Articles | Volume 17, issue 15
09 Aug 2017
Research article | 09 Aug 2017
A ubiquitous ice size bias in simulations of tropical deep convection
McKenna W. Stanford et al.
No articles found.
Ruhi S. Humphries, Melita D. Keywood, Jason P. Ward, James Harnwell, Simon P. Alexander, Andrew R. Klekociuk, Keiichiro Hara, Ian M. McRobert, Alain Protat, Joel Alroe, Luke T. Cravigan, Branka Miljevic, Zoran D. Ristovski, Robyn Schofield, Stephen R. Wilson, Connor J. Flynn, Gourihar R. Kulkarni, Gerald G. Mace, Greg M. McFarquhar, Scott D. Chambers, Alastair G. Williams, and Alan D. Griffiths
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Observations of aerosols in pristine regions are rare, but are vital to constraining the natural baseline from which climate simulations are calculated. Here we present recent seasonal observations of aerosols from the Southern Ocean and contrast them with measurements from Antarctica, Australia, and regionally relevant voyages. Strong seasonal cycles persist, but striking differences occur at different latitudes. This study highlights the need for more long-term observations in remote regions.
Adrien Guyot, Alain Protat, Simon P. Alexander, Andrew R. Klekociuk, Peter Kuma, and Adrian McDonald
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3663–3681,Short summary
Ceilometers are instruments that are widely deployed as part of operational networks. They are usually not able to detect cloud phase. Here, we propose an evaluation of various methods to detect supercooled liquid water with ceilometer observations, using an extensive dataset from Davis, Antarctica. Our results highlight the possibility for ceilometers to detect supercooled liquid water in clouds.
Shuaiqi Tang, Jerome D. Fast, Kai Zhang, Joseph C. Hardin, Adam C. Varble, John E. Shilling, Fan Mei, Maria A. Zawadowicz, and Po-Lun Ma
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 4055–4076,Short summary
We developed an Earth system model (ESM) diagnostics package to compare various types of aerosol properties simulated in ESMs with aircraft, ship, and surface measurements from six field campaigns across spatial scales. The diagnostics package is coded and organized to be flexible and modular for future extension to other field campaign datasets and adapted to higher-resolution model simulations. Future releases will include comprehensive cloud and aerosol–cloud interaction diagnostics.
Sonya L. Fiddes, Alain Protat, Marc D. Mallet, Simon P. Alexander, and Matthew T. Woodhouse
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
Climate models have difficulty simulating Southern Ocean clouds, impacting how much sunlight reaches the surface. We use machine learning to group different cloud types observed from satellites and simulated in a climate model. We find the model does a poor job of simulating the correct cloud type and even when it does, the cloud properties and amount of reflected sunlight is incorrect. We have a lot of work to do to model clouds correctly over the Southern Ocean.
Sonya L. Fiddes, Matthew T. Woodhouse, Steve Utembe, Robyn Schofield, Simon P. Alexander, Joel Alroe, Scott D. Chambers, Zhenyi Chen, Luke Cravigan, Erin Dunne, Ruhi S. Humphries, Graham Johnson, Melita D. Keywood, Todd P. Lane, Branka Miljevic, Yuko Omori, Alain Protat, Zoran Ristovski, Paul Selleck, Hilton B. Swan, Hiroshi Tanimoto, Jason P. Ward, and Alastair G. Williams
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2419–2445,Short summary
Coral reefs have been found to produce the climatically relevant chemical compound dimethyl sulfide (DMS). It has been suggested that corals can modify their environment via the production of DMS. We use an atmospheric chemistry model to test this theory at a regional scale for the first time. We find that it is unlikely that coral-reef-derived DMS has an influence over local climate, in part due to the proximity to terrestrial and anthropogenic aerosol sources.
Alain Protat, Valentin Louf, Joshua Soderholm, Jordan Brook, and William Ponsonby
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 915–926,Short summary
This study uses collocated ship-based, ground-based, and spaceborne radar observations to validate the concept of using the GPM spaceborne radar observations to calibrate national weather radar networks to the accuracy required for operational severe weather applications such as rainfall and hail nowcasting.
Kamil Mroz, Alessandro Battaglia, Cuong Nguyen, Andrew Heymsfield, Alain Protat, and Mengistu Wolde
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7243–7254,Short summary
A method for estimating microphysical properties of ice clouds based on radar measurements is presented. The algorithm exploits the information provided by differences in the radar response at different frequency bands in relation to changes in the snow morphology. The inversion scheme is based on a statistical relation between the radar simulations and the properties of snow calculated from in-cloud sampling.
Ruhi S. Humphries, Melita D. Keywood, Sean Gribben, Ian M. McRobert, Jason P. Ward, Paul Selleck, Sally Taylor, James Harnwell, Connor Flynn, Gourihar R. Kulkarni, Gerald G. Mace, Alain Protat, Simon P. Alexander, and Greg McFarquhar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12757–12782,Short summary
The Southern Ocean region is one of the most pristine in the world and serves as an important proxy for the pre-industrial atmosphere. Improving our understanding of the natural processes in this region is likely to result in the largest reductions in the uncertainty of climate and earth system models. In this paper we present a statistical summary of the latitudinal gradient of aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei concentrations obtained from five voyages spanning the Southern Ocean.
Robert Jackson, Scott Collis, Valentin Louf, Alain Protat, Die Wang, Scott Giangrande, Elizabeth J. Thompson, Brenda Dolan, and Scott W. Powell
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 53–69,Short summary
About 4 years of 2D video disdrometer data in Darwin are used to develop and validate rainfall retrievals for tropical convection in C- and X-band radars in Darwin. Using blended techniques previously used for Colorado and Manus and Gan islands, with modified coefficients in each estimator, provided the most optimal results. Using multiple radar observables to develop a rainfall retrieval provided a greater advantage than using a single observable, including using specific attenuation.
Alain Protat and Ian McRobert
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3609–3620,Short summary
Three-dimensional (3D) wind motions play a major role in driving the life cycle of clouds. In this pilot study we have developed a technique to measure the 3D winds in clouds, using a shipborne Doppler cloud radar on a stabilized platform. The stabilized platform is driven to point in a series of predefined directions to collect the required measurements. Comparisons with radiosondes demonstrate that accurate 1 min resolution 3D wind motions can be obtained from this instrumental setup.
Alexis Hunzinger, Joseph C. Hardin, Nitin Bharadwaj, Adam Varble, and Alyssa Matthews
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3147–3166,Short summary
The calibration of weather radars is one of the most dominant sources of errors hindering their use. This work takes a technique for tracking the changes in radar calibration using the radar clutter from the ground and extends it to higher-frequency research radars. It demonstrates that after modifications the technique is successful but that special care needs to be taken in its application at high frequencies. The technique is verified using data from multiple DOE ARM field campaigns.
Emmanuel Fontaine, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, Delphine Leroy, Julien Delanoë, Alain Protat, Fabien Dezitter, John Walter Strapp, and Lyle Edward Lilie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3503–3553,Short summary
This study investigates properties of ice hydrometeors (shape, concentration, density, and size) in deep convective systems. The analysis focuses on similarities and differences over four locations in the tropical troposphere. It shows that measurements as a function of temperature and radar reflectivity factors tend to be similar in the four types of deep convective systems when concentrations of ice are larger than 0.1 g m-3.
Adrien Guyot, Jayaram Pudashine, Alain Protat, Remko Uijlenhoet, Valentijn R. N. Pauwels, Alan Seed, and Jeffrey P. Walker
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 4737–4761,Short summary
We characterised for the first time the rainfall microphysics for Southern Hemisphere temperate latitudes. Co-located instruments were deployed to provide information on the sampling effect and spatio-temporal variabilities at micro scales. Substantial differences were found across the instruments, increasing with increasing values of the rain rate. Specific relations for reflectivity–rainfall are presented together with related uncertainties for drizzle and stratiform and convective rainfall.
Ingo Wohltmann, Ralph Lehmann, Georg A. Gottwald, Karsten Peters, Alain Protat, Valentin Louf, Christopher Williams, Wuhu Feng, and Markus Rex
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 4387–4407,Short summary
We present a trajectory-based model for simulating the transport of air parcels by convection. Our model extends the approach of existing models by explicitly simulating vertical updraft velocities inside the clouds and the time that an air parcel spends inside the convective event.
Robert C. Jackson, Scott M. Collis, Valentin Louf, Alain Protat, and Leon Majewski
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17687–17704,Short summary
This paper looks at a 17 year database of echo top heights of thunderstorms in Darwin retrieved by CPOL. We find that the echo top heights are generally bimodal, corresponding to cumulus congestus and deep convection, and show a greater bimodality during an inactive MJO. Furthermore, we find that convective cell areas are larger in break conditions compared to monsoon conditions, but only during MJO-inactive conditions.
Stephan E. Bansmer, Arne Baumert, Stephan Sattler, Inken Knop, Delphine Leroy, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, Tina Jurkat-Witschas, Christiane Voigt, Hugo Pervier, and Biagio Esposito
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3221–3249,Short summary
Snow, frost formation and ice cubes in our drinks are part of our daily life. But what about our technical innovations like aviation, electrical power transmission and wind-energy production, can they cope with icing? Icing Wind Tunnels are an ideal laboratory environment to answer that question. In this paper, we show how the icing wind tunnel in Braunschweig (Germany) was built and how we can use it for engineering and climate research.
Christopher R. Yost, Kristopher M. Bedka, Patrick Minnis, Louis Nguyen, J. Walter Strapp, Rabindra Palikonda, Konstantin Khlopenkov, Douglas Spangenberg, William L. Smith Jr., Alain Protat, and Julien Delanoe
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1615–1637,Short summary
Accretion of cloud ice particles upon engine or instrument probe surfaces can cause engine malfunction or even power loss, and therefore it is important for aircraft to avoid flight through clouds that may have produced large quantities of ice particles. This study introduces a method by which potentially hazardous conditions can be detected using satellite imagery. It was found that potentially hazardous conditions were often located near or beneath very cold clouds and thunderstorm updrafts.
Emmanuel Fontaine, Delphine Leroy, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, Julien Delanoë, Alain Protat, Fabien Dezitter, Alice Grandin, John Walter Strapp, and Lyle Edward Lilie
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2239–2252,Short summary
In this study we evaluate a method to estimate cloud water content (CWC) knowing cloud reflectivity. Ice hydrometeors are replace by ice oblate spheroids to simulate their reflectivity. There is no assumption on the relation between mass and their size. Then, a broad range of CWCs are compared with direct measurements of CWC. The accuracy of the method is ~ ±32 %. This study is performed in areas of convective clouds where reflectivity and CWC are especially high, what makes it unique.
Charmaine N. Franklin, Alain Protat, Delphine Leroy, and Emmanuel Fontaine
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8767–8789,Short summary
Simulations of tropical convection are used to investigate the processes that control the phase composition of tropical clouds. It is shown that the growth of ice is less dependent on vertical velocity than is liquid water, with the control on ice water content being the ice sizes and available liquid water. Results show that in the purely ice region of convective updraughts, the buoyancy is controlled by the ice sizes, demonstrating the importance of microphysical processes on convective dynamics.
E. Fontaine, A. Schwarzenboeck, J. Delanoë, W. Wobrock, D. Leroy, R. Dupuy, C. Gourbeyre, and A. Protat
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11367–11392,
Related subject area
Subject: Clouds and Precipitation | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Life cycle of stratocumulus clouds over 1 year at the coast of the Atacama DesertExperimental study on the evolution of droplet size distribution during the fog life cycleSignificant continental source of ice-nucleating particles at the tip of Chile's southernmost Patagonia regionRetrieving ice-nucleating particle concentration and ice multiplication factors using active remote sensing validated by in situ observationsTemporal and vertical distributions of the occurrence of cirrus clouds over a coastal station in the Indian monsoon regionIce fog observed at cirrus temperatures at Dome C, Antarctic PlateauObservation of secondary ice production in clouds at low temperaturesContinental thunderstorm ground enhancement observed at an exceptionally low altitudeIce-nucleating particles from multiple aerosol sources in the urban environment of Beijing under mixed-phase cloud conditionsIn Situ and Satellite-based Estimates of Cloud Properties and Aerosol-Cloud Interactions over the Southeast Atlantic OceanIn situ observation of riming in mixed-phase clouds using the PHIPS probeMeasurement report: Introduction to the HyICE-2018 campaign for measurements of ice-nucleating particles and instrument inter-comparison in the Hyytiälä boreal forestSnowfall in Northern Finland derives mostly from ice cloudsNorth Atlantic Ocean SST-gradient-driven variations in aerosol and cloud evolution along Lagrangian cold-air outbreak trajectoriesFactors affecting precipitation formation and precipitation susceptibility of marine stratocumulus with variable above- and below-cloud aerosol concentrations over the Southeast AtlanticAn assessment of macrophysical and microphysical cloud properties driving radiative forcing of shallow trade-wind cloudsHigh concentrations of ice crystals in upper-tropospheric tropical clouds: is there a link to biomass and fossil fuel combustion?Atmospheric rivers and associated precipitation patterns during the ACLOUD and PASCAL campaigns near Svalbard (May–June 2017): case studies using observations, reanalyses, and a regional climate modelMass of different snow crystal shapes derived from fall speed measurementsMeasurement report: Impact of African aerosol particles on cloud evolution in a tropical montane cloud forest in the CaribbeanAnnual exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban environments linked to wintertime wood-burning episodesReduced ice number concentrations in contrails from low-aromatic biofuel blendsDistinct impacts on precipitation by aerosol radiative effect over three different megacity regions of eastern ChinaEstimation of the terms acting on local 1 h surface temperature variations in Paris region: the specific contribution of cloudsContrasting characteristics of open- and closed-cellular stratocumulus cloud in the eastern North AtlanticMass and density of individual frozen hydrometeorsLinear relationship between effective radius and precipitation water content near the top of convective clouds: measurement results from ACRIDICON–CHUVA campaignSupercooled liquid water and secondary ice production in Kelvin–Helmholtz instability as revealed by radar Doppler spectra observationsMorning boundary layer conditions for shallow to deep convective cloud evolution during the dry season in the central AmazonAnalysis of aerosol–cloud interactions and their implications for precipitation formation using aircraft observations over the United Arab EmiratesImpact of wind pattern and complex topography on snow microphysics during International Collaborative Experiment for PyeongChang 2018 Olympic and Paralympic winter games (ICE-POP 2018)Evaluation of simulated cloud liquid water in low clouds over the Beaufort Sea in the Arctic System Reanalysis using ARISE airborne in situ observationsComprehensive quantification of height dependence of entrainment mixing between stratiform cloud top and environmentSunlight-absorbing aerosol amplifies the seasonal cycle in low-cloud fraction over the southeast AtlanticCoupled and decoupled stratocumulus-topped boundary layers: turbulence propertiesShape dependence of snow crystal fall speedCaptured cirrus ice particles in high definitionWhat drives daily precipitation over the central Amazon? Differences observed between wet and dry seasonsMicrophysical investigation of the seeder and feeder region of an Alpine mixed-phase cloudCase study of a humidity layer above Arctic stratocumulus and potential turbulent coupling with the cloud topJoint cloud water path and rainwater path retrievals from airborne ORACLES observationsLagrangian matches between observations from aircraft, lidar and radar in a warm conveyor belt crossing orographyInfluence of low-level blocking and turbulence on the microphysics of a mixed-phase cloud in an inner-Alpine valleyObserved trends in clouds and precipitation (1983–2009): implications for their cause(s)Statistical characteristics of raindrop size distribution over the Western Ghats of India: wet versus dry spells of the Indian summer monsoonImpact of the variability in vertical separation between biomass burning aerosols and marine stratocumulus on cloud microphysical properties over the Southeast AtlanticMeasurement report: Ice nucleating abilities of biomass burning, African dust, and sea spray aerosol particles over the Yucatán PeninsulaThe prevalence of precipitation from polar supercooled cloudsContinuous secondary-ice production initiated by updrafts through the melting layer in mountainous regionsVertical dependence of horizontal variation of cloud microphysics: observations from the ACE-ENA field campaign and implications for warm-rain simulation in climate models
Jan H. Schween, Camilo del Rio, Juan-Luis García, Pablo Osses, Sarah Westbrook, and Ulrich Löhnert
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12241–12267,Short summary
Marine stratocumulus clouds of the eastern Pacific play an essential role in the Earth's climate. These clouds form the major source of water to parts of the extreme dry Atacama Desert at the northern coast of Chile. For the first time these clouds are observed over a whole year with three remote sensing instruments. It is shown how these clouds are influenced by the land–sea wind system and the distribution of ocean temperatures.
Marie Mazoyer, Frédéric Burnet, and Cyrielle Denjean
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11305–11321,Short summary
The evolution of the droplet size distribution during the fog life cycle remains poorly understood and progress is required to reduce the uncertainty of fog forecasts. To gain insights into the physical processes driving the microphysics, intensive field campaigns were conducted during three winters at the SIRTA site in the south of Paris. This study analyzed the variations in fog microphysical properties and their potential interactions at the different evolutionary stages of the fog events.
Xianda Gong, Martin Radenz, Heike Wex, Patric Seifert, Farnoush Ataei, Silvia Henning, Holger Baars, Boris Barja, Albert Ansmann, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10505–10525,Short summary
The sources of ice-nucleating particles (INPs) are poorly understood in the Southern Hemisphere (SH). We studied INPs in the boundary layer in the southern Patagonia region. No seasonal cycle of INP concentrations was observed. The majority of INPs are biogenic particles, likely from local continental sources. The INP concentrations are higher when strong precipitation occurs. While previous studies focused on marine INP sources in SH, we point out the importance of continental sources of INPs.
Jörg Wieder, Nikola Ihn, Claudia Mignani, Moritz Haarig, Johannes Bühl, Patric Seifert, Ronny Engelmann, Fabiola Ramelli, Zamin A. Kanji, Ulrike Lohmann, and Jan Henneberger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9767–9797,Short summary
Ice formation and its evolution in mixed-phase clouds are still uncertain. We evaluate the lidar retrieval of ice-nucleating particle concentration in dust-dominated and continental air masses over the Swiss Alps with in situ observations. A calibration factor to improve the retrieval from continental air masses is proposed. Ice multiplication factors are obtained with a new method utilizing remote sensing. Our results indicate that secondary ice production occurs at temperatures down to −30 °C.
Saleem Ali, Sanjay Kumar Mehta, Aravindhavel Ananthavel, and Tondapu Venkata Ramesh Reddy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8321–8342,Short summary
Multiple cirrus clouds frequently occur over regions of deep convection in the tropics. Tropical convection has a strong diurnal pattern, with peaks in the afternoon to early evening, over the continents. Continuous micropulse lidar observations over a coastal station in the Indian monsoon region enable us, for the first time, to demonstrate a robust diurnal pattern of single and multiple cirrus occurrences, with peaks during the late afternoon and early morning hours, respectively.
Étienne Vignon, Lea Raillard, Christophe Genthon, Massimo Del Guasta, Andrew J. Heymsfield, Jean-Baptiste Madeleine, and Alexis Berne
The near-surface atmosphere over the Antarctic Plateau is cold and pristine and resembles to a certain extent those of the high-troposphere where cirrus clouds form. In this study, we use innovative humidity measurements at Concordia station to study the formation of ice fogs at temperatures <-40 °C. We provide observational evidence that ice fogs can form through the homogeneous freezing of solution aerosols, a common nucleation pathway for cirrus clouds.
Alexei Korolev, Paul DeMott, Ivan Heckman, Mengistu Wolde, Earle Williams, David J. Smalley, and Michael F. Donovan
The present study provides the first in-situ observation of secondary ice production at temperatures as low as -27 °C, which is well outside the range of the Hallett-Mossop process (-3 °C to -8 °C). This observation expands our knowledge of the temperature range of initiation of secondary ice in clouds. The obtained results are intended to stimulate laboratory and theoretical studies to develop physically based parameterizations for weather prediction and climate models.
Ivana Kolmašová, Ondřej Santolík, Jakub Šlegl, Jana Popová, Zbyněk Sokol, Petr Zacharov, Ondřej Ploc, Gerhard Diendorfer, Ronald Langer, Radek Lán, and Igor Strhárský
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7959–7973,Short summary
Gamma ray radiation related to thunderstorms was previously observed at the high-altitude mountain observatories or on the western coast of Japan, usually being terminated by lightning discharges. We show unusual observations of gamma rays at an altitude below 1000 m, coinciding with peculiar rapid variations in the vertical electric field, which are linked to inverted intracloud lightning discharges. This indicates that a strong, lower positive-charge region was present inside the thundercloud.
Cuiqi Zhang, Zhijun Wu, Jingchuan Chen, Jie Chen, Lizi Tang, Wenfei Zhu, Xiangyu Pei, Shiyi Chen, Ping Tian, Song Guo, Limin Zeng, Min Hu, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7539–7556,Short summary
The immersion ice nucleation effectiveness of aerosols from multiple sources in the urban environment remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that the immersion ice-nucleating particle (INP) concentration increased dramatically during a dust event in an urban atmosphere. Pollutant aerosols, including inorganic salts formed through secondary transformation (SIA) and black carbon (BC), might not act as effective INPs under mixed-phase cloud conditions.
Siddhant Gupta, Greg M. McFarquhar, Joseph R. O'Brien, Michael R. Poellot, David J. Delene, Ian Chang, Lan Gao, Feng Xu, and Jens Redemann
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The ability of NASA’s Terra and Aqua satellites to retrieve cloud properties and estimate the changes in cloud properties due to aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI) was examined. There was good agreement between satellite retrievals and in-situ measurements over the southeast Atlantic Ocean. This suggests that, combined with information on aerosol properties, satellite retrievals of cloud properties can be used to study ACI over larger domains and longer timescales in the absence of in situ data.
Fritz Waitz, Martin Schnaiter, Thomas Leisner, and Emma Järvinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7087–7103,Short summary
Riming, i.e., the accretion of small droplets on the surface of ice particles via collision, is one of the major uncertainties in model prediction of mixed-phase clouds. We discuss the occurrence (up to 50% of particles) and aging of rimed ice particles and show correlations of the occurrence and the degree of riming with ambient meteorological parameters using data gathered by the Particle Habit Imaging and Polar Scattering (PHIPS) probe during three airborne in situ field campaigns.
Zoé Brasseur, Dimitri Castarède, Erik S. Thomson, Michael P. Adams, Saskia Drossaart van Dusseldorp, Paavo Heikkilä, Kimmo Korhonen, Janne Lampilahti, Mikhail Paramonov, Julia Schneider, Franziska Vogel, Yusheng Wu, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Nina S. Atanasova, Dennis H. Bamford, Barbara Bertozzi, Matthew Boyer, David Brus, Martin I. Daily, Romy Fösig, Ellen Gute, Alexander D. Harrison, Paula Hietala, Kristina Höhler, Zamin A. Kanji, Jorma Keskinen, Larissa Lacher, Markus Lampimäki, Janne Levula, Antti Manninen, Jens Nadolny, Maija Peltola, Grace C. E. Porter, Pyry Poutanen, Ulrike Proske, Tobias Schorr, Nsikanabasi Silas Umo, János Stenszky, Annele Virtanen, Dmitri Moisseev, Markku Kulmala, Benjamin J. Murray, Tuukka Petäjä, Ottmar Möhler, and Jonathan Duplissy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5117–5145,Short summary
The present measurement report introduces the ice nucleation campaign organized in Hyytiälä, Finland, in 2018 (HyICE-2018). We provide an overview of the campaign settings, and we describe the measurement infrastructure and operating procedures used. In addition, we use results from ice nucleation instrument inter-comparison to show that the suite of these instruments deployed during the campaign reports consistent results.
Claudia Mignani, Lukas Zimmermann, Rigel Kivi, Alexis Berne, and Franz Conen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
In the Arctic clouds play a critical role in surface warming, depending on their phase. We determined over the course of eight winter months the phase of clouds in Northern Finland using radiosondes and observations of snow particle habits at ground level. We found that precipitating clouds were extending from near ground to at least 2.7 km altitude and approximately three quarters of them were ice-phase. Likely moisture sources and possible ice formation processes are discussed.
Kevin J. Sanchez, Bo Zhang, Hongyu Liu, Matthew D. Brown, Ewan C. Crosbie, Francesca Gallo, Johnathan W. Hair, Chris A. Hostetler, Carolyn E. Jordan, Claire E. Robinson, Amy Jo Scarino, Taylor J. Shingler, Michael A. Shook, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, Edward L. Winstead, Luke D. Ziemba, Georges Saliba, Savannah L. Lewis, Lynn M. Russell, Patricia K. Quinn, Timothy S. Bates, Jack Porter, Thomas G. Bell, Peter Gaube, Eric S. Saltzman, Michael J. Behrenfeld, and Richard H. Moore
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2795–2815,Short summary
Atmospheric particle concentrations impact clouds, which strongly impact the amount of sunlight reflected back into space and the overall climate. Measurements of particles over the ocean are rare and expensive to collect, so models are necessary to fill in the gaps by simulating both particle and clouds. However, some measurements are needed to test the accuracy of the models. Here, we measure changes in particles in different weather conditions, which are ideal for comparison with models.
Siddhant Gupta, Greg M. McFarquhar, Joseph R. O'Brien, Michael R. Poellot, David J. Delene, Rose M. Miller, and Jennifer D. Small Griswold
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2769–2793,Short summary
This study evaluates the impact of biomass burning aerosols on precipitation in marine stratocumulus clouds using observations from the NASA ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS (ORACLES) field campaign over the Southeast Atlantic. Instances of contact and separation between aerosol and cloud layers show polluted clouds have a lower precipitation rate and a lower precipitation susceptibility. This information will help improve cloud representation in Earth system models.
Anna E. Luebke, André Ehrlich, Michael Schäfer, Kevin Wolf, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2727–2744,Short summary
A combination of aircraft and satellite observations is used to show how the characteristics of tropical shallow clouds interact with incoming and outgoing energy. A complete depiction of these clouds is challenging to obtain, but such data are useful for understanding how models can correctly represent them. The amount of cloud is found to be the most important factor, while other cloud characteristics become increasingly impactful when more cloud is present.
Graciela B. Raga, Darrel Baumgardner, Blanca Rios, Yanet Díaz-Esteban, Alejandro Jaramillo, Martin Gallagher, Bastien Sauvage, Pawel Wolff, and Gary Lloyd
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2269–2292,Short summary
The In-Service Aircraft for a Global Observing System (IAGOS) is a small fleet of commercial aircraft that carry a suite of meteorological, gas, aerosol, and cloud sensors and have been measuring worldwide for almost 9 years, since late 2011. Extreme ice events (EIEs) have been identified from the IAGOS cloud measurements and linked to surface emissions for biomass and fossil fuel consumption. The results reported here are highly relevant for climate change and flight operations forecasting.
Carolina Viceto, Irina V. Gorodetskaya, Annette Rinke, Marion Maturilli, Alfredo Rocha, and Susanne Crewell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 441–463,Short summary
We focus on anomalous moisture transport events known as atmospheric rivers (ARs). During ACLOUD and PASCAL, three AR events were identified: 30 May, 6 June, and 9 June 2017. We explore their spatio-temporal evolution and precipitation patterns using measurements, reanalyses, and a model. We show the importance of the following: Atlantic and Siberian pathways during spring–summer in the Arctic, AR-associated heat/moisture increase, precipitation phase transition, and high-resolution datasets.
Sandra Vázquez-Martín, Thomas Kuhn, and Salomon Eliasson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18669–18688,Short summary
High-resolution top- and side-view images of snow ice particles taken by the D-ICI instrument are used to determine the shape; size; cross-sectional area; fall speed; and, based upon these properties, the mass of the individual snow particles. The study analyses the relationships between these fundamental properties as a function of particle shape and highlights that the choice of size parameter, maximum dimension or another characteristic length, is crucial when relating fall speed to mass.
Elvis Torres-Delgado, Darrel Baumgardner, and Olga L. Mayol-Bracero
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18011–18027,Short summary
African dust aerosols can travel thousands of kilometers and reach the Caribbean and other places, where they can serve as ice and cloud condensation nuclei and alter precipitation patterns. Cloud microphysical properties (droplet number and size) were measured in a Caribbean tropical montane cloud forest along with models and satellite products. The results of the study suggest that meteorology and air mass history are more important for cloud processes than aerosols transported from Africa.
Irini Tsiodra, Georgios Grivas, Kalliopi Tavernaraki, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Maria Apostolaki, Despina Paraskevopoulou, Alexandra Gogou, Constantine Parinos, Konstantina Oikonomou, Maria Tsagkaraki, Pavlos Zarmpas, Athanasios Nenes, and Nikolaos Mihalopoulos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17865–17883,Short summary
We analyze observations from year-long measurements at Athens, Greece. Nighttime wintertime PAH levels are 4 times higher than daytime, and wintertime values are 15 times higher than summertime. Biomass burning aerosol during wintertime pollution events is responsible for these significant wintertime enhancements and accounts for 43 % of the population exposure to PAH carcinogenic risk. Biomass burning poses additional health risks beyond those associated with the high PM levels that develop.
Tiziana Bräuer, Christiane Voigt, Daniel Sauer, Stefan Kaufmann, Valerian Hahn, Monika Scheibe, Hans Schlager, Felix Huber, Patrick Le Clercq, Richard H. Moore, and Bruce E. Anderson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16817–16826,Short summary
Over half of aviation climate impact is caused by contrails. Biofuels can reduce the ice crystal numbers in contrails and mitigate the climate impact. The experiment ECLIF II/NDMAX in 2018 assessed the effects of biofuels on contrails and aviation emissions. The NASA DC-8 aircraft performed measurements inside the contrail of the DLR A320. One reference fuel and two blends of the biofuel HEFA and kerosene are analysed. We find a max reduction of contrail ice numbers through biofuel use of 40 %.
Yue Sun and Chuanfeng Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16555–16574,Short summary
Using high-resolution multi-year warm season data, the influence of aerosol on precipitation time over the North China Plain (NCP), Yangtze River Delta (YRD), and Pearl River Delta (PRD) is investigated. Aerosol amount and type have significant influence on precipitation time: precipitation start time is advanced by 3 h in the NCP, delayed 2 h in the PRD, and negligibly changed in the YRD. Aerosol impact on precipitation is also influenced by precipitation type and meteorological conditions.
Oscar Javier Rojas Muñoz, Marjolaine Chiriaco, Sophie Bastin, and Justine Ringard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15699–15723,Short summary
A method is developed and evaluated to quantify each process that affects hourly 2 m temperature variations on a local scale, based almost exclusively on observations retrieved from an observatory near the Paris region. Each term involved in surface temperature variations is estimated, and its contribution and importance are also assessed. It is found that clouds are the main modulator on hourly temperature variations for most hours of the day, and thus their characterization is addressed.
Michael P. Jensen, Virendra P. Ghate, Dié Wang, Diana K. Apoznanski, Mary J. Bartholomew, Scott E. Giangrande, Karen L. Johnson, and Mandana M. Thieman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14557–14571,Short summary
This work compares the large-scale meteorology, cloud, aerosol, precipitation, and thermodynamics of closed- and open-cell cloud organizations using long-term observations from the astern North Atlantic. Open-cell cases are associated with cold-air outbreaks and occur in deeper boundary layers, with stronger winds and higher rain rates compared to closed-cell cases. These results offer important benchmarks for model representation of boundary layer clouds in this climatically important region.
Karlie N. Rees, Dhiraj K. Singh, Eric R. Pardyjak, and Timothy J. Garrett
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14235–14250,Short summary
Accurate predictions of weather and climate require descriptions of the mass and density of snowflakes as a function of their size. Few measurements have been obtained to date because snowflakes are so small and fragile. This article describes results from a new instrument that automatically measures individual snowflake size, mass, and density. Key findings are that small snowflakes have much lower densities than is often assumed and that snowflake density increases with temperature.
Ramon Campos Braga, Daniel Rosenfeld, Ovid O. Krüger, Barbara Ervens, Bruna A. Holanda, Manfred Wendisch, Trismono Krisna, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, Christiane Voigt, and Mira L. Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14079–14088,Short summary
Quantifying the precipitation within clouds is crucial for our understanding of the Earth's hydrological cycle. Using in situ measurements of cloud and rain properties over the Amazon Basin and Atlantic Ocean, we show here a linear relationship between the effective radius (re) and precipitation water content near the tops of convective clouds for different pollution states and temperature levels. Our results emphasize the role of re to determine both initiation and amount of precipitation.
Haoran Li, Alexei Korolev, and Dmitri Moisseev
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13593–13608,Short summary
Kelvin–Helmholtz (K–H) clouds embedded in a stratiform precipitation event were uncovered via radar Doppler spectral analysis. Given the unprecedented detail of the observations, we show that multiple populations of secondary ice columns were generated in the pockets where larger cloud droplets are formed and not at some constant level within the cloud. Our results highlight that the K–H instability is favorable for liquid droplet growth and secondary ice formation.
Alice Henkes, Gilberto Fisch, Luiz A. T. Machado, and Jean-Pierre Chaboureau
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13207–13225,Short summary
The Amazonian boundary layer is investigated during the dry season in order to better understand the processes that occur between night and day until the stage where shallow cumulus clouds become deep. Observations show that shallow to deep clouds are characterized by a shorter morning transition stage (e.g., the time needed to eliminate the stable boundary layer inversion), while higher humidity above the boundary layer favors the evolution from shallow to deep cumulus clouds.
Youssef Wehbe, Sarah A. Tessendorf, Courtney Weeks, Roelof Bruintjes, Lulin Xue, Roy Rasmussen, Paul Lawson, Sarah Woods, and Marouane Temimi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12543–12560,Short summary
The role of dust aerosols as ice-nucleating particles is well established in the literature, whereas their role as cloud condensation nuclei is less understood, particularly in polluted desert environments. We analyze coincident aerosol size distributions and cloud particle imagery collected over the UAE with a research aircraft. Despite the presence of ultra-giant aerosol sizes associated with dust, an active collision–coalescence process is not observed within the limited depths of warm cloud.
Kwonil Kim, Wonbae Bang, Eun-Chul Chang, Francisco J. Tapiador, Chia-Lun Tsai, Eunsil Jung, and Gyuwon Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11955–11978,Short summary
This study analyzes the microphysical characteristics of snow in complex terrain and the nearby ocean according to topography and wind pattern during the ICE-POP 2018 campaign. The observations from collocated vertically pointing radars and disdrometers indicate that the riming in the mountainous region is likely caused by a strong shear and turbulence. The different behaviors of aggregation and riming were found by three different synoptic patterns (air–sea interaction, cold low, and warm low).
J. Brant Dodson, Patrick C. Taylor, Richard H. Moore, David H. Bromwich, Keith M. Hines, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Chelsea A. Corr, Bruce E. Anderson, Edward L. Winstead, and Joseph R. Bennett
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11563–11580,Short summary
Aircraft in situ observations of low-level Beaufort Sea cloud properties and thermodynamics from the ARISE campaign are compared with the Arctic System Reanalysis (ASR) to better understand deficiencies in simulated clouds. ASR produces too little cloud water, which coincides with being too warm and dry. In addition, ASR struggles to produce cloud water even in favorable thermodynamic conditions. A random sampling experiment also shows the effects of the limited aircraft sampling on the results.
Sinan Gao, Chunsong Lu, Yangang Liu, Seong Soo Yum, Jiashan Zhu, Lei Zhu, Neel Desai, Yongfeng Ma, and Shang Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11225–11241,Short summary
Only a few studies have been focused on the vertical variation of entrainment mixing with low resolutions which are crucial to cloud-related processes. A sawtooth pattern allows for an examination of mixing with high vertical resolution. A new measure is introduced to estimate entrainment mixing to overcome difficulties in existing measures, where vertical profile indicates that entrainment mixing becomes more homogeneous with decreasing altitudes, consistent with the dynamical measures.
Jianhao Zhang and Paquita Zuidema
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11179–11199,Short summary
The subtropical Atlantic hosts one of the planet's largest marine low cloud decks and interacts with biomass burning aerosol from approximately July through October. This study clarifies how the monthly evolution in meteorology and the biomass burning aerosol vertical structure affects the seasonal cycle in its low cloud fraction, such that the July–October evolution in low cloud cover and morphology are reinforced, when compared to scenarios with less aerosol present.
Jakub L. Nowak, Holger Siebert, Kai-Erik Szodry, and Szymon P. Malinowski
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10965–10991,Short summary
Turbulence properties in two cases of a marine stratocumulus-topped boundary layer have been compared using high-resolution helicopter-borne in situ measurements. In the coupled one, small-scale turbulence was close to isotropic and reasonably followed inertial range scaling according to Kolmogorov theory. In the decoupled one, turbulence was more anisotropic and the scaling deviated from theory. This was more pronounced in the cloud and subcloud layers in comparison to the surface mixed layer.
Sandra Vázquez-Martín, Thomas Kuhn, and Salomon Eliasson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7545–7565,Short summary
In this work, we present new fall speed measurements of natural snow particles and ice crystals. We study the particle fall speed relationships and how they depend on particle shape. We analyze these relationships as a function of particle size, cross-sectional area, and area ratio for different particle shape groups. We also investigate the dependence of the particle fall speed on the orientation, as it has a large impact on the cross-sectional area.
Nathan Magee, Katie Boaggio, Samantha Staskiewicz, Aaron Lynn, Xuanyi Zhao, Nicholas Tusay, Terance Schuh, Manisha Bandamede, Lucas Bancroft, David Connelly, Kevin Hurler, Bryan Miner, and Elissa Khoudary
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7171–7185,Short summary
The cryo-electron microscopy images and analysis in this paper result from the first balloon-borne capture, preservation, and high-resolution imaging of ice particles from cirrus clouds. The images show cirrus particle complexity in unprecedented detail, revealing unexpected morphology, a mixture of surface roughness scales and patterns, embedded aerosols, and a large variety of habits within a single cloud. The results should inform ongoing efforts to refine modeling of cirrus radiative impact.
Thiago S. Biscaro, Luiz A. T. Machado, Scott E. Giangrande, and Michael P. Jensen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6735–6754,Short summary
This study suggests that there are two distinct modes driving diurnal precipitating convective clouds over the central Amazon. In the wet season, local factors such as turbulence and nighttime cloud coverage are the main controls of daily precipitation, while dry-season daily precipitation is modulated primarily by the mesoscale convective pattern. The results imply that models and parameterizations must consider different formulations based on the seasonal cycle to correctly resolve convection.
Fabiola Ramelli, Jan Henneberger, Robert O. David, Johannes Bühl, Martin Radenz, Patric Seifert, Jörg Wieder, Annika Lauber, Julie T. Pasquier, Ronny Engelmann, Claudia Mignani, Maxime Hervo, and Ulrike Lohmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6681–6706,Short summary
Orographic mixed-phase clouds are an important source of precipitation, but the ice formation processes within them remain uncertain. Here we investigate the origin of ice crystals in a mixed-phase cloud in the Swiss Alps using aerosol and cloud data from in situ and remote sensing observations. We found that ice formation primarily occurs in cloud top generating cells. Our results indicate that secondary ice processes are active in the feeder region, which can enhance orographic precipitation.
Ulrike Egerer, André Ehrlich, Matthias Gottschalk, Hannes Griesche, Roel A. J. Neggers, Holger Siebert, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6347–6364,Short summary
This paper describes a case study of a three-day period with a persistent humidity inversion above a mixed-phase cloud layer in the Arctic. It is based on measurements with a tethered balloon, complemented with results from a dedicated high-resolution large-eddy simulation. Both methods show that the humidity layer acts to provide moisture to the cloud layer through downward turbulent transport. This supply of additional moisture can contribute to the persistence of Arctic clouds.
Andrew M. Dzambo, Tristan L'Ecuyer, Kenneth Sinclair, Bastiaan van Diedenhoven, Siddhant Gupta, Greg McFarquhar, Joseph R. O'Brien, Brian Cairns, Andrzej P. Wasilewski, and Mikhail Alexandrov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5513–5532,Short summary
This work highlights a new algorithm using data collected from the 2016–2018 NASA ORACLES field campaign. This algorithm synthesizes cloud and rain measurements to attain estimates of cloud and precipitation properties over the southeast Atlantic Ocean. Estimates produced by this algorithm compare well against in situ estimates. Increased rain fractions and rain rates are found in regions of atmospheric instability. This dataset can be used to explore aerosol–cloud–precipitation interactions.
Maxi Boettcher, Andreas Schäfler, Michael Sprenger, Harald Sodemann, Stefan Kaufmann, Christiane Voigt, Hans Schlager, Donato Summa, Paolo Di Girolamo, Daniele Nerini, Urs Germann, and Heini Wernli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5477–5498,Short summary
Warm conveyor belts (WCBs) are important airstreams in extratropical cyclones, often leading to the formation of intense precipitation. We present a case study that involves aircraft, lidar and radar observations of water and clouds in a WCB ascending from western Europe across the Alps towards the Baltic Sea during the field campaigns HyMeX and T-NAWDEX-Falcon in October 2012. A probabilistic trajectory measure and an airborne tracer experiment were used to confirm the long pathway of the WCB.
Fabiola Ramelli, Jan Henneberger, Robert O. David, Annika Lauber, Julie T. Pasquier, Jörg Wieder, Johannes Bühl, Patric Seifert, Ronny Engelmann, Maxime Hervo, and Ulrike Lohmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5151–5172,Short summary
Interactions between dynamics, microphysics and orography can enhance precipitation. Yet the exact role of these interactions is still uncertain. Here we investigate the role of low-level blocking and turbulence for precipitation by combining remote sensing and in situ observations. The observations show that blocked flow can induce the formation of feeder clouds and that turbulence can enhance hydrometeor growth, demonstrating the importance of local flow effects for orographic precipitation.
Xiang Zhong, Shaw Chen Liu, Run Liu, Xinlu Wang, Jiajia Mo, and Yanzi Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4899–4913,Short summary
The distributions of linear trends in total cloud cover and precipitation in 1983–2009 are both characterized by a broadening of the major ascending zone of Hadley circulation around the Maritime Continent. The broadening is driven primarily by the moisture–convection–latent-heat feedback cycle under global warming conditions. Contribution by other climate oscillations is secondary. The reduction of total cloud cover in China in 1957–2005 is driven by the same mechanism.
Uriya Veerendra Murali Krishna, Subrata Kumar Das, Ezhilarasi Govindaraj Sulochana, Utsav Bhowmik, Sachin Madhukar Deshpande, and Govindan Pandithurai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4741–4757,Short summary
Indian summer monsoon (ISM) rainfall exhibits sub-seasonal variability as active spells with good rainfall (wet spell) and weak spells or breaks with little to no rainfall (dry spell). Studies have shown that during the wet and dry periods of the ISM, there are contrasting behaviors in the formation of weather systems and large-scale instability. Thus, it is worth investigating how the raindrop size distribution varies during intra-seasonal timescale variations of the ISM in the Western Ghats.
Siddhant Gupta, Greg M. McFarquhar, Joseph R. O'Brien, David J. Delene, Michael R. Poellot, Amie Dobracki, James R. Podolske, Jens Redemann, Samuel E. LeBlanc, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, and Kristina Pistone
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4615–4635,Short summary
Observations from the 2016 NASA ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS (ORACLES) field campaign examine how biomass burning aerosols from southern Africa affect marine stratocumulus cloud decks over the Southeast Atlantic. Instances of contact and separation between aerosols and clouds are examined to quantify the impact of aerosol mixing into cloud top on cloud drop numbers and sizes. This information is needed for improving Earth system models and satellite retrievals.
Fernanda Córdoba, Carolina Ramírez-Romero, Diego Cabrera, Graciela B. Raga, Javier Miranda, Harry Alvarez-Ospina, Daniel Rosas, Bernardo Figueroa, Jong Sung Kim, Jacqueline Yakobi-Hancock, Talib Amador, Wilfrido Gutierrez, Manuel García, Allan K. Bertram, Darrel Baumgardner, and Luis A. Ladino
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4453–4470,Short summary
Most precipitation from deep clouds over the continents and in the intertropical convergence zone is strongly influenced by the presence of ice crystals whose formation requires the presence of aerosol particles. In the present study, the ability of three different aerosol types (i.e., marine aerosol, biomass burning, and African dust) to facilitate ice particle formation was assessed in the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico.
Israel Silber, Ann M. Fridlind, Johannes Verlinde, Andrew S. Ackerman, Grégory V. Cesana, and Daniel A. Knopf
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3949–3971,Short summary
Long-term ground-based radar and sounding measurements over Alaska (Antarctica) indicate that more than 85 % (75 %) of supercooled clouds are precipitating at cloud base and that 75 % (50 %) are precipitating to the surface. Such high prevalence is reconciled with lesser spaceborne estimates by considering radar sensitivity. Results provide a strong observational constraint for polar cloud processes in large-scale models.
Annika Lauber, Jan Henneberger, Claudia Mignani, Fabiola Ramelli, Julie T. Pasquier, Jörg Wieder, Maxime Hervo, and Ulrike Lohmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3855–3870,Short summary
An accurate prediction of the ice crystal number concentration (ICNC) is important to determine the radiation budget, lifetime, and precipitation formation of clouds. Even though secondary-ice processes can increase the ICNC by several orders of magnitude, they are poorly constrained and lack a well-founded quantification. During measurements on a mountain slope, a high ICNC of small ice crystals was observed just below 0 °C, attributed to a secondary-ice process and parametrized in this study.
Zhibo Zhang, Qianqian Song, David B. Mechem, Vincent E. Larson, Jian Wang, Yangang Liu, Mikael K. Witte, Xiquan Dong, and Peng Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3103–3121,Short summary
This study investigates the small-scale variations and covariations of cloud microphysical properties, namely, cloud liquid water content and cloud droplet number concentration, in marine boundary layer clouds based on in situ observation from the Aerosol and Cloud Experiments in the Eastern North Atlantic (ACE-ENA) campaign. We discuss the dependence of cloud variations on vertical location in cloud and the implications for warm-rain simulations in the global climate models.
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Radar reflectivity is a valuable observational tool used to guide numerical weather model improvement. Biases in simulated reflectivity help identify potential errors in physical process and property representation in models. This study uniquely compares simulated and observed tropical convective systems to establish that a commonly documented high bias in radar reflectivity values at least partially results from the production of simulated ice particle sizes that are larger than observed.
Radar reflectivity is a valuable observational tool used to guide numerical weather model...