Articles | Volume 19, issue 16
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Halogen activation and radical cycling initiated by imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde photochemistry
Pablo Corral Arroyo
Paul Scherrer Institute, Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry, 5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Bern, 2012 Bern, Switzerland
ETH Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich, Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, 8006 Zurich, Switzerland
Peter A. Alpert
Paul Scherrer Institute, Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry, 5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland
Department of Chemistry, 215 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES), 216 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
No articles found.
Theodore K. Koenig, Francois Hendrick, Douglas Kinnison, Christopher F. Lee, Michel Van Roozendael, and Rainer Volkamer
This preprint is open for discussion and under review for Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT).Short summary
Atmospheric bromine destroys ozone, impacts oxidation capacity, and is the main oxidant of mercury into its toxic form. We constrain bromine by remote sensing of BrO from a mountaintop. Previous measurements retrieved 2–3 pieces of information vertically, we apply new methods to get 5.5 vertically and 2 more in time. We compare with aircraft measurements to validate the methods and look at variation in BrO over the Pacific. More information will help chemical models and satellite measurements.
Baptiste Testa, Lukas Durdina, Peter A. Alpert, Fabian Mahrt, Christopher H. Dreimol, Jacinta Edebeli, Curdin Spirig, Zachary C. J. Decker, Julien Anet, and Zamin A. Kanji
This preprint is open for discussion and under review for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).Short summary
Laboratory experiments on the ice nucleation of real commercial aviation soot particles are investigated for their cirrus cloud formation potential. Our results show that aircraft emitted soot in the upper troposphere will be poor ice nucleating particles. Measuring the soot particle morphology and modifying their mixing state allows us to elucidate why these particles are ineffective at forming ice, in contrast to previously used soot surrogates.
Daniel Alexander Knopf, Markus Ammann, Thomas Berkemeier, Ulrich Pöschl, and Manabu Shiraiwa
The initial step of interfacial and multiphase chemical processes involves adsorption and desorption of gas species. This study demonstrates the role of desorption energy governing the residence time of the gas species at the environmental interface. A parameterization is formulated that enables the prediction of desorption energy based on the molecular weight, polarizability, and oxygen to carbon ratio of the desorbing chemical species. Its application to gas-particle interactions is discussed.
Randall Chiu, Florian Obersteiner, Alessandro Franchin, Teresa Campos, Adriana Bailey, Christopher Webster, Andreas Zahn, and Rainer Volkamer
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
The ozone sink into oceans and marine clouds is understudied and highly uncertain. Calculations suggest O3 destruction at aqueous surfaces (ocean, droplets) may be strongly accelerated, but field evidence is missing. Here we compare three fast airborne O3 instruments to measure Eddy Covariance fluxes of O3 over the remote ocean, in clear and cloudy air. We find O3 fluxes below clouds are consistently directed into clouds, while O3 fluxes into oceans are much smaller, and spatially variable.
Da Yang, Margarita Reza, Roy Mauldin, Rainer Volkamer, and Suresh Dhaniyala
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
This manuscript evaluated the performance of an aircraft gas inlet. Here, we used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and experiments to demonstrate the role of turbulence in determining sampling performance of a gas inlet and identify ideal conditions for inlet operation to minimize gas loss. Experiments conducted in a high-speed wind-tunnel under near aircraft speeds validated numerical results. We believe that the results obtained from this work will greatly inform future gas inlet studies.
Tobias Borsdorff, Teresa Campos, Natalie Kille, Kyle J. Zarzana, Rainer Volkamer, and Jochen Landgraf
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 3027–3038,Short summary
ECMWF plans to assimilate TROPOMI CO with their CAMS-IFS model. This will constrain the total column and the vertical CO distribution of the model. To show this, we combine individual TROPOMI CO column retrievals with different vertical sensitivities and obtain a vertical CO concentration profile. We test the approach on three CO pollution events in comparison with CAMS-IFS simulations that do not assimilate TROPOMI CO data and in situ airborne measurements of the BB-FLUX campaign.
Fabian Mahrt, Long Peng, Julia Zaks, Yuanzhou Huang, Paul E. Ohno, Natalie R. Smith, Florence K. A. Gregson, Yiming Qin, Celia L. Faiola, Scot T. Martin, Sergey A. Nizkorodov, Markus Ammann, and Allan K. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13783–13796,Short summary
The number of condensed phases in mixtures of different secondary organic aerosol (SOA) types determines their impact on air quality and climate. Here we observe the number of phases in individual particles that contain mixtures of two different types of SOA. We find that SOA mixtures can form one- or two-phase particles, depending on the difference in the average oxygen-to-carbon (O / C) ratios of the two SOA types that are internally mixed within individual particles.
Dongwook Kim, Changmin Cho, Seokhan Jeong, Soojin Lee, Benjamin A. Nault, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Jason C. Schroder, Jose L. Jimenez, Rainer Volkamer, Donald R. Blake, Armin Wisthaler, Alan Fried, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Sally E. Pusede, Samuel R. Hall, Kirk Ullmann, L. Gregory Huey, David J. Tanner, Jack Dibb, Christoph J. Knote, and Kyung-Eun Min
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 805–821,Short summary
CHOCHO was simulated using a 0-D box model constrained by measurements during the KORUS-AQ mission. CHOCHO concentration was high in large cities, aromatics being the most important precursors. Loss path to aerosol was the highest sink, contributing to ~ 20 % of secondary organic aerosol formation. Our work highlights that simple CHOCHO surface uptake approach is valid only for low aerosol conditions and more work is required to understand CHOCHO solubility in high-aerosol conditions.
Dalrin Ampritta Amaladhasan, Claudia Heyn, Christopher R. Hoyle, Imad El Haddad, Miriam Elser, Simone M. Pieber, Jay G. Slowik, Antonio Amorim, Jonathan Duplissy, Sebastian Ehrhart, Vladimir Makhmutov, Ugo Molteni, Matti Rissanen, Yuri Stozhkov, Robert Wagner, Armin Hansel, Jasper Kirkby, Neil M. Donahue, Rainer Volkamer, Urs Baltensperger, Martin Gysel-Beer, and Andreas Zuend
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 215–244,Short summary
We use a combination of models for gas-phase chemical reactions and equilibrium gas–particle partitioning of isoprene-derived secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) informed by dark ozonolysis experiments conducted in the CLOUD chamber. Our predictions cover high to low relative humidities (RHs) and quantify how SOA mass yields are enhanced at high RH as well as the impact of inorganic seeds of distinct hygroscopicities and acidities on the coupled partitioning of water and semi-volatile organics.
Debora Griffin, Chris A. McLinden, Enrico Dammers, Cristen Adams, Chelsea E. Stockwell, Carsten Warneke, Ilann Bourgeois, Jeff Peischl, Thomas B. Ryerson, Kyle J. Zarzana, Jake P. Rowe, Rainer Volkamer, Christoph Knote, Natalie Kille, Theodore K. Koenig, Christopher F. Lee, Drew Rollins, Pamela S. Rickly, Jack Chen, Lukas Fehr, Adam Bourassa, Doug Degenstein, Katherine Hayden, Cristian Mihele, Sumi N. Wren, John Liggio, Ayodeji Akingunola, and Paul Makar
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7929–7957,Short summary
Satellite-derived NOx emissions from biomass burning are estimated with TROPOMI observations. Two common emission estimation methods are applied, and sensitivity tests with model output were performed to determine the accuracy of these methods. The effect of smoke aerosols on TROPOMI NO2 columns is estimated and compared to aircraft observations from four different aircraft campaigns measuring biomass burning plumes in 2018 and 2019 in North America.
Lucía Caudillo, Birte Rörup, Martin Heinritzi, Guillaume Marie, Mario Simon, Andrea C. Wagner, Tatjana Müller, Manuel Granzin, Antonio Amorim, Farnoush Ataei, Rima Baalbaki, Barbara Bertozzi, Zoé Brasseur, Randall Chiu, Biwu Chu, Lubna Dada, Jonathan Duplissy, Henning Finkenzeller, Loïc Gonzalez Carracedo, Xu-Cheng He, Victoria Hofbauer, Weimeng Kong, Houssni Lamkaddam, Chuan P. Lee, Brandon Lopez, Naser G. A. Mahfouz, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Ruby Marten, Dario Massabò, Roy L. Mauldin, Bernhard Mentler, Ugo Molteni, Antti Onnela, Joschka Pfeifer, Maxim Philippov, Ana A. Piedehierro, Meredith Schervish, Wiebke Scholz, Benjamin Schulze, Jiali Shen, Dominik Stolzenburg, Yuri Stozhkov, Mihnea Surdu, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, Ping Tian, António Tomé, Steffen Vogt, Mingyi Wang, Dongyu S. Wang, Stefan K. Weber, André Welti, Wang Yonghong, Wu Yusheng, Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El Haddad, Richard C. Flagan, Armin Hansel, Kristina Höhler, Jasper Kirkby, Markku Kulmala, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Ottmar Möhler, Harald Saathoff, Rainer Volkamer, Paul M. Winkler, Neil M. Donahue, Andreas Kürten, and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17099–17114,Short summary
We performed experiments in the CLOUD chamber at CERN at low temperatures to simulate new particle formation in the upper free troposphere (at −30 ºC and −50 ºC). We measured the particle and gas phase and found that most of the compounds present in the gas phase are detected as well in the particle phase. The major compounds in the particles are C8–10 and C18–20. Specifically, we showed that C5 and C15 compounds are detected in a mixed system with isoprene and α-pinene at −30 ºC, 20 % RH.
Sharmine Akter Simu, Yuzo Miyazaki, Eri Tachibana, Henning Finkenzeller, Jérôme Brioude, Aurélie Colomb, Olivier Magand, Bert Verreyken, Stephanie Evan, Rainer Volkamer, and Trissevgeni Stavrakou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17017–17029,Short summary
The tropical Indian Ocean (IO) is expected to be a significant source of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), which is relevant to cloud formation. Our study showed that marine secondary organic formation dominantly contributed to the aerosol WSOC mass at the high-altitude observatory in the southwest IO in the wet season in both marine boundary layer and free troposphere (FT). This suggests that the effect of marine secondary sources is important up to FT, a process missing in climate models.
Arseniy Karagodin-Doyennel, Eugene Rozanov, Timofei Sukhodolov, Tatiana Egorova, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Carlos A. Cuevas, Rafael P. Fernandez, Tomás Sherwen, Rainer Volkamer, Theodore K. Koenig, Tanguy Giroud, and Thomas Peter
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 6623–6645,Short summary
Here, we present the iodine chemistry module in the SOCOL-AERv2 model. The obtained iodine distribution demonstrated a good agreement when validated against other simulations and available observations. We also estimated the iodine influence on ozone in the case of present-day iodine emissions, the sensitivity of ozone to doubled iodine emissions, and when considering only organic or inorganic iodine sources. The new model can be used as a tool for further studies of iodine effects on ozone.
Daniel A. Knopf and Markus Ammann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15725–15753,Short summary
Adsorption on and desorption of gas molecules from solid or liquid surfaces or interfaces represent the initial interaction of gas-to-condensed-phase processes that can define the physicochemical evolution of the condensed phase. We apply a thermodynamic and microscopic treatment of these multiphase processes to evaluate how adsorption and desorption rates and surface accommodation depend on the choice of adsorption model and standard states with implications for desorption energy and lifetimes.
Mao Xiao, Christopher R. Hoyle, Lubna Dada, Dominik Stolzenburg, Andreas Kürten, Mingyi Wang, Houssni Lamkaddam, Olga Garmash, Bernhard Mentler, Ugo Molteni, Andrea Baccarini, Mario Simon, Xu-Cheng He, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Lauri R. Ahonen, Rima Baalbaki, Paulus S. Bauer, Lisa Beck, David Bell, Federico Bianchi, Sophia Brilke, Dexian Chen, Randall Chiu, António Dias, Jonathan Duplissy, Henning Finkenzeller, Hamish Gordon, Victoria Hofbauer, Changhyuk Kim, Theodore K. Koenig, Janne Lampilahti, Chuan Ping Lee, Zijun Li, Huajun Mai, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Ruby Marten, Serge Mathot, Roy L. Mauldin, Wei Nie, Antti Onnela, Eva Partoll, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Veronika Pospisilova, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Matti Rissanen, Siegfried Schobesberger, Simone Schuchmann, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, António Tomé, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Andrea C. Wagner, Robert Wagner, Yonghong Wang, Lena Weitz, Daniela Wimmer, Yusheng Wu, Chao Yan, Penglin Ye, Qing Ye, Qiaozhi Zha, Xueqin Zhou, Antonio Amorim, Ken Carslaw, Joachim Curtius, Armin Hansel, Rainer Volkamer, Paul M. Winkler, Richard C. Flagan, Markku Kulmala, Douglas R. Worsnop, Jasper Kirkby, Neil M. Donahue, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El Haddad, and Josef Dommen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14275–14291,Short summary
Experiments at CLOUD show that in polluted environments new particle formation (NPF) is largely driven by the formation of sulfuric acid–base clusters, stabilized by amines, high ammonia concentrations or lower temperatures. While oxidation products of aromatics can nucleate, they play a minor role in urban NPF. Our experiments span 4 orders of magnitude variation of observed NPF rates in ambient conditions. We provide a framework based on NPF and growth rates to interpret ambient observations.
Xuan Wang, Daniel J. Jacob, William Downs, Shuting Zhai, Lei Zhu, Viral Shah, Christopher D. Holmes, Tomás Sherwen, Becky Alexander, Mathew J. Evans, Sebastian D. Eastham, J. Andrew Neuman, Patrick R. Veres, Theodore K. Koenig, Rainer Volkamer, L. Gregory Huey, Thomas J. Bannan, Carl J. Percival, Ben H. Lee, and Joel A. Thornton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13973–13996,Short summary
Halogen radicals have a broad range of implications for tropospheric chemistry, air quality, and climate. We present a new mechanistic description and comprehensive simulation of tropospheric halogens in a global 3-D model and compare the model results with surface and aircraft measurements. We find that halogen chemistry decreases the global tropospheric burden of ozone by 11 %, NOx by 6 %, and OH by 4 %.
R. Anthony Cox, Markus Ammann, John N. Crowley, Paul T. Griffiths, Hartmut Herrmann, Erik H. Hoffmann, Michael E. Jenkin, V. Faye McNeill, Abdelwahid Mellouki, Christopher J. Penkett, Andreas Tilgner, and Timothy J. Wallington
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13011–13018,Short summary
The term open-air factor was coined in the 1960s, establishing that rural air had powerful germicidal properties possibly resulting from immediate products of the reaction of ozone with alkenes, unsaturated compounds ubiquitously present in natural and polluted environments. We have re-evaluated those early experiments, applying the recently substantially improved knowledge, and put them into the context of the lifetime of aerosol-borne pathogens that are so important in the Covid-19 pandemic.
Mingyi Wang, Xu-Cheng He, Henning Finkenzeller, Siddharth Iyer, Dexian Chen, Jiali Shen, Mario Simon, Victoria Hofbauer, Jasper Kirkby, Joachim Curtius, Norbert Maier, Theo Kurtén, Douglas R. Worsnop, Markku Kulmala, Matti Rissanen, Rainer Volkamer, Yee Jun Tham, Neil M. Donahue, and Mikko Sipilä
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4187–4202,Short summary
Atmospheric iodine species are often short-lived with low abundance and have thus been challenging to measure. We show that the bromide chemical ionization mass spectrometry, compatible with both the atmospheric pressure and reduced pressure interfaces, can simultaneously detect various gas-phase iodine species. Combining calibration experiments and quantum chemical calculations, we quantify detection sensitivities to HOI, HIO3, I2, and H2SO4, giving detection limits down to < 106 molec. cm-3.
Thorsten Bartels-Rausch, Xiangrui Kong, Fabrizio Orlando, Luca Artiglia, Astrid Waldner, Thomas Huthwelker, and Markus Ammann
The Cryosphere, 15, 2001–2020,Short summary
Chemical reactions in sea salt embedded in coastal polar snow impact the composition and air quality of the atmosphere. Here, we investigate the phase changes of sodium chloride. This is of importance as chemical reactions proceed faster in liquid solutions compared to in solid salt and the precise precipitation temperature of sodium chloride is still under debate. We focus on the upper nanometres of sodium chloride–ice samples because of their role as a reactive interface in the environment.
Abdelwahid Mellouki, Markus Ammann, R. Anthony Cox, John N. Crowley, Hartmut Herrmann, Michael E. Jenkin, V. Faye McNeill, Jürgen Troe, and Timothy J. Wallington
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4797–4808,Short summary
Volatile organic compounds play an important role in atmospheric chemistry. This article, the eighth in the series, presents kinetic and photochemical data sheets evaluated by the IUPAC Task Group on Atmospheric Chemical Kinetic Data Evaluation. It covers the gas-phase reactions of organic species with four, or more, carbon atoms (≥ C4) including thermal reactions of closed-shell organic species with HO and NO3 radicals and their photolysis. These data are important for atmospheric models.
Jing Dou, Peter A. Alpert, Pablo Corral Arroyo, Beiping Luo, Frederic Schneider, Jacinta Xto, Thomas Huthwelker, Camelia N. Borca, Katja D. Henzler, Jörg Raabe, Benjamin Watts, Hartmut Herrmann, Thomas Peter, Markus Ammann, and Ulrich K. Krieger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 315–338,Short summary
Photochemistry of iron(III) complexes plays an important role in aerosol aging, especially in the lower troposphere. Ensuing radical chemistry leads to decarboxylation, and the production of peroxides, and oxygenated volatile compounds, resulting in particle mass loss due to release of the volatile products to the gas phase. We investigated kinetic transport limitations due to high particle viscosity under low relative humidity conditions. For quantification a numerical model was developed.
Bert Verreyken, Crist Amelynck, Jérôme Brioude, Jean-François Müller, Niels Schoon, Nicolas Kumps, Aurélie Colomb, Jean-Marc Metzger, Christopher F. Lee, Theodore K. Koenig, Rainer Volkamer, and Trissevgeni Stavrakou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14821–14845,Short summary
Biomass burning (BB) plumes arriving at the Maïdo observatory located in the south-west Indian Ocean during August 2018 and August 2019 are studied using trace gas measurements, Lagrangian transport models and the CAMS near-real-time atmospheric composition service. We investigate (i) secondary production of volatile organic compounds during transport, (ii) efficacy of the CAMS model to reproduce the chemical makeup of BB plumes and (iii) the impact of BB on the remote marine boundary layer.
Jacinta Edebeli, Jürg C. Trachsel, Sven E. Avak, Markus Ammann, Martin Schneebeli, Anja Eichler, and Thorsten Bartels-Rausch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13443–13454,Short summary
Earth’s snow cover is very dynamic and can change its physical properties within hours, as is well known by skiers. Snow is also a well-known host of chemical reactions – the products of which impact air composition and quality. Here, we present laboratory experiments that show how the dynamics of snow make snow essentially inert with respect to gas-phase ozone with time despite its content of reactive chemicals. Impacts on polar atmospheric chemistry are discussed.
R. Anthony Cox, Markus Ammann, John N. Crowley, Hartmut Herrmann, Michael E. Jenkin, V. Faye McNeill, Abdelwahid Mellouki, Jürgen Troe, and Timothy J. Wallington
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13497–13519,Short summary
Criegee intermediates, formed from alkene–ozone reactions, play a potentially important role as tropospheric oxidants. Evaluated kinetic data are provided for reactions governing their formation and removal for use in atmospheric models. These include their formation from reactions of simple and complex alkenes and removal by decomposition and reaction with a number of atmospheric species (e.g. H2O, SO2). An overview of the tropospheric chemistry of Criegee intermediates is also provided.
Martin Heinritzi, Lubna Dada, Mario Simon, Dominik Stolzenburg, Andrea C. Wagner, Lukas Fischer, Lauri R. Ahonen, Stavros Amanatidis, Rima Baalbaki, Andrea Baccarini, Paulus S. Bauer, Bernhard Baumgartner, Federico Bianchi, Sophia Brilke, Dexian Chen, Randall Chiu, Antonio Dias, Josef Dommen, Jonathan Duplissy, Henning Finkenzeller, Carla Frege, Claudia Fuchs, Olga Garmash, Hamish Gordon, Manuel Granzin, Imad El Haddad, Xucheng He, Johanna Helm, Victoria Hofbauer, Christopher R. Hoyle, Juha Kangasluoma, Timo Keber, Changhyuk Kim, Andreas Kürten, Houssni Lamkaddam, Tiia M. Laurila, Janne Lampilahti, Chuan Ping Lee, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Markus Leiminger, Huajun Mai, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna Elina Manninen, Ruby Marten, Serge Mathot, Roy Lee Mauldin, Bernhard Mentler, Ugo Molteni, Tatjana Müller, Wei Nie, Tuomo Nieminen, Antti Onnela, Eva Partoll, Monica Passananti, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Veronika Pospisilova, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Matti P. Rissanen, Clémence Rose, Siegfried Schobesberger, Wiebke Scholz, Kay Scholze, Mikko Sipilä, Gerhard Steiner, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Annele Virtanen, Alexander L. Vogel, Rainer Volkamer, Robert Wagner, Mingyi Wang, Lena Weitz, Daniela Wimmer, Mao Xiao, Chao Yan, Penglin Ye, Qiaozhi Zha, Xueqin Zhou, Antonio Amorim, Urs Baltensperger, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, António Tomé, Paul M. Winkler, Douglas R. Worsnop, Neil M. Donahue, Jasper Kirkby, and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11809–11821,Short summary
With experiments performed at CLOUD, we show how isoprene interferes in monoterpene oxidation via RO2 termination at atmospherically relevant concentrations. This interference shifts the distribution of highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) away from C20 class dimers towards C15 class dimers, which subsequently reduces both biogenic nucleation and early growth rates. Our results may help to understand the absence of new-particle formation in isoprene-rich environments.
Yang Wang, Arnoud Apituley, Alkiviadis Bais, Steffen Beirle, Nuria Benavent, Alexander Borovski, Ilya Bruchkouski, Ka Lok Chan, Sebastian Donner, Theano Drosoglou, Henning Finkenzeller, Martina M. Friedrich, Udo Frieß, David Garcia-Nieto, Laura Gómez-Martín, François Hendrick, Andreas Hilboll, Junli Jin, Paul Johnston, Theodore K. Koenig, Karin Kreher, Vinod Kumar, Aleksandra Kyuberis, Johannes Lampel, Cheng Liu, Haoran Liu, Jianzhong Ma, Oleg L. Polyansky, Oleg Postylyakov, Richard Querel, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Stefan Schmitt, Xin Tian, Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, Michel Van Roozendael, Rainer Volkamer, Zhuoru Wang, Pinhua Xie, Chengzhi Xing, Jin Xu, Margarita Yela, Chengxin Zhang, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5087–5116,
Mario Simon, Lubna Dada, Martin Heinritzi, Wiebke Scholz, Dominik Stolzenburg, Lukas Fischer, Andrea C. Wagner, Andreas Kürten, Birte Rörup, Xu-Cheng He, João Almeida, Rima Baalbaki, Andrea Baccarini, Paulus S. Bauer, Lisa Beck, Anton Bergen, Federico Bianchi, Steffen Bräkling, Sophia Brilke, Lucia Caudillo, Dexian Chen, Biwu Chu, António Dias, Danielle C. Draper, Jonathan Duplissy, Imad El-Haddad, Henning Finkenzeller, Carla Frege, Loic Gonzalez-Carracedo, Hamish Gordon, Manuel Granzin, Jani Hakala, Victoria Hofbauer, Christopher R. Hoyle, Changhyuk Kim, Weimeng Kong, Houssni Lamkaddam, Chuan P. Lee, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Markus Leiminger, Huajun Mai, Hanna E. Manninen, Guillaume Marie, Ruby Marten, Bernhard Mentler, Ugo Molteni, Leonid Nichman, Wei Nie, Andrea Ojdanic, Antti Onnela, Eva Partoll, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Maxim Philippov, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Ananth Ranjithkumar, Matti P. Rissanen, Simon Schallhart, Siegfried Schobesberger, Simone Schuchmann, Jiali Shen, Mikko Sipilä, Gerhard Steiner, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee J. Tham, António R. Tomé, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Alexander L. Vogel, Robert Wagner, Mingyi Wang, Dongyu S. Wang, Yonghong Wang, Stefan K. Weber, Yusheng Wu, Mao Xiao, Chao Yan, Penglin Ye, Qing Ye, Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Xueqin Zhou, Urs Baltensperger, Josef Dommen, Richard C. Flagan, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, Rainer Volkamer, Paul M. Winkler, Douglas R. Worsnop, Neil M. Donahue, Jasper Kirkby, and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9183–9207,Short summary
Highly oxygenated organic compounds (HOMs) have been identified as key vapors involved in atmospheric new-particle formation (NPF). The molecular distribution, HOM yield, and NPF from α-pinene oxidation experiments were measured at the CLOUD chamber over a wide tropospheric-temperature range. This study shows on a molecular scale that despite the sharp reduction in HOM yield at lower temperatures, the reduced volatility counteracts this effect and leads to an overall increase in the NPF rate.
Jan-David Förster, Christian Gurk, Mark Lamneck, Haijie Tong, Florian Ditas, Sarah S. Steimer, Peter A. Alpert, Markus Ammann, Jörg Raabe, Markus Weigand, Benjamin Watts, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3717–3729,Short summary
A gas flow system coupled with a microreactor for X-ray microspectroscopy is presented. Its core objective is to mimic the atmospheric processing of aerosol particles under laboratory conditions in a controlled gas-phase environment and allow in situ observations with high spatial and chemical resolution. We here emphasize its analytical capabilities and show initial results from hydration–dehydration experiments and the observation of water ice at low temperature and high relative humidity.
Dominik Stolzenburg, Mario Simon, Ananth Ranjithkumar, Andreas Kürten, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Hamish Gordon, Sebastian Ehrhart, Henning Finkenzeller, Lukas Pichelstorfer, Tuomo Nieminen, Xu-Cheng He, Sophia Brilke, Mao Xiao, António Amorim, Rima Baalbaki, Andrea Baccarini, Lisa Beck, Steffen Bräkling, Lucía Caudillo Murillo, Dexian Chen, Biwu Chu, Lubna Dada, António Dias, Josef Dommen, Jonathan Duplissy, Imad El Haddad, Lukas Fischer, Loic Gonzalez Carracedo, Martin Heinritzi, Changhyuk Kim, Theodore K. Koenig, Weimeng Kong, Houssni Lamkaddam, Chuan Ping Lee, Markus Leiminger, Zijun Li, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Guillaume Marie, Ruby Marten, Tatjana Müller, Wei Nie, Eva Partoll, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Maxim Philippov, Matti P. Rissanen, Birte Rörup, Siegfried Schobesberger, Simone Schuchmann, Jiali Shen, Mikko Sipilä, Gerhard Steiner, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, António Tomé, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Andrea C. Wagner, Mingyi Wang, Yonghong Wang, Stefan K. Weber, Daniela Wimmer, Peter J. Wlasits, Yusheng Wu, Qing Ye, Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Urs Baltensperger, Kenneth S. Carslaw, Joachim Curtius, Neil M. Donahue, Richard C. Flagan, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, Jos Lelieveld, Rainer Volkamer, Jasper Kirkby, and Paul M. Winkler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7359–7372,Short summary
Sulfuric acid is a major atmospheric vapour for aerosol formation. If new particles grow fast enough, they can act as cloud droplet seeds or affect air quality. In a controlled laboratory set-up, we demonstrate that van der Waals forces enhance growth from sulfuric acid. We disentangle the effects of ammonia, ions and particle hydration, presenting a complete picture of sulfuric acid growth from molecular clusters onwards. In a climate model, we show its influence on the global aerosol budget.
Karin Kreher, Michel Van Roozendael, Francois Hendrick, Arnoud Apituley, Ermioni Dimitropoulou, Udo Frieß, Andreas Richter, Thomas Wagner, Johannes Lampel, Nader Abuhassan, Li Ang, Monica Anguas, Alkis Bais, Nuria Benavent, Tim Bösch, Kristof Bognar, Alexander Borovski, Ilya Bruchkouski, Alexander Cede, Ka Lok Chan, Sebastian Donner, Theano Drosoglou, Caroline Fayt, Henning Finkenzeller, David Garcia-Nieto, Clio Gielen, Laura Gómez-Martín, Nan Hao, Bas Henzing, Jay R. Herman, Christian Hermans, Syedul Hoque, Hitoshi Irie, Junli Jin, Paul Johnston, Junaid Khayyam Butt, Fahim Khokhar, Theodore K. Koenig, Jonas Kuhn, Vinod Kumar, Cheng Liu, Jianzhong Ma, Alexis Merlaud, Abhishek K. Mishra, Moritz Müller, Monica Navarro-Comas, Mareike Ostendorf, Andrea Pazmino, Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, Manuel Pinharanda, Ankie Piters, Ulrich Platt, Oleg Postylyakov, Cristina Prados-Roman, Olga Puentedura, Richard Querel, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Anja Schönhardt, Stefan F. Schreier, André Seyler, Vinayak Sinha, Elena Spinei, Kimberly Strong, Frederik Tack, Xin Tian, Martin Tiefengraber, Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, Jeroen van Gent, Rainer Volkamer, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Shanshan Wang, Zhuoru Wang, Mark Wenig, Folkard Wittrock, Pinhua H. Xie, Jin Xu, Margarita Yela, Chengxin Zhang, and Xiaoyi Zhao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2169–2208,Short summary
In September 2016, 36 spectrometers from 24 institutes measured a number of key atmospheric pollutants during an instrument intercomparison campaign (CINDI-2) at Cabauw, the Netherlands. Here we report on the outcome of this intercomparison exercise. The three major goals were to characterise the differences between the participating instruments, to define a robust methodology for performance assessment, and to contribute to the harmonisation of the measurement settings and retrieval methods.
Lei Zhu, Daniel J. Jacob, Sebastian D. Eastham, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Xuan Wang, Tomás Sherwen, Mat J. Evans, Qianjie Chen, Becky Alexander, Theodore K. Koenig, Rainer Volkamer, L. Gregory Huey, Michael Le Breton, Thomas J. Bannan, and Carl J. Percival
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6497–6507,Short summary
We quantify the effect of sea salt aerosol on tropospheric bromine chemistry with a new mechanistic description of the halogen chemistry in a global atmospheric chemistry model. For the first time, we are able to reproduce the observed levels of bromide activation from the sea salt aerosol in a manner consistent with bromine oxide radical measured from various platforms. Sea salt aerosol plays a far more complex role in global tropospheric chemistry than previously recognized.
Alba Badia, Claire E. Reeves, Alex R. Baker, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Rainer Volkamer, Theodore K. Koenig, Eric C. Apel, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Lucy J. Carpenter, Stephen J. Andrews, Tomás Sherwen, and Roland von Glasow
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3161–3189,Short summary
The oceans have an impact on the composition and reactivity of the troposphere through the emission of gases and particles. Thus, a quantitative understanding of the marine atmosphere is crucial to examine the oxidative capacity and climate forcing. This study investigates the impact of halogens in the tropical troposphere and explores the sensitivity of this to uncertainties in the fluxes and their chemical processing. Our modelled tropospheric Ox loss due to halogens ranges from 20 % to 60 %.
Guo Li, Yafang Cheng, Uwe Kuhn, Rongjuan Xu, Yudong Yang, Hannah Meusel, Zhibin Wang, Nan Ma, Yusheng Wu, Meng Li, Jonathan Williams, Thorsten Hoffmann, Markus Ammann, Ulrich Pöschl, Min Shao, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2209–2232,Short summary
VOCs play a key role in atmospheric chemistry. Emission and deposition on soil have been suggested as important sources and sinks of atmospheric trace gases. The exchange characteristics and heterogeneous chemistry of VOCs on soil, however, are not well understood. We used a newly designed differential coated-wall flow tube system to investigate the long-term variability of bidirectional air–soil exchange of 13 VOCs at ambient air conditions of an urban background site in Beijing.
Guo Li, Hang Su, Uwe Kuhn, Hannah Meusel, Markus Ammann, Min Shao, Ulrich Pöschl, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2669–2686,Short summary
Coated-wall flow tube reactors are frequently used to investigate gas uptake and heterogeneous or multiphase reaction kinetics under laminar flow conditions. In previous applications, the effects of coating surface roughness on flow conditions were not well quantified. In this study, a criterion is proposed to eliminate/minimize the potential effects of coating surface roughness on laminar flow in coated-wall flow tube experiments and validate the applications of diffusion correction methods.
Theodore K. Koenig, Rainer Volkamer, Sunil Baidar, Barbara Dix, Siyuan Wang, Daniel C. Anderson, Ross J. Salawitch, Pamela A. Wales, Carlos A. Cuevas, Rafael P. Fernandez, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Mathew J. Evans, Tomás Sherwen, Daniel J. Jacob, Johan Schmidt, Douglas Kinnison, Jean-François Lamarque, Eric C. Apel, James C. Bresch, Teresa Campos, Frank M. Flocke, Samuel R. Hall, Shawn B. Honomichl, Rebecca Hornbrook, Jørgen B. Jensen, Richard Lueb, Denise D. Montzka, Laura L. Pan, J. Michael Reeves, Sue M. Schauffler, Kirk Ullmann, Andrew J. Weinheimer, Elliot L. Atlas, Valeria Donets, Maria A. Navarro, Daniel Riemer, Nicola J. Blake, Dexian Chen, L. Gregory Huey, David J. Tanner, Thomas F. Hanisco, and Glenn M. Wolfe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15245–15270,Short summary
Tropospheric inorganic bromine (BrO and Bry) shows a C-shaped profile over the tropical western Pacific Ocean, and supports previous speculation that marine convection is a source for inorganic bromine from sea salt to the upper troposphere. The Bry profile in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) is complex, suggesting that the total Bry budget in the TTL is not closed without considering aerosol bromide. The implications for atmospheric composition and bromine sources are discussed.
Yang Wang, Steffen Beirle, Francois Hendrick, Andreas Hilboll, Junli Jin, Aleksandra A. Kyuberis, Johannes Lampel, Ang Li, Yuhan Luo, Lorenzo Lodi, Jianzhong Ma, Monica Navarro, Ivan Ortega, Enno Peters, Oleg L. Polyansky, Julia Remmers, Andreas Richter, Olga Puentedura, Michel Van Roozendael, André Seyler, Jonathan Tennyson, Rainer Volkamer, Pinhua Xie, Nikolai F. Zobov, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3719–3742,Short summary
Slant column densities of nitrous acid (HONO) derived from different MAX-DOAS instruments and retrieval software are systematically compared for the first time during the Multi Axis DOAS – Comparison campaign for Aerosols and Trace gases (MAD-CAT) campaign held at MPIC in Mainz, Germany, from June to October 2013. Through the inter-comparisons and sensitivity studies we quantified the uncertainties in the DOAS fits of HONO from different sources and concluded a recommended setting.
Hannah Meusel, Yasin Elshorbany, Uwe Kuhn, Thorsten Bartels-Rausch, Kathrin Reinmuth-Selzle, Christopher J. Kampf, Guo Li, Xiaoxiang Wang, Jos Lelieveld, Ulrich Pöschl, Thorsten Hoffmann, Hang Su, Markus Ammann, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11819–11833,Short summary
In this study we investigated protein nitration and decomposition by light in the presence of NO2 via flow tube measurements. Nitrated proteins have an enhanced allergenic potential but so far nitration was only studied in dark conditions. Under irradiated conditions we found that proteins predominantly decompose while forming nitrous acid (HONO) an important precursor of the OH radical. Unlike other studies on heterogeneous NO2 conversion we found a stable HONO formation over a long period.
Thomas Berkemeier, Markus Ammann, Ulrich K. Krieger, Thomas Peter, Peter Spichtinger, Ulrich Pöschl, Manabu Shiraiwa, and Andrew J. Huisman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8021–8029,Short summary
Kinetic process models are efficient tools used to unravel the mechanisms governing chemical and physical transformation in multiphase atmospheric chemistry. However, determination of kinetic parameters such as reaction rate or diffusion coefficients from multiple data sets is often difficult or ambiguous. This study presents a novel optimization algorithm and framework to determine these parameters in an automated fashion and to gain information about parameter uncertainty and uniqueness.
Goran Gržinić, Thorsten Bartels-Rausch, Andreas Türler, and Markus Ammann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6493–6502,Short summary
Nitrogen oxides (NOx) largely control the ozone budget in the troposphere globally. Dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) is an important species as a nighttime reservoir for nitrogen oxides. Loss of N2O5 to aerosol particles is therefore important for the budget of NOx and the oxidation capacity. Here we provide direct evidence for its efficient accommodation into aqueous aerosol particles and its fast dissociation, which has not been elucidated as directly in previous studies.
Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, André Seyler, Andreas Richter, Folkard Wittrock, Tim Bösch, Michel Van Roozendael, François Hendrick, Theano Drosoglou, Alkiviadis F. Bais, Yugo Kanaya, Xiaoyi Zhao, Kimberly Strong, Johannes Lampel, Rainer Volkamer, Theodore Koenig, Ivan Ortega, Olga Puentedura, Mónica Navarro-Comas, Laura Gómez, Margarita Yela González, Ankie Piters, Julia Remmers, Yang Wang, Thomas Wagner, Shanshan Wang, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, David García-Nieto, Carlos A. Cuevas, Nuria Benavent, Richard Querel, Paul Johnston, Oleg Postylyakov, Alexander Borovski, Alexander Elokhov, Ilya Bruchkouski, Haoran Liu, Cheng Liu, Qianqian Hong, Claudia Rivera, Michel Grutter, Wolfgang Stremme, M. Fahim Khokhar, Junaid Khayyam, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 955–978,Short summary
This work is about harmonization of differential optical absorption spectroscopy retrieval codes, which is a remote sensing technique widely used to derive atmospheric trace gas amounts. The study is based on ground-based measurements performed during the Multi-Axis DOAS Comparison campaign for Aerosols and Trace gases (MAD-CAT) in Mainz, Germany, in summer 2013. In total, 17 international groups working in the field of the DOAS technique participated in this study.
Natalie Kille, Sunil Baidar, Philip Handley, Ivan Ortega, Roman Sinreich, Owen R. Cooper, Frank Hase, James W. Hannigan, Gabriele Pfister, and Rainer Volkamer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 373–392,Short summary
This article describes a new instrument for measuring and quantifying emission fluxes. It introduces the instrument using the solar occultation flux method. Results are presented from the FRAPPE field campaign near Denver, Colorado, from 2014. Calculations of emissions of sources are presented from FRAPPE and compared to emission inventories. Finally, structure functions are calculated to facilitate the future comparison of high-resolution measurements with low resolution satellite measurements.
Barbara Dix, Theodore K. Koenig, and Rainer Volkamer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5655–5675,Short summary
We present a parameterization method for the conversion of measured trace gas slant column densities into volume mixing ratios along a flight track. Benefits of this method are that it is computationally fast and almost no information on local atmospheric conditions is needed. Application to simulated data and field data show that the method is accurate within 10–15 % and valid for a wide range of atmospheric conditions. Our method can easily be transferred to other trace gases.
Ryan C. Moffet, Rachel E. O'Brien, Peter A. Alpert, Stephen T. Kelly, Don Q. Pham, Mary K. Gilles, Daniel A. Knopf, and Alexander Laskin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14515–14525,Short summary
Atmospheric black carbon (BC), commonly known as soot, is an important constituent of the earth that imparts a warming similar to that of carbon dioxide. However, BC is much shorter lived and has uncertain warming due to its mixture with other solid and liquid components. Here, advanced microscopic methods have provided a detailed look at thousands of BC particles sampled from central California; these measurements will lead towards a better understanding of the effects that BC has on climate.
Michael Höpfner, Rainer Volkamer, Udo Grabowski, Michel Grutter, Johannes Orphal, Gabriele Stiller, Thomas von Clarmann, and Gerald Wetzel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14357–14369,Short summary
Ammonia (NH3) in the atmosphere is important because of its influence on aerosol and cloud formation and its increasing anthropogenic emissions. We report the first detection of NH3 in the upper troposphere by the analysis of infrared limb emission spectra measured by the MIPAS instrument on Envisat. We have found enhanced values of NH3 within the Asian summer monsoon upper troposphere, where it might contribute to the composition of the Asian tropopause aerosol layer.
Pascale S. J. Lakey, Thomas Berkemeier, Manuel Krapf, Josef Dommen, Sarah S. Steimer, Lisa K. Whalley, Trevor Ingham, Maria T. Baeza-Romero, Ulrich Pöschl, Manabu Shiraiwa, Markus Ammann, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13035–13047,Short summary
Chemical oxidation in the atmosphere removes pollutants and greenhouse gases but generates undesirable products such as secondary organic aerosol. Radicals are key intermediates in oxidation, but how they interact with aerosols is still not well understood. Here we use a laser to measure the loss of radicals onto oxidised aerosols generated in a smog chamber. The loss of radicals was controlled by the thickness or viscosity of the aerosols, confirmed by using sugar aerosols of known thickness.
Tomás Sherwen, Johan A. Schmidt, Mat J. Evans, Lucy J. Carpenter, Katja Großmann, Sebastian D. Eastham, Daniel J. Jacob, Barbara Dix, Theodore K. Koenig, Roman Sinreich, Ivan Ortega, Rainer Volkamer, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Cristina Prados-Roman, Anoop S. Mahajan, and Carlos Ordóñez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12239–12271,Short summary
We present a simulation of tropospheric Cl, Br, I chemistry within the GEOS-Chem CTM. We find a decrease in tropospheric ozone burden of 18.6 % and a 8.2 % decrease in global mean OH concentrations. Cl oxidation of some VOCs range from 15 to 27 % of the total loss. Bromine plays a small role in oxidising oVOCs. Surface ozone, ozone sondes, and methane lifetime are in general improved by the inclusion of halogens. We argue that simulated bromine and chlorine represent a lower limit.
Laura González Palacios, Pablo Corral Arroyo, Kifle Z. Aregahegn, Sarah S. Steimer, Thorsten Bartels-Rausch, Barbara Nozière, Christian George, Markus Ammann, and Rainer Volkamer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11823–11836,Short summary
The sources of radicals at aerosol surfaces are highly uncertain. Here we investigate the HO2 radical production from the UV irradiation of imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde (IC) in bulk aqueous films containing IC and citric acid, as well as IC in ammonium sulfate aerosols. We find that IC is an efficient photosensitizer that forms HO2 radicals from H-donor chemistry. IC is a proxy species for brown carbon in atmospheric aerosols.
Ivan Ortega, Sean Coburn, Larry K. Berg, Kathy Lantz, Joseph Michalsky, Richard A. Ferrare, Johnathan W. Hair, Chris A. Hostetler, and Rainer Volkamer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3893–3910,Short summary
We present an inherently calibrated retrieval to measure aerosol optical depth (AOD) and the aerosol phase function parameter, g, based on measurements of azimuth distributions of the Raman scattering probability (RSP), the near-absolute rotational Raman scattering (RRS) intensity by the University of Colorado two-dimensional (2-D) MAX-DOAS. The retrievals are maximally sensitive at low AOD and do not require absolute radiance calibration. We compare results with data from independent sensors.
Guo Li, Hang Su, Xin Li, Uwe Kuhn, Hannah Meusel, Thorsten Hoffmann, Markus Ammann, Ulrich Pöschl, Min Shao, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10299–10311,Short summary
Indoor and outdoor formaldehyde (HCHO) are both of considerable concern because of its health effects and its role in atmospheric chemistry. The heterogeneous reactions between gaseous HCHO with soils can pose important impact on both HCHO budget and soil ecosystem. Our results confirms that HCHO uptake by soil is a complex process involving both adsorption/desorption and chemical reactions. Soil and soil-derived airborne particles can either act as a source or a sink for HCHO.
Yuzo Miyazaki, Sean Coburn, Kaori Ono, David T. Ho, R. Bradley Pierce, Kimitaka Kawamura, and Rainer Volkamer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7695–7707,Short summary
We conducted a WSOC-specific 13C analysis of submicron marine aerosols over the eastern equatorial Pacific for the first time. The analysis of 13C combined with monosaccharides provides evidence of a significant contribution of marine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to submicron particles in the MBL regardless of the oceanic area. The study demonstrates that DOC is closely correlated with the submicron WSOC and implies that it may characterize background OA in the MBL over the study region.
Sean Coburn, Barbara Dix, Eric Edgerton, Christopher D. Holmes, Douglas Kinnison, Qing Liang, Arnout ter Schure, Siyuan Wang, and Rainer Volkamer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3743–3760,Short summary
Here we present a day of case study measurements of the vertical distribution of bromine monoxide over the coastal region of the Gulf of Mexico. These measurements are used to assess the contribution of bromine radicals to the oxidation of elemental mercury in the troposphere. We find that the measured levels of bromine in the troposphere are sufficient to quickly oxidize mercury, which has significant implications for our understanding of atmospheric mercury processes.
Sunil Baidar, Natalie Kille, Ivan Ortega, Roman Sinreich, David Thomson, James Hannigan, and Rainer Volkamer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 963–972,Short summary
We present development of a digital mobile solar tracker which can be coupled simultaneously to UV–Vis and FTIR spectrometers to measure trace gases in the atmosphere. We demonstrate an angular precision of 0.052º (about 1/10 of the solar disk diameter) during research drives and verify this tracking precision from measurements of the center to limb darkening (CLD, the changing appearance of Fraunhofer lines) in the mobile direct sun DOAS spectra.
Peter A. Alpert and Daniel A. Knopf
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2083–2107,Short summary
A stochastic immersion freezing model is introduced capable of reproducing laboratory data for a variety of experimental methods using a time and surface area dependent ice nucleation process. The assumption that droplets contain identical surface area is evaluated. A quantitative uncertainty analysis of the laboratory observed freezing process is presented. Our results imply that ice nuclei surface area assumptions are crucial for interpretation of experimental immersion freezing results.
C. R. Hoyle, C. Fuchs, E. Järvinen, H. Saathoff, A. Dias, I. El Haddad, M. Gysel, S. C. Coburn, J. Tröstl, A.-K. Bernhammer, F. Bianchi, M. Breitenlechner, J. C. Corbin, J. Craven, N. M. Donahue, J. Duplissy, S. Ehrhart, C. Frege, H. Gordon, N. Höppel, M. Heinritzi, T. B. Kristensen, U. Molteni, L. Nichman, T. Pinterich, A. S. H. Prévôt, M. Simon, J. G. Slowik, G. Steiner, A. Tomé, A. L. Vogel, R. Volkamer, A. C. Wagner, R. Wagner, A. S. Wexler, C. Williamson, P. M. Winkler, C. Yan, A. Amorim, J. Dommen, J. Curtius, M. W. Gallagher, R. C. Flagan, A. Hansel, J. Kirkby, M. Kulmala, O. Möhler, F. Stratmann, D. R. Worsnop, and U. Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1693–1712,Short summary
A significant portion of sulphate, an important constituent of atmospheric aerosols, is formed via the aqueous phase oxidation of sulphur dioxide by ozone. The rate of this reaction has previously only been measured over a relatively small temperature range. Here, we use the state of the art CLOUD chamber at CERN to perform the first measurements of this reaction rate in super-cooled droplets, confirming that the existing extrapolation of the reaction rate to sub-zero temperatures is accurate.
T. Sherwen, M. J. Evans, L. J. Carpenter, S. J. Andrews, R. T. Lidster, B. Dix, T. K. Koenig, R. Sinreich, I. Ortega, R. Volkamer, A. Saiz-Lopez, C. Prados-Roman, A. S. Mahajan, and C. Ordóñez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1161–1186,Short summary
Using a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) with additional iodine emissions, chemistry, and deposition we show that iodine is responsible for ~ 9 % of global ozone loss but has negligible impacts on global OH. Uncertainties are large in the chemistry and emissions and future research is needed in both. Measurements of iodine species (especially HOI) would be useful. We believe iodine chemistry should be considered in future chemistry-climate and in air quality modelling.
G. Gržinić, T. Bartels-Rausch, T. Berkemeier, A. Türler, and M. Ammann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13615–13625,Short summary
The heterogeneous loss of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) to citric acid aerosol, a proxy for highly oxygenated secondary organic aerosol, is shown to be substantially lower than to other aqueous organic aerosol proxies investigated previously. This is attributed to the widely changing viscosity within the atmospherically relevant humidity range. It may explain some of the unexpectedly low loss rates of N2O5 to aerosol particles derived from field studies.
I. Ortega, T. Koenig, R. Sinreich, D. Thomson, and R. Volkamer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2371–2395,Short summary
We describe the University of Colorado 2-D-MAX-DOAS instrument and a retrieval to measure 3-D distributions of NO2. The spatial scale over which NO2 is probed is systematically varied by measuring NO2 at three different wavelengths. This has a significant effect on the comparison with the NO2 VCD as measured by OMI. The challenges and opportunities to validate satellites under inhomogeneous conditions as well as to pinpoint hydrocarbon chemistry around the measurement site are discussed.
S. S. Steimer, U. K. Krieger, Y.-F. Te, D. M. Lienhard, A. J. Huisman, B. P. Luo, M. Ammann, and T. Peter
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2397–2408,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosol is often subject to supersaturated or supercooled conditions where bulk measurements are not possible. Here we demonstrate how measurements using single particle electrodynamic levitation combined with light scattering spectroscopy allow the retrieval of thermodynamic data, optical properties and water diffusivity of such metastable particles even when auxiliary bulk data are not available due to lack of sufficient amounts of sample.
R. Volkamer, S. Baidar, T. L. Campos, S. Coburn, J. P. DiGangi, B. Dix, E. W. Eloranta, T. K. Koenig, B. Morley, I. Ortega, B. R. Pierce, M. Reeves, R. Sinreich, S. Wang, M. A. Zondlo, and P. A. Romashkin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2121–2148,Short summary
Tropospheric halogens and small oxygenated VOC (OVOC) modify tropospheric HOx and NOx, O3 and aerosols. We have measured bromine monoxide (BrO), iodine monoxide (IO), glyoxal (CHOCHO) profiles from research aircraft in the tropical troposphere and compare with ship- and aircraft-based in situ sensors. Our measurements point to the need to improve the representation of halogens and organic carbon sources in atmospheric models.
R. Thalman, M. T. Baeza-Romero, S. M. Ball, E. Borrás, M. J. S. Daniels, I. C. A. Goodall, S. B. Henry, T. Karl, F. N. Keutsch, S. Kim, J. Mak, P. S. Monks, A. Muñoz, J. Orlando, S. Peppe, A. R. Rickard, M. Ródenas, P. Sánchez, R. Seco, L. Su, G. Tyndall, M. Vázquez, T. Vera, E. Waxman, and R. Volkamer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1835–1862,Short summary
Measurements of α-dicarbonyl compounds, like glyoxal (CHOCHO) and methyl glyoxal (CH3C(O)CHO), are informative about the rate of hydrocarbon oxidation, oxidative capacity, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in the atmosphere. We have compared nine instruments and seven techniques to measure α-dicarbonyl, using simulation chamber facilities in the US and Europe. We assess our understanding of calibration, precision, accuracy and detection limits, as well as possible sampling biases.
E. Spinei, A. Cede, J. Herman, G. H. Mount, E. Eloranta, B. Morley, S. Baidar, B. Dix, I. Ortega, T. Koenig, and R. Volkamer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 793–809,Short summary
This paper presents ground-based direct-sun and airborne multi-axis DOAS measurements of O2O2 absorption optical depths under atmospheric conditions in two wavelength regions (335-–390nm and 435--490nm). Our results show that laboratory-measured σ(O2O2) is applicable for observations over a wide range of atmospheric conditions. Temperature dependence of σ(O2O2) is about 9±2.5% from 231K to 275K.
S. Coburn, I. Ortega, R. Thalman, B. Blomquist, C. W. Fairall, and R. Volkamer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3579–3595,
S. S. Steimer, M. Lampimäki, E. Coz, G. Grzinic, and M. Ammann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10761–10772,
C. Knote, A. Hodzic, J. L. Jimenez, R. Volkamer, J. J. Orlando, S. Baidar, J. Brioude, J. Fast, D. R. Gentner, A. H. Goldstein, P. L. Hayes, W. B. Knighton, H. Oetjen, A. Setyan, H. Stark, R. Thalman, G. Tyndall, R. Washenfelder, E. Waxman, and Q. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6213–6239,
S. Zhou, L. Gonzalez, A. Leithead, Z. Finewax, R. Thalman, A. Vlasenko, S. Vagle, L.A. Miller, S.-M. Li, S. Bureekul, H. Furutani, M. Uematsu, R. Volkamer, and J. Abbatt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1371–1384,
M. Ammann, R. A. Cox, J. N. Crowley, M. E. Jenkin, A. Mellouki, M. J. Rossi, J. Troe, and T. J. Wallington
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8045–8228,
T. Bartels-Rausch, S. N. Wren, S. Schreiber, F. Riche, M. Schneebeli, and M. Ammann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6727–6739,
T. Berkemeier, A. J. Huisman, M. Ammann, M. Shiraiwa, T. Koop, and U. Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6663–6686,
Y. J. Rigg, P. A. Alpert, and D. A. Knopf
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6603–6622,
R. Sinreich, A. Merten, L. Molina, and R. Volkamer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1521–1532,
S. Baidar, H. Oetjen, S. Coburn, B. Dix, I. Ortega, R. Sinreich, and R. Volkamer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 719–739,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Laboratory Studies | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Bulk and molecular-level composition of primary organic aerosol from wood, straw, cow dung, and plastic burningVolatile oxidation products and secondary organosiloxane aerosol from D5 + OH at varying OH exposuresMolecular fingerprints and health risks of smoke from home-use incense burningHigh enrichment of heavy metals in fine particulate matter through dust aerosol generationProduction of ice-nucleating particles (INPs) by fast-growing phytoplanktonTechnical note: In situ measurements and modelling of the oxidation kinetics in films of a cooking aerosol proxy using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D)Contrasting impacts of humidity on the ozonolysis of monoterpenes: insights into the multi-generation chemical mechanismA Possible Unaccounted Source of Nitrogen-Containing Compounds Formation in Aerosols: Amines Reacting with Secondary OzonidesChemically Speciated Air Pollutant Emissions from Open Burning of Household Solid Waste from South AfricaQuantifying the seasonal variations in and regional transport of PM2.5 in the Yangtze River Delta region, China: characteristics, sources, and health risksOpinion: Atmospheric multiphase chemistry – past, present, and futureDistinct photochemistry in glycine particles mixed with different atmospheric nitrate saltsChamber studies of OH + dimethyl sulfoxide and dimethyl disulfide: insights into the dimethyl sulfide oxidation mechanismEffects of storage conditions on the molecular-level composition of organic aerosol particlesTemperature-dependent aqueous OH kinetics of C2-C10 linear and terpenoid alcohols and diols: new rate coefficients, structure-activity relationship and atmospheric lifetimesCharacterization of gas and particle emissions from open burning of household solid waste from South AfricaChemically distinct particle-phase emissions from highly controlled pyrolysis of three wood typesPredicting photooxidant concentrations in aerosol liquid water based on laboratory extracts of ambient particlesPhysicochemical characterization of free troposphere and marine boundary layer ice-nucleating particles collected by aircraft in the eastern North AtlanticLarge differences of highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) and low-volatile species in secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) formed from ozonolysis of β-pinene and limoneneImpact of fossil and non-fossil fuel sources on the molecular compositions of water-soluble humic-like substances in PM2.5 at a suburban site of Yangtze River Delta, ChinaTechnical note: Improved synthetic routes to cis- and trans-(2-methyloxirane-2,3-diyl)dimethanol (cis- and trans-β-isoprene epoxydiol)Technical note: Intercomparison study of the elemental carbon radiocarbon analysis methods using synthetic known samplesChemical evolution of primary and secondary biomass burning aerosols during daytime and nighttimeFormation of highly oxygenated organic molecules from the oxidation of limonene by OH radical: significant contribution of H-abstraction pathwayMeasurement report: Atmospheric aging of combustion-derived particles – impact on stable free radical concentration and its ability to produce reactive oxygen species in aqueous mediaPhotoaging of phenolic secondary organic aerosol in the aqueous phase: evolution of chemical and optical properties and effects of oxidantsGas-particle partitioning of toluene oxidation products: an experimental and modeling studyAn intercomparison study of four different techniques for measuring the chemical composition of nanoparticlesLow Temperature Ice Nucleation of Sea Spray and Secondary Marine Aerosols under Cirrus Cloud ConditionsVariability in grain size, mineralogy, and mode of occurrence of Fe in surface sediments of preferential dust-source inland drainage basins: The case of the Lower Drâa Valley, S MoroccoSimultaneous formation of sulfate and nitrate via co-uptake of SO2 and NO2 by aqueous NaCl droplets: combined effect of nitrate photolysis and chlorine chemistryPhoto-induced shrinking of aqueous glycine aerosol dropletsSeasonal variations in photooxidant formation and light absorption in aqueous extracts of ambient particlesSulfate formation via aerosol-phase SO2 oxidation by model biomass burning photosensitizers: 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde, vanillin and syringaldehyde using single-particle mixing-state analysisYields and molecular composition of gas-phase and secondary organic aerosol from the photooxidation of the volatile consumer product benzyl alcohol: formation of highly oxygenated and hydroxy nitro-aromatic compoundsA combined gas- and particle-phase analysis of highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) from α-pinene ozonolysisComparison of aqueous secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA) product distributions from guaiacol oxidation by non-phenolic and phenolic methoxybenzaldehydes as photosensitizers in the absence and presence of ammonium nitrateTechnical note: Chemical composition and source identification of fluorescent components in atmospheric water-soluble brown carbon by excitation–emission matrix spectroscopy with parallel factor analysis – potential limitations and applicationsInsoluble lipid film mediates transfer of soluble saccharides from the sea to the atmosphere: the role of hydrogen bondingMagnetic fraction of the atmospheric dust in Kraków – physicochemical characteristics and possible environmental impactModeling daytime and nighttime secondary organic aerosol formation via multiphase reactions of biogenic hydrocarbonsSO2 enhances aerosol formation from anthropogenic volatile organic compound ozonolysis by producing sulfur-containing compoundsIsothermal evaporation of α-pinene secondary organic aerosol particles formed under low NOx and high NOx conditionsChemical characterization of organic compounds involved in iodine-initiated new particle formation from coastal macroalgal emissionThe Urmia playa as a source of airborne dust and ice-nucleating particles – Part 2: Unraveling the relationship between soil dust composition and ice nucleation activityWinter brown carbon over six of China's megacities: light absorption, molecular characterization, and improved source apportionment revealed by multilayer perceptron neural networkChamber investigation of the formation and transformation of secondary organic aerosol in mixtures of biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic compoundsNot all types of secondary organic aerosol mix: two phases observed when mixing different secondary organic aerosol typesComprehensive characterization of particulate intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs) from heavy-duty diesel vehicles using two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry
Jun Zhang, Kun Li, Tiantian Wang, Erlend Gammelsæter, Rico K. Y. Cheung, Mihnea Surdu, Sophie Bogler, Deepika Bhattu, Dongyu S. Wang, Tianqu Cui, Lu Qi, Houssni Lamkaddam, Imad El Haddad, Jay G. Slowik, Andre S. H. Prevot, and David M. Bell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 14561–14576,Short summary
We conducted burning experiments to simulate various types of solid fuel combustion, including residential burning, wildfires, agricultural burning, cow dung, and plastic bag burning. The chemical composition of the particles was characterized using mass spectrometers, and new potential markers for different fuels were identified using statistical analysis. This work improves our understanding of emissions from solid fuel burning and offers support for refined source apportionment.
Hyun Gu Kang, Yanfang Chen, Yoojin Park, Thomas Berkemeier, and Hwajin Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 14307–14323,Short summary
D5 is an emerging anthropogenic pollutant that is ubiquitous in indoor and urban environments, and the OH oxidation of D5 forms secondary organosiloxane aerosol (SOSiA). Application of a kinetic box model that uses a volatility basis set (VBS) showed that consideration of oxidative aging (aging-VBS) predicts SOSiA formation much better than using a standard-VBS model. Ageing-dependent parameterization is needed to accurately model SOSiA to assess the implications of siloxanes for air quality.
Kai Song, Rongzhi Tang, Jingshun Zhang, Zichao Wan, Yuan Zhang, Kun Hu, Yuanzheng Gong, Daqi Lv, Sihua Lu, Yu Tan, Ruifeng Zhang, Ang Li, Shuyuan Yan, Shichao Yan, Baoming Fan, Wenfei Zhu, Chak K. Chan, Maosheng Yao, and Song Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13585–13595,Short summary
Incense burning is common in Asia, posing threats to human health and air quality. However, less is known about its emissions and health risks. Full-volatility organic species from incense-burning smoke are detected and quantified. Intermediate-volatility volatile organic compounds (IVOCs) are crucial organics accounting for 19.2 % of the total emission factors (EFs) and 40.0 % of the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) estimation, highlighting the importance of incorporating IVOCs into SOA models.
Qianqian Gao, Shengqiang Zhu, Kaili Zhou, Jinghao Zhai, Shaodong Chen, Qihuang Wang, Shurong Wang, Jin Han, Xiaohui Lu, Hong Chen, Liwu Zhang, Lin Wang, Zimeng Wang, Xin Yang, Qi Ying, Hongliang Zhang, Jianmin Chen, and Xiaofei Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13049–13060,Short summary
Dust is a major source of atmospheric aerosols. Its chemical composition is often assumed to be similar to the parent soil. However, this assumption has not been rigorously verified. Dust aerosols are mainly generated by wind erosion, which may have some chemical selectivity. Mn, Cd and Pb were found to be highly enriched in fine-dust (PM2.5) aerosols. In addition, estimation of heavy metal emissions from dust generation by air quality models may have errors without using proper dust profiles.
Daniel C. O. Thornton, Sarah D. Brooks, Elise K. Wilbourn, Jessica Mirrielees, Alyssa N. Alsante, Gerardo Gold-Bouchot, Andrew Whitesell, and Kiana McFadden
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 12707–12729,Short summary
A major uncertainty in our understanding of clouds and climate is the sources and properties of the aerosol on which clouds grow. We found that aerosol containing organic matter from fast-growing marine phytoplankton was a source of ice-nucleating particles (INPs). INPs facilitate freezing of ice crystals at warmer temperatures than otherwise possible and therefore change cloud formation and properties. Our results show that ecosystem processes and the properties of sea spray aerosol are linked.
Adam Milsom, Shaojun Qi, Ashmi Mishra, Thomas Berkemeier, Zhenyu Zhang, and Christian Pfrang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10835–10843,Short summary
Aerosols and films are found indoors and outdoors. Our study measures and models reactions of a cooking aerosol proxy with the atmospheric oxidant ozone relying on a low-cost but sensitive technique based on mass changes and film rigidity. We found that film morphology changed and film rigidity increased with evidence of surface crust formation during ozone exposure. Our modelling results demonstrate clear potential to take this robust method to the field for reaction monitoring.
Shan Zhang, Lin Du, Zhaomin Yang, Narcisse Tsona Tchinda, Jianlong Li, and Kun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10809–10822,Short summary
In this study, we have investigated the distinct impacts of humidity on the ozonolysis of two structurally different monoterpenes (limonene and Δ3-carene). We found that the molecular structure of precursors can largely influence the SOA formation under high RH by impacting the multi-generation reactions. Our results could advance knowledge on the roles of water content in aerosol formation and inform ongoing research on particle environmental effects and applications in models.
Junting Qiu, Xinlin Shen, Jiangyao Chen, Guiying Li, and Taicheng An
To expand source of N-containing compounds, we studied reaction of secondary ozonides (SOZs) with amines. SOZs formed from ozonolysis of β-caryophyllene and α-humulene are found reactive to ethylamine and methylamine. Products from SOZs with various conformations reacting with same amine had different functional groups. Our findings indicate interaction of SOZs with amines in atmosphere is very complicated, that is potentially a hitherto unrecognized source of N-containing compound formation.
Xiaoliang Wang, Hatef Firouzkouhi, Judith C. Chow, John G. Watson, Steven Sai Hang Ho, Warren Carter, and Alexandra S. M. De Vos
Open burning of municipal solid waste emits a variety of chemical species that are harmful to the environment. This paper reports source profiles and emission factors for PM2.5 species as well as acidic and alkali gases measured from laboratory combustion of ten waste categories that represent open burning in South Africa. Results will be useful for health and climate impact assessments, speciated emission inventories, source-oriented dispersion models, and receptor-based source apportionment.
Yangzhihao Zhan, Min Xie, Wei Zhao, Tijian Wang, Da Gao, Pulong Chen, Jun Tian, Kuanguang Zhu, Shu Li, Bingliang Zhuang, Mengmeng Li, Yi Luo, and Runqi Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9837–9852,Short summary
Although the main source contribution of pollution is secondary inorganic aerosols in Nanjing, health risks mainly come from industry sources and vehicle emissions. Therefore, the development of megacities should pay more attention to the health burden of vehicle emissions, coal combustion, and industrial processes. This study provides new insight into assessing the relationship between source apportionment and health risks and can provide valuable insight into air pollution strategies.
Jonathan P. D. Abbatt and A. R. Ravishankara
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9765–9785,Short summary
With important climate and air quality impacts, atmospheric multiphase chemistry involves gas interactions with aerosol particles and cloud droplets. We summarize the status of the field and discuss potential directions for future growth. We highlight the importance of a molecular-level understanding of the chemistry, along with atmospheric field studies and modeling, and emphasize the necessity for atmospheric multiphase chemists to interact widely with scientists from neighboring disciplines.
Zhancong Liang, Zhihao Cheng, Ruifeng Zhang, Yiming Qin, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9585–9595,Short summary
In this study, we found that the photolysis of sodium nitrate leads to a much quicker decay of free amino acids (FAAs, with glycine as an example) in the particle phase than ammonium nitrate photolysis, which is likely due to the molecular interactions between FAAs and different nitrate salts. Since sodium nitrate likely co-exists with FAAs in the coarse-mode particles, particulate nitrate photolysis can possibly contribute to a rapid decay of FAAs and affect atmospheric nitrogen cycling.
Matthew B. Goss and Jesse H. Kroll
Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) oxidizes in the marine atmosphere to form a major source of sulfate particles, but the chemistry that drives this process is poorly constrained. We oxidized two related compounds (dimethyl sulfoxide and dimethyl disulfide) in the laboratory and measured the gas- and particle-phase products. These results demonstrate that both the OH addition and OH abstraction pathways for DMS oxidation contribute to rapid particle formation (not proceeding through SO2 oxidation).
Julian Resch, Kate Wolfer, Alexandre Barth, and Markus Kalberer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9161–9171,Short summary
Detailed chemical analysis of organic aerosols is necessary to better understand their effects on climate and health. Aerosol samples are often stored for days to months before analysis. We examined the effects of storage conditions (i.e., time, temperature, and aerosol storage on filters or as solvent extracts) on composition and found significant changes in the concentration of individual compounds, indicating that sample storage can strongly affect the detailed chemical particle composition.
Bartłomiej Witkowski, Priyanka Jain, Beata Wileńska, and Tomasz Gierczak
This article reports the results of the kinetic measurements for the aqueous oxidation of the 28 aliphatic alcohols by hydroxyl radical (OH) at different temperatures. The data acquired and the literature data were used to optimize a model for predicting the aqueous OH reactivity of alcohols and carboxylic acids and to estimate the atmospheric lifetimes of five terpenoic alcohols. The kinetic data provided new insights into the mechanism of aqueous oxidation of aliphatic molecules by the OH.
Xiaoliang Wang, Hatef Firouzkouhi, Judith C. Chow, John G. Watson, Warren Carter, and Alexandra S. M. De Vos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8921–8937,Short summary
Open burning of household and municipal solid waste is a common practice in developing countries and is a significant source of air pollution. However, few studies have measured emissions from open burning of waste. This study determined gas and particulate emissions from open burning of 10 types of household solid-waste materials. These results can improve emission inventories, air quality management, and assessment of the health and climate effects of open burning of household waste.
Anita M. Avery, Mariam Fawaz, Leah R. Williams, Tami Bond, and Timothy B. Onasch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8837–8854,Short summary
Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of fuels like wood which occurs during combustion or as an isolated process. During combustion, some pyrolysis products are emitted directly, while others are oxidized in the combustion process. This work describes the chemical composition of particle-phase pyrolysis products in order to investigate both the uncombusted emissions from wildfires and the fuel that participates in combustion.
Lan Ma, Reed Worland, Wenqing Jiang, Christopher Niedek, Chrystal Guzman, Keith J. Bein, Qi Zhang, and Cort Anastasio
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8805–8821,Short summary
Although photooxidants are important in airborne particles, little is known of their concentrations. By measuring oxidants in a series of particle dilutions, we predict their concentrations in aerosol liquid water (ALW). We find •OH concentrations in ALW are on the order of 10−15 M, similar to their cloud/fog values, while oxidizing triplet excited states and singlet molecular oxygen have ALW values of ca. 10−13 M and 10−12 M, respectively, roughly 10–100 times higher than in cloud/fog drops.
Daniel A. Knopf, Peiwen Wang, Benny Wong, Jay M. Tomlin, Daniel P. Veghte, Nurun N. Lata, Swarup China, Alexander Laskin, Ryan C. Moffet, Josephine Y. Aller, Matthew A. Marcus, and Jian Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8659–8681,Short summary
Ambient particle populations and associated ice-nucleating particles (INPs) were examined from particle samples collected on board aircraft in the marine boundary layer and free troposphere in the eastern North Atlantic during summer and winter. Chemical imaging shows distinct differences in the particle populations seasonally and with sampling altitudes, which are reflected in the INP types. Freezing parameterizations are derived for implementation in cloud-resolving and climate models.
Dandan Liu, Yun Zhang, Shujun Zhong, Shuang Chen, Qiaorong Xie, Donghuan Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Wei Hu, Junjun Deng, Libin Wu, Chao Ma, Haijie Tong, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8383–8402,Short summary
Based on ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis, we found that β-pinene oxidation-derived highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) exhibit higher yield at high ozone concentration, while limonene oxidation-derived HOMs exhibit higher yield at moderate ozone concentration. The distinct molecular response of HOMs and low-volatile species in different biogenic secondary organic aerosols to ozone concentrations provides a new clue for more accurate air quality prediction and management.
Mengying Bao, Yan-Lin Zhang, Fang Cao, Yihang Hong, Yu-Chi Lin, Mingyuan Yu, Hongxing Jiang, Zhineng Cheng, Rongshuang Xu, and Xiaoying Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8305–8324,Short summary
The interaction between the sources and molecular compositions of humic-like substances (HULIS) at Nanjing, China, was explored. Significant fossil fuel source contributions to HULIS were found in the 14C results from biomass burnng and traffic emissions. Increasing biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) products and anthropogenic aromatic compounds were detected in summer and winter, respectively.
Molly Frauenheim, Jason D. Surratt, Zhenfa Zhang, and Avram Gold
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7859–7866,Short summary
We report synthesis of the isoprene-derived photochemical oxidation products trans- and cis-β-epoxydiols in high overall yields from inexpensive, readily available starting compounds. Protection/deprotection steps or time-consuming purification is not required, and the reactions can be scaled up to gram quantities. The procedures provide accessibility of these important compounds to atmospheric chemistry laboratories with only basic capabilities in organic synthesis.
Xiangyun Zhang, Jun Li, Sanyuan Zhu, Junwen Liu, Ping Ding, Shutao Gao, Chongguo Tian, Yingjun Chen, Ping'an Peng, and Gan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7495–7502,Short summary
The results show that 14C elemental carbon (EC) was not only related to the isolation method but also to the types and proportions of the biomass sources in the sample. The hydropyrolysis (Hypy) method, which can be used to isolate a highly stable portion of ECHypy and avoid charring, is a more effective and stable approach for the matrix-independent 14C quantification of EC in aerosols, and the 13C–ECHypy and non-fossil ECHypy values of SRM1649b were –24.9 ‰ and 11 %, respectively.
Amir Yazdani, Satoshi Takahama, John K. Kodros, Marco Paglione, Mauro Masiol, Stefania Squizzato, Kalliopi Florou, Christos Kaltsonoudis, Spiro D. Jorga, Spyros N. Pandis, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7461–7477,Short summary
Organic aerosols directly emitted from wood and pellet stove combustion are found to chemically transform (approximately 15 %–35 % by mass) under daytime aging conditions simulated in an environmental chamber. A new marker for lignin-like compounds is found to degrade at a different rate than previously identified biomass burning markers and can potentially provide indication of aging time in ambient samples.
Hao Luo, Luc Vereecken, Hongru Shen, Sungah Kang, Iida Pullinen, Mattias Hallquist, Hendrik Fuchs, Andreas Wahner, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Thomas F. Mentel, and Defeng Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7297–7319,Short summary
Oxidation of limonene, an element emitted by trees and chemical products, by OH, a daytime oxidant, forms many highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs), including C10-20 compounds. HOMs play an important role in new particle formation and growth. HOM formation can be explained by the chemistry of peroxy radicals. We found that a minor branching ratio initial pathway plays an unexpected, significant role. Considering this pathway enables accurate simulations of HOMs and other concentrations.
Heather L. Runberg and Brian J. Majestic
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7213–7223,Short summary
Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) are an emerging pollutant found in soot particles. Understanding how these change as they move through the atmosphere is important to human health. Here, soot was generated in the laboratory and exposed to simulated sunlight. The concentrations and characteristics of EPFRs in the soot were measured and found to be unchanged. However, it was also found that the ability of soot to form hydroxyl radicals was stronger for fresh soot.
Wenqing Jiang, Christopher Niedek, Cort Anastasio, and Qi Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7103–7120,Short summary
We studied how aqueous-phase secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA) form and evolve from a phenolic carbonyl commonly present in biomass burning smoke. The composition and optical properties of the aqSOA are significantly affected by photochemical reactions and are dependent on the oxidants' concentration and identity in water. During photoaging, the aqSOA initially becomes darker, but prolonged aging leads to the formation of volatile products, resulting in significant mass loss and photobleaching.
Victor Lannuque, Barbara D'Anna, Evangelia Kostenidou, Florian Couvidat, Alvaro Martinez-Valiente, Philipp Eichler, Armin Wisthaler, Markus Müller, Brice Temime-Roussel, Richard Valorso, and Karine Sartelet
Large uncertainties remain in understanding secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from toluene oxidation. In this study, speciation measurements in gaseous and particulate phases were carried out, providing partitioning and volatility data of individual toluene SOA components at different temperatures. A new detailed oxidation mechanism was developed to improve modeled speciation and effects of different processes involved in gas-particle partitioning at the molecular scale are explored.
Lucía Caudillo, Mihnea Surdu, Brandon Lopez, Mingyi Wang, Markus Thoma, Steffen Bräkling, Angela Buchholz, Mario Simon, Andrea C. Wagner, Tatjana Müller, Manuel Granzin, Martin Heinritzi, Antonio Amorim, David M. Bell, Zoé Brasseur, Lubna Dada, Jonathan Duplissy, Henning Finkenzeller, Xu-Cheng He, Houssni Lamkaddam, Naser G. A. Mahfouz, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Guillaume Marie, Ruby Marten, Roy L. Mauldin, Bernhard Mentler, Antti Onnela, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Maxim Philippov, Ana A. Piedehierro, Birte Rörup, Wiebke Scholz, Jiali Shen, Dominik Stolzenburg, Christian Tauber, Ping Tian, António Tomé, Nsikanabasi Silas Umo, Dongyu S. Wang, Yonghong Wang, Stefan K. Weber, André Welti, Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Urs Baltensperger, Richard C. Flagan, Armin Hansel, Jasper Kirkby, Markku Kulmala, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Douglas R. Worsnop, Imad El Haddad, Neil M. Donahue, Alexander L. Vogel, Andreas Kürten, and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6613–6631,Short summary
In this study, we present an intercomparison of four different techniques for measuring the chemical composition of nanoparticles. The intercomparison was performed based on the observed chemical composition, calculated volatility, and analysis of the thermograms. We found that the methods generally agree on the most important compounds that are found in the nanoparticles. However, they do see different parts of the organic spectrum. We suggest potential explanations for these differences.
Ryan Patnaude, Kathryn Moore, Russell Perkins, Thomas Hill, Paul DeMott, and Sonia Kreidenweis
In this study, we examined the effect of atmospheric aging on sea spray aerosols (SSA) to form ice at cirrus temperatures (< -38 ºC), and how newly formed secondary marine aerosols (SMA) produced from gas-phase emissions may freeze in the cirrus regime. Results show that SSA freeze at different relative humidities (RHs) depending the on the temperature and are not affected by atmospheric aging. SMA are shown to freeze at high RHs and likely have very little effect on cirrus cloud formation.
Adolfo González-Romero, Cristina González-Florez, Agnesh Panta, Jesús Yus-Díez, Cristina Reche, Patricia Córdoba, Andres Alastuey, Konrad Kandler, Martina Klose, Clarissa Baldo, Roger N. Clark, Zong Bo Shi, Xavier Querol, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
The effect of dust emitted from desertic surfaces upon climate and ecosystems depends on their size and mineralogy, but, data from soil mineral atlases of desert soils is scarce. We performed particle size distribution, mineralogy and Fe speciation at S Morocco. Results show coarser particles, with high quartz proportion are near the elevated areas, meanwhile in depressed areas, finer sizes and higher proportions of clays and nano Fe-oxides. This differences are important for dust modelling.
Ruifeng Zhang and Chak Keung Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6113–6126,Short summary
Research into sulfate and nitrate formation from co-uptake of NO2 and SO2, especially under irradiation, is rare. We studied the co-uptake of NO2 and SO2 by NaCl droplets under various conditions, including irradiation and dark, and RHs, using Raman spectroscopy flow cell and kinetic model simulation. Significant nitrate formation from NO2 hydrolysis can be photolyzed to generate OH radicals that can further react with chloride to produce reactive chlorine species and promote sulfate formation.
Shinnosuke Ishizuka, Oliver Reich, Grégory David, and Ruth Signorell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5393–5402,Short summary
Photosensitizers play an important role in the photochemistry of atmospheric aerosols. Our study provides evidence that mesoscopic glycine clusters forming in aqueous droplets act as unconventional photosensitizers in the visible light spectrum. We observed the influence of these photoactive molecular aggregates in single optically trapped aqueous droplets. Such mesoscopic photosensitizers might be more important for aerosol photochemistry than previously anticipated.
Lan Ma, Reed Worland, Laura Heinlein, Chrystal Guzman, Wenqing Jiang, Christopher Niedek, Keith J. Bein, Qi Zhang, and Cort Anastasio
We measured concentrations of three photooxidants – hydroxyl radical, triplet excited states of organic carbon, and singlet molecular oxygen – in fine particles collected over a year. Concentrations are highest in extracts of fresh biomass burning particles, largely because they have the highest particle concentrations and highest light absorption. When normalized by light absorption, rates of formation for each oxidant are generally similar for the four particle types we observed.
Liyuan Zhou, Zhancong Liang, Beatrix Rosette Go Mabato, Rosemarie Ann Infante Cuevas, Rongzhi Tang, Mei Li, Chunlei Cheng, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5251–5261,Short summary
This study reveals the sulfate formation in photosensitized particles from biomass burning under UV and SO2, of which the relative atmospheric importance in sulfate production was qualitatively compared to nitrate photolysis. On the basis of single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry measurements, the number percentage of sulfate-containing particles and relative peak area of sulfate in single-particle spectra exhibited a descending order of 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde > vanillin > syringaldehyde.
Mohammed Jaoui, Kenneth S. Docherty, Michael Lewandowski, and Tadeusz E. Kleindienst
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4637–4661,Short summary
VCPs are a class of chemicals widely used in industrial and consumer products (e.g., coatings, adhesives, inks, personal care products) and are an important component of total VOCs in urban atmospheres. This study provides SOA yields and detailed chemical analysis of the gas- and aerosol-phase products of the photooxidation of one of these VCPs, benzyl alcohol. These results will allow better links between characterized sources and their resulting criteria for pollutant formation.
Jian Zhao, Ella Häkkinen, Frans Graeffe, Jordan E. Krechmer, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Douglas R. Worsnop, Juha Kangasluoma, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3707–3730,Short summary
Based on the combined measurements of gas- and particle-phase highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) from α-pinene ozonolysis, enhancement of dimers in particles was observed. We conducted experiments wherein the dimer to monomer (D / M) ratios of HOMs in the gas phase were modified (adding CO / NO) to investigate the effects of the corresponding D / M ratios in the particles. These results are important for a better understanding of secondary organic aerosol formation in the atmosphere.
Beatrix Rosette Go Mabato, Yong Jie Li, Dan Dan Huang, Yalin Wang, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2859–2875,Short summary
We compared non-phenolic and phenolic methoxybenzaldehydes as photosensitizers for aqueous secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA) formation under cloud and fog conditions. We showed that the structural features of photosensitizers affect aqSOA formation. We also elucidated potential interactions between photosensitization and ammonium nitrate photolysis. Our findings are useful for evaluating the importance of photosensitized reactions on aqSOA formation, which could improve aqSOA predictive models.
Tao Cao, Meiju Li, Cuncun Xu, Jianzhong Song, Xingjun Fan, Jun Li, Wanglu Jia, and Ping'an Peng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2613–2625,Short summary
This work comprehensively investigated the fluorescence data of light-absorbing organic compounds, water-soluble organic matter in different types of aerosol samples, soil dust, and fulvic and humic acids using an excitation–emission matrix (EEM) method and parallel factor modeling. The results revealed which light-absorbing species can be detected by EEM and also provided important information for identifying the chemical composition and possible sources of these species in atmospheric samples.
Minglan Xu, Narcisse Tsona Tchinda, Jianlong Li, and Lin Du
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2235–2249,Short summary
The promotion of soluble saccharides on sea spray aerosol (SSA) generation and the changes in particle morphology were observed. On the contrary, the coexistence of surface insoluble fatty acid film and soluble saccharides significantly inhibited the production of SSA. This is the first demonstration that hydrogen bonding mediated by surface-insoluble fatty acids contributes to saccharide transfer in seawater, providing a new mechanism for saccharide enrichment in SSA.
Jan M. Michalik, Wanda Wilczyńska-Michalik, Łukasz Gondek, Waldemar Tokarz, Jan Żukrowski, Marta Gajewska, and Marek Michalik
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1449–1464,Short summary
The magnetic fraction of the aerosols in Kraków was collected and analysed using scanning and transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectrometry, and magnetometry. It contains metallic Fe or Fe-rich alloy and Fe oxides. The occurrence of nanometre-scale Fe3O4 particles (predominantly of anthropogenic origin) is shown. Our results can help to determine the sources and transport of pollutants, potential harmful effects, etc.
Sanghee Han and Myoseon Jang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1209–1226,Short summary
The diurnal pattern in biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation is simulated by using the UNIPAR model, which predicts SOA growth via multiphase reactions of hydrocarbons under varying NOx levels, aerosol acidity, humidity, and temperature. The simulation suggests that nighttime SOA formation, even in urban environments, where anthropogenic emission is high, is dominated by products from ozonolysis and NO3-initiated oxidation of biogenic hydrocarbons.
Zhaomin Yang, Kun Li, Narcisse T. Tsona, Xin Luo, and Lin Du
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 417–430,Short summary
SO2 significantly promotes particle formation during cyclooctene ozonolysis. Carboxylic acids and their dimers were major products in particles formed in the absence of SO2. SO2 can induce production of organosulfates with stronger particle formation ability than their precursors, leading to the enhancement in particle formation. Formation mechanisms and structures of organosulfates were proposed, which is helpful for better understanding how SO2 perturbs the formation and fate of particles.
Zijun Li, Angela Buchholz, Luis M. F. Barreira, Arttu Ylisirniö, Liqing Hao, Iida Pullinen, Siegfried Schobesberger, and Annele Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 203–220,Short summary
Interaction between NOx and biogenic emissions can be important in suburban areas. Our study showed that the addition of NOx during α-pinene SOA formation produced considerable amounts of organic nitrates and affected the composition of non-nitrated organic compounds. The compositional difference consequently altered the primary type of aqueous-phase processes during the isothermal particle evaporation.
Yibei Wan, Xiangpeng Huang, Chong Xing, Qiongqiong Wang, Xinlei Ge, and Huan Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15413–15423,Short summary
The organic compounds involved in continental new particle formation have been investigated in depth in the last 2 decades. In contrast, no prior work has studied the exact chemical composition of organic compounds and their role in coastal new particle formation. We present a complementary study to the ongoing laboratory and field research on iodine nucleation in the coastal atmosphere. This study provided a more complete story of coastal I-NPF from low-tide macroalgal emission.
Nikou Hamzehpour, Claudia Marcolli, Kristian Klumpp, Debora Thöny, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14931–14956,Short summary
Dust aerosols from dried lakebeds contain mineral particles, as well as soluble salts and (bio-)organic compounds. Here, we investigate ice nucleation (IN) activity of dust samples from Lake Urmia playa, Iran. We find high IN activity of the untreated samples that decreases after organic matter removal but increases after removing soluble salts and carbonates, evidencing inhibiting effects of soluble salts and carbonates on the IN activity of organic matter and minerals, especially microcline.
Diwei Wang, Zhenxing Shen, Qian Zhang, Yali Lei, Tian Zhang, Shasha Huang, Jian Sun, Hongmei Xu, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14893–14904,Short summary
The optical properties and molecular structure of atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) in winter of several megacities in China were analyzed, and the source contribution of brown carbon was improved by using positive matrix factorization coupled with a multilayer perceptron neural network. These results can provide a basis for the more effective control of BrC to reduce its impacts on regional climates and human health.
Aristeidis Voliotis, Mao Du, Yu Wang, Yunqi Shao, M. Rami Alfarra, Thomas J. Bannan, Dawei Hu, Kelly L. Pereira, Jaqueline F. Hamilton, Mattias Hallquist, Thomas F. Mentel, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14147–14175,Short summary
Mixing experiments are crucial and highly beneficial for our understanding of atmospheric chemical interactions. However, interpretation quickly becomes complex, and both the experimental design and evaluation need to be scrutinised carefully. Advanced online and offline compositional measurements can reveal substantial additional information to aid in the interpretation of yield data, including components uniquely found in mixtures and property changes in SOA formed from mixtures of VOCs.
Fabian Mahrt, Long Peng, Julia Zaks, Yuanzhou Huang, Paul E. Ohno, Natalie R. Smith, Florence K. A. Gregson, Yiming Qin, Celia L. Faiola, Scot T. Martin, Sergey A. Nizkorodov, Markus Ammann, and Allan K. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13783–13796,Short summary
The number of condensed phases in mixtures of different secondary organic aerosol (SOA) types determines their impact on air quality and climate. Here we observe the number of phases in individual particles that contain mixtures of two different types of SOA. We find that SOA mixtures can form one- or two-phase particles, depending on the difference in the average oxygen-to-carbon (O / C) ratios of the two SOA types that are internally mixed within individual particles.
Xiao He, Xuan Zheng, Shaojun Zhang, Xuan Wang, Ting Chen, Xiao Zhang, Guanghan Huang, Yihuan Cao, Liqiang He, Xubing Cao, Yuan Cheng, Shuxiao Wang, and Ye Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13935–13947,Short summary
With the use of two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC ToF-MS), we successfully give a comprehensive characterization of particulate intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs) emitted from heavy-duty diesel vehicles. I/SVOCs are speciated, identified, and quantified based on the patterns of the mass spectrum, and the gas–particle partitioning is fully addressed.
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Oxidation of bromide and iodide is an important process in the troposphere that leads to gas-phase halogen compounds which impact the oxidation capacity of the atmosphere. Imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde (IC), an aromatic carbonyl, is a product of the multiphase chemistry of glyoxal (an oxidation product of isoprene), a major biogenic volatile organic compound. In this study we demonstrate that IC photochemistry leads to efficient oxidation of bromide and iodide and liberation of halogen compounds.
Oxidation of bromide and iodide is an important process in the troposphere that leads to...