Articles | Volume 19, issue 3
08 Feb 2019
Research article | 08 Feb 2019
Characterisation and source identification of biofluorescent aerosol emissions over winter and summer periods in the United Kingdom
Elizabeth Forde et al.
No articles found.
Valérie Gros, Bernard Bonsang, Roland Sarda-Estève, Anna Nikolopoulos, Katja Metfies, Matthias Wietz, and Ilka Peeken
Preprint under review for BGShort summary
The oceans are both source and sink for trace gases important for atmospheric chemistry and marine ecology. Here, we quantified selected trace gases (including the biological metabolites DMS, methanethiol and isoprene) along a 2500 km transect from the north Atlantic to the Arctic Ocean. In context of phytoplankton and bacterial communities, our study suggests that methanethiol (rarely measured before) might substantially influence ocean-atmosphere cycling.
Matthias Karl, Liisa Pirjola, Tiia Grönholm, Mona Kurppa, Srinivasan Anand, Xiaole Zhang, Andreas Held, Rolf Sander, Miikka Dal Maso, David Topping, Shuai Jiang, Leena Kangas, and Jaakko Kukkonen
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 3969–4026,Short summary
The community aerosol dynamics model MAFOR includes several advanced features: coupling with an up-to-date chemistry mechanism for volatile organic compounds, a revised Brownian coagulation kernel that takes into account the fractal geometry of soot particles, a multitude of nucleation parameterizations, size-resolved partitioning of semi-volatile inorganics, and a hybrid method for the formation of secondary organic aerosols within the framework of condensation and evaporation.
Joseph Girdwood, Warren Stanley, Chris Stopford, and David Brus
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2061–2076,Short summary
UAVs have great potential to be used for airborne measurements of cloud and aerosol properties, which are of particular importance due to the largely uncharacterised nature of such phenomena. However, since UAVs are a new tool in atmospheric physics expensive platform validation and characterisation of UAV-instrument combinations needs to be performed. This paper presents an evaluation of a fixed-wing UAV in combination with an instrument that measures cloud droplet diameter.
Paul Alan Barrett, Steven J. Abel, Hugh Coe, Ian Crawford, Amie Dobracki, James M. Haywood, Steve Howell, Anthony Jones, Justin Langridge, Greg McFarquhar, Graeme Nott, Hannah Price, Jens Redemann, Yohei Shinozuka, Kate Szpek, Jonathan Taylor, Robert Wood, Huihui Wu, Paquita Zuidema, Stephane Bauguitte, Ryan Bennett, Keith Bower, Hong Chen, Sabrina P. Cochrane, Michael Cotterell, Nicholas Davies, David Delene, Connor Flynn, Andrew Freedman, Steffen Freitag, Siddhant Gupta, David Noone, Timothy B. Onasch, James Podolske, Michael R. Poellot, Sebastian K. Schmidt, Stephen Springston, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, Jamie Trembath, Alan Vance, Maria Zawadowicz, and Jianhao Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
In order to better understand weather and climate it is vital to go into the field and collect observations. Often measurements take place in isolation but here we compared data from two aircraft and one ground-based site. This was done in order to understand how well measurements made on one platform compared to those made on another. Whilst this is easy to do in a controlled laboratory setting it is more challenging in the real-world and so these comparisons are as valuable as they are rare.
Benjamin Loubet, Pauline Buysse, Lais Gonzaga-Gomez, Florence Lafouge, Raluca Ciuraru, Céline Decuq, Julien Kammer, Sandy Bsaibes, Christophe Boissard, Brigitte Durand, Jean-Christophe Gueudet, Olivier Fanucci, Olivier Zurfluh, Letizia Abis, Nora Zannoni, François Truong, Dominique Baisnée, Roland Sarda-Estève, Michael Staudt, and Valérie Gros
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2817–2842,Short summary
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are precursors of tropospheric pollutants like ozone or aerosols. Emission by agricultural land was still poorly characterized. We report experimental measurements of ecosystem-scale VOC fluxes above a wheat field with a highly sensitive proton transfer mass spectrometer. We report the fluxes of 123 compounds and confirm that methanol is the most emitted VOC by wheat. The second most emitted compound was C6H4O. Around 75 % of the compounds were deposited.
Graciela B. Raga, Darrel Baumgardner, Blanca Rios, Yanet Díaz-Esteban, Alejandro Jaramillo, Martin Gallagher, Bastien Sauvage, Pawel Wolff, and Gary Lloyd
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2269–2292,Short summary
The In-Service Aircraft for a Global Observing System (IAGOS) is a small fleet of commercial aircraft that carry a suite of meteorological, gas, aerosol, and cloud sensors and have been measuring worldwide for almost 9 years, since late 2011. Extreme ice events (EIEs) have been identified from the IAGOS cloud measurements and linked to surface emissions for biomass and fossil fuel consumption. The results reported here are highly relevant for climate change and flight operations forecasting.
Waldemar Schledewitch, Gary Lloyd, Keith Bower, Thomas Choularton, Michael Flynn, and Martin Gallagher
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Ice crystals on the surface of ice and snow covered terrain are thought to be transported into clouds that cover the surface. This has important implications for the properties of clouds in these regions. This research measured the potential transport of surface based ice crystals into the surrounding clouds at a mountain top site.
Bjorn Stevens, Sandrine Bony, David Farrell, Felix Ament, Alan Blyth, Christopher Fairall, Johannes Karstensen, Patricia K. Quinn, Sabrina Speich, Claudia Acquistapace, Franziska Aemisegger, Anna Lea Albright, Hugo Bellenger, Eberhard Bodenschatz, Kathy-Ann Caesar, Rebecca Chewitt-Lucas, Gijs de Boer, Julien Delanoë, Leif Denby, Florian Ewald, Benjamin Fildier, Marvin Forde, Geet George, Silke Gross, Martin Hagen, Andrea Hausold, Karen J. Heywood, Lutz Hirsch, Marek Jacob, Friedhelm Jansen, Stefan Kinne, Daniel Klocke, Tobias Kölling, Heike Konow, Marie Lothon, Wiebke Mohr, Ann Kristin Naumann, Louise Nuijens, Léa Olivier, Robert Pincus, Mira Pöhlker, Gilles Reverdin, Gregory Roberts, Sabrina Schnitt, Hauke Schulz, A. Pier Siebesma, Claudia Christine Stephan, Peter Sullivan, Ludovic Touzé-Peiffer, Jessica Vial, Raphaela Vogel, Paquita Zuidema, Nicola Alexander, Lyndon Alves, Sophian Arixi, Hamish Asmath, Gholamhossein Bagheri, Katharina Baier, Adriana Bailey, Dariusz Baranowski, Alexandre Baron, Sébastien Barrau, Paul A. Barrett, Frédéric Batier, Andreas Behrendt, Arne Bendinger, Florent Beucher, Sebastien Bigorre, Edmund Blades, Peter Blossey, Olivier Bock, Steven Böing, Pierre Bosser, Denis Bourras, Pascale Bouruet-Aubertot, Keith Bower, Pierre Branellec, Hubert Branger, Michal Brennek, Alan Brewer, Pierre-Etienne Brilouet, Björn Brügmann, Stefan A. Buehler, Elmo Burke, Ralph Burton, Radiance Calmer, Jean-Christophe Canonici, Xavier Carton, Gregory Cato Jr., Jude Andre Charles, Patrick Chazette, Yanxu Chen, Michal T. Chilinski, Thomas Choularton, Patrick Chuang, Shamal Clarke, Hugh Coe, Céline Cornet, Pierre Coutris, Fleur Couvreux, Susanne Crewell, Timothy Cronin, Zhiqiang Cui, Yannis Cuypers, Alton Daley, Gillian M. Damerell, Thibaut Dauhut, Hartwig Deneke, Jean-Philippe Desbios, Steffen Dörner, Sebastian Donner, Vincent Douet, Kyla Drushka, Marina Dütsch, André Ehrlich, Kerry Emanuel, Alexandros Emmanouilidis, Jean-Claude Etienne, Sheryl Etienne-Leblanc, Ghislain Faure, Graham Feingold, Luca Ferrero, Andreas Fix, Cyrille Flamant, Piotr Jacek Flatau, Gregory R. Foltz, Linda Forster, Iulian Furtuna, Alan Gadian, Joseph Galewsky, Martin Gallagher, Peter Gallimore, Cassandra Gaston, Chelle Gentemann, Nicolas Geyskens, Andreas Giez, John Gollop, Isabelle Gouirand, Christophe Gourbeyre, Dörte de Graaf, Geiske E. de Groot, Robert Grosz, Johannes Güttler, Manuel Gutleben, Kashawn Hall, George Harris, Kevin C. Helfer, Dean Henze, Calvert Herbert, Bruna Holanda, Antonio Ibanez-Landeta, Janet Intrieri, Suneil Iyer, Fabrice Julien, Heike Kalesse, Jan Kazil, Alexander Kellman, Abiel T. Kidane, Ulrike Kirchner, Marcus Klingebiel, Mareike Körner, Leslie Ann Kremper, Jan Kretzschmar, Ovid Krüger, Wojciech Kumala, Armin Kurz, Pierre L'Hégaret, Matthieu Labaste, Tom Lachlan-Cope, Arlene Laing, Peter Landschützer, Theresa Lang, Diego Lange, Ingo Lange, Clément Laplace, Gauke Lavik, Rémi Laxenaire, Caroline Le Bihan, Mason Leandro, Nathalie Lefevre, Marius Lena, Donald Lenschow, Qiang Li, Gary Lloyd, Sebastian Los, Niccolò Losi, Oscar Lovell, Christopher Luneau, Przemyslaw Makuch, Szymon Malinowski, Gaston Manta, Eleni Marinou, Nicholas Marsden, Sebastien Masson, Nicolas Maury, Bernhard Mayer, Margarette Mayers-Als, Christophe Mazel, Wayne McGeary, James C. McWilliams, Mario Mech, Melina Mehlmann, Agostino Niyonkuru Meroni, Theresa Mieslinger, Andreas Minikin, Peter Minnett, Gregor Möller, Yanmichel Morfa Avalos, Caroline Muller, Ionela Musat, Anna Napoli, Almuth Neuberger, Christophe Noisel, David Noone, Freja Nordsiek, Jakub L. Nowak, Lothar Oswald, Douglas J. Parker, Carolyn Peck, Renaud Person, Miriam Philippi, Albert Plueddemann, Christopher Pöhlker, Veronika Pörtge, Ulrich Pöschl, Lawrence Pologne, Michał Posyniak, Marc Prange, Estefanía Quiñones Meléndez, Jule Radtke, Karim Ramage, Jens Reimann, Lionel Renault, Klaus Reus, Ashford Reyes, Joachim Ribbe, Maximilian Ringel, Markus Ritschel, Cesar B. Rocha, Nicolas Rochetin, Johannes Röttenbacher, Callum Rollo, Haley Royer, Pauline Sadoulet, Leo Saffin, Sanola Sandiford, Irina Sandu, Michael Schäfer, Vera Schemann, Imke Schirmacher, Oliver Schlenczek, Jerome Schmidt, Marcel Schröder, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, Andrea Sealy, Christoph J. Senff, Ilya Serikov, Samkeyat Shohan, Elizabeth Siddle, Alexander Smirnov, Florian Späth, Branden Spooner, M. Katharina Stolla, Wojciech Szkółka, Simon P. de Szoeke, Stéphane Tarot, Eleni Tetoni, Elizabeth Thompson, Jim Thomson, Lorenzo Tomassini, Julien Totems, Alma Anna Ubele, Leonie Villiger, Jan von Arx, Thomas Wagner, Andi Walther, Ben Webber, Manfred Wendisch, Shanice Whitehall, Anton Wiltshire, Allison A. Wing, Martin Wirth, Jonathan Wiskandt, Kevin Wolf, Ludwig Worbes, Ethan Wright, Volker Wulfmeyer, Shanea Young, Chidong Zhang, Dongxiao Zhang, Florian Ziemen, Tobias Zinner, and Martin Zöger
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4067–4119,Short summary
The EUREC4A field campaign, designed to test hypothesized mechanisms by which clouds respond to warming and benchmark next-generation Earth-system models, is presented. EUREC4A comprised roughly 5 weeks of measurements in the downstream winter trades of the North Atlantic – eastward and southeastward of Barbados. It was the first campaign that attempted to characterize the full range of processes and scales influencing trade wind clouds.
Langwen Huang and David Topping
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2187–2203,Short summary
As our knowledge and understanding of atmospheric aerosol particle evolution and impact grows, designing community mechanistic models requires an ability to capture increasing chemical, physical and therefore numerical complexity. As the landscape of computing software and hardware evolves, it is important to profile the usefulness of emerging platforms in tackling this complexity. With this in mind we present JlBox v1.1, written in Julia.
Fanny Peers, Peter Francis, Steven J. Abel, Paul A. Barrett, Keith N. Bower, Michael I. Cotterell, Ian Crawford, Nicholas W. Davies, Cathryn Fox, Stuart Fox, Justin M. Langridge, Kerry G. Meyer, Steven E. Platnick, Kate Szpek, and Jim M. Haywood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3235–3254,Short summary
Satellite observations at high temporal resolution are a valuable asset to monitor the transport of biomass burning plumes and the cloud diurnal cycle in the South Atlantic, but they need to be validated. Cloud and above-cloud aerosol properties retrieved from SEVIRI are compared against MODIS and measurements from the CLARIFY-2017 campaign. While some systematic differences are observed between SEVIRI and MODIS, the overall agreement in the cloud and aerosol properties is very satisfactory.
Simon Patrick O'Meara, Shuxuan Xu, David Topping, M. Rami Alfarra, Gerard Capes, Douglas Lowe, Yunqi Shao, and Gordon McFiggans
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 675–702,Short summary
User-friendly and open-source software for simulating aerosol chambers is a valuable tool for research scientists in designing and analysing their experiments. This paper describes a new version of such software and will therefore provide a useful reference for those applying it. Central to the paper is an assessment of the software's accuracy through comparison against previously published simulations.
Jim M. Haywood, Steven J. Abel, Paul A. Barrett, Nicolas Bellouin, Alan Blyth, Keith N. Bower, Melissa Brooks, Ken Carslaw, Haochi Che, Hugh Coe, Michael I. Cotterell, Ian Crawford, Zhiqiang Cui, Nicholas Davies, Beth Dingley, Paul Field, Paola Formenti, Hamish Gordon, Martin de Graaf, Ross Herbert, Ben Johnson, Anthony C. Jones, Justin M. Langridge, Florent Malavelle, Daniel G. Partridge, Fanny Peers, Jens Redemann, Philip Stier, Kate Szpek, Jonathan W. Taylor, Duncan Watson-Parris, Robert Wood, Huihui Wu, and Paquita Zuidema
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1049–1084,Short summary
Every year, the seasonal cycle of biomass burning from agricultural practices in Africa creates a huge plume of smoke that travels many thousands of kilometres over the Atlantic Ocean. This study provides an overview of a measurement campaign called the cloud–aerosol–radiation interaction and forcing for year 2017 (CLARIFY-2017) and documents the rationale, deployment strategy, observations, and key results from the campaign which utilized the heavily equipped FAAM atmospheric research aircraft.
Patrick A. Barker, Grant Allen, Martin Gallagher, Joseph R. Pitt, Rebecca E. Fisher, Thomas Bannan, Euan G. Nisbet, Stéphane J.-B. Bauguitte, Dominika Pasternak, Samuel Cliff, Marina B. Schimpf, Archit Mehra, Keith N. Bower, James D. Lee, Hugh Coe, and Carl J. Percival
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15443–15459,Short summary
Africa is estimated to account for approximately 52 % of global biomass burning (BB) carbon emissions. Despite this, there has been little previous in situ study of African BB emissions. This work presents BB emission factors for various atmospheric trace gases sampled from an aircraft in two distinct areas of Africa (Senegal and Uganda). Intracontinental variability in biomass burning methane emission is identified, which is attributed to difference in the specific fuel mixtures burnt.
Joseph Girdwood, Helen Smith, Warren Stanley, Zbigniew Ulanowski, Chris Stopford, Charles Chemel, Konstantinos-Matthaios Doulgeris, David Brus, David Campbell, and Robert Mackenzie
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6613–6630,Short summary
We present the design and validation of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) equipped with a bespoke optical particle counter (OPC). This is used to monitor atmospheric particles, which have significant effects on our weather and climate. These effects are hard to characterise properly, partly because they occur in regions that are not commonly accessible to traditional instrumentation. Our new platform gives us the capability to access these regions.
Douglas Morrison, Ian Crawford, Nicholas Marsden, Michael Flynn, Katie Read, Luis Neves, Virginia Foot, Paul Kaye, Warren Stanley, Hugh Coe, David Topping, and Martin Gallagher
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14473–14490,Short summary
We provide conservative estimates of the concentrations of bacteria within transatlantic dust clouds, originating from the African continent. We observe significant seasonal differences in the overall concentrations of particles but no seasonal variation in the ratio between bacteria and dust. With bacteria contributing to ice formation at warmer temperatures than dust, our observations should improve the accuracy of climate models.
Hamish Gordon, Paul R. Field, Steven J. Abel, Paul Barrett, Keith Bower, Ian Crawford, Zhiqiang Cui, Daniel P. Grosvenor, Adrian A. Hill, Jonathan Taylor, Jonathan Wilkinson, Huihui Wu, and Ken S. Carslaw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10997–11024,Short summary
The Met Office's Unified Model is widely used both for weather forecasting and climate prediction. We present the first version of the model in which both aerosol and cloud particle mass and number concentrations are allowed to evolve separately and independently, which is important for studying how aerosols affect weather and climate. We test the model against aircraft observations near Ascension Island in the Atlantic, focusing on how aerosols can "activate" to become cloud droplets.
David Topping, David Watts, Hugh Coe, James Evans, Thomas J. Bannan, Douglas Lowe, Caroline Jay, and Jonathan W. Taylor
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Publication in GMD not foreseenShort summary
Time-series forecasting methods have often been used to mitigate some of the challenges associated with deploying chemical transport models. In this study we deploy and evaluate Facebook’s Prophetmodel v0.6 in predicting hourly concentrations of Nitrogen Dioxide [NO2]. et. Overall we find the Prophet model offers a relatively effective and simple way to make predictions about NO2 at local levels.
Petroc D. Shelley, Thomas J. Bannan, Stephen D. Worrall, M. Rami Alfarra, Ulrich K. Krieger, Carl J. Percival, Arthur Garforth, and David Topping
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8293–8314,Short summary
The methods used to estimate the vapour pressures of compounds in the atmosphere typically perform poorly when applied to organic compounds found in the atmosphere. New measurements have been made and compared to previous experimental data and estimated values so that the limitations within the estimation methods can be identified and in the future be rectified.
Steven J. Abel, Paul A. Barrett, Paquita Zuidema, Jianhao Zhang, Matt Christensen, Fanny Peers, Jonathan W. Taylor, Ian Crawford, Keith N. Bower, and Michael Flynn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4059–4084,Short summary
In situ measurements of a free-tropospheric (FT) biomass burning aerosol plume in contact with the boundary layer inversion overriding a pocket of open cells (POC) and surrounding stratiform cloud are presented. The data highlight the contrasting thermodynamic, aerosol and cloud properties in the two cloud regimes and further demonstrate that the cloud regime plays a key role in regulating the flow of FT aerosols into the boundary layer, which has implications for the aerosol indirect effect.
Gary Lloyd, Thomas Choularton, Keith Bower, Jonathan Crosier, Martin Gallagher, Michael Flynn, James Dorsey, Dantong Liu, Jonathan W. Taylor, Oliver Schlenczek, Jacob Fugal, Stephan Borrmann, Richard Cotton, Paul Field, and Alan Blyth
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3895–3904,Short summary
Measurements of liquid and ice cloud particles were made using an aircraft to penetrate fresh growing convective clouds in the tropical Atlantic. We found small ice particles at surprisingly high temperatures just below freezing. At colder temperatures secondary ice processes rapidly generated high concentrations of ice crystals.
Adil Shah, Joseph R. Pitt, Hugo Ricketts, J. Brian Leen, Paul I. Williams, Khristopher Kabbabe, Martin W. Gallagher, and Grant Allen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1467–1484,Short summary
Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, with large flux uncertainties from facility-scale sources, such as natural gas extraction infrastructure. A recently developed flux quantification method was successfully tested by flying an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) downwind of 22 controlled atmospheric methane releases. The UAVs were used to derive high-precision atmospheric methane measurements. The UAV methodology was successful in both detecting the release and providing a rough flux estimate.
Natalie R. Gervasi, David O. Topping, and Andreas Zuend
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2987–3008,Short summary
Organic aerosols have been shown to exist often in a semi-solid or amorphous, glassy state. Highly viscous particles behave differently than their well-mixed liquid analogues with consequences for a variety of aerosol processes. Here, we introduce a new predictive mixture viscosity model called AIOMFAC-VISC. It enables us to predict the viscosity of aqueous organic mixtures as a function of temperature and chemical composition, covering the full range of liquid, semi-solid, and glassy states.
Parya Broomandi, Xueyu Geng, Weisi Guo, Jong Ryeol Kim, Alessio Pagani, and David Topping
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
As a result of our novel graph-based reduced modeling, we are able to represent high-dimensional knowledge into a causal inference and stability framework.
Kathryn Fowler, Paul Connolly, and David Topping
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 683–698,Short summary
Observations of low–temperature cirrus clouds have found unexpectedly low ice crystal numbers and high supersaturations, suggesting an incomplete understanding of the freezing mechanisms under these conditions. The existence of viscous organic aerosol has offered alternative ice nucleation pathways, which have been observed in laboratory studies. We have developed the first cloud parcel model to investigate the effect of viscosity on ice nucleation.
Sophie L. Haslett, Jonathan W. Taylor, Mathew Evans, Eleanor Morris, Bernhard Vogel, Alima Dajuma, Joel Brito, Anneke M. Batenburg, Stephan Borrmann, Johannes Schneider, Christiane Schulz, Cyrielle Denjean, Thierry Bourrianne, Peter Knippertz, Régis Dupuy, Alfons Schwarzenböck, Daniel Sauer, Cyrille Flamant, James Dorsey, Ian Crawford, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15217–15234,Short summary
Three aircraft datasets from the DACCIWA campaign in summer 2016 are used here to show there is a background mass of pollution present in the lower atmosphere in southern West Africa. We suggest that this likely comes from biomass burning in central and southern Africa, which has been carried into the region over the Atlantic Ocean. This would have a negative health impact on populations living near the coast and may alter the impact of growing city emissions on cloud formation and the monsoon.
Helen R. Smith, Zbigniew Ulanowski, Paul H. Kaye, Edwin Hirst, Warren Stanley, Richard Kaye, Andreas Wieser, Chris Stopford, Maria Kezoudi, Joseph Girdwood, Richard Greenaway, and Robert Mackenzie
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6579–6599,Short summary
The Universal Cloud and Aerosol Sounding System (UCASS) is a low-cost miniature optical particle counter (OPC) capable of sizing particles in the size range 0.4–40 μm. The open-geometry design makes the instrument suitable for deployment on balloon-borne sounding systems, dropsonde systems or as part of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Laboratory and field experiments show good agreement with reference instruments in a range of cloudy and dusty environments.
Rupert Holzinger, W. Joe F. Acton, William J. Bloss, Martin Breitenlechner, Leigh R. Crilley, Sébastien Dusanter, Marc Gonin, Valerie Gros, Frank N. Keutsch, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Louisa J. Kramer, Jordan E. Krechmer, Baptiste Languille, Nadine Locoge, Felipe Lopez-Hilfiker, Dušan Materić, Sergi Moreno, Eiko Nemitz, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Roland Sarda Esteve, Stéphane Sauvage, Simon Schallhart, Roberto Sommariva, Ralf Tillmann, Sergej Wedel, David R. Worton, Kangming Xu, and Alexander Zaytsev
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6193–6208,
Joseph R. Pitt, Grant Allen, Stéphane J.-B. Bauguitte, Martin W. Gallagher, James D. Lee, Will Drysdale, Beth Nelson, Alistair J. Manning, and Paul I. Palmer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8931–8945,Short summary
This paper presents a new method to assess inventory estimates of greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions for large cities and their surrounding regions. A case study using data sampled by a research aircraft around London was used to test the method. We found that the UK national inventory agrees with our observations for CO but needed lower emissions for CH4 to agree with the measured data. Repeated studies could help determine how these emissions vary on different timescales.
Sebastian J. O'Shea, Jonathan Crosier, James Dorsey, Waldemar Schledewitz, Ian Crawford, Stephan Borrmann, Richard Cotton, and Aaron Bansemer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3067–3079,Short summary
Optical array probe measurements of clouds are widely used to inform and validate numerical weather and climate models. In this paper, we discuss artefacts which may bias data from these instruments. Using laboratory and synthetic datasets, we demonstrate how greyscale analysis can be used to filter data, constraining the sample volume and improving data quality particularly at small sizes where their measurements are considered unreliable.
Meryem Tanarhte, Sara Bacer, Susannah M. Burrows, J. Alex Huffman, Kyle M. Pierce, Andrea Pozzer, Roland Sarda-Estève, Nicole J. Savage, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Publication in ACP not foreseenShort summary
Bioaerosols have been an important topic in atmospheric science in the last two decades. This paper compares different emission parametrizations used in fungal spores modeling and compare their results to two sets of new observational datasets. It emphasises their uncertainties in order to improve their modeling in the future. This comparison is addressed primarily to the scientific community (publishing in ACP) interested in this type of modeling and the related experimental work in this field.
Thomas J. Bannan, Michael Le Breton, Michael Priestley, Stephen D. Worrall, Asan Bacak, Nicholas A. Marsden, Archit Mehra, Julia Hammes, Mattias Hallquist, M. Rami Alfarra, Ulrich K. Krieger, Jonathan P. Reid, John Jayne, Wade Robinson, Gordon McFiggans, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, and Dave Topping
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1429–1439,Short summary
The Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO) is an inlet designed to be coupled with a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) and provides simultaneous molecular information relating to both the gas- and particle-phase samples. This method has been used to extract vapour pressures of compounds whilst giving quantitative concentrations in the particle phase. Here we detail an ideal set of benchmark compounds for characterization of the FIGAERO.
Franco Marenco, Claire Ryder, Victor Estellés, Debbie O'Sullivan, Jennifer Brooke, Luke Orgill, Gary Lloyd, and Martin Gallagher
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17655–17668,Short summary
The AER-D airborne campaign characterised Saharan dust in the eastern Atlantic. We report an instance of unusual vertical structure of the Saharan Air Layer during an intense event, showing a large radiative impact and correlated with anomalous lightning activity. Moreover, we report a significant presence of giant dust particles. This is important because most models would miss the giant particles. Our findings may change the way we represent dust transport and deposition in the Atlantic.
Claire L. Ryder, Franco Marenco, Jennifer K. Brooke, Victor Estelles, Richard Cotton, Paola Formenti, James B. McQuaid, Hannah C. Price, Dantong Liu, Patrick Ausset, Phil D. Rosenberg, Jonathan W. Taylor, Tom Choularton, Keith Bower, Hugh Coe, Martin Gallagher, Jonathan Crosier, Gary Lloyd, Eleanor J. Highwood, and Benjamin J. Murray
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17225–17257,Short summary
Every year, millions of tons of Saharan dust particles are carried across the Atlantic by the wind, where they can affect weather patterns and climate. Their sizes span orders of magnitude, but the largest (over 10 microns – around the width of a human hair) are difficult to measure and few observations exist. Here we show new aircraft observations of large dust particles, finding more than we would expect, and we quantify their properties which allow them to interact with atmospheric radiation.
Gary Lloyd, Thomas W. Choularton, Keith N. Bower, Martin W. Gallagher, Jonathan Crosier, Sebastian O'Shea, Steven J. Abel, Stuart Fox, Richard Cotton, and Ian A. Boutle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17191–17206,Short summary
The work deals with cold weather outbreaks at high latitudes that often bring severe weather such as heavy snow, lightning and high winds but are poorly forecast by weather models. Here we made measurements of these events and the clouds associated with them using a research aircraft. We found that the properties of these clouds were often very different to what the models predicted, and these results can potentially be used to bring significant improvement to the forecasting of these events.
Simon Ruske, David O. Topping, Virginia E. Foot, Andrew P. Morse, and Martin W. Gallagher
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6203–6230,Short summary
Pollen, bacteria and fungal spores are common in the environment, can have very important implications for public health and may influence the weather. Biological sensors potentially could be used to monitor quantities of these types of particles. However, it is important to transform the measurements from these instruments into counts of these biological particles. The paper tests a variety of approaches for achieving this aim on data collected in a laboratory.
Dawei Hu, David Topping, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14925–14937,Short summary
Co-condensation of inorganic or organic vapours on growing droplets could significantly enhance both CCN and cloud droplet number concentration, thereby influencing climate. Until now, there has been very few direct observational evidence of this process. We exposed involatile inorganic particles to a moist atmosphere containing a controlled amount of an organic semi-volatile vapour. We measured a much greater growth of the particles than if they had only been exposed to water vapour.
Cécile Debevec, Stéphane Sauvage, Valérie Gros, Karine Sellegri, Jean Sciare, Michael Pikridas, Iasonas Stavroulas, Thierry Leonardis, Vincent Gaudion, Laurence Depelchin, Isabelle Fronval, Roland Sarda-Esteve, Dominique Baisnée, Bernard Bonsang, Chrysanthos Savvides, Mihalis Vrekoussis, and Nadine Locoge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14297–14325,Short summary
This work focuses on the study of the sources and fates of BVOCs and new particle formation (NPF) events in the eastern Mediterranean. NPF events were found on 14 out of 20 days of the campaign. NPF occurred at various condensational sinks and both under polluted and clean atmospheric conditions. Analysis of specific NPF periods of the mixed influence type highlighted that BVOC interactions with anthropogenic compounds enhanced nucleation formation and growth of new particles.
Paul I. Palmer, Simon O'Doherty, Grant Allen, Keith Bower, Hartmut Bösch, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sarah Connors, Sandip Dhomse, Liang Feng, Douglas P. Finch, Martin W. Gallagher, Emanuel Gloor, Siegfried Gonzi, Neil R. P. Harris, Carole Helfter, Neil Humpage, Brian Kerridge, Diane Knappett, Roderic L. Jones, Michael Le Breton, Mark F. Lunt, Alistair J. Manning, Stephan Matthiesen, Jennifer B. A. Muller, Neil Mullinger, Eiko Nemitz, Sebastian O'Shea, Robert J. Parker, Carl J. Percival, Joseph Pitt, Stuart N. Riddick, Matthew Rigby, Harjinder Sembhi, Richard Siddans, Robert L. Skelton, Paul Smith, Hannah Sonderfeld, Kieran Stanley, Ann R. Stavert, Angelina Wenger, Emily White, Christopher Wilson, and Dickon Young
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11753–11777,Short summary
This paper provides an overview of the Greenhouse gAs Uk and Global Emissions (GAUGE) experiment. GAUGE was designed to quantify nationwide GHG emissions of the UK, bringing together measurements and atmospheric transport models. This novel experiment is the first of its kind. We anticipate it will inform the blueprint for countries that are building a measurement infrastructure in preparation for global stocktakes, which are a key part of the Paris Agreement.
Michael Le Breton, Yujue Wang, Åsa M. Hallquist, Ravi Kant Pathak, Jing Zheng, Yudong Yang, Dongjie Shang, Marianne Glasius, Thomas J. Bannan, Qianyun Liu, Chak K. Chan, Carl J. Percival, Wenfei Zhu, Shengrong Lou, David Topping, Yuchen Wang, Jianzhen Yu, Keding Lu, Song Guo, Min Hu, and Mattias Hallquist
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10355–10371,Short summary
This paper utilizes a chemical ionisation mass spectrometer measuring gas and particle-phase organosulfates (OS) simultaneously during a field campaign in Beijing, China, and highlights how high time frequency online measurements enable a detailed analysis of dominant production mechanisms. We find that high aerosol acidity, organic precursor concentration and relative humidity promote the production of OS. The thermogram desorption reveals the potential for semi-volatile gas-phase OS.
Konrad Deetz, Heike Vogel, Peter Knippertz, Bianca Adler, Jonathan Taylor, Hugh Coe, Keith Bower, Sophie Haslett, Michael Flynn, James Dorsey, Ian Crawford, Christoph Kottmeier, and Bernhard Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9767–9788,Short summary
Highly resolved process study simulations for 2–3 July are conducted with COSMO-ART to assess the aerosol direct and indirect effect on meteorological conditions over southern West Africa. The meteorological phenomena of Atlantic inflow and stratus-to-cumulus transition are identified as highly susceptible to the aerosol direct effect, leading to a spatial shift of the Atlantic inflow front and a temporal shift of the stratus-to-cumulus transition with changes in the aerosol amount.
Meryem Tanarhte, Sara Bacer, Susannah M. Burrows, J. Alex Huffman, Kyle M. Pierce, Andrea Pozzer, Roland Sarda-Estève, Nicole J. Savage, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
James D. Lee, Stephen D. Mobbs, Axel Wellpott, Grant Allen, Stephane J.-B. Bauguitte, Ralph R. Burton, Richard Camilli, Hugh Coe, Rebecca E. Fisher, James L. France, Martin Gallagher, James R. Hopkins, Mathias Lanoiselle, Alastair C. Lewis, David Lowry, Euan G. Nisbet, Ruth M. Purvis, Sebastian O'Shea, John A. Pyle, and Thomas B. Ryerson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1725–1739,Short summary
This work describes measurements, made from an aircraft platform, of the emission of methane and other organic gases from an uncontrolled leak from an oil platform in the North Sea (Total Elgin). The measurements made helped the platform operators to devise a strategy for repairing the leak and serve as a methodology for assessing future similar incidents.
Dantong Liu, Jonathan W. Taylor, Jonathan Crosier, Nicholas Marsden, Keith N. Bower, Gary Lloyd, Claire L. Ryder, Jennifer K. Brooke, Richard Cotton, Franco Marenco, Alan Blyth, Zhiqiang Cui, Victor Estelles, Martin Gallagher, Hugh Coe, and Tom W. Choularton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3817–3838,Short summary
This article presents measurements of aerosol properties off the coast of west Africa during August 2015. For the first time, an airborne laser-induced incandescence instrument was deployed to measure the hematite content of dust. The single scattering albedo of dust was found to be influenced by the hematite content, but depended on the dust source and potential dust age. This highlights the importance of size-dependent composition in determining the optical properties of dust.
Stefano Decesari, Simona Kovarich, Manuela Pavan, Arianna Bassan, Andrea Ciacci, and David Topping
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2329–2340,Short summary
Particulate matter (PM) chemical composition includes thousands of individual organic compounds that have never been tested for their toxicological potential. Computational (in silico) screenings represent a promising approach to identify new target compounds for more in-depth toxicological analyses. We provide here a proof-of-concept evaluation based on ca. 100 aerosol organic compounds. Reliable toxicological predictions were obtained for more than 80 % of them.
Kathryn Fowler, Paul J. Connolly, David O. Topping, and Simon O'Meara
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1629–1642,Short summary
This is the first time the Maxwell–Stefan framework has been applied to an atmospheric aerosol core–shell model and shows that there is a complex interplay between the viscous and solubility effects on aerosol composition. Understanding aerosol composition is essential to accurately model their interactions within atmospheric systems. We use simple binary systems to demonstrate how viscosity and solubility both play a role in affecting the rate of diffusion through aerosol particles.
Ulrich K. Krieger, Franziska Siegrist, Claudia Marcolli, Eva U. Emanuelsson, Freya M. Gøbel, Merete Bilde, Aleksandra Marsh, Jonathan P. Reid, Andrew J. Huisman, Ilona Riipinen, Noora Hyttinen, Nanna Myllys, Theo Kurtén, Thomas Bannan, Carl J. Percival, and David Topping
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 49–63,Short summary
Vapor pressures of low-volatility organic molecules at atmospheric temperatures reported in the literature often differ by several orders of magnitude between measurement techniques. These discrepancies exceed the stated uncertainty of each technique, which is generally reported to be smaller than a factor of 2. We determined saturation vapor pressures for the homologous series of polyethylene glycols ranging in vapor pressure at 298 K from 1E−7 Pa to 5E−2 Pa as a reference set.
Ian Crawford, Martin W. Gallagher, Keith N. Bower, Thomas W. Choularton, Michael J. Flynn, Simon Ruske, Constantino Listowski, Neil Brough, Thomas Lachlan-Cope, Zoë L. Fleming, Virginia E. Foot, and Warren R. Stanley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14291–14307,Short summary
We present the first real-time detection of bioparticles on the Antarctic continent using a novel UV-LIF technique. The high time resolution of the technique allowed us to examine the relationships between bioparticle concentrations and airmass history and local winds, which would not have been possible with conventional high-volume filter sampling techniques. We also show evidence of episodic long-range transport of pollen from coastal South America to the continent.
Sebastian J. O'Shea, Thomas W. Choularton, Michael Flynn, Keith N. Bower, Martin Gallagher, Jonathan Crosier, Paul Williams, Ian Crawford, Zoë L. Fleming, Constantino Listowski, Amélie Kirchgaessner, Russell S. Ladkin, and Thomas Lachlan-Cope
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13049–13070,Short summary
Few direct measurements have been made of Antarctic cloud and aerosol properties. As part of the 2015 Microphysics of Antarctic Clouds (MAC) field campaign, detailed airborne and ground-based measurements were made over the Weddell Sea and Antarctic coastal continent. This paper presents the first results from this campaign and discusses the cloud properties and processes important in this region.
Hendrik Fuchs, Anna Novelli, Michael Rolletter, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Eva Y. Pfannerstill, Stephan Kessel, Achim Edtbauer, Jonathan Williams, Vincent Michoud, Sebastien Dusanter, Nadine Locoge, Nora Zannoni, Valerie Gros, Francois Truong, Roland Sarda-Esteve, Danny R. Cryer, Charlotte A. Brumby, Lisa K. Whalley, Daniel Stone, Paul W. Seakins, Dwayne E. Heard, Coralie Schoemaecker, Marion Blocquet, Sebastien Coudert, Sebastien Batut, Christa Fittschen, Alexander B. Thames, William H. Brune, Cheryl Ernest, Hartwig Harder, Jennifer B. A. Muller, Thomas Elste, Dagmar Kubistin, Stefanie Andres, Birger Bohn, Thorsten Hohaus, Frank Holland, Xin Li, Franz Rohrer, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Ralf Tillmann, Robert Wegener, Zhujun Yu, Qi Zou, and Andreas Wahner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4023–4053,Short summary
Hydroxyl radical reactivity (k(OH)) is closely related to processes that lead to the formation of oxidised, secondary pollutants such as ozone and aerosol. In order to compare the performances of instruments measuring k(OH), experiments were conducted in the simulation chamber SAPHIR. Chemical conditions were chosen either to be representative of the atmosphere or to test potential limitations of instruments. Overall, the results show that instruments are capable of measuring k(OH).
Nora Zannoni, Valerie Gros, Roland Sarda Esteve, Cerise Kalogridis, Vincent Michoud, Sebastien Dusanter, Stephane Sauvage, Nadine Locoge, Aurelie Colomb, and Bernard Bonsang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12645–12658,Short summary
Our paper presents results of hydroxyl radical (OH) reactivity from a field study conducted during summer 2013 in a western Mediterranean coastal site (Corsica, France). Here, the total OH reactivity, measured with the comparative reactivity method, is compared with the summed OH reactivity from the reactive gases measured with a multitude of different technologies. Our results demonstrate the relatively high observed reactivity and the large impact of biogenic compounds.
Anja Costa, Jessica Meyer, Armin Afchine, Anna Luebke, Gebhard Günther, James R. Dorsey, Martin W. Gallagher, Andre Ehrlich, Manfred Wendisch, Darrel Baumgardner, Heike Wex, and Martina Krämer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12219–12238,Short summary
The paper presents 38 h of in situ cloud spectrometer observations of microphysical cloud properties in the Arctic, midlatitudes and tropics. The clouds are classified via particle concentrations, size distributions, and – as a novelty – small particle aspherical fractions. Cloud-type profiles are given for different temperatures and locations. The results confine regions where different cloud transformation processes occurred and emphasise the importance of small particle shape detection.
Cécile Debevec, Stéphane Sauvage, Valérie Gros, Jean Sciare, Michael Pikridas, Iasonas Stavroulas, Thérèse Salameh, Thierry Leonardis, Vincent Gaudion, Laurence Depelchin, Isabelle Fronval, Roland Sarda-Esteve, Dominique Baisnée, Bernard Bonsang, Chrysanthos Savvides, Mihalis Vrekoussis, and Nadine Locoge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11355–11388,Short summary
An intensive field campaign was conducted in March 2015 in the Eastern Mediterranean region, at a background site of Cyprus. We performed a detailed analysis of the chemical composition of air masses in gas and aerosol phase, and we applied a source apportionment analysis in order to identify the various origins of VOCs. The results suggest that VOCs are mainly of biogenic and regional background origins.
Simon O'Meara, David O. Topping, Rahul A. Zaveri, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10477–10494,Short summary
To simulate particle-phase diffusion, an analytical expression is desired because it takes less calculation time than a differential equation. Here a correction is found for the analytical solution for when diffusivity is dependent on composition, thereby making it more widely applicable than before. Consequently, we are able to more realistically evaluate the rate limitation (if any) imposed by particle-phase diffusion on component partitioning between the gas and particle phase.
Leonid Nichman, Emma Järvinen, James Dorsey, Paul Connolly, Jonathan Duplissy, Claudia Fuchs, Karoliina Ignatius, Kamalika Sengupta, Frank Stratmann, Ottmar Möhler, Martin Schnaiter, and Martin Gallagher
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3231–3248,Short summary
Optical probes are frequently used for the detection of cloud particles. The detected microphysical properties may affect particle growth and accretion mechanisms and the light scattering properties of cirrus clouds. In the CLOUD chamber study at CERN, we compared four optical measurement techniques. We show that shape derivation alone is not sufficient to determine the phase of the small cloud particles. None of the instruments were able to unambiguously determine the phase of small particles.
Vincent Michoud, Jean Sciare, Stéphane Sauvage, Sébastien Dusanter, Thierry Léonardis, Valérie Gros, Cerise Kalogridis, Nora Zannoni, Anaïs Féron, Jean-Eudes Petit, Vincent Crenn, Dominique Baisnée, Roland Sarda-Estève, Nicolas Bonnaire, Nicolas Marchand, H. Langley DeWitt, Jorge Pey, Aurélie Colomb, François Gheusi, Sonke Szidat, Iasonas Stavroulas, Agnès Borbon, and Nadine Locoge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8837–8865,Short summary
The ChArMEx SOP2 field campaign took place from 15 July to 5 August 2013 in the western Mediterranean Basin at Ersa, a remote site in Cape Corse. Exhaustive descriptions of the chemical composition of air masses in gas and aerosol phase were performed. An analysis of these measurements was performed using various source-receptor approaches. This led to the identification of several factors linked to primary sources but also to secondary processes of both biogenic and anthropogenic origin.
David O. Topping, James Allan, M. Rami Alfarra, and Bernard Aumont
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2365–2377,Short summary
Our ability to model the chemical and thermodynamic processes that lead to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation is thought to be hampered by the complexity of the system. In this proof of concept study, the ability to train supervised methods to predict electron impact ionisation (EI) mass spectra for the AMS is evaluated to facilitate improved model evaluation. The study demonstrates the use of a methodology that would be improved with more training data and data from simple mixed systems.
Simon Ruske, David O. Topping, Virginia E. Foot, Paul H. Kaye, Warren R. Stanley, Ian Crawford, Andrew P. Morse, and Martin W. Gallagher
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 695–708,Short summary
Particles such as bacteria, pollen and fungal spores have important implications within the environment and public health sectors. Here we evaluate the performance of various different methods for distinguishing between these different types of particles using a new instrument. We demonstrate that there may be better alternatives to the currently used methods which can be further investigated in future research.
Marie Ila Gosselin, Chathurika M. Rathnayake, Ian Crawford, Christopher Pöhlker, Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Beatrice Schmer, Viviane R. Després, Guenter Engling, Martin Gallagher, Elizabeth Stone, Ulrich Pöschl, and J. Alex Huffman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15165–15184,Short summary
We present an analysis of bioaerosol measurements using two real-time fluorescence instruments in combination with molecular tracer techniques for quantifying airborne fungal spores in a semi-arid forest. Both techniques provide fungal spore concentrations of the order of 104 m−3 and up to 30 % of particle mass. Rainy periods exhibited higher concentrations and stronger correlations between fluorescent bioparticle and molecular tracer measurements. Fungal culture results are also presented.
Gillian Young, Hazel M. Jones, Thomas W. Choularton, Jonathan Crosier, Keith N. Bower, Martin W. Gallagher, Rhiannon S. Davies, Ian A. Renfrew, Andrew D. Elvidge, Eoghan Darbyshire, Franco Marenco, Philip R. A. Brown, Hugo M. A. Ricketts, Paul J. Connolly, Gary Lloyd, Paul I. Williams, James D. Allan, Jonathan W. Taylor, Dantong Liu, and Michael J. Flynn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13945–13967,Short summary
Clouds are intricately coupled to the Arctic sea ice. Our inability to accurately model cloud fractions causes large uncertainties in predicted radiative interactions in this region, therefore, affecting sea ice forecasts. Here, we present measurements of cloud microphysics, aerosol properties, and thermodynamic structure over the transition from sea ice to ocean to improve our understanding of the relationship between the Arctic atmosphere and clouds which develop in this region.
François Benduhn, Graham W. Mann, Kirsty J. Pringle, David O. Topping, Gordon McFiggans, and Kenneth S. Carslaw
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 3875–3906,Short summary
We present a new mathematical formalism that serves to represent exchanges of inorganic matter between the atmosphere gas phase and the aerosol aqueous phase. In a global modelling framework, taking into account these processes may help represent many important features more accurately, such as the formation of cloud droplets or the radiative properties of the atmosphere. The formalism strives to keep an appropriate balance between accuracy and computation efficiency requirements.
Matthew Crooks, Paul Connolly, David Topping, and Gordon McFiggans
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 3617–3637,Short summary
Semi-volatile compounds, like water, can exist in both vapour phases and condensed phases within a system. This paper presents a method of calculating the condensed and vapour phases of semi-volatile compounds at equilibrium, in particular, when the condensed mass occurs within particles of different sizes and chemical composition. The applications of interest to the authors are those of atmospheric importance such as cloud droplet formation and reflection or absorption of solar radiation.
Alexia Baudic, Valérie Gros, Stéphane Sauvage, Nadine Locoge, Olivier Sanchez, Roland Sarda-Estève, Cerise Kalogridis, Jean-Eudes Petit, Nicolas Bonnaire, Dominique Baisnée, Olivier Favez, Alexandre Albinet, Jean Sciare, and Bernard Bonsang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11961–11989,Short summary
This article presents ambient air VOC measurements performed in Paris during the MEGAPOLI and FRANCIPOL campaigns (2010). For the first time, we report (O)VOC concentration levels, their temporal variations and their main emission sources. The originality of this study stands in using near-field observations to help strengthen the identification of apportioned sources derived from PMF. An important finding of this work is the high contribution of the wood burning source (50 %) in winter.
Jonathan W. Taylor, Thomas W. Choularton, Alan M. Blyth, Michael J. Flynn, Paul I. Williams, Gillian Young, Keith N. Bower, Jonathan Crosier, Martin W. Gallagher, James R. Dorsey, Zixia Liu, and Philip D. Rosenberg
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11687–11709,Short summary
We present measurements of boundary layer aerosol concentration, size and composition from research flights performed over the southwest peninsula of the UK during the COnvective Precipitation Experiment (COPE) of summer 2013. We compare case studies of aerosol in cleaner marine air from the Atlantic with anthropogenic pollution from the UK. These measurements are then used to investigate the possible sources of CCN and IN in the region.
Samuel Lowe, Daniel G. Partridge, David Topping, and Philip Stier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10941–10963,Short summary
A novel inverse modelling framework is developed for analysing the sensitivity of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations to simultaneous perturbations in multiple model parameters at atmospherically relevant humidities. Many parameter interactions are identified and CCN concentrations are found to be relatively insensitive to bulk–surface partitioning, while aerosol concentration, surface tension, composition and solution ideality exhibit a higher degree of sensitivity.
Hervé Petetin, Jean Sciare, Michael Bressi, Valérie Gros, Amandine Rosso, Olivier Sanchez, Roland Sarda-Estève, Jean-Eudes Petit, and Matthias Beekmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10419–10440,Short summary
This paper presents the first combined measurements of both ammonium nitrate aerosols and their gaseous precursors (HNO3, NH3) in the Paris megacity, obtained during the FRANCIPOL and PARTICULES campaigns. This data set is used to investigate the nitrate formation regime within the city, which is particularly important considering the high contribution of nitrates in the fine aerosol pollution of Paris. In addition, it is also used to evaluate the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model.
James D. Whitehead, Eoghan Darbyshire, Joel Brito, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Ian Crawford, Rafael Stern, Martin W. Gallagher, Paul H. Kaye, James D. Allan, Hugh Coe, Paulo Artaxo, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9727–9743,Short summary
We present measurements of aerosols during the transition from wet to dry seasons at a pristine rainforest site in central Amazonia. By excluding pollution episodes, we focus on natural biogenic aerosols. Submicron aerosols are dominated by organic material, similar to previous wet season measurements. Larger particles are dominated by biological material, mostly fungal spores, with higher concentrations at night. This study provides important data on the nature of particles above the Amazon.
Karoliina Ignatius, Thomas B. Kristensen, Emma Järvinen, Leonid Nichman, Claudia Fuchs, Hamish Gordon, Paul Herenz, Christopher R. Hoyle, Jonathan Duplissy, Sarvesh Garimella, Antonio Dias, Carla Frege, Niko Höppel, Jasmin Tröstl, Robert Wagner, Chao Yan, Antonio Amorim, Urs Baltensperger, Joachim Curtius, Neil M. Donahue, Martin W. Gallagher, Jasper Kirkby, Markku Kulmala, Ottmar Möhler, Harald Saathoff, Martin Schnaiter, Antonio Tomé, Annele Virtanen, Douglas Worsnop, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6495–6509,Short summary
Viscous solid or semi-solid secondary organic aerosol (SOA) may influence cloud properties through ice nucleation in the atmosphere. Here, we observed heterogeneous ice nucleation of viscous α-pinene SOA at temperatures between −39 °C and −37.2 °C with ice saturation ratios significantly below the homogeneous freezing limit. Global modelling suggests that viscous biogenic SOA are present in regions where cirrus formation takes place and could contribute to the global ice nuclei budget.
Simon O'Meara, David O. Topping, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5299–5313,Short summary
To understand the effect of atmospheric particulate matter on climate and human health we need to know how it evolves. We investigate how best to estimate diffusion of components through particles by comparing diffusion times from three approaches to solving Fick's Law and find that they agree. This means that scientists can simulate Fickian diffusion through atmospheric particles using the approach best suited to their requirements and have confidence that their model is mathematically sound.
Robert J. Farrington, Paul J. Connolly, Gary Lloyd, Keith N. Bower, Michael J. Flynn, Martin W. Gallagher, Paul R. Field, Chris Dearden, and Thomas W. Choularton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4945–4966,Short summary
This paper assesses the reasons for high ice number concentrations observed in orographic clouds by comparing observations with model simulations over Jungfraujoch, Switzerland. The results suggest that ice nuclei do not significantly contribute to the high concentrations and that a surface source of ice crystals is responsible for the witnessed ice number concentrations.
Rebecca M. McKenzie, Mustafa Z. Özel, J. Neil Cape, Julia Drewer, Kerry J. Dinsmore, Eiko Nemitz, Y. Sim Tang, Netty van Dijk, Margaret Anderson, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Mark A. Sutton, Martin W. Gallagher, and Ute Skiba
Biogeosciences, 13, 2353–2365,Short summary
Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) contributes significantly to the overall nitrogen budget and can potentially be biologically available as a source of N. Despite this it is not routinely measured. This study found that DON contributed up to 10 % of the total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) found in precipitation and was the most dominant fraction in soil water (99 %) and stream water (75 %).
Emma Järvinen, Karoliina Ignatius, Leonid Nichman, Thomas B. Kristensen, Claudia Fuchs, Christopher R. Hoyle, Niko Höppel, Joel C. Corbin, Jill Craven, Jonathan Duplissy, Sebastian Ehrhart, Imad El Haddad, Carla Frege, Hamish Gordon, Tuija Jokinen, Peter Kallinger, Jasper Kirkby, Alexei Kiselev, Karl-Heinz Naumann, Tuukka Petäjä, Tamara Pinterich, Andre S. H. Prevot, Harald Saathoff, Thea Schiebel, Kamalika Sengupta, Mario Simon, Jay G. Slowik, Jasmin Tröstl, Annele Virtanen, Paul Vochezer, Steffen Vogt, Andrea C. Wagner, Robert Wagner, Christina Williamson, Paul M. Winkler, Chao Yan, Urs Baltensperger, Neil M. Donahue, Rick C. Flagan, Martin Gallagher, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, Frank Stratmann, Douglas R. Worsnop, Ottmar Möhler, Thomas Leisner, and Martin Schnaiter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4423–4438,
G. Young, H. M. Jones, E. Darbyshire, K. J. Baustian, J. B. McQuaid, K. N. Bower, P. J. Connolly, M. W. Gallagher, and T. W. Choularton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4063–4079,
Leonid Nichman, Claudia Fuchs, Emma Järvinen, Karoliina Ignatius, Niko Florian Höppel, Antonio Dias, Martin Heinritzi, Mario Simon, Jasmin Tröstl, Andrea Christine Wagner, Robert Wagner, Christina Williamson, Chao Yan, Paul James Connolly, James Robert Dorsey, Jonathan Duplissy, Sebastian Ehrhart, Carla Frege, Hamish Gordon, Christopher Robert Hoyle, Thomas Bjerring Kristensen, Gerhard Steiner, Neil McPherson Donahue, Richard Flagan, Martin William Gallagher, Jasper Kirkby, Ottmar Möhler, Harald Saathoff, Martin Schnaiter, Frank Stratmann, and António Tomé
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3651–3664,Short summary
Processes in the atmosphere are often governed by the physical and chemical properties of small cloud particles. Ice, water, and mixed clouds, as well as viscous aerosols, were formed under controlled conditions at the CLOUD-CERN facility. The experimental results show a link between cloud particle properties and their unique optical fingerprints. The classification map presented here allows easier discrimination between various particles such as viscous organic aerosol, salt, ice, and liquid.
David Topping, Mark Barley, Michael K. Bane, Nicholas Higham, Bernard Aumont, Nicholas Dingle, and Gordon McFiggans
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 899–914,Short summary
In this paper we describe the development and application of a new web-based and open-source facility, UManSysProp (http://umansysprop .seaes.manchester.ac.uk), for automating predictions of molecular and atmospheric aerosol properties. Current facilities include pure component vapour pressures, critical properties, and sub-cooled densities of organic molecules; activity coefficient predictions for mixed inorganic-organic liquid systems; hygroscopic growth factors and CCN activation potential.
I. Crawford, G. Lloyd, E. Herrmann, C. R. Hoyle, K. N. Bower, P. J. Connolly, M. J. Flynn, P. H. Kaye, T. W. Choularton, and M. W. Gallagher
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2273–2284,Short summary
In this manuscript we discuss observations of fluorescent aerosol and their interactions with cloud at a high-alpine site in the wintertime under background conditions. We find the majority of the fluorescent aerosol to be consistent in nature to mineral dust and no apparent trend was observed between the fluorescent aerosol fraction and meteorological or cloud microphysical parameters, suggesting that particle fluorescence does not impact cloud evolution or formation at the site.
C. R. Hoyle, C. Fuchs, E. Järvinen, H. Saathoff, A. Dias, I. El Haddad, M. Gysel, S. C. Coburn, J. Tröstl, A.-K. Bernhammer, F. Bianchi, M. Breitenlechner, J. C. Corbin, J. Craven, N. M. Donahue, J. Duplissy, S. Ehrhart, C. Frege, H. Gordon, N. Höppel, M. Heinritzi, T. B. Kristensen, U. Molteni, L. Nichman, T. Pinterich, A. S. H. Prévôt, M. Simon, J. G. Slowik, G. Steiner, A. Tomé, A. L. Vogel, R. Volkamer, A. C. Wagner, R. Wagner, A. S. Wexler, C. Williamson, P. M. Winkler, C. Yan, A. Amorim, J. Dommen, J. Curtius, M. W. Gallagher, R. C. Flagan, A. Hansel, J. Kirkby, M. Kulmala, O. Möhler, F. Stratmann, D. R. Worsnop, and U. Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1693–1712,Short summary
A significant portion of sulphate, an important constituent of atmospheric aerosols, is formed via the aqueous phase oxidation of sulphur dioxide by ozone. The rate of this reaction has previously only been measured over a relatively small temperature range. Here, we use the state of the art CLOUD chamber at CERN to perform the first measurements of this reaction rate in super-cooled droplets, confirming that the existing extrapolation of the reaction rate to sub-zero temperatures is accurate.
J. W. Taylor, T. W. Choularton, A. M. Blyth, Z. Liu, K. N. Bower, J. Crosier, M. W. Gallagher, P. I. Williams, J. R. Dorsey, M. J. Flynn, L. J. Bennett, Y. Huang, J. French, A. Korolev, and P. R. A. Brown
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 799–826,Short summary
We present microphysical observations of cumulus clouds measured over south-west England during COPE in summer 2013. Detailed sampling focused on an isolated liquid cloud that glaciated as it matured to merge with a band of cloud downwind. The first ice particles observed were frozen drizzle, while columnar ice dominated in the mature stages. We discuss the interactions between the warm rain and secondary ice processes, and their importance for the formation of precipitation.
J. R. Pitt, M. Le Breton, G. Allen, C. J. Percival, M. W. Gallagher, S. J.-B. Bauguitte, S. J. O'Shea, J. B. A. Muller, M. S. Zahniser, J. Pyle, and P. I. Palmer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 63–77,Short summary
We present details of an Aerodyne quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer (QCLAS) used to make airborne measurements of N2O and CH4, including its configuration for use on board an aircraft. Two different methods to correct for the influence of water vapour on the measurements are evaluated. We diagnose a sensitivity of the instrument to changes in pressure, introduce a new calibration procedure to account for this effect, and assess its performance.
I. Crawford, S. Ruske, D. O. Topping, and M. W. Gallagher
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4979–4991,Short summary
HCA analysis methods were evaluated for the purpose of identifying primary biological aerosol sampled with a WIBS. The ward linkage with z-score normalisation could discriminate between five test particles with 98% accuracy. We applied these methods to a previously studied ambient data set, where both methods produced similar results with some minor differences in cluster partitioning. Finally we compared to previous approaches and found our new method offered improved quantification of PBA.
G. Lloyd, T. W. Choularton, K. N. Bower, M. W. Gallagher, P. J. Connolly, M. Flynn, R. Farrington, J. Crosier, O. Schlenczek, J. Fugal, and J. Henneberger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12953–12969,Short summary
The paper explores the microphysical structure of clouds at the high-alpine measurement site Jungfraujoch, Switzerland. High concentrations of ice crystals were measured by a range of instruments. The presence of these high concentrations could not be explained through conventional understanding of ice formation processes in clouds and the possibility that the surface provides a significant source of ice crystals is investigated.
D. Liu, B. Quennehen, E. Darbyshire, J. D. Allan, P. I. Williams, J. W. Taylor, S. J.-B. Bauguitte, M. J. Flynn, D. Lowe, M. W. Gallagher, K. N. Bower, T. W. Choularton, and H. Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11537–11555,Short summary
We show that during the springtime of 2013, the anthropogenic pollution particularly from sources in Asia, contributed significantly to black carbon across the European Arctic free troposphere. In contrast to previous studies, the contribution from open wildfires was minimal. Given that Asian pollution is likely to continue to rise over the coming years, it is likely that the radiative forcing in the Arctic will also continue to increase.
D. E. Young, J. D. Allan, P. I. Williams, D. C. Green, M. J. Flynn, R. M. Harrison, J. Yin, M. W. Gallagher, and H. Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6351–6366,Short summary
For the first time, the behaviour of non-refractory inorganic and organic submicron particulates through an entire annual cycle is investigated at a UK urban background site. We show secondary aerosols account for a significant fraction of the submicron aerosol burden, high concentration events are governed by different factors depending on season, and on an annual basis there is no variability in the extent of secondary organic aerosol oxidation.
M. Hummel, C. Hoose, M. Gallagher, D. A. Healy, J. A. Huffman, D. O'Connor, U. Pöschl, C. Pöhlker, N. H. Robinson, M. Schnaiter, J. R. Sodeau, M. Stengel, E. Toprak, and H. Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6127–6146,
G. Lloyd, T. W. Choularton, K. N. Bower, J. Crosier, H. Jones, J. R. Dorsey, M. W. Gallagher, P. Connolly, A. C. R. Kirchgaessner, and T. Lachlan-Cope
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3719–3737,Short summary
Measurements of cloud microphysics are reported from the Aerosol-Cloud Coupling And Climate Interactions (ACCACIA) campaign. Concentrations of ice particles from two spring and two summer cases are compared with particular attention to the role of secondary ice in these clouds. In addition aerosol measurements were used as input to a primary ice nucleation parameterisation which was compared with observed values of primary ice in these clouds. We found higher concentrations of ice during summer.
D. E. Young, J. D. Allan, P. I. Williams, D. C. Green, R. M. Harrison, J. Yin, M. J. Flynn, M. W. Gallagher, and H. Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2429–2443,Short summary
Two solid fuel organic aerosol (SFOA) factors, both associated with domestic space heating activities, were derived from positive matrix factorisation (PMF) applied to organic aerosol data from an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) deployed at an urban background site in London during winter 2012. The factors controlling the split between the two SFOA factors were assessed, and it is concluded the split is likely governed predominantly by differences in burn conditions.
G. Allen, S. M. Illingworth, S. J. O'Shea, S. Newman, A. Vance, S. J.-B. Bauguitte, F. Marenco, J. Kent, K. Bower, M. W. Gallagher, J. Muller, C. J. Percival, C. Harlow, J. Lee, and J. P. Taylor
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4401–4416,Short summary
This paper presents a validated method and data set for new retrievals of trace gas concentrations and temperature from the ARIES infrared spectrometer instrument on the UK Atmospheric Research Aircraft (www.faam.ac.uk). This new capability for the aircraft will allow new science to be done because of the way it can sense information about the atmosphere without having to physically pass through it (remote sensing). This will allow us to better understand the make-up of the lower atmosphere.
S. J. O'Shea, G. Allen, M. W. Gallagher, K. Bower, S. M. Illingworth, J. B. A. Muller, B. T. Jones, C. J. Percival, S. J-B. Bauguitte, M. Cain, N. Warwick, A. Quiquet, U. Skiba, J. Drewer, K. Dinsmore, E. G. Nisbet, D. Lowry, R. E. Fisher, J. L. France, M. Aurela, A. Lohila, G. Hayman, C. George, D. B. Clark, A. J. Manning, A. D. Friend, and J. Pyle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13159–13174,Short summary
This paper presents airborne measurements of greenhouse gases collected in the European Arctic. Regional scale flux estimates for the northern Scandinavian wetlands are derived. These fluxes are found to be in excellent agreement with coincident surface measurements within the aircraft's sampling domain. This has allowed a significant low bias to be identified in two commonly used process-based land surface models.
D. Liu, J. D. Allan, D. E. Young, H. Coe, D. Beddows, Z. L. Fleming, M. J. Flynn, M. W. Gallagher, R. M. Harrison, J. Lee, A. S. H. Prevot, J. W. Taylor, J. Yin, P. I. Williams, and P. Zotter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10061–10084,
I. Crawford, N. H. Robinson, M. J. Flynn, V. E. Foot, M. W. Gallagher, J. A. Huffman, W. R. Stanley, and P. H. Kaye
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8559–8578,
K. Beswick, D. Baumgardner, M. Gallagher, A. Volz-Thomas, P. Nedelec, K.-Y. Wang, and S. Lance
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1443–1457,
P. J. Connolly, D. O. Topping, F. Malavelle, and G. McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2289–2302,
S. J. O'Shea, G. Allen, M. W. Gallagher, S. J.-B. Bauguitte, S. M. Illingworth, M. Le Breton, J. B. A. Muller, C. J. Percival, A. T. Archibald, D. E. Oram, M. Parrington, P. I. Palmer, and A. C. Lewis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12451–12467,
A. M. Gabey, M. Vaitilingom, E. Freney, J. Boulon, K. Sellegri, M. W. Gallagher, I. P. Crawford, N. H. Robinson, W. R. Stanley, and P. H. Kaye
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7415–7428,
J. A. Huffman, A. J. Prenni, P. J. DeMott, C. Pöhlker, R. H. Mason, N. H. Robinson, J. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Y. Tobo, V. R. Després, E. Garcia, D. J. Gochis, E. Harris, I. Müller-Germann, C. Ruzene, B. Schmer, B. Sinha, D. A. Day, M. O. Andreae, J. L. Jimenez, M. Gallagher, S. M. Kreidenweis, A. K. Bertram, and U. Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6151–6164,
S. J. O'Shea, S. J.-B. Bauguitte, M. W. Gallagher, D. Lowry, and C. J. Percival
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1095–1109,
N. H. Robinson, J. D. Allan, J. A. Huffman, P. H. Kaye, V. E. Foot, and M. Gallagher
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 337–347,
N. J. King, K. N. Bower, J. Crosier, and I. Crawford
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 191–209,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Vertical aerosol particle exchange in the marine boundary layer estimated from helicopter-borne measurements in the Azores regionCircum-Antarctic abundance and properties of CCN and INPsThe ice-nucleating activity of African mineral dust in the Caribbean boundary layerBiomass burning and marine aerosol processing over the southeast Atlantic Ocean: a TEM single-particle analysisVolatility parameterization of ambient organic aerosols at a rural site of the North China PlainLight absorption by brown carbon over the South-East Atlantic OceanParticle size distribution and particulate matter concentrations during synoptic and convective dust events in West TexasMeasurement of light-absorbing particles in surface snow of central and western Himalayan glaciers: spatial variability, radiative impacts, and potential source regionsSeasonal variations in fire conditions are important drivers in the trend of aerosol optical properties over the south-eastern AtlanticBlack carbon aerosol reductions during COVID-19 confinement quantified by aircraft measurements over EuropeDiurnal evolution of negative atmospheric ions above the boreal forest: from ground level to the free troposphereAbsorption enhancement of black carbon particles in a Mediterranean city and countryside: effect of particulate matter chemistry, ageing and trend analysisCharacterizing the hygroscopicity of growing particles in the Canadian Arctic summerMeasurement report: Distinct size dependence and diurnal variation in organic aerosol hygroscopicity, volatility, and cloud condensation nuclei activity at a rural site in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, ChinaMeasurement report: Atmospheric new particle formation in a coastal agricultural site explained with binPMF analysis of nitrate CI-APi-TOF spectraCharacteristics and evolution of brown carbon in western United States wildfiresReduced surface fine dust under droughts over the southeastern United States during summertime: observations and CMIP6 model simulationsStrong light scattering of highly oxygenated organic aerosols impacts significantly on visibility degradationMeasurement report: Spectral and statistical analysis of aerosol hygroscopic growth from multi-wavelength lidar measurements in Barcelona, SpainThe diurnal and seasonal variability of ice-nucleating particles at the High Altitude Station Jungfraujoch (3580 m a.s.l.), SwitzerlandThe impact of large-scale circulation on daily fine particulate matter (PM2.5) over major populated regions of China in winterNew particle formation in coastal New Zealand with a focus on open-ocean air massesMeasurement report: Vertical profiling of particle size distributions over Lhasa, Tibet – tethered balloon-based in situ measurements and source apportionmentLong- and short-term temporal variability in cloud condensation nuclei spectra over a wide supersaturation range in the Southern Great Plains siteSiberian Arctic black carbon: gas flaring and wildfire impactSmoke in the river: an Aerosols, Radiation and Clouds in southern Africa (AEROCLO-sA) case studyThe impact of temperature inversions on black carbon and particle mass concentrations in a mountainous areaMeasurement report: Interpretation of wide-range particulate matter size distributions in DelhiUnderstanding aerosol microphysical properties from 10 years of data collected at Cabo Verde based on an unsupervised machine learning classificationAerosol optical properties calculated from size distributions, filter samples and absorption photometer data at Dome C, Antarctica, and their relationships with seasonal cycles of sourcesMeasurement report: On the difference in aerosol hygroscopicity between high and low relative humidity conditions in the North China PlainObservations of particle number size distributions and new particle formation in six Indian locationsAerodynamic size-resolved composition and cloud condensation nuclei properties of aerosols in a Beijing suburban regionMeteorology impact on PM2.5 change over a receptor region in the regional transport of air pollutants: observational study of recent emission reductions in central ChinaOccurrence and growth of sub-50 nm aerosol particles in the Amazonian boundary layerMeasurement report: Ice-nucleating particles active ≥ −15 °C in free tropospheric air over western EuropeColumnar and surface urban aerosol in Moscow megacity according to measurements and simulations with COSMO-ART modelAtmospheric composition in the European Arctic and 30 years of the Zeppelin Observatory, Ny-ÅlesundUnveiling atmospheric transport and mixing mechanisms of ice-nucleating particles over the AlpsInteraction between aerosol and thermodynamic stability within the planetary boundary layer during wintertime over the North China Plain: aircraft observation and WRF-Chem simulationFrequent new particle formation at remote sites in the subboreal forest of North AmericaCharacterizing the volatility and mixing state of ambient fine particles in the summer and winter of urban BeijingBimodal distribution of size-resolved particle effective density: results from a short campaign in a rural environment over the North China PlainThe vertical aerosol type distribution above Israel – 2 years of lidar observations at the coastal city of HaifaMeasurement report: Long-term changes in black carbon and aerosol optical properties from 2012 to 2020 in Beijing, ChinaAerosol particle characteristics measured in the United Arab Emirates and their response to mixing in the boundary layerFirst triple-wavelength lidar observations of depolarization and extinction-to-backscatter ratios of Saharan dustAirborne observation during KORUS-AQ show aerosol optical depth are more spatially self-consistent than aerosol intensive propertiesModeled and observed properties related to the direct aerosol radiative effect of biomass burning aerosol over the southeastern AtlanticMeasurement report: Three years of size-resolved eddy-covariance particle number flux measurements in an urban environment
Janine Lückerath, Andreas Held, Holger Siebert, Michel Michalkow, and Birgit Wehner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10007–10021,Short summary
Three different methods were applied to estimate the vertical aerosol particle flux in the marine boundary layer (MBL) and between the MBL and free troposphere. For the first time, aerosol fluxes derived from these three methods were estimated and compared using airborne aerosol measurements using data from the ACORES field campaign in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean in July 2017. The amount of fluxes was small and directed up and down for different cases, but the methods were applicable.
Christian Tatzelt, Silvia Henning, André Welti, Andrea Baccarini, Markus Hartmann, Martin Gysel-Beer, Manuela van Pinxteren, Robin L. Modini, Julia Schmale, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9721–9745,Short summary
We present the abundance and origin of cloud-relevant aerosol particles in the preindustral-like conditions of the Southern Ocean (SO) during austral summer. Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice-nucleating particles (INP) were measured during a circum-Antarctic scientific cruise with in situ instrumentation and offline filter measurements, respectively. Transport processes were found to play an equally important role as local sources for both the CCN and INP population of the SO.
Alexander D. Harrison, Daniel O'Sullivan, Michael P. Adams, Grace C. E. Porter, Edmund Blades, Cherise Brathwaite, Rebecca Chewitt-Lucas, Cassandra Gaston, Rachel Hawker, Ovid O. Krüger, Leslie Neve, Mira L. Pöhlker, Christopher Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Alberto Sanchez-Marroquin, Andrea Sealy, Peter Sealy, Mark D. Tarn, Shanice Whitehall, James B. McQuaid, Kenneth S. Carslaw, Joseph M. Prospero, and Benjamin J. Murray
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9663–9680,Short summary
The formation of ice in clouds fundamentally alters cloud properties; hence it is important we understand the special aerosol particles that can nucleate ice when immersed in supercooled cloud droplets. In this paper we show that African desert dust that has travelled across the Atlantic to the Caribbean nucleates ice much less well than we might have expected.
Caroline Dang, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, Haochi Che, Lu Zhang, Paola Formenti, Jonathan Taylor, Amie Dobracki, Sara Purdue, Pui-Shan Wong, Athanasios Nenes, Arthur Sedlacek III, Hugh Coe, Jens Redemann, Paquita Zuidema, Steven Howell, and James Haywood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9389–9412,Short summary
Transmission electron microscopy was used to analyze aged African smoke particles and how the smoke interacts with the marine atmosphere. We found that the volatility of organic aerosol increases with biomass burning plume age, that black carbon is often mixed with potassium salts and that the marine atmosphere can incorporate Na and Cl into smoke particles. Marine salts are more processed when mixed with smoke plumes, and there are interesting Cl-rich yet Na-absent marine particles.
Siman Ren, Lei Yao, Yuwei Wang, Gan Yang, Yiliang Liu, Yueyang Li, Yiqun Lu, Lihong Wang, and Lin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9283–9297,Short summary
We improved the empirical functions between volatility and chemical formulas of organic aerosols based on lab experiments and field observations. It was found that organic compounds in ambient aerosols can be divided into two groups according to their O / C ratios and that there should be specialized volatility parameterizations for different O / C organic compounds.
Lu Zhang, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, Haochi Che, Caroline Dang, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, Ernie R. Lewis, Amie Dobracki, Jenny P. S. Wong, Paola Formenti, Steven G. Howell, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9199–9213,Short summary
Widespread biomass burning (BB) events occur annually in Africa and contribute ~ 1 / 3 of global BB emissions, which contain a large family of light-absorbing organics, known as brown carbon (BrC), whose absorption of incident radiation is difficult to estimate, leading to large uncertainties in the global radiative forcing estimation. This study quantifies the BrC absorption of aged BB particles and highlights the potential presence of absorbing iron oxides in this climatically important region.
Karin Ardon-Dryer and Mary C. Kelley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9161–9173,Short summary
Changes in the particle size distribution and particulate matter concentrations during different dust events in West Texas were examined. Analysis based on different timescales showed that current common methods used to evaluate the impact of dust events on air quality will not capture the true impact of short (convective) dust events and, therefore, do not provide an insightful understanding of their impact on the environment and human health.
Chaman Gul, Shichang Kang, Siva Praveen Puppala, Xiaokang Wu, Cenlin He, Yangyang Xu, Inka Koch, Sher Muhammad, Rajesh Kumar, and Getachew Dubache
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8725–8737,Short summary
This work aims to understand concentrations, spatial variability, and potential source regions of light-absorbing impurities (black carbon aerosols, dust particles, and organic carbon) in the surface snow of central and western Himalayan glaciers and their impact on snow albedo and radiative forcing.
Haochi Che, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, Lu Zhang, Caroline Dang, Paquita Zuidema, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, Xiaoye Zhang, and Connor Flynn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8767–8785,Short summary
A 17-month in situ study on Ascension Island found low single-scattering albedo and strong absorption enhancement of the marine boundary layer aerosols during biomass burnings on the African continent, along with apparent patterns of regular monthly variability. We further discuss the characteristics and drivers behind these changes and find that biomass burning conditions in Africa may be the main factor influencing the optical properties of marine boundary aerosols.
Ovid O. Krüger, Bruna A. Holanda, Sourangsu Chowdhury, Andrea Pozzer, David Walter, Christopher Pöhlker, Maria Dolores Andrés Hernández, John P. Burrows, Christiane Voigt, Jos Lelieveld, Johannes Quaas, Ulrich Pöschl, and Mira L. Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8683–8699,Short summary
The abrupt reduction in human activities during the first COVID-19 lockdown created unprecedented atmospheric conditions. We took the opportunity to quantify changes in black carbon (BC) as a major anthropogenic air pollutant. Therefore, we measured BC on board a research aircraft over Europe during the lockdown and compared the results to measurements from 2017. With model simulations we account for different weather conditions and find a lockdown-related decrease in BC of 41 %.
Lisa J. Beck, Siegfried Schobesberger, Heikki Junninen, Janne Lampilahti, Antti Manninen, Lubna Dada, Katri Leino, Xu-Cheng He, Iida Pullinen, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Anna Franck, Pyry Poutanen, Daniela Wimmer, Frans Korhonen, Mikko Sipilä, Mikael Ehn, Douglas R. Worsnop, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Jonathan Duplissy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8547–8577,Short summary
The presented article introduces an overview of atmospheric ions and their composition above the boreal forest. We provide the results of an extensive airborne measurement campaign with an air ion mass spectrometer and particle measurements, showing their diurnal evolution within the boundary layer and free troposphere. In addition, we compare the airborne dataset with the co-located data from the ground at SMEAR II station, Finland.
Jesús Yus-Díez, Marta Via, Andrés Alastuey, Angeliki Karanasiou, María Cruz Minguillón, Noemí Perez, Xavier Querol, Cristina Reche, Matic Ivančič, Martin Rigler, and Marco Pandolfi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8439–8456,Short summary
This study presents the absorption enhancement of internally and externally mixed black carbon (BC) particles in a Mediterranean city and countryside. We showed the importance of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) and particle ageing by increasing the BC absorption enhancement. We performed a trend analysis on the absorption enhancement. We found a positive trend of the absorption enhancement at the regional station in summer driven by the increase over time of the relative contribution of SOA.
Rachel Y.-W. Chang, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Matthew C. Boyer, Jai Prakash Chaubey, and Douglas B. Collins
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8059–8071,Short summary
During summer 2016, the ability of newly formed particles to turn into droplets was measured in the Canadian Arctic. Our observations suggest that these small particles were growing by the condensation of organic vapours likely coming from the surrounding open waters. These particles grew large enough that they could form cloud droplets and therefore affect the earth’s radiation budget. These results are relevant as the Arctic summer rapidly warms with climate change.
Mingfu Cai, Shan Huang, Baoling Liang, Qibin Sun, Li Liu, Bin Yuan, Min Shao, Weiwei Hu, Wei Chen, Qicong Song, Wei Li, Yuwen Peng, Zelong Wang, Duohong Chen, Haobo Tan, Hanbin Xu, Fei Li, Xuejiao Deng, Tao Deng, Jiaren Sun, and Jun Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8117–8136,Short summary
This study investigated the size dependence and diurnal variation in organic aerosol hygroscopicity, volatility, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity. We found that the physical properties of OA could vary in a large range at different particle sizes and affected the number concentration of CCN (NCCN) at all supersaturations. Our results highlight the importance of evaluating the atmospheric evolution processes of OA at different size ranges and their impact on climate effects.
Miska Olin, Magdalena Okuljar, Matti P. Rissanen, Joni Kalliokoski, Jiali Shen, Lubna Dada, Markus Lampimäki, Yusheng Wu, Annalea Lohila, Jonathan Duplissy, Mikko Sipilä, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Miikka Dal Maso
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8097–8115,Short summary
Atmospheric new particle formation is an important source of the total particle number concentration in the atmosphere. Several parameters for predicting new particle formation events have been suggested before, but the results have been inconclusive. This study proposes an another predicting parameter, related to a specific type of highly oxidized organic molecules, especially for similar locations to the measurement site in this study, which was a coastal agricultural site in Finland.
Linghan Zeng, Jack Dibb, Eric Scheuer, Joseph M. Katich, Joshua P. Schwarz, Ilann Bourgeois, Jeff Peischl, Tom Ryerson, Carsten Warneke, Anne E. Perring, Glenn S. Diskin, Joshua P. DiGangi, John B. Nowak, Richard H. Moore, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, Demetrios Pagonis, Hongyu Guo, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jose L. Jimenez, Lu Xu, and Rodney J. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8009–8036,Short summary
Wildfires emit aerosol particles containing brown carbon material that affects visibility and global climate and is toxic. Brown carbon is poorly characterized due to measurement limitations, and its evolution in the atmosphere is not well known. We report on aircraft measurements of brown carbon from large wildfires in the western United States. We compare two methods for measuring brown carbon and study the evolution of brown carbon in the smoke as it moved away from the burning regions.
Wei Li and Yuxuan Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7843–7859,Short summary
Fine dust is an important component of PM2.5 and can be largely modulated by droughts. In contrast to the increase in dust in the southwest USA where major dust sources are located, dust in the southeast USA is affected more by long-range transport from Africa and decreases under droughts. Both the transport and emissions of African dust are weakened when the southeast USA is under droughts, which reveals how regional-scale droughts can influence aerosol abundance through long-range transport.
Li Liu, Ye Kuang, Miaomiao Zhai, Biao Xue, Yao He, Jun Tao, Biao Luo, Wanyun Xu, Jiangchuan Tao, Changqin Yin, Fei Li, Hanbing Xu, Tao Deng, Xuejiao Deng, Haobo Tan, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7713–7726,Short summary
Using simultaneous measurements of a humidified nephelometer system and an aerosol chemical speciation monitor in winter in Guangzhou, the strongest scattering ability of more oxidized oxygenated organic aerosol (MOOA) among aerosol components considering their dry-state scattering ability and water uptake ability was revealed, leading to large impacts of MOOA on visibility degradation. This has important implications for visibility improvement in China and aerosol radiative effect simulation.
Michaël Sicard, Daniel Camilo Fortunato dos Santos Oliveira, Constantino Muñoz-Porcar, Cristina Gil-Díaz, Adolfo Comerón, Alejandro Rodríguez-Gómez, and Federico Dios Otín
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7681–7697,Short summary
Atmospheric particles can absorb water vapor, and this water uptake may change their properties, e.g., their size. In the coastal region of Barcelona, Spain, we observe that (1) smaller particles absorb more water vapor, in relative terms, than larger particles and (2) the particle capacity to absorb water vapor has no annual tendency, probably because the site background is quite constant (urban + marine aerosol regime).
Cyril Brunner, Benjamin T. Brem, Martine Collaud Coen, Franz Conen, Martin Steinbacher, Martin Gysel-Beer, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7557–7573,Short summary
Microscopic particles called ice-nucleating particles (INPs) are essential for ice crystals to form in clouds. INPs are a tiny proportion of atmospheric aerosol, and their abundance is poorly constrained. We study how the concentration of INPs changes diurnally and seasonally at a mountaintop station in central Europe. Unsurprisingly, a diurnal cycle is only found when considering air masses that have had lower-altitude ground contact. The highest INP concentrations occur in spring.
Zixuan Jia, Ruth M. Doherty, Carlos Ordóñez, Chaofan Li, Oliver Wild, Shipra Jain, and Xiao Tang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6471–6487,Short summary
This study investigates the modulation of daily PM2.5 over three major populated regions in China by regional meteorology and large-scale circulation during winter. These results demonstrate the benefits of considering the large-scale circulation for air quality studies. The novel circulation indices proposed here can explain a considerable fraction of the day-to-day variability of PM2.5 and can be combined with regional meteorology to improve our capability to predict the variability of PM2.5.
Maija Peltola, Clémence Rose, Jonathan V. Trueblood, Sally Gray, Mike Harvey, and Karine Sellegri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6231–6254,Short summary
Despite the importance of marine aerosol measurements for constraining climate models, these measurements are scarce. We measured the aerosol particle number size distribution in coastal New Zealand over a total period of 10 months. This paper analyses the aerosol properties at the site, with a special focus on new particle formation and marine air masses. New particle formation was observed frequently, but in marine air masses it did not follow traditional event criteria.
Liang Ran, Zhaoze Deng, Yunfei Wu, Jiwei Li, Zhixuan Bai, Ye Lu, Deqing Zhuoga, and Jianchun Bian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6217–6229,Short summary
The Tibetan Plateau (TP), the highest plateau in the world, plays a crucial role in regional and global climate. To examine the fingerprint left by human activities on the originally remote atmosphere, size distributions of particles from the ground to about 800 m were measured for the first time in summer 2020 in Lhasa, one of a few urbanized cities on TP. Potential sources of particles at different heights were explored. The contribution of emissions from religious activities was highlighted.
Russell J. Perkins, Peter J. Marinescu, Ezra J. T. Levin, Don R. Collins, and Sonia M. Kreidenweis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6197–6215,Short summary
We used 5 years (2009–2013) of aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) data from a total of seven instruments housed at the Southern Great Plains site, which were merged into a quality-controlled, continuous dataset of CCN spectra at ~45 min resolution. The data cover all seasons, are representative of a rural, agricultural mid-continental site, and are useful for model initialization and validation. Our analysis of this dataset focuses on seasonal and hourly variability.
Olga B. Popovicheva, Nikolaos Evangeliou, Vasilii O. Kobelev, Marina A. Chichaeva, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Asta Gregorič, and Nikolay S. Kasimov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5983–6000,Short summary
Measurements of black carbon (BC) combined with atmospheric transport modeling reveal that gas flaring from oil and gas extraction in Kazakhstan, Volga-Ural, Komi, Nenets and western Siberia contributes the largest share of surface BC in the Russian Arctic dominating over domestic, industrial and traffic sectors. Pollution episodes show an increasing trend in concentration levels and frequency as the station is in the Siberian gateway of the highest anthropogenic pollution to the Russian Arctic.
Cyrille Flamant, Marco Gaetani, Jean-Pierre Chaboureau, Patrick Chazette, Juan Cuesta, Stuart John Piketh, and Paola Formenti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5701–5724,Short summary
Rivers of smoke extend from tropical southern Africa towards the Indian Ocean during the winter fire season, controlled by the interaction of tropical easterly waves, and westerly waves at mid latitudes. During the AEROCLO-sA field campaign in 2017, a river of smoke was directly observed over Namibia. In this paper, the evolution and atmospheric drivers of the river of smoke are described, and the role of a mid-latitude cut-off low in lifting the smoke to the upper troposphere is highlighted.
Kristina Glojek, Griša Močnik, Honey Dawn C. Alas, Andrea Cuesta-Mosquera, Luka Drinovec, Asta Gregorič, Matej Ogrin, Kay Weinhold, Irena Ježek, Thomas Müller, Martin Rigler, Maja Remškar, Dominik van Pinxteren, Hartmut Herrmann, Martina Ristorini, Maik Merkel, Miha Markelj, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5577–5601,Short summary
A pilot study to determine the emissions of wood burning under
real-world laboratoryconditions was conducted. We found that measured black carbon (eBC) and particulate matter (PM) in rural shallow terrain depressions with residential wood burning could be much greater than predicted by models. The exceeding levels are a cause for concern since similar conditions can be expected in numerous hilly and mountainous regions across Europe, where approximately 20 % of the total population lives.
Ülkü Alver Şahin, Roy M. Harrison, Mohammed S. Alam, David C. S. Beddows, Dimitrios Bousiotis, Zongbo Shi, Leigh R. Crilley, William Bloss, James Brean, Isha Khanna, and Rulan Verma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5415–5433,Short summary
Wide-range particle size spectra have been measured in three seasons in Delhi and are interpreted in terms of sources and processes. Condensational growth is a major feature of the fine fraction, and a coarse fraction contributes substantially – but only in summer.
Xianda Gong, Heike Wex, Thomas Müller, Silvia Henning, Jens Voigtländer, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5175–5194,Short summary
We conducted 10 yr measurements to characterize the atmospheric aerosol at Cabo Verde. An unsupervised machine learning algorithm, K-means, was implemented to study the aerosol types. Cloud condensation nuclei number concentrations during dust periods were 2.5 times higher than marine periods. The long-term data sets, together with the aerosol classification, can be used as a basis to improve understanding of annual cycles of aerosol, and aerosol-cloud interactions in the North Atlantic.
Aki Virkkula, Henrik Grythe, John Backman, Tuukka Petäjä, Maurizio Busetto, Christian Lanconelli, Angelo Lupi, Silvia Becagli, Rita Traversi, Mirko Severi, Vito Vitale, Patrick Sheridan, and Elisabeth Andrews
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5033–5069,Short summary
Optical properties of surface aerosols at Dome C, Antarctica, in 2007–2013 and their potential source areas are presented. The equivalent black carbon (eBC) mass concentrations were compared with eBC measured at three other Antarctic sites: the South Pole (SPO) and two coastal sites, Neumayer and Syowa. Transport analysis suggests that South American BC emissions are the largest contributor to eBC at Dome C.
Jingnan Shi, Juan Hong, Nan Ma, Qingwei Luo, Yao He, Hanbing Xu, Haobo Tan, Qiaoqiao Wang, Jiangchuan Tao, Yaqing Zhou, Shuang Han, Long Peng, Linhong Xie, Guangsheng Zhou, Wanyun Xu, Yele Sun, Yafang Cheng, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4599–4613,Short summary
In this study, we investigated the hygroscopicity of submicron aerosols at a rural site in the North China Plain during the winter of 2018, using a HTDMA and a CV-ToF-ACSM. We observed differences in aerosol hygroscopicity during two distinct episodes with different primary emissions and secondary aerosol formation processes. These results provide an improved understanding of the complex influence of sources and aerosol evolution processes on their hygroscopicity.
Mathew Sebastian, Sobhan Kumar Kompalli, Vasudevan Anil Kumar, Sandhya Jose, S. Suresh Babu, Govindan Pandithurai, Sachchidanand Singh, Rakesh K. Hooda, Vijay K. Soni, Jeffrey R. Pierce, Ville Vakkari, Eija Asmi, Daniel M. Westervelt, Antti-Pekka Hyvärinen, and Vijay P. Kanawade
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4491–4508,Short summary
Characteristics of particle number size distributions and new particle formation in six locations in India were analyzed. New particle formation occurred frequently during the pre-monsoon (spring) season and it significantly modulates the shape of the particle number size distributions. The contribution of newly formed particles to cloud condensation nuclei concentrations was ~3 times higher in urban locations than in mountain background locations.
Chenjie Yu, Dantong Liu, Kang Hu, Ping Tian, Yangzhou Wu, Delong Zhao, Huihui Wu, Dawei Hu, Wenbo Guo, Qiang Li, Mengyu Huang, Deping Ding, and James D. Allan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4375–4391,Short summary
In this study, we applied a new technique to investigate the aerosol properties on both a mass and number basis and CCN abilities in Beijing suburban regions. The size-resolved aerosol chemical compositions and CCN activation measurement enable a detailed analysis of BC-containing particle hygroscopicity and its size-dependent contribution to the CCN activation. The results presented in this study will affect future models and human health studies.
Xiaoyun Sun, Tianliang Zhao, Yongqing Bai, Shaofei Kong, Huang Zheng, Weiyang Hu, Xiaodan Ma, and Jie Xiong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3579–3593,Short summary
This study revealed the impact of anthropogenic emissions and meteorological conditions on PM2.5 decline in the regional transport of air pollutants over a receptor region in central China. The meteorological drivers led to upwind accelerating and downward offsetting of the effects of emission reductions over the receptor region in regional PM2.5 transport, and the contribution of gaseous precursor emissions to PM2.5 pollution was enhanced with reduced anthropogenic emissions in recent years.
Marco A. Franco, Florian Ditas, Leslie A. Kremper, Luiz A. T. Machado, Meinrat O. Andreae, Alessandro Araújo, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Joel F. de Brito, Samara Carbone, Bruna A. Holanda, Fernando G. Morais, Janaína P. Nascimento, Mira L. Pöhlker, Luciana V. Rizzo, Marta Sá, Jorge Saturno, David Walter, Stefan Wolff, Ulrich Pöschl, Paulo Artaxo, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3469–3492,Short summary
In Central Amazonia, new particle formation in the planetary boundary layer is rare. Instead, there is the appearance of sub-50 nm aerosols with diameters larger than about 20 nm that eventually grow to cloud condensation nuclei size range. Here, 254 growth events were characterized which have higher predominance in the wet season. About 70 % of them showed direct relation to convective downdrafts, while 30 % occurred partly under clear-sky conditions, evidencing still unknown particle sources.
Franz Conen, Annika Einbock, Claudia Mignani, and Christoph Hüglin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3433–3444,Short summary
Above western Europe, ice typically starts to form in clouds a few kilometres above the ground if suitable aerosol particles are present. In air masses typical for that altitude, we found that such particles most likely originate from bacteria and fungi living on plants. Occasional Saharan dust intrusions seem to contribute little to the number concentration of particles able to freeze cloud droplets between 0°C and −15°C.
Natalia Chubarova, Elizaveta Androsova, Alexander Kirsanov, Olga Popovicheva, Bernhard Vogel, Heike Vogel, and Gdaliy Rivin
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The effects of urban aerosol pollution in Moscow megacity were analyzed using COSMO-ART chemical transport model and intensive measurement campaigns. We show that urban aerosol comprises about 15–20 % of columnar aerosol content consisting mainly of fine aerosol mode. Black Carbon (BC) fraction is about 5 %, depending on particle dispersion intensity (IPD). BC fraction low value explains weak absorbing properties of the Moscow atmosphere. The IPD also defines daily cycle of urban aerosol species.
Stephen M. Platt, Øystein Hov, Torunn Berg, Knut Breivik, Sabine Eckhardt, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Nikolaos Evangeliou, Markus Fiebig, Rebecca Fisher, Georg Hansen, Hans-Christen Hansson, Jost Heintzenberg, Ove Hermansen, Dominic Heslin-Rees, Kim Holmén, Stephen Hudson, Roland Kallenborn, Radovan Krejci, Terje Krognes, Steinar Larssen, David Lowry, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Chris Lunder, Euan Nisbet, Pernilla B. Nizzetto, Ki-Tae Park, Christina A. Pedersen, Katrine Aspmo Pfaffhuber, Thomas Röckmann, Norbert Schmidbauer, Sverre Solberg, Andreas Stohl, Johan Ström, Tove Svendby, Peter Tunved, Kjersti Tørnkvist, Carina van der Veen, Stergios Vratolis, Young Jun Yoon, Karl Espen Yttri, Paul Zieger, Wenche Aas, and Kjetil Tørseth
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3321–3369,Short summary
Here we detail the history of the Zeppelin Observatory, a unique global background site and one of only a few in the high Arctic. We present long-term time series of up to 30 years of atmospheric components and atmospheric transport phenomena. Many of these time series are important to our understanding of Arctic and global atmospheric composition change. Finally, we discuss the future of the Zeppelin Observatory and emerging areas of future research on the Arctic atmosphere.
Jörg Wieder, Claudia Mignani, Mario Schär, Lucie Roth, Michael Sprenger, Jan Henneberger, Ulrike Lohmann, Cyril Brunner, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3111–3130,Short summary
We investigate the variation in ice-nucleating particles (INPs) relevant for primary ice formation in mixed-phased clouds over the Alps based on simultaneous in situ observations at a mountaintop and a nearby high valley (1060 m height difference). In most cases, advection from the surrounding lower regions was responsible for changes in INP concentration, causing a diurnal cycle at the mountaintop. Our study underlines the importance of the planetary boundary layer as an INP reserve.
Hao Luo, Li Dong, Yichen Chen, Yuefeng Zhao, Delong Zhao, Mengyu Huang, Deping Ding, Jiayuan Liao, Tian Ma, Maohai Hu, and Yong Han
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2507–2524,Short summary
Aerosol–planetary boundary layer (PBL) interaction is a key mechanism for stabilizing the atmosphere and exacerbating surface air pollution. Using aircraft measurements and WRF-Chem simulations, we find that the aerosol–PBL interaction of different aerosols under contrasting synoptic patterns, PBL structures, and aerosol vertical distributions vary significantly. We attempt to determine which pollutants to target in different synoptic conditions to attain more precise air pollution control.
Meinrat O. Andreae, Tracey W. Andreae, Florian Ditas, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2487–2505,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosol particles are key players in the Earth’s climate system, but there is still considerable uncertainty about where and how these particles are initially formed. We present the first study of new particle formation (NPF) at a pristine site in a subboreal forest region of North America. Our data suggest that, in this environment, there is frequent NPF from biogenic organic precursor compounds, which was likely the predominant source of particles in the preindustrial environment.
Lu Chen, Fang Zhang, Don Collins, Jingye Ren, Jieyao Liu, Sihui Jiang, and Zhanqing Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2293–2307,Short summary
Understanding the volatility and mixing state of atmospheric aerosols is important for elucidating their formation. Here, the size-resolved volatility of fine particles is characterized using field measurements. On average, the particles are more volatile in the summer. The retrieved mixing state shows that black carbon (BC)-containing particles dominate and contribute 67–77 % toward the total number concentration in the winter, while the non-BC particles accounted for 52–69 % in the summer.
Yaqing Zhou, Nan Ma, Qiaoqiao Wang, Zhibin Wang, Chunrong Chen, Jiangchuan Tao, Juan Hong, Long Peng, Yao He, Linhong Xie, Shaowen Zhu, Yuxuan Zhang, Guo Li, Wanyun Xu, Peng Cheng, Uwe Kuhn, Guangsheng Zhou, Pingqing Fu, Qiang Zhang, Hang Su, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2029–2047,Short summary
This study characterizes size-resolved particle effective densities and their evolution associated with emissions and aging processes in a rural area of the North China Plain. Particle effective density exhibits a high-frequency bimodal distribution, and two density modes exhibit opposite trends with increasing particle size. SIA and BC mass fractions are key factors of particle effective density, and a value of 0.6 g cm−3 is appropriate to represent BC effective density in bulk particles.
Birgit Heese, Athena Augusta Floutsi, Holger Baars, Dietrich Althausen, Julian Hofer, Alina Herzog, Silke Mewes, Martin Radenz, and Yoav Y. Schechner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1633–1648,Short summary
The aerosol distribution over Haifa, Israel, was measured for 2 years by a laser-based vertically resolved measurement technique called lidar. From these data, the aerosol types and their percentages of the observed aerosol mixtures were identified in terms of their size and shape. We found mostly desert dust from the surrounding deserts and sea salt from the close-by Mediterranean Sea. But aerosols from anthropogenic and industrial pollution from local and far away sources were also detected.
Jiaxing Sun, Zhe Wang, Wei Zhou, Conghui Xie, Cheng Wu, Chun Chen, Tingting Han, Qingqing Wang, Zhijie Li, Jie Li, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 561–575,Short summary
We analyzed 9-year measurements of BC and aerosol optical properties from 2012 to 2020 in Beijing, China. Our results showed large reductions in BC and light extinction coefficient due to the Clean Air Action Plan. As a response, both SSA and mass extinction efficiency (MEE) showed considerable increases, demonstrating a future challenge in visibility improvement. The primary and secondary BrC was also separated and quantified, and the changes in radiative forcing of BC and BrC were estimated.
Jutta Kesti, John Backman, Ewan J. O'Connor, Anne Hirsikko, Eija Asmi, Minna Aurela, Ulla Makkonen, Maria Filioglou, Mika Komppula, Hannele Korhonen, and Heikki Lihavainen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 481–503,Short summary
In this study we combined aerosol particle measurements at the surface with a scanning Doppler lidar providing vertical profiles of the atmosphere to study the effect of different boundary layer conditions on aerosol particle properties in the understudied Arabian Peninsula region. The instrumentation used in this study enabled us to identify periods when pollution from remote sources was mixed down to the surface and initiated new particle formation in the growing boundary layer.
Moritz Haarig, Albert Ansmann, Ronny Engelmann, Holger Baars, Carlos Toledano, Benjamin Torres, Dietrich Althausen, Martin Radenz, and Ulla Wandinger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 355–369,Short summary
The irregular shape of dust particles makes it difficult to treat them correctly in optical models. Atmospheric measurements of dust optical properties are therefore of great importance. The present study increases the space of observed parameters from 355 and 532 nm towards 1064 nm, which is of special importance for large dust particles. The lidar ratio influenced by mineralogy and the depolarization ratio influenced by shape are measured for the first time at all three wavelengths.
Samuel E. LeBlanc, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, Jens Redemann, Connor J. Flynn, Roy R. Johnson, Stephen E. Dunagan, Robert Dahlgren, Jhoon Kim, Myungje Choi, Arlindo M. da Silva, Patricia Castellanos, Qian Tan, Luke Ziemba, Kenneth Lee Thornhill, and Meloë S. Kacenelenbogen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Airborne observations of atmospheric particles and pollution over Korea during a field campaign in May–June 2016 showed that the smallest atmospheric particles are present in the lowest 2 km of the atmosphere. The aerosol size is less repeatable over distances than their optical thickness. We show this with remote sensing (4STAR), in-situ (LARGE) observations, satellite measurements (GOCI), and modeled properties (MERRA-2), and it is contrary to current understanding.
Sarah J. Doherty, Pablo E. Saide, Paquita Zuidema, Yohei Shinozuka, Gonzalo A. Ferrada, Hamish Gordon, Marc Mallet, Kerry Meyer, David Painemal, Steven G. Howell, Steffen Freitag, Amie Dobracki, James R. Podolske, Sharon P. Burton, Richard A. Ferrare, Calvin Howes, Pierre Nabat, Gregory R. Carmichael, Arlindo da Silva, Kristina Pistone, Ian Chang, Lan Gao, Robert Wood, and Jens Redemann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1–46,Short summary
Between July and October, biomass burning smoke is advected over the southeastern Atlantic Ocean, leading to climate forcing. Model calculations of forcing by this plume vary significantly in both magnitude and sign. This paper compares aerosol and cloud properties observed during three NASA ORACLES field campaigns to the same in four models. It quantifies modeled biases in properties key to aerosol direct radiative forcing and evaluates how these biases propagate to biases in forcing.
Agnes Straaten and Stephan Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18707–18726,Short summary
Cities show high concentrations of ultrafine particles due to multiple emission sources such as traffic and industry. To analyse turbulent urban surface–atmosphere exchange of particles, we quantified multi-annual size-resolved particle number fluxes in Berlin, Germany. The site was a net source of particles with a dominant contribution of traffic-related emission, especially very small particles < 30 nm. Particle fluxes clearly varied as a function of anthropogenic activity and urban land use.
Calinski, T. and Harabasz, J.: A dendrite method for cluster analysis, Commun. Stat., 3, 1–27, 1974. a
Crawford, I., Robinson, N. H., Flynn, M. J., Foot, V. E., Gallagher, M. W., Huffman, J. A., Stanley, W. R., and Kaye, P. H.: Characterisation of bioaerosol emissions from a Colorado pine forest: results from the BEACHON-RoMBAS experiment, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8559–8578, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-8559-2014, 2014. a, b, c, d
Crawford, I., Gallagher, M. W., Bower, K. N., Choularton, T. W., Flynn, M. J., Ruske, S., Listowski, C., Brough, N., Lachlan-Cope, T., Fleming, Z. L., Foot, V. E., and Stanley, W. R.: Real-time detection of airborne fluorescent bioparticles in Antarctica, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14291–14307, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-14291-2017, 2017. a, b, c, d, e
Després, V. R., Alex Huffman, J., Burrows, S. M., Hoose, C., Safatov, A. S., Buryak, G., Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J., Elbert, W., Andreae, M. O., Pöschl, U., and Jaenicke, R.: Primary biological aerosol particles in the atmosphere: A review, Tellus B, 64, 15598, https://doi.org/10.3402/tellusb.v64i0.15598, 2012. a, b
Duhl, T. R., Zhang, R., Guenther, A., Chung, S. H., Salam, M. T., House, J. M., Flagan, R. C., Avol, E. L., Gilliland, F. D., Lamb, B. K., VanReken, T. M., Zhang, Y., and Salathé, E.: The Simulator of the Timing and Magnitude of Pollen Season (STaMPS) model: a pollen production model for regional emission and transport modeling, Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 6, 2325–2368, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmdd-6-2325-2013, 2013. a
Fernández-Rodríguez, S., Tormo-Molina, R., Lemonis, N., Clot, B., O'Connor, D. J., and Sodeau, J. R.: Comparison of fungal spores concentrations measured with wideband integrated bioaerosol sensor and Hirst methodology, Atmos. Environ., 175, 1–14, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.11.038, 2018. a, b, c
Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J., Kampf, C. J., Weber, B., Huffman, J. A., Pöhlker, C., Andreae, M. O., Lang-Yona, N., Burrows, S. M., Gunthe, S. S., Elbert, W., Su, H., Hoor, P., Thines, E., Hoffmann, T., Després, V. R., and Pöschl, U.: Bioaerosols in the Earth System: Climate, Health, and Ecosystem Interactions, Atmos. Res., 182, 346–376, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2016.07.018, 2016. a
Gabey, A. M., Gallagher, M. W., Whitehead, J., Dorsey, J. R., Kaye, P. H., and Stanley, W. R.: Measurements and comparison of primary biological aerosol above and below a tropical forest canopy using a dual channel fluorescence spectrometer, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 4453–4466, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-4453-2010, 2010. a, b, c, d
Gabey, A. M., Vaitilingom, M., Freney, E., Boulon, J., Sellegri, K., Gallagher, M. W., Crawford, I. P., Robinson, N. H., Stanley, W. R., and Kaye, P. H.: Observations of fluorescent and biological aerosol at a high-altitude site in central France, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7415–7428, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-7415-2013, 2013. a, b, c
Gosselin, M. I., Rathnayake, C. M., Crawford, I., Pöhlker, C., Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J., Schmer, B., Després, V. R., Engling, G., Gallagher, M., Stone, E., Pöschl, U., and Huffman, J. A.: Fluorescent bioaerosol particle, molecular tracer, and fungal spore concentrations during dry and rainy periods in a semi-arid forest, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15165–15184, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-15165-2016, 2016. a, b, c, d
Hill, S. C., Mayo, M. W., and Chang, R. K.: Fluorescence of Bacteria, Pollens, and Naturally Occurring Airborne Particles: Excitation/Emission Spectra, Army Research laboratory report ARL-TR-4722, 2009. a
Huffman, J. A., Prenni, A. J., DeMott, P. J., Pöhlker, C., Mason, R. H., Robinson, N. H., Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J., Tobo, Y., Després, V. R., Garcia, E., Gochis, D. J., Harris, E., Müller-Germann, I., Ruzene, C., Schmer, B., Sinha, B., Day, D. A., Andreae, M. O., Jimenez, J. L., Gallagher, M., Kreidenweis, S. M., Bertram, A. K., and Pöschl, U.: High concentrations of biological aerosol particles and ice nuclei during and after rain, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6151–6164, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-6151-2013, 2013. a, b
McInnes, R. N., Hemming, D., Burgess, P., Lyndsay, D., Osborne, N. J., Skjøth, C. A., Thomas, S., and Vardoulakis, S.: Mapping allergenic pollen vegetation in UK to study environmental exposure and human health, Sci. Total Environ., 599–600, 483–499, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.04.136, 2017. a, b
Mouli, P. C., Mohan, S. V., and Reddy, S. J.: Assessment of microbial (bacteria) concentrations of ambient air at an semi-arid urban region: influence of meteorological factors, Appl. Ecol. Environ. Res., 3, 139–149, 2005. a
Ogden, E. C., Hayes, J. V., and Raynor, G. S.: Diurnal Patterns of Pollen Emission in Ambrosia, Phleum, Zea, and Ricinus, Bot. Soc. Am., 56, 16–21, 1969. a
Perring, A. E., Schwarz, J. P., Baumgardner, D., Hernandez, M. T., Spracklen, D. V., Heald, C. L., Gao, R. S., Kok, G., Mcmeeking, G. R., Mcquaid, J. B., and Fahey, D. W.: Airborne observations of regional variation in fluorescence aerosol across the United States, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 120, 1153–1170, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JD022495, 2014. a, b
Pöschl, U., Martin, S. T., Sinha, B., Chen, Q., Gunthe, S. S., Huffman, J. A., Borrmann, S., Farmer, D. K., Garland, R. M., Helas, G., Jimenez, J. L., King, S. M., Manzi, A., Mikhailov, E., Pauliquevis, T., Petters, M. D., Prenni, A. J., Roldin, P., Rose, D., Schneider, J., Su, H., Zorn, S. R., Artaxo, P., and Andreae, M. O.: Rainforest aerosols as biogenic nuclei of clouds and precipitation in the Amazon, Science, 329, 1513–1516, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1191056, 2010. a
Rowland, C., Morton, R., Carrasco, L., McShane, G., O'Neil, A., and Wood, C.: Land Cover Map 2015 (vector, GB), NERC Environmental Information Data Centre, https://doi.org/10.5285/6c6c9203-7333-4d96-88ab-78925e7a4e73, 2017. a
Ruske, S., Topping, D. O., Foot, V. E., Kaye, P. H., Stanley, W. R., Crawford, I., Morse, A. P., and Gallagher, M. W.: Evaluation of machine learning algorithms for classification of primary biological aerosol using a new UV-LIF spectrometer, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 695–708, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-10-695-2017, 2017. a
Savage, N. J., Krentz, C. E., Könemann, T., Han, T. T., Mainelis, G., Pöhlker, C., and Huffman, J. A.: Systematic characterization and fluorescence threshold strategies for the wideband integrated bioaerosol sensor (WIBS) using size-resolved biological and interfering particles, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4279–4302, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-10-4279-2017, 2017. a, b, c, d, e, f, g
Schumacher, C. J., Pöhlker, C., Aalto, P., Hiltunen, V., Petäjä, T., Kulmala, M., Pöschl, U., and Huffman, J. A.: Seasonal cycles of fluorescent biological aerosol particles in boreal and semi-arid forests of Finland and Colorado, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11987–12001, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-11987-2013, 2013. a
Skjøth, C. A., Ørby, P. V., Becker, T., Geels, C., Schlünssen, V., Sigsgaard, T., Bønløkke, J. H., Sommer, J., Søgaard, P., and Hertel, O.: Identifying urban sources as cause of elevated grass pollen concentrations using GIS and remote sensing, Biogeosciences, 10, 541–554, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-10-541-2013, 2013. a
Yu, X., Wang, Z., Zhang, M., Kuhn, U., Xie, Z., Cheng, Y., Pöschl, U., and Su, H.: Ambient measurement of fluorescent aerosol particles with a WIBS in the Yangtze River Delta of China: potential impacts of combustion-related aerosol particles, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11337–11348, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-11337-2016, 2016. a
The abundance and diversity of airborne biological particles in different environments remains poorly constrained. Measurements of such particles were conducted at four sites in the United Kingdom, using real-time fluorescence instrumentation. Using local land cover types, sources of suspected particle types were identified and compared. Most sites exhibited a wet-discharged fungal spore dominance, with the exception of one site, which was inferred to be influenced by a local dairy farm.
The abundance and diversity of airborne biological particles in different environments remains...