study describes the transfer of FAAs as part of organic matter from the ocean into the atmosphere on a molecular level. In the investigated marine environment, a high enrichment of FAAs in submicron aerosol particles and in cloud droplets was observed.
Jiarong Li, Chao Zhu, Hui Chen, Defeng Zhao, Likun Xue, Xinfeng Wang, Hongyong Li, Pengfei Liu, Junfeng Liu, Chenglong Zhang, Yujing Mu, Wenjin Zhang, Luming Zhang, Hartmut Herrmann, Kai Li, Min Liu, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13735–13751,Short summary
Based on a field study at Mt. Tai, China, the simultaneous variations of cloud microphysics, aerosol microphysics and their potential interactions during cloud life cycles were discussed. Results demonstrated that clouds on clean days were more susceptible to the concentrations of particle number, while clouds formed on polluted days might be more sensitive to meteorological parameters. Particles larger than 150 nm played important roles in forming cloud droplets with sizes of 5–10 μm.
R. Anthony Cox, Markus Ammann, John N. Crowley, Hartmut Herrmann, Michael E. Jenkin, V. Faye McNeill, Abdelwahid Mellouki, Jürgen Troe, and Timothy J. Wallington
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13497–13519,Short summary
Criegee intermediates, formed from alkene–ozone reactions, play a potentially important role as tropospheric oxidants. Evaluated kinetic data are provided for reactions governing their formation and removal for use in atmospheric models. These include their formation from reactions of simple and complex alkenes and removal by decomposition and reaction with a number of atmospheric species (e.g. H2O, SO2). An overview of the tropospheric chemistry of Criegee intermediates is also provided.
Yangang Ren, Bastian Stieger, Gerald Spindler, Benoit Grosselin, Abdelwahid Mellouki, Thomas Tuch, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13069–13089,Short summary
We present HONO measurements from the TROPOS research site in Melpitz, Germany. Investigations of HONO sources and sinks revealed the nighttime formation by heterogeneous conversion of NO2 to HONO followed by a significant surface deposition at night. The evaporation of dew was identified as the main HONO source in the morning. In the following, dew measurements with a self-made dew collector were performed to estimate the amount of evaporated HONO from dew in the atmospheric HONO distribution.
Laurent Poulain, Gerald Spindler, Achim Grüner, Thomas Tuch, Bastian Stieger, Dominik van Pinxteren, Jean-Eudes Petit, Olivier Favez, Hartmut Herrmann, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4973–4994,Short summary
The stability and the comparability between ACSM and collocated filter sampling and MPSS measurements was investigated in order to examine the instruments robustness for year-long measurements. Specific attention was paid to the influence of the upper size cutoff diameter to better understand how it might affect the data validation. Recommendations are provided for better on-site quality assurance and quality control of the ACSM, which would be useful for either long-term or intensive campaigns.
Khanneh Wadinga Fomba, Nabil Deabji, Sayf El Islam Barcha, Ibrahim Ouchen, El Mehdi Elbaramoussi, Rajaa Cherkaoui El Moursli, Mimoun Harnafi, Souad El Hajjaji, Abdelwahid Mellouki, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4773–4790,Short summary
As air quality monitoring networks often sample aerosol particles on quartz filters, the development and applicability of analytical methods with quartz filters are becoming important. In this study different filter preparation methods (e.g., baking, acid digestion) were investigated for quantifying trace metals on quartz and polycarbonate filters, and cloud water using the total reflection X-Ray fluorescence (TXRF) technique, with low detection limits of about 0.3 ng cm−3 for some elements.
Sebastian Zeppenfeld, Manuela van Pinxteren, Anja Engel, and Hartmut Herrmann
Ocean Sci., 16, 817–830,Short summary
An analytical method combining electro-dialysis with high-performance anionic exchange chromatography coupled to pulsed amperometric detection was developed and optimized for analyzing free and combined carbohydrates in seawater and other saline environmental samples.
Manuela van Pinxteren, Khanneh Wadinga Fomba, Nadja Triesch, Christian Stolle, Oliver Wurl, Enno Bahlmann, Xianda Gong, Jens Voigtländer, Heike Wex, Tiera-Brandy Robinson, Stefan Barthel, Sebastian Zeppenfeld, Erik Hans Hoffmann, Marie Roveretto, Chunlin Li, Benoit Grosselin, Veronique Daële, Fabian Senf, Dominik van Pinxteren, Malena Manzi, Nicolás Zabalegui, Sanja Frka, Blaženka Gašparović, Ryan Pereira, Tao Li, Liang Wen, Jiarong Li, Chao Zhu, Hui Chen, Jianmin Chen, Björn Fiedler, Wolf von Tümpling, Katie Alana Read, Shalini Punjabi, Alastair Charles Lewis, James Roland Hopkins, Lucy Jane Carpenter, Ilka Peeken, Tim Rixen, Detlef Schulz-Bull, María Eugenia Monge, Abdelwahid Mellouki, Christian George, Frank Stratmann, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6921–6951,Short summary
An introduction to a comprehensive field campaign performed at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory regarding ocean–atmosphere interactions is given. Chemical, physical, biological and meteorological techniques were applied, and measurements of bulk water, the sea surface microlayer, cloud water and ambient aerosol particles took place. Oceanic compounds were found to be transferred to atmospheric aerosol and to the cloud level; however, sea spray contributions to CCN and INPs were limited.
Yanhong Zhu, Andreas Tilgner, Erik Hans Hoffmann, Hartmut Herrmann, Kimitaka Kawamura, Lingxiao Yang, Likun Xue, and Wenxing Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6725–6747,Short summary
The formation and processing of secondary inorganic and organic compounds at Mt. Tai, the highest mountain on the North China Plain, are modeled using a multiphase chemical model. The concentrations of key radical and non-radical oxidations in the formation processes are investigated. Sensitivity tests assess the impacts of emission data and glyoxal partitioning constants on modeled results. The key precursors of secondary organic compounds are also identified.
Erik H. Hoffmann, Roland Schrödner, Andreas Tilgner, Ralf Wolke, and Hartmut Herrmann
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 2587–2609,Short summary
A condensed multiphase halogen and DMS chemistry mechanism for application in chemical transport models has been developed and applied by 2D simulations to explore multiphase marine chemistry above the pristine open ocean. The model simulations have demonstrated the ability of the mechanism in studying aerosol cloud processing effects in the marine atmosphere. First 2D simulations have shown significant differences in the DMS processing under convective and stratiform cloud conditions.
Nicolás Zabalegui, Malena Manzi, Antoine Depoorter, Nathalie Hayeck, Marie Roveretto, Chunlin Li, Manuela van Pinxteren, Hartmut Herrmann, Christian George, and María Eugenia Monge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6243–6257,Short summary
A new approach to bridging different fields of science by studying the air–sea interface is described. An untargeted ambient mass-spectrometry-based metabolomics method enables the study of enriched organic compounds found on the sea surface for air–water transfer processes. Results from the metabolomics experiments and a lab-to-field approach provide new opportunities for characterizing the seawater organic-matter content and discovering compounds involved in aerosol-formation processes.
Havala O. T. Pye, Athanasios Nenes, Becky Alexander, Andrew P. Ault, Mary C. Barth, Simon L. Clegg, Jeffrey L. Collett Jr., Kathleen M. Fahey, Christopher J. Hennigan, Hartmut Herrmann, Maria Kanakidou, James T. Kelly, I-Ting Ku, V. Faye McNeill, Nicole Riemer, Thomas Schaefer, Guoliang Shi, Andreas Tilgner, John T. Walker, Tao Wang, Rodney Weber, Jia Xing, Rahul A. Zaveri, and Andreas Zuend
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4809–4888,Short summary
Acid rain is recognized for its impacts on human health and ecosystems, and programs to mitigate these effects have had implications for atmospheric acidity. Historical measurements indicate that cloud and fog droplet acidity has changed in recent decades in response to controls on emissions from human activity, while the limited trend data for suspended particles indicate acidity may be relatively constant. This review synthesizes knowledge on the acidity of atmospheric particles and clouds.
Xianda Gong, Heike Wex, Jens Voigtländer, Khanneh Wadinga Fomba, Kay Weinhold, Manuela van Pinxteren, Silvia Henning, Thomas Müller, Hartmut Herrmann, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1431–1449,Short summary
We characterized the aerosol particles in Cabo Verde at sea and cloud levels. We found four well-separable types of PNSDs, with the strongest differences between air masses coming from the ocean compared to from the African continent. During the strongest observed dust periods, CCN concentrations were 2.5 higher than during clean marine periods. The hygroscopicity of the particles did not vary much between different periods. Aerosol at sea level and on the mountaintop was well in agreement.
Xianda Gong, Heike Wex, Manuela van Pinxteren, Nadja Triesch, Khanneh Wadinga Fomba, Jasmin Lubitz, Christian Stolle, Tiera-Brandy Robinson, Thomas Müller, Hartmut Herrmann, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1451–1468,Short summary
In this study, we examined number concentrations of ice nucleating particles (INPs) at Cabo Verde in the oceanic sea surface microlayer and underlying seawater, in the air close to both sea level and cloud level, and in cloud water. The results show that most INPs are supermicron in size, that INP number concentrations in air fit well to those in cloud water and that sea spray aerosols at maximum contributed a small fraction of all INPs in the air at Cabo Verde.
Marco Paglione, Stefania Gilardoni, Matteo Rinaldi, Stefano Decesari, Nicola Zanca, Silvia Sandrini, Lara Giulianelli, Dimitri Bacco, Silvia Ferrari, Vanes Poluzzi, Fabiana Scotto, Arianna Trentini, Laurent Poulain, Hartmut Herrmann, Alfred Wiedensohler, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Paola Massoli, Claudio Carbone, Maria Cristina Facchini, and Sandro Fuzzi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1233–1254,Short summary
Our multi-year observational study regarding organic aerosol (OA) in the Po Valley indicates that more than half of OA is of secondary origin (SOA) through all the year and at both urban and rural sites. Within the SOA, the measurements show the importance of biomass burning (BB) aging products during cold seasons and indicate aqueous-phase processing of BB emissions as a fundamental driver of SOA formation in wintertime, with important consequences for air quality policy at the global level.
Ying Chen, Yafang Cheng, Nan Ma, Chao Wei, Liang Ran, Ralf Wolke, Johannes Größ, Qiaoqiao Wang, Andrea Pozzer, Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon, Gerald Spindler, Jos Lelieveld, Ina Tegen, Hang Su, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 771–786,Short summary
Particulate nitrate is one of the most important climate cooling agents. Our results show that interaction with sea-salt aerosol can shift nitrate to larger sized particles (redistribution effect), weakening its direct cooling effect. The modelling results indicate strong redistribution over coastal and offshore regions worldwide as well as continental Europe. Improving the consideration of the redistribution effect in global models fosters a better understanding of climate change.
Tao Li, Zhe Wang, Yaru Wang, Chen Wu, Yiheng Liang, Men Xia, Chuan Yu, Hui Yun, Weihao Wang, Yan Wang, Jia Guo, Hartmut Herrmann, and Tao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 391–407,Short summary
This work presents a field study of cloud water chemistry and interactions of cloud, gas, and aerosols in the polluted coastal boundary layer in southern China. Substantial dissolved organic matter in the acidic cloud water was observed, and the gas- and aqueous-phase partitioning of carbonyl compounds was investigated. The results demonstrated the significant role of cloud processing in altering aerosol properties, especially in producing aqueous organics and droplet-mode aerosols.
Marco Pandolfi, Dennis Mooibroek, Philip Hopke, Dominik van Pinxteren, Xavier Querol, Hartmut Herrmann, Andrés Alastuey, Olivier Favez, Christoph Hüglin, Esperanza Perdrix, Véronique Riffault, Stéphane Sauvage, Eric van der Swaluw, Oksana Tarasova, and Augustin Colette
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 409–429,Short summary
In the last scientific assessment report from the LRTAP Convention, it is stated that because non-urban sources are often major contributors to urban pollution, many cities will be unable to meet WHO guideline levels for air pollutants through local action alone. Consequently, it is very important to estimate how much the local and non-local sources contribute to urban pollution in order to design global strategies to reduce the levels of pollutants in European cities.
Simonas Kecorius, Teresa Vogl, Pauli Paasonen, Janne Lampilahti, Daniel Rothenberg, Heike Wex, Sebastian Zeppenfeld, Manuela van Pinxteren, Markus Hartmann, Silvia Henning, Xianda Gong, Andre Welti, Markku Kulmala, Frank Stratmann, Hartmut Herrmann, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14339–14364,Short summary
Arctic sea-ice retreat, atmospheric new particle formation (NPF), and aerosol–cloud interaction may all be linked via a positive feedback mechanism. Understanding the sources of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) is an important piece in the Arctic amplification puzzle. We show that Arctic newly formed particles do not have to grow beyond the Aitken mode to act as CCN. This is important, because NPF occurrence in the Arctic is expected to increase, making it a significant contributor to CCN budget.
Peter Bräuer, Camille Mouchel-Vallon, Andreas Tilgner, Anke Mutzel, Olaf Böge, Maria Rodigast, Laurent Poulain, Dominik van Pinxteren, Ralf Wolke, Bernard Aumont, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9209–9239,Short summary
The article presents a new protocol for computer-assisted automated aqueous-phase chemistry mechanism generation, which has been validated against chamber experiments. Together with a large kinetics database and improved prediction methods for kinetic data, the novel protocol provides an unmatched tool for detailed studies of tropospheric aqueous-phase chemistry in complex model studies and for the design and analysis of chamber experiments.
Bastian Stieger, Gerald Spindler, Dominik van Pinxteren, Achim Grüner, Markus Wallasch, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 281–298,Short summary
A MARGA was combined with an additional IC system specialized for the 2 h interval online quantification of 12 low-molecular-weight organic acids in the gas and particle phases. Low limits of detection and good precision were achieved. The suitability for field measurements was shown. This setup reduces laboratory work and filter sampling artifacts. Diurnal profiles, sources and phase distributions of these compounds will improve the knowledge of the tropospheric multiphase chemistry.
Shan Huang, Zhijun Wu, Laurent Poulain, Manuela van Pinxteren, Maik Merkel, Denise Assmann, Hartmut Herrmann, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 18043–18062,Short summary
The Atlantic aerosols are characterized based on high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) measurements during four open-ocean cruises. This unique data set provides the latitudinal distribution of source contributions of organic aerosols (OAs) over the Atlantic Ocean, showing that marine sources could control the OA formation over the South Atlantic, while strong continental influence was found near Africa and Europe.
Yanhong Zhu, Lingxiao Yang, Jianmin Chen, Kimitaka Kawamura, Mamiko Sato, Andreas Tilgner, Dominik van Pinxteren, Ying Chen, Likun Xue, Xinfeng Wang, Isobel J. Simpson, Hartmut Herrmann, Donald R. Blake, and Wenxing Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10741–10758,Short summary
Molecular distributions of dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls in the free troposphere are identified, and their concentration variations between 2014 and 2006 are presented. High nighttime concentrations were probably due to precursor emissions and aqueous-phase oxidation. Biomass burning was significant, but its tracer levoglucosan in 2014 was 5 times lower than 2006 concentrations. Finally, regional emission from anthropogenic activities was identified as a major source.
Eleni Karnezi, Benjamin N. Murphy, Laurent Poulain, Hartmut Herrmann, Alfred Wiedensohler, Florian Rubach, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Thomas F. Mentel, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10759–10772,Short summary
Different parameterizations of the organic aerosol (OA) formation and evolution are evaluated using ground and airborne measurements collected in the 2012 PEGASOS field campaign in the Po Valley (Italy). Total OA concentration and O : C ratios were reproduced within experimental error by a number of schemes. Anthropogenic secondary OA (SOA) contributed 15–25 % of the total OA, 20–35 % of SOA from intermediate volatility compounds oxidation, and 15–45 % of biogenic SOA depending on the scheme.
Laura Palacios-Peña, Rocío Baró, Alexander Baklanov, Alessandra Balzarini, Dominik Brunner, Renate Forkel, Marcus Hirtl, Luka Honzak, José María López-Romero, Juan Pedro Montávez, Juan Luis Pérez, Guido Pirovano, Roberto San José, Wolfram Schröder, Johannes Werhahn, Ralf Wolke, Rahela Žabkar, and Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5021–5043,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols modify the radiative budget of the Earth, and it is therefore mandatory to have an accurate representation of their optical properties for understanding their climatic role. This work therefore evaluates the skill in the representation of optical properties by different remote-sensing sensors and regional online coupled chemistry–climate models over Europe.
Julia Schmale, Silvia Henning, Stefano Decesari, Bas Henzing, Helmi Keskinen, Karine Sellegri, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Mira L. Pöhlker, Joel Brito, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Adam Kristensson, Nikos Kalivitis, Iasonas Stavroulas, Samara Carbone, Anne Jefferson, Minsu Park, Patrick Schlag, Yoko Iwamoto, Pasi Aalto, Mikko Äijälä, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Mikael Ehn, Göran Frank, Roman Fröhlich, Arnoud Frumau, Erik Herrmann, Hartmut Herrmann, Rupert Holzinger, Gerard Kos, Markku Kulmala, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Athanasios Nenes, Colin O'Dowd, Tuukka Petäjä, David Picard, Christopher Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Laurent Poulain, André Stephan Henry Prévôt, Erik Swietlicki, Meinrat O. Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Alfred Wiedensohler, John Ogren, Atsushi Matsuki, Seong Soo Yum, Frank Stratmann, Urs Baltensperger, and Martin Gysel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2853–2881,Short summary
Collocated long-term observations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentrations, particle number size distributions and chemical composition from 12 sites are synthesized. Observations cover coastal environments, the Arctic, the Mediterranean, the boreal and rain forest, high alpine and continental background sites, and Monsoon-influenced areas. We interpret regional and seasonal variability. CCN concentrations are predicted with the κ–Köhler model and compared to the measurements.
Ying Chen, Ralf Wolke, Liang Ran, Wolfram Birmili, Gerald Spindler, Wolfram Schröder, Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, Ina Tegen, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 673–689,Short summary
The heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 on particle surfaces is crucial for the nitrogen cycle in the atmosphere. The reaction rate is determined by meteorological and particle properties, but its parameterization in previous 3-D modelling studies did not comprehensively consider these parameters. We propose a parameterization to take these into account and improve nitrate prediction; we report that the organic coating suppression on the N2O5 reaction is not as important as expected in the EU.
Kathrin Gatzsche, Yoshiteru Iinuma, Andreas Tilgner, Anke Mutzel, Torsten Berndt, and Ralf Wolke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13187–13211,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) represents an important fraction of the particulate matter and, thus, an advanced treatment of SOA processes in models is necessary. Therefore, this investigation aims at sensitivity studies of a kinetic description of SOA formation. The results reveal that the particle-phase state and the reactivity of the organic solutes are key parameters in the SOA formation. Overall, the results show that an advanced kinetic treatment enables improved model predictions.
Qing Mu, Gerhard Lammel, Christian N. Gencarelli, Ian M. Hedgecock, Ying Chen, Petra Přibylová, Monique Teich, Yuxuan Zhang, Guangjie Zheng, Dominik van Pinxteren, Qiang Zhang, Hartmut Herrmann, Manabu Shiraiwa, Peter Spichtinger, Hang Su, Ulrich Pöschl, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12253–12267,Short summary
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are hazardous pollutants with the largest emissions in East Asia. The regional WRF-Chem-PAH model has been developed to reflect the state-of-the-art understanding of current PAHs studies with several new or updated features. It is able to reasonably well simulate the concentration levels and particulate mass fractions of PAHs near the sources and at a remote outflow region of East Asia, in high spatial and temporal resolutions.
Jiarong Li, Xinfeng Wang, Jianmin Chen, Chao Zhu, Weijun Li, Chengbao Li, Lu Liu, Caihong Xu, Liang Wen, Likun Xue, Wenxing Wang, Aijun Ding, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9885–9896,Short summary
Cloud events at Mt. Tai were investigated for the chemical composition and size distribution of cloud droplets. An obvious rise in pH was found for elevated NH+4 during the last decade. Higher PM2.5 levels resulted in higher concentrations of water-soluble ions, smaller sizes and higher numbers of cloud droplets. The mechanism of cloud-droplet formation and the mass transfer between aerosol–gas–cloud phases were summarized to enrich the knowledge of cloud chemical and microphysical properties.
Rocío Baró, Laura Palacios-Peña, Alexander Baklanov, Alessandra Balzarini, Dominik Brunner, Renate Forkel, Marcus Hirtl, Luka Honzak, Juan Luis Pérez, Guido Pirovano, Roberto San José, Wolfram Schröder, Johannes Werhahn, Ralf Wolke, Rahela Žabkar, and Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9677–9696,Short summary
The influence on modeled max., mean and min. temperature over Europe of including aerosol–radiation–cloud interactions has been assessed for two case studies in 2010. Data were taken from an ensemble of online regional chemistry–climate models from EuMetChem COST Action. The results indicate that including these interactions clearly improves the spatiotemporal variability in the temperature signal simulated by the models, with implications for reducing the uncertainty in climate projections.
Sudhakar Dipu, Johannes Quaas, Ralf Wolke, Jens Stoll, Andreas Mühlbauer, Odran Sourdeval, Marc Salzmann, Bernd Heinold, and Ina Tegen
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2231–2246,
Maria Rodigast, Anke Mutzel, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3929–3943,Short summary
The study presents, for the first time, a quantification method for methylglyoxal oligomers and highlights their importance for SOA formation. The method was applied to determine the fraction of methylglyoxal oligomers of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene SOA dependent on relative humidity and seed particle acidity. An oligomer contribution of up to 8 % was calculated varying with experimental conditions and thus further hints for the dependency of the oligomer formation mechanism on conditions were found.
Nga Lee Ng, Steven S. Brown, Alexander T. Archibald, Elliot Atlas, Ronald C. Cohen, John N. Crowley, Douglas A. Day, Neil M. Donahue, Juliane L. Fry, Hendrik Fuchs, Robert J. Griffin, Marcelo I. Guzman, Hartmut Herrmann, Alma Hodzic, Yoshiteru Iinuma, José L. Jimenez, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Ben H. Lee, Deborah J. Luecken, Jingqiu Mao, Robert McLaren, Anke Mutzel, Hans D. Osthoff, Bin Ouyang, Benedicte Picquet-Varrault, Ulrich Platt, Havala O. T. Pye, Yinon Rudich, Rebecca H. Schwantes, Manabu Shiraiwa, Jochen Stutz, Joel A. Thornton, Andreas Tilgner, Brent J. Williams, and Rahul A. Zaveri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2103–2162,Short summary
Oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds by NO3 is an important interaction between anthropogenic and natural emissions. This review results from a June 2015 workshop and includes the recent literature on kinetics, mechanisms, organic aerosol yields, and heterogeneous chemistry; advances in analytical instrumentation; the current state NO3-BVOC chemistry in atmospheric models; and critical needs for future research in modeling, field observations, and laboratory studies.
Monique Teich, Dominik van Pinxteren, Michael Wang, Simonas Kecorius, Zhibin Wang, Thomas Müller, Griša Močnik, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1653–1672,Short summary
This study provides a large data set on concentrations of individual brown carbon constituents, i.e., nitrated aromatic compounds, in diverse atmospheric environments and their relative contribution to water-soluble and particulate light absorption. It extends the existing knowledge on the abundance of brown carbon and its molecular composition and provides scientific motivation for further studies on ambient brown carbon constituents.
Martin Brüggemann, Laurent Poulain, Andreas Held, Torsten Stelzer, Christoph Zuth, Stefanie Richters, Anke Mutzel, Dominik van Pinxteren, Yoshiteru Iinuma, Sarmite Katkevica, René Rabe, Hartmut Herrmann, and Thorsten Hoffmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1453–1469,Short summary
Using complementary mass spectrometric techniques during a field study in central Europe, characteristic contributors to the organic aerosol mass were identified. Besides common marker compounds for biogenic secondary organic aerosol, highly oxidized sulfur species were detected in the particle phase. High-time-resolution measurements revealed correlations between these organosulfates and particulate sulfate as well as gas-phase peroxyradicals, giving hints to underlying formation mechanisms.
Johannes Schneider, Stephan Mertes, Dominik van Pinxteren, Hartmut Herrmann, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1571–1593,Short summary
We analyzed the composition of cloud droplet residuals and of aerosol particles sampled on a mountaintop site. The data show that about 85 % of the submicron aerosol mass partitions into the cloud phase, and that the uptake of soluble compounds (nitric acid, ammonia, and organic gases) from the gas phase into the cloud droplets is very effective. This will lead to a redistribution of these compounds among the aerosol particles and thereby to a more uniform aerosol after cloud evaporation.
Ying Chen, Yafang Cheng, Nan Ma, Ralf Wolke, Stephan Nordmann, Stephanie Schüttauf, Liang Ran, Birgit Wehner, Wolfram Birmili, Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon, Qing Mu, Stefan Barthel, Gerald Spindler, Bastian Stieger, Konrad Müller, Guang-Jie Zheng, Ulrich Pöschl, Hang Su, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12081–12097,Short summary
Sea salt aerosol (SSA) is important for primary and secondary aerosols on a global scale. During 10–20 September 2013, the SSA mass concentration was overestimated by a factor of 8–20 over central Europe by WRF-Chem model, stem from the uncertainty of its emission scheme. This could facilitate the coarse-mode nitrate formation (~ 140 % but inhibit the fine-mode nitrate formation (~−20 %). A special long-range transport mechanism could broaden this influence of SSA to a larger downwind region.
Silvia Sandrini, Dominik van Pinxteren, Lara Giulianelli, Hartmut Herrmann, Laurent Poulain, Maria Cristina Facchini, Stefania Gilardoni, Matteo Rinaldi, Marco Paglione, Barbara J. Turpin, Francesca Pollini, Silvia Bucci, Nicola Zanca, and Stefano Decesari
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10879–10897,Short summary
This paper deals with impactor measurements performed in the summer 2012 during the EU project PEGASOS campaign in the Po Valley, at an urban and a rural site. The paper tries to disentangle the effects of weather anomalies (temporal and spatial) from those of diverse emissions (NH3) and chemical processes on the formation of secondary aerosols in the region, with special focus on nocturnal ammonium nitrate formation and its implications (aqueous formation of secondary organic aerosol).
Stefanie Richters, Hartmut Herrmann, and Torsten Berndt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9831–9845,Short summary
New reaction pathways of highly oxidized multifunctional organic compounds (HOMs) from the ozonolysis of the sesquiterpene (C15H24) beta-caryophyllene were elucidated based on experiments using isotopically labelled ozone and H/D exchange experiments. These new insights in reaction pathways of unsaturated RO2 radicals are responsible for the production of about two-thirds of the detected HOMs from beta-caryophyllene and extend the knowledge of HOM formation mechanisms in the atmosphere.
Nan Ma, Chunsheng Zhao, Jiangchuan Tao, Zhijun Wu, Simonas Kecorius, Zhibin Wang, Johannes Größ, Hongjian Liu, Yuxuan Bian, Ye Kuang, Monique Teich, Gerald Spindler, Konrad Müller, Dominik van Pinxteren, Hartmut Herrmann, Min Hu, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8593–8607,Short summary
New particle formation (NPF) is one of main sources of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the atmosphere. Based on in situ measurements, we found that CCN activity of newly formed particles largely differs in different NPF events. It is therefore difficult to find a simple parameterization of CCN activity for NPF events. Using a fixed size-resolved activation ratio curve or critical diameter is very likely to result in large biases up to 50 % in the calculated NCCN during NPF events.
Amy P. Sullivan, Natasha Hodas, Barbara J. Turpin, Kate Skog, Frank N. Keutsch, Stefania Gilardoni, Marco Paglione, Matteo Rinaldi, Stefano Decesari, Maria Cristina Facchini, Laurent Poulain, Hartmut Herrmann, Alfred Wiedensohler, Eiko Nemitz, Marsailidh M. Twigg, and Jeffrey L. Collett Jr.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8095–8108,Short summary
This paper presents the results from our measurements and approach for the investigation of aqueous secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA) formation in the ambient atmosphere. When local aqSOA formation was observed, a correlation of water-soluble organic carbon with organic aerosol, aerosol liquid water, relative humidity, and aerosol nitrate was found. Key factors of local aqSOA production include air mass stagnation, formation of local nitrate overnight, and significant amounts of ammonia.
James W. Grayson, Yue Zhang, Anke Mutzel, Lindsay Renbaum-Wolff, Olaf Böge, Saeid Kamal, Hartmut Herrmann, Scot T. Martin, and Allan K. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6027–6040,Short summary
The effect of several experimental parameters on the viscosity of secondary organic material (SOM) generated from the ozonolysis of α-pinene has been studied. The results demonstrate that the viscosity of SOM depends on the particle mass concentration at which SOM is produced, and the relative humidity (RH) at which the SOM is studied. Hence, particle mass concentration and RH should be considered when comparing experimental results for SOM, or extrapolating laboratory results to the atmosphere.
Dominik van Pinxteren, Khanneh Wadinga Fomba, Stephan Mertes, Konrad Müller, Gerald Spindler, Johannes Schneider, Taehyoung Lee, Jeffrey L. Collett, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3185–3205,
Yan Lv, Xiang Li, Ting Ting Xu, Tian Tao Cheng, Xin Yang, Jian Min Chen, Yoshiteru Iinuma, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2971–2983,Short summary
The study focused on size-resolved PAHs in urban aerosols at a megacity Shanghai site. The results provide us with a mechanistic understanding of the particle size distribution of PAHs and their transport in the human respiratory system; this can help develop better source control strategies.
Maria Rodigast, Anke Mutzel, Janine Schindelka, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2689–2702,Short summary
The study highlights methyl ethyl ketone as a new and unknown source for methylglyoxal in the aqueous phase that is important for aqueous secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA) formation. Besides 2,3-butanedione (29.5 %) and hydroxyacetone (3.0 %), methylglyoxal was formed with a molar yield of 9.5 %. According to the detected products a reaction mechanism was developed and evaluated. The comparison of the model and experimental data showed excellent agreements, in particular for methylglyoxal.
Ying Chen, Ya-Fang Cheng, Stephan Nordmann, Wolfram Birmili, Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon, Nan Ma, Ralf Wolke, Birgit Wehner, Jia Sun, Gerald Spindler, Qing Mu, Ulrich Pöschl, Hang Su, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1823–1835,Short summary
We evaluated the EC point sources in Germany with high-resolution simulation by WRF-Chem, and find out that point sources contribute too much EC in the coarse mode aerosol mass. The area emissions in Eastern Europe and Russia also allocate too much EC emission in coarse mode in the EUCAARI EC emission inventory. Because of the shorter life time of coarse mode EC, about 20–40 % less EC can be transported to Melpitz from Eastern Europe. Size segregation information is important for EC inventories.
A. J. Rusumdar, R. Wolke, A. Tilgner, and H. Herrmann
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 247–281,Short summary
The present paper was aimed at the further development of SPACCIM to treat both complex multiphase chemistry and phase transfer processes considering new non-ideality properties of concentrated solutions. Model studies showed the applicability of the new kinetic model approach for complex aerosol mixtures and detailed chemical mechanisms. Simulations have implied that the treatment of non-ideality should be mandatory for modeling multiphase chemical processes in deliquesced particles.
A. Roth, J. Schneider, T. Klimach, S. Mertes, D. van Pinxteren, H. Herrmann, and S. Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 505–524,Short summary
This paper reports on single-particle measurements of ambient aerosol particles and cloud residues sampled from orographic clouds on a mountain site in central Germany. The results show that soot particles can get efficiently activated in cloud droplets when they are mixed with or coated by sulfate and nitrate. Cloud processing leads to addition of nitrate and sulfate to the particles, thereby increasing the hygroscopicity of these particles when they remain in the air after cloud evaporation.
K. W. Fomba, D. van Pinxteren, K. Müller, Y. Iinuma, T. Lee, J. L. Collett Jr., and H. Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8751–8765,
M. Rodigast, A. Mutzel, Y. Iinuma, S. Haferkorn, and H. Herrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2409–2416,Short summary
An optimised method for derivatisation of carbonyl compounds with o-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine (PFBHA) in aqueous samples is described. The comprehensive optimisation of the method leads to an improvement of the detection limit up to a factor of 10 highlighting the good sensitivity of the optimised method for atmospherically relevant carbonyl compounds. The optimised method was successfully applied to detect carbonyl compounds from the aqueous phase oxidation of 3-methylbutanone.
L. K. Whalley, D. Stone, I. J. George, S. Mertes, D. van Pinxteren, A. Tilgner, H. Herrmann, M. J. Evans, and D. E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3289–3301,
L. Poulain, W. Birmili, F. Canonaco, M. Crippa, Z. J. Wu, S. Nordmann, G. Spindler, A. S. H. Prévôt, A. Wiedensohler, and H. Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10145–10162,
A. Tilgner, L. Schöne, P. Bräuer, D. van Pinxteren, E. Hoffmann, G. Spindler, S. A. Styler, S. Mertes, W. Birmili, R. Otto, M. Merkel, K. Weinhold, A. Wiedensohler, H. Deneke, R. Schrödner, R. Wolke, J. Schneider, W. Haunold, A. Engel, A. Wéber, and H. Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9105–9128,
K. W. Fomba, K. Müller, D. van Pinxteren, L. Poulain, M. van Pinxteren, and H. Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8883–8904,
S. Henning, K. Dieckmann, K. Ignatius, M. Schäfer, P. Zedler, E. Harris, B. Sinha, D. van Pinxteren, S. Mertes, W. Birmili, M. Merkel, Z. Wu, A. Wiedensohler, H. Wex, H. Herrmann, and F. Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7859–7868,
L. Schöne and H. Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4503–4514,
S. Scheinhardt, D. van Pinxteren, K. Müller, G. Spindler, and H. Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4531–4538,
E. Harris, B. Sinha, D. van Pinxteren, J. Schneider, L. Poulain, J. Collett, B. D'Anna, B. Fahlbusch, S. Foley, K. W. Fomba, C. George, T. Gnauk, S. Henning, T. Lee, S. Mertes, A. Roth, F. Stratmann, S. Borrmann, P. Hoppe, and H. Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4219–4235,
D. van Pinxteren, C. Neusüß, and H. Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3913–3928,
N. Niedermeier, A. Held, T. Müller, B. Heinold, K. Schepanski, I. Tegen, K. Kandler, M. Ebert, S. Weinbruch, K. Read, J. Lee, K. W. Fomba, K. Müller, H. Herrmann, and A. Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2245–2266,
A. Kahnt, Y. Iinuma, A. Mutzel, O. Böge, M. Claeys, and H. Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 719–736,
S. Barthel, I. Tegen, R. Wolke, and M. van Pinxteren
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
M. van Pinxteren and H. Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11791–11802,
Z. J. Wu, L. Poulain, S. Henning, K. Dieckmann, W. Birmili, M. Merkel, D. van Pinxteren, G. Spindler, K. Müller, F. Stratmann, H. Herrmann, and A. Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7983–7996,
Z. Wu, W. Birmili, L. Poulain, Z. Wang, M. Merkel, B. Fahlbusch, D. van Pinxteren, H. Herrmann, and A. Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6637–6646,
K. W. Fomba, K. Müller, D. van Pinxteren, and H. Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4801–4814,
C. Mouchel-Vallon, P. Bräuer, M. Camredon, R. Valorso, S. Madronich, H. Herrmann, and B. Aumont
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1023–1037,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling and Data Analysis | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Effects of simulated secondary organic aerosol water on PM1 levels and composition over the USReactive organic carbon air emissions from mobile sources in the United StatesDevelopment and evaluation of processes affecting simulation of diel fine particulate matter variation in the GEOS-Chem modelSubstantially positive contributions of new particle formation to cloud condensation nuclei under low supersaturation in China based on numerical model improvementsEvolution of atmospheric age of particles and its implications for the formation of a severe haze event in eastern ChinaA multimodel evaluation of the potential impact of shipping on particle species in the Mediterranean SeaHow does tropospheric VOC chemistry affect climate? An investigation of preindustrial control simulations using the Community Earth System Model version 2Anthropogenic amplification of biogenic secondary organic aerosol productionA dynamic parameterization of sulfuric acid–dimethylamine nucleation and its application in three-dimensional modelingModeling dust mineralogical composition: sensitivity to soil mineralogy atlases and their expected climate impactsAssessment of the impacts of cloud chemistry on surface SO2 and sulfate levels in typical regions of ChinaImpact of Landes forest fires on air quality in France during the 2022 summerGlobal nitrogen and sulfur deposition mapping using a measurement–model fusion approachComprehensive simulations of new particle formation events in Beijing with a cluster dynamics–multicomponent sectional modelImplications of differences between recent anthropogenic aerosol emission inventories for diagnosed AOD and radiative forcing from 1990 to 2019Unbalanced emission reductions of different species and sectors in China during COVID-19 lockdown derived by multi-species surface observation assimilationSimulating organic aerosol in Delhi with WRF-Chem using the volatility-basis-set approach: exploring model uncertainty with a Gaussian process emulatorModelling wintertime sea-spray aerosols under Arctic haze conditionsImpact of solar geoengineering on wildfires in the 21st century in CESM2/WACCM6Linking gas, particulate, and toxic endpoints to air emissions in the Community Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Multiphase Mechanism (CRACMM)An Updated Modeling Framework to Simulate Los Angeles Air Quality. Part 1: Model Development, Evaluation, and Source ApportionmentDynamics-based estimates of decline trend with fine temporal variations in China's PM2.5 emissionsContribution of regional aerosol nucleation to low-level CCN in an Amazonian deep convective environment: results from a regionally nested global modelDevelopment of an integrated model framework for multi-air-pollutant exposure assessments in high-density cities and the implications for epidemiological researchCoarse particulate matter air quality in East Asia: implications for fine particulate nitrateThe Emissions Model Intercomparison Project (Emissions-MIP): quantifying model sensitivity to emission characteristicsForeign emissions exacerbate PM2.5 pollution in China through nitrate chemistryAnalysis of new particle formation events and comparisons to simulations of particle number concentrations based on GEOS-Chem–advanced particle microphysics in Beijing, ChinaSimulation of organic aerosol, its precursors, and related oxidants in the Landes pine forest in southwestern France: accounting for domain-specific land use and physical conditionsModelling the European wind-blown dust emissions and their impact on particulate matter (PM) concentrationsImpacts of estimated plume rise on PM2.5 exceedance prediction during extreme wildfire events: a comparison of three schemes (Briggs, Freitas, and Sofiev)CAMx-UNIPAR Simulation of SOA Mass Formed from Multiphase Reactions of Hydrocarbons under the Central Valley Urban Atmospheres of CaliforniaStrong particle production and condensational growth in the upper troposphere sustained by biogenic VOCs from the canopy of the Amazon BasinSources of organic aerosols in eastern China: a modeling study with high-resolution intermediate-volatility and semivolatile organic compound emissionsComposited analyses of the chemical and physical characteristics of co-polluted days by ozone and PM2.5 over 2013–2020 in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei regionObservation-based constraints on modeled aerosol surface area: implications for heterogeneous chemistryOligomer formation from the gas-phase reactions of Criegee intermediates with hydroperoxide esters: mechanism and kineticsModelling SO2 conversion into sulfates in the mid-troposphere with a 3D chemistry transport model: the case of Mount Etna's eruption on 12 April 2012Global distribution of Asian, Middle Eastern, and North African dust simulated by CESM1/CARMAOpinion: Coordinated development of emission inventories for climate forcers and air pollutantsSeasonal modeling analysis of nitrate formation pathways in Yangtze River Delta region, ChinaModeling radiative and climatic effects of brown carbon aerosols with the ARPEGE-Climat global climate modelNumerical simulation of the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on tropospheric composition and aerosol radiative forcing in EuropeEvaluation of the WRF and CHIMERE models for the simulation of PM2.5 in large East African urban conurbationsImpact of urban heat island on inorganic aerosol in the lower free troposphere: a case study in Hangzhou, ChinaStatistical and machine learning methods for evaluating trends in air quality under changing meteorological conditionsSimulating the radiative forcing of oceanic dimethylsulfide (DMS) in Asia based on machine learning estimatesQuantifying the effects of mixing state on aerosol optical propertiesSecondary organic aerosol formation via multiphase reaction of hydrocarbons in urban atmospheres using CAMx integrated with the UNIPAR modelContrasting source contributions of Arctic black carbon to atmospheric concentrations, deposition flux, and atmospheric and snow radiative effects
Stylianos Kakavas, Spyros N. Pandis, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13555–13564,Short summary
Water uptake from organic species in aerosol can affect the partitioning of semi-volatile inorganic compounds but are not considered in global and chemical transport models. We address this with a version of the PM-CAMx model that considers such organic water effects and use it to carry out 1-year aerosol simulations over the continental US. We show that such organic water impacts can increase dry PM1 levels by up to 2 μg m-3 when RH levels and PM1 concentrations are high.
Benjamin N. Murphy, Darrell Sonntag, Karl M. Seltzer, Havala O. T. Pye, Christine Allen, Evan Murray, Claudia Toro, Drew R. Gentner, Cheng Huang, Shantanu Jathar, Li Li, Andrew A. May, and Allen L. Robinson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13469–13483,Short summary
We update methods for calculating organic particle and vapor emissions from mobile sources in the USA. Conventionally, particulate matter (PM) and volatile organic carbon (VOC) are speciated without consideration of primary semivolatile emissions. Our methods integrate state-of-the-science speciation profiles and correct for common artifacts when sampling emissions in a laboratory. We quantify impacts of the emission updates on ambient pollution with the Community Multiscale Air Quality model.
Yanshun Li, Randall V. Martin, Chi Li, Brian L. Boys, Aaron van Donkelaar, Jun Meng, and Jeffrey R. Pierce
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 12525–12543,Short summary
We developed and evaluated processes affecting within-day (diel) variability in PM2.5 concentrations in a chemical transport model over the contiguous US. Diel variability in PM2.5 for the contiguous US is driven by early-morning accumulation into a shallow mixed layer, decreases from mid-morning through afternoon with mixed-layer growth, increases from mid-afternoon through evening as the mixed-layer collapses, and decreases overnight as emissions decrease.
Chupeng Zhang, Shangfei Hai, Yang Gao, Yuhang Wang, Shaoqing Zhang, Lifang Sheng, Bin Zhao, Shuxiao Wang, Jingkun Jiang, Xin Huang, Xiaojing Shen, Junying Sun, Aura Lupascu, Manish Shrivastava, Jerome D. Fast, Wenxuan Cheng, Xiuwen Guo, Ming Chu, Nan Ma, Juan Hong, Qiaoqiao Wang, Xiaohong Yao, and Huiwang Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10713–10730,Short summary
New particle formation is an important source of atmospheric particles, exerting critical influences on global climate. Numerical models are vital tools to understanding atmospheric particle evolution, which, however, suffer from large biases in simulating particle numbers. Here we improve the model chemical processes governing particle sizes and compositions. The improved model reveals substantial contributions of newly formed particles to climate through effects on cloud condensation nuclei.
Xiaodong Xie, Jianlin Hu, Momei Qin, Song Guo, Min Hu, Dongsheng Ji, Hongli Wang, Shengrong Lou, Cheng Huang, Chong Liu, Hongliang Zhang, Qi Ying, Hong Liao, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10563–10578,Short summary
The atmospheric age of particles reflects how long particles have been formed and suspended in the atmosphere, which is closely associated with the evolution processes of particles. An analysis of the atmospheric age of PM2.5 provides a unique perspective on the evolution processes of different PM2.5 components. The results also shed lights on how to design effective emission control actions under unfavorable meteorological conditions.
Lea Fink, Matthias Karl, Volker Matthias, Sonia Oppo, Richard Kranenburg, Jeroen Kuenen, Sara Jutterström, Jana Moldanova, Elisa Majamäki, and Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10163–10189,Short summary
The Mediterranean Sea is a heavily trafficked shipping area, and air quality monitoring stations in numerous cities along the Mediterranean coast have detected high levels of air pollutants originating from shipping emissions. The current study investigates how existing restrictions on shipping-related emissions to the atmosphere ensure compliance with legislation. Focus was laid on fine particles and particle species, which were simulated with five different chemical transport models.
Noah A. Stanton and Neil F. Tandon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9191–9216,Short summary
Chemistry in Earth’s atmosphere has a potentially strong but very uncertain impact on climate. Past attempts to fully model chemistry in Earth’s troposphere (the lowest layer of the atmosphere) typically simplified the representation of Earth’s surface, which in turn limited the ability to simulate changes in climate. The cutting-edge model that we use in this study does not require such simplification, and we use it to examine the climate effects of chemical interactions in the troposphere.
Yiqi Zheng, Larry W. Horowitz, Raymond Menzel, David J. Paynter, Vaishali Naik, Jingyi Li, and Jingqiu Mao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8993–9007,Short summary
Biogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) account for a large fraction of fine aerosol at the global scale. Using long-term measurements and a climate model, we investigate anthropogenic impacts on biogenic SOA at both decadal and centennial timescales. Results show that despite reductions in biogenic precursor emissions, SOA has been strongly amplified by anthropogenic emissions since the preindustrial era and exerts a cooling radiative forcing.
Yuyang Li, Jiewen Shen, Bin Zhao, Runlong Cai, Shuxiao Wang, Yang Gao, Manish Shrivastava, Da Gao, Jun Zheng, Markku Kulmala, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8789–8804,Short summary
We set up a new parameterization for 1.4 nm particle formation rates from sulfuric acid–dimethylamine (SA–DMA) nucleation, fully including the effects of coagulation scavenging and cluster stability. Incorporating the new parameterization into 3-D chemical transport models, we achieved better consistencies between simulation results and observation data. This new parameterization provides new insights into atmospheric nucleation simulations and its effects on atmospheric pollution or health.
María Gonçalves Ageitos, Vincenzo Obiso, Ron L. Miller, Oriol Jorba, Martina Klose, Matt Dawson, Yves Balkanski, Jan Perlwitz, Sara Basart, Enza Di Tomaso, Jerónimo Escribano, Francesca Macchia, Gilbert Montané, Natalie M. Mahowald, Robert O. Green, David R. Thompson, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8623–8657,Short summary
Dust aerosols affect our climate differently depending on their mineral composition. We include dust mineralogy in an atmospheric model considering two existing soil maps, which still have large associated uncertainties. The soil data and the distribution of the minerals in different aerosol sizes are key to our model performance. We find significant regional variations in climate-relevant variables, which supports including mineralogy in our current models and the need for improved soil maps.
Jianyan Lu, Sunling Gong, Jian Zhang, Jianmin Chen, Lei Zhang, and Chunhong Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8021–8037,Short summary
WRF/CUACE was used to assess the cloud chemistry contribution in China. Firstly, the CUACE cloud chemistry scheme was found to reproduce well the cloud processing and consumption of H2O2, O3, and SO2, as well as the increase of sulfate. Secondly, during cloud availability in December under a heavy pollution episode, sulfate production increased 60–95 % and SO2 was reduced by over 80 %. This study provides a way to analyze the phenomenon of overestimation of SO2 in many chemical transport models.
Laurent Menut, Arineh Cholakian, Guillaume Siour, Rémy Lapere, Romain Pennel, Sylvain Mailler, and Bertrand Bessagnet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7281–7296,Short summary
This study is about the wildfires occurring in France during the summer 2022. We study the forest fires that took place in the Landes during the summer of 2022. We show the direct impact of these fires on the air quality, especially downstream of the smoke plume towards the Paris region. We quantify the impact of these fires on the pollutants peak concentrations and the possible exceedance of thresholds.
Hannah J. Rubin, Joshua S. Fu, Frank Dentener, Rui Li, Kan Huang, and Hongbo Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7091–7102,Short summary
We update the 2010 global deposition budget for nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) with new regional wet deposition measurements, improving the ensemble results of 11 global chemistry transport models from HTAP II. Our study demonstrates that a global measurement–model fusion approach can substantially improve N and S deposition model estimates at a regional scale and represents a step forward toward the WMO goal of global fusion products for accurately mapping harmful air pollution.
Chenxi Li, Yuyang Li, Xiaoxiao Li, Runlong Cai, Yaxin Fan, Xiaohui Qiao, Rujing Yin, Chao Yan, Yishuo Guo, Yongchun Liu, Jun Zheng, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Markku Kulmala, Huayun Xiao, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6879–6896,Short summary
New particle formation and growth in polluted environments are not fully understood despite intensive research. We applied a cluster dynamics–multicomponent sectional model to simulate the new particle formation events observed in Beijing, China. The simulation approximately captures how the events evolve. Further diagnosis shows that the oxygenated organic molecules may have been under-detected, and modulating their abundance leads to significantly improved simulation–observation agreement.
Marianne Tronstad Lund, Gunnar Myhre, Ragnhild Bieltvedt Skeie, Bjørn Hallvard Samset, and Zbigniew Klimont
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6647–6662,Short summary
Here we show that differences, in magnitude and trend, between recent global anthropogenic emission inventories have a notable influence on simulated regional abundances of anthropogenic aerosol over the 1990–2019 period. This, in turn, affects estimates of radiative forcing. Our findings form a basis for comparing existing and upcoming studies on anthropogenic aerosols using different emission inventories.
Lei Kong, Xiao Tang, Jiang Zhu, Zifa Wang, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, Meng Gao, Huangjian Wu, Miaomiao Lu, Qian Wu, Shuyuan Huang, Wenxuan Sui, Jie Li, Xiaole Pan, Lin Wu, Hajime Akimoto, and Gregory R. Carmichael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6217–6240,Short summary
A multi-air-pollutant inversion system has been developed in this study to estimate emission changes in China during COVID-19 lockdown. The results demonstrate that the lockdown is largely a nationwide road traffic control measure with NOx emissions decreasing by ~40 %. Emissions of other species only decreased by ~10 % due to smaller effects of lockdown on other sectors. Assessment results further indicate that the lockdown only had limited effects on the control of PM2.5 and O3 in China.
Ernesto Reyes-Villegas, Douglas Lowe, Jill S. Johnson, Kenneth S. Carslaw, Eoghan Darbyshire, Michael Flynn, James D. Allan, Hugh Coe, Ying Chen, Oliver Wild, Scott Archer-Nicholls, Alex Archibald, Siddhartha Singh, Manish Shrivastava, Rahul A. Zaveri, Vikas Singh, Gufran Beig, Ranjeet Sokhi, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5763–5782,Short summary
Organic aerosols (OAs), their sources and their processes remain poorly understood. The volatility basis set (VBS) approach, implemented in air quality models such as WRF-Chem, can be a useful tool to describe primary OA (POA) production and aging. However, the main disadvantage is its complexity. We used a Gaussian process simulator to reproduce model results and to estimate the sources of model uncertainty. We do this by comparing the outputs with OA observations made at Delhi, India, in 2018.
Eleftherios Ioannidis, Kathy S. Law, Jean-Christophe Raut, Louis Marelle, Tatsuo Onishi, Rachel M. Kirpes, Lucia M. Upchurch, Thomas Tuch, Alfred Wiedensohler, Andreas Massling, Henrik Skov, Patricia K. Quinn, and Kerri A. Pratt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5641–5678,Short summary
Remote and local anthropogenic emissions contribute to wintertime Arctic haze, with enhanced aerosol concentrations, but natural sources, which also contribute, are less well studied. Here, modelled wintertime sea-spray aerosols are improved in WRF-Chem over the wider Arctic by including updated wind speed and temperature-dependent treatments. As a result, anthropogenic nitrate aerosols are also improved. Open leads are confirmed to be the main source of sea-spray aerosols over northern Alaska.
Wenfu Tang, Simone Tilmes, David M. Lawrence, Fang Li, Cenlin He, Louisa K. Emmons, Rebecca R. Buchholz, and Lili Xia
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5467–5486,Short summary
Globally, total wildfire burned area is projected to increase over the 21st century under scenarios without geoengineering and decrease under the two geoengineering scenarios. Geoengineering reduces fire by decreasing surface temperature and wind speed and increasing relative humidity and soil water. However, geoengineering also yields reductions in precipitation, which offset some of the fire reduction.
Havala O. T. Pye, Bryan K. Place, Benjamin N. Murphy, Karl M. Seltzer, Emma L. D'Ambro, Christine Allen, Ivan R. Piletic, Sara Farrell, Rebecca H. Schwantes, Matthew M. Coggon, Emily Saunders, Lu Xu, Golam Sarwar, William T. Hutzell, Kristen M. Foley, George Pouliot, Jesse Bash, and William R. Stockwell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5043–5099,Short summary
Chemical mechanisms describe how emissions from vehicles, vegetation, and other sources are chemically transformed in the atmosphere to secondary products including criteria and hazardous air pollutants. The Community Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Multiphase Mechanism integrates gas-phase radical chemistry with pathways to fine-particle mass. New species were implemented, resulting in a bottom-up representation of organic aerosol, which is required for accurate source attribution of pollutants.
Elyse A. Pennington, Yuan Wang, Benjamin C. Schulze, Karl M. Seltzer, Jiani Yang, Bin Zhao, Zhe Jiang, Hongru Shi, Melissa Venecek, Daniel Chau, Benjamin N. Murphy, Christopher M. Kenseth, Ryan X. Ward, Havala O. T. Pye, and John H. Seinfeld
To assess the ozone and particulate matter pollution in LA, we improved the CMAQ model by employing dynamic traffic emissions and new secondary organic aerosol (SOA) schemes to represent volatile chemical products (VCP). Source apportionment demonstrates that the urban areas of the LA Basin and vicinity are NOx-saturated with the largest sensitivity of O3 to changes in VOC in the urban core. The improvement and remaining issues shed light on the future direction of the model development.
Zhen Peng, Lili Lei, Zhe-Min Tan, Meigen Zhang, Aijun Ding, and Xingxia Kou
Annual PM2.5 emission in China consistently decreases about 3 % to 5 % from 2017 to 2020 with spatial variations and seasonal dependences. High temporal-resolution and dynamics-based PM2.5 emission estimates provide quantitative diurnal variations for each season. Significant reduction of PM2.5 emissions in the north China plain and northeast of China in 2020 are caused by COVID-19.
Xuemei Wang, Hamish Gordon, Daniel P. Grosvenor, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Ken S. Carslaw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4431–4461,Short summary
New particle formation in the upper troposphere is important for the global boundary layer aerosol population, and they can be transported downward in Amazonia. We use a global and a regional model to quantify the number of aerosols that are formed at high altitude and transported downward in a 1000 km region. We find that the majority of the aerosols are from outside the region. This suggests that the 1000 km region is unlikely to be a
closed loopfor aerosol formation, transport and growth.
Zhiyuan Li, Kin-Fai Ho, Harry Fung Lee, and Steve Hung Lam Yim
This study developed an integrated model framework for accurate multi-air-pollutant exposure assessments in high-density and high-rise cities. Following the proposed integrated model framework, we established multi-air-pollutant exposure models for four major PM10 chemical species as well as four criteria air pollutants with R2 values ranging from 0.73 to 0.93. The proposed framework serves an important tool for combined exposure assessment and the corresponding epidemiological studies.
Shixian Zhai, Daniel J. Jacob, Drew C. Pendergrass, Nadia K. Colombi, Viral Shah, Laura Hyesung Yang, Qiang Zhang, Shuxiao Wang, Hwajin Kim, Yele Sun, Jin-Soo Choi, Jin-Soo Park, Gan Luo, Fangqun Yu, Jung-Hun Woo, Younha Kim, Jack E. Dibb, Taehyoung Lee, Jin-Seok Han, Bruce E. Anderson, Ke Li, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4271–4281,Short summary
Anthropogenic fugitive dust in East Asia not only causes severe coarse particulate matter air pollution problems, but also affects fine particulate nitrate. Due to emission control efforts, coarse PM decreased steadily. We find that the decrease of coarse PM is a major driver for a lack of decrease of fine particulate nitrate, as it allows more nitric acid to form fine particulate nitrate. The continuing decrease of coarse PM requires more stringent ammonia and nitrogen oxides emission controls.
Hamza Ahsan, Hailong Wang, Jingbo Wu, Mingxuan Wu, Steven J. Smith, Susanne Bauer, Harrison Suchyta, Dirk Olivié, Gunnar Myhre, Hitoshi Matsui, Huisheng Bian, Jean-François Lamarque, Ken Carslaw, Larry Horowitz, Leighton Regayre, Mian Chin, Michael Schulz, Ragnhild Bieltvedt Skeie, Toshihiko Takemura, and Vaishali Naik
We examine the impact of the assumed effective height of SO2 injection, SO2 and BC emissions seasonality, and the assumed fraction of SO2 emissions injected as SO4 on climate and chemistry model results. We find that the SO2 injection height has a large impact on surface SO2 concentrations and, in some models, radiative flux. These assumptions are a “hidden” source of inter-model variability and may be leading to bias in some climate model results.
Jun-Wei Xu, Jintai Lin, Gan Luo, Jamiu Adeniran, and Hao Kong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4149–4163,Short summary
Research on the sources of Chinese PM2.5 pollution has focused on the contributions of China’s domestic emissions. However, the impact of foreign anthropogenic emissions has typically been simplified or neglected. Here we find that foreign anthropogenic emissions play an important role in Chinese PM2.5 pollution through chemical interactions between foreign-transported pollutants and China’s local emissions. Thus, foreign emission reductions are essential for improving Chinese air quality.
Kun Wang, Xiaoyan Ma, Rong Tian, and Fangqun Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4091–4104,Short summary
From 12 March to 6 April 2016 in Beijing, there were 11 typical new particle formation days, 13 non-event days, and 2 undefined days. We first analyzed the favorable background of new particle formation in Beijing and then conducted the simulations using four nucleation schemes based on a global chemistry transport model (GEOS-Chem) to understand the nucleation mechanism.
Arineh Cholakian, Matthias Beekmann, Guillaume Siour, Isabelle Coll, Manuela Cirtog, Elena Ormeño, Pierre-Marie Flaud, Emilie Perraudin, and Eric Villenave
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3679–3706,Short summary
This article revolves around the simulation of biogenic secondary organic aerosols in the Landes forest (southwestern France). Several sensitivity cases involving biogenic emission factors, land cover data, anthropogenic emissions, and physical or meteorological parameters were performed and each compared to measurements both in the forest canopy and around the forest. The chemistry behind the formation of these aerosols and their production and transport in the forest canopy is discussed.
Marina Liaskoni, Peter Huszar, Lukáš Bartík, Alvaro Patricio Prieto Perez, Jan Karlický, and Ondřej Vlček
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3629–3654,Short summary
Wind-blown dust (WBD) emissions emitted from European soils are estimated for the 2007–2016 period, and their impact on the total particulate matter (PM) concentration is calculated. We found a considerable increase in PM concentrations due to such emissions, especially on selected days (rather than on a seasonal average). We also found that WBD emissions are strongest over western Europe, and the highest impacts on PM are calculated for this region.
Yunyao Li, Daniel Tong, Siqi Ma, Saulo R. Freitas, Ravan Ahmadov, Mikhail Sofiev, Xiaoyang Zhang, Shobha Kondragunta, Ralph Kahn, Youhua Tang, Barry Baker, Patrick Campbell, Rick Saylor, Georg Grell, and Fangjun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3083–3101,Short summary
Plume height is important in wildfire smoke dispersion and affects air quality and human health. We assess the impact of plume height on wildfire smoke dispersion and the exceedances of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. A higher plume height predicts lower pollution near the source region, but higher pollution in downwind regions, due to the faster spread of the smoke once ejected, affects pollution exceedance forecasts and the early warning of extreme air pollution events.
Yujin Jo, Myoseon Jang, Sanghee Han, Azad Madhu, Bonyoung Koo, Yiqin Jia, Zechen Yu, Soontae Kim, and Jinsoo Park
The CAMx-UNIPAR model simulated the SOA budget formed via multiphase reactions of hydrocarbons and the impact of emissions and climate on SOA characteristics under California’s urban environments during winter 2018. SOA growth was dominated by daytime oxidation of long-chain alkanes and nighttime terpene oxidation with O3 and NO3 radicals. The spatial distributions of anthropogenic SOA were affected by the northwesterly wind whereas those of biogenic SOA were insensitive to wind directions.
Yunfan Liu, Hang Su, Siwen Wang, Chao Wei, Wei Tao, Mira L. Pöhlker, Christopher Pöhlker, Bruna A. Holanda, Ovid O. Krüger, Thorsten Hoffmann, Manfred Wendisch, Paulo Artaxo, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 251–272,Short summary
The origins of the abundant cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the upper troposphere (UT) of the Amazon remain unclear. With model developments of new secondary organic aerosol schemes and constrained by observation, we show that strong aerosol nucleation and condensation in the UT is triggered by biogenic organics, and organic condensation is key for UT CCN production. This UT CCN-producing mechanism may prevail over broader vegetation canopies and deserves emphasis in aerosol–climate feedback.
Jingyu An, Cheng Huang, Dandan Huang, Momei Qin, Huan Liu, Rusha Yan, Liping Qiao, Min Zhou, Yingjie Li, Shuhui Zhu, Qian Wang, and Hongli Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 323–344,Short summary
This paper aims to build up an approach to establish a high-resolution emission inventory of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds in city-scale and detailed source categories and incorporate it into the CMAQ model. We believe this approach can be widely applied to improve the simulation of secondary organic aerosol and its source contributions.
Huibin Dai, Hong Liao, Ke Li, Xu Yue, Yang Yang, Jia Zhu, Jianbing Jin, Baojie Li, and Xingwen Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 23–39,Short summary
We apply the 3-D global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to simulate co-polluted days by O3 and PM2.5 (O3–PM2.5PDs) in Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei in 2013–2020 and investigate the chemical and physical characteristics of O3–PM2.5PDs by composited analyses of such days that are captured by both the observations and the model. We report for the first time the unique features in vertical distributions of aerosols during O3–PM2.5PDs and the physical and chemical characteristics of O3–PM2.5PDs.
Rachel A. Bergin, Monica Harkey, Alicia Hoffman, Richard H. Moore, Bruce Anderson, Andreas Beyersdorf, Luke Ziemba, Lee Thornhill, Edward Winstead, Tracey Holloway, and Timothy H. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15449–15468,Short summary
Correctly predicting aerosol surface area concentrations is important for determining the rate of heterogeneous reactions in chemical transport models. Here, we compare aircraft measurements of aerosol surface area with a regional model. In polluted air masses, we show that the model underpredicts aerosol surface area by a factor of 2. Despite this disagreement, the representation of heterogeneous chemistry still dominates the overall uncertainty in the loss rate of molecules such as N2O5.
Long Chen, Yu Huang, Yonggang Xue, Zhihui Jia, and Wenliang Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14529–14546,Short summary
Quantum chemical methods are applied to gain insight into the oligomerization reaction mechanisms and kinetics of distinct stabilized Criegee intermediate (SCI) reactions with hydroperoxide esters, where calculations show that SCI addition reactions with hydroperoxide esters proceed through the successive insertion of SCIs to form oligomers that involve SCIs as the repeating unit. The saturated vapor pressure of the formed oligomers decreases monotonically with the increasing number of SCIs.
Mathieu Lachatre, Sylvain Mailler, Laurent Menut, Arineh Cholakian, Pasquale Sellitto, Guillaume Siour, Henda Guermazi, Giuseppe Salerno, and Salvatore Giammanco
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13861–13879,Short summary
In this study, we have evaluated the predominance of various pathways of volcanic SO2 conversion to sulfates in the upper troposphere. We show that the main conversion pathway was gaseous oxidation by OH, although the liquid pathways were expected to be predominant. These results are interesting with respect to a better understanding of sulfate formation in the middle and upper troposphere and are an important component to help evaluate particulate matter radiative forcing.
Siying Lian, Luxi Zhou, Daniel M. Murphy, Karl D. Froyd, Owen B. Toon, and Pengfei Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13659–13676,Short summary
Parameterizations of dust lifting and microphysical properties of dust in climate models are still subject to large uncertainty. Here we use a sectional aerosol climate model to investigate the global vertical distributions of the dust. Constrained by a suite of observations, the model suggests that, although North African dust dominates global dust mass loading at the surface, the relative contribution of Asian dust increases with altitude and becomes dominant in the upper troposphere.
Steven J. Smith, Erin E. McDuffie, and Molly Charles
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13201–13218,Short summary
Emissions into the atmosphere of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and air pollutants, quantified in emission inventories, impact human health, ecosystems, and the climate. We review how air pollutant and GHG inventory activities have historically been structured and their different uses and requirements. We discuss the benefits of increasing coordination between air pollutant and GHG inventory development efforts, but also caution that there are differences in appropriate methodologies and applications.
Jinjin Sun, Momei Qin, Xiaodong Xie, Wenxing Fu, Yang Qin, Li Sheng, Lin Li, Jingyi Li, Ishaq Dimeji Sulaymon, Lei Jiang, Lin Huang, Xingna Yu, and Jianlin Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12629–12646,Short summary
NO3- has become the dominant and the least reduced chemical component of fine particulate matter in China. NO3- formation is mostly in the NH3-rich regime in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD). OH + NO2 contributes 60 %–83 % of the TNO3 production rates, and the N2O5 heterogeneous pathway contributes 10 %–36 %. The N2O5 heterogeneous pathway becomes more important in cold seasons. Local emissions and regional transportation contribute 50 %–62 % and 38 %–50 % to YRD NO3- concentrations, respectively.
Thomas Drugé, Pierre Nabat, Marc Mallet, Martine Michou, Samuel Rémy, and Oleg Dubovik
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12167–12205,Short summary
This study presents the implementation of brown carbon in the atmospheric component of the CNRM global climate model and particularly in its aerosol scheme TACTIC. Several simulations were carried out with this climate model, over the period 2000–2014, to evaluate the model by comparison with different reference datasets (PARASOL-GRASP, OMI-OMAERUVd, MACv2, FMI_SAT, AERONET) and to analyze the brown carbon radiative and climatic effects.
Simon F. Reifenberg, Anna Martin, Matthias Kohl, Sara Bacer, Zaneta Hamryszczak, Ivan Tadic, Lenard Röder, Daniel J. Crowley, Horst Fischer, Katharina Kaiser, Johannes Schneider, Raphael Dörich, John N. Crowley, Laura Tomsche, Andreas Marsing, Christiane Voigt, Andreas Zahn, Christopher Pöhlker, Bruna A. Holanda, Ovid Krüger, Ulrich Pöschl, Mira Pöhlker, Patrick Jöckel, Marcel Dorf, Ulrich Schumann, Jonathan Williams, Birger Bohn, Joachim Curtius, Hardwig Harder, Hans Schlager, Jos Lelieveld, and Andrea Pozzer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10901–10917,Short summary
In this work we use a combination of observational data from an aircraft campaign and model results to investigate the effect of the European lockdown due to COVID-19 in spring 2020. Using model results, we show that the largest relative changes to the atmospheric composition caused by the reduced emissions are located in the upper troposphere around aircraft cruise altitude, while the largest absolute changes are present at the surface.
Andrea Mazzeo, Michael Burrow, Andrew Quinn, Eloise A. Marais, Ajit Singh, David Ng'ang'a, Michael J. Gatari, and Francis D. Pope
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10677–10701,Short summary
A modelling system for meteorology and chemistry transport processes, WRF–CHIMERE, has been tested and validated for three East African conurbations using the most up-to-date anthropogenic emissions available. Results show that the model is able to reproduce hourly and daily temporal variabilities in aerosol concentrations that are close to observations in both urban and rural environments, encouraging the adoption of numerical modelling as a tool for air quality management in East Africa.
Hanqing Kang, Bin Zhu, Gerrit de Leeuw, Bu Yu, Ronald J. van der A, and Wen Lu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10623–10634,Short summary
This study quantified the contribution of each urban-induced meteorological effect (temperature, humidity, and circulation) to aerosol concentration. We found that the urban heat island (UHI) circulation dominates the UHI effects on aerosol. The UHI circulation transports aerosol and its precursor gases from the warmer lower boundary layer to the colder lower free troposphere and promotes the secondary formation of ammonium nitrate aerosol in the cold atmosphere.
Minghao Qiu, Corwin Zigler, and Noelle E. Selin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10551–10566,Short summary
Evaluating impacts of emission changes on air quality requires accounting for meteorological variability. Many studies use simple regression methods to correct for meteorology, but little is known about their performance. Using cases in the US and China, we show that widely used regression models do not perform well and can lead to biased estimates of emission-driven trends. We propose a novel machine learning method with lower bias and provide recommendations to policymakers and researchers.
Junri Zhao, Weichun Ma, Kelsey R. Bilsback, Jeffrey R. Pierce, Shengqian Zhou, Ying Chen, Guipeng Yang, and Yan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9583–9600,Short summary
Marine dimethylsulfide (DMS) emissions play important roles in atmospheric sulfur cycle and climate effects. In this study, DMS emissions were estimated by using the machine learning method and drove the global 3D chemical transport model to simulate their climate effects. To our knowledge, this is the first study in the Asian region that quantifies the combined impacts of DMS on sulfate, particle number concentration, and radiative forcings.
Yu Yao, Jeffrey H. Curtis, Joseph Ching, Zhonghua Zheng, and Nicole Riemer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9265–9282,Short summary
Investigating the impacts of aerosol mixing state on aerosol optical properties has a long history from both the modeling and experimental perspective. In this study, we used particle-resolved simulations as a benchmark to determine the error in optical properties when using simplified aerosol representations. We found that errors in single scattering albedo due to the internal mixture assumptions can have substantial effects on calculating aerosol direct radiative forcing.
Zechen Yu, Myoseon Jang, Soontae Kim, Kyuwon Son, Sanghee Han, Azad Madhu, and Jinsoo Park
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9083–9098,Short summary
The UNIPAR model was incorporated into CAMx to predict the ambient concentration of organic matter in urban atmospheres during the KORUS-AQ campaign. CAMx–UNIPAR significantly improved the simulation of SOA formation under the wet aerosol condition through the consideration of aqueous reactions of reactive organic species and gas–aqueous partitioning into the wet inorganic aerosol.
Hitoshi Matsui, Tatsuhiro Mori, Sho Ohata, Nobuhiro Moteki, Naga Oshima, Kumiko Goto-Azuma, Makoto Koike, and Yutaka Kondo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8989–9009,Short summary
Using a global aerosol model, we find that the source contributions to radiative effects of black carbon (BC) in the Arctic are quite different from those to mass concentrations and deposition flux of BC in the Arctic. This is because microphysical properties (e.g., mixing state), altitudes, and seasonal variations of BC in the atmosphere differ among emissions sources. These differences need to be considered for accurate simulations of Arctic BC and its source contributions and climate impacts.
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In the present study, simulations with the SPACCIM-SpactMod multiphase chemistry model are performed. The investigations aim at assessing the impact of a detailed treatment of non-ideality in multiphase models dealing with aqueous aerosol chemistry. The model studies demonstrate that the inclusion of non-ideality considerably affects the multiphase chemical processing of transition metal ions, oxidants, and related chemical subsystems such as organic chemistry in aqueous aerosols.
In the present study, simulations with the SPACCIM-SpactMod multiphase chemistry model are...