Articles | Volume 16, issue 11
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Diurnal variation of tropospheric relative humidity in tropical regions
ESSIC, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, USA
STAR, NOAA, College Park, Maryland, USA
now at: GMAO, GSFC, NASA, Greenbelt, Maryland, USA
ESSIC, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, USA
STAR, NOAA, College Park, Maryland, USA
Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden
Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), CalTech, California, USA
No articles found.
Simon Pfreundschuh, Ingrid Ingemarsson, Patrick Eriksson, Daniel A. Vila, and Alan J. P. Calheiros
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6907–6933,Short summary
We used methods from the field of artificial intelligence to train an algorithm to estimate rain from satellite observations. In contrast to other methods, our algorithm not only estimates rain, but also the uncertainty of the estimate. Using independent measurements from rain gauges, we show that our method performs better than currently available methods and that the provided uncertainty estimates are reliable. Our method makes satellite-based measurements of rain more accurate and reliable.
Adrià Amell, Patrick Eriksson, and Simon Pfreundschuh
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5701–5717,Short summary
Geostationary satellites continuously image a given location on Earth, a feature that satellites designed to characterize atmospheric ice lack. However, the relationship between geostationary images and atmospheric ice is complex. Machine learning is used here to leverage such images to characterize atmospheric ice throughout the day in a probabilistic manner. Using structural information from the image improves the characterization, and this approach compares favourably to traditional methods.
Simon Pfreundschuh, Paula J. Brown, Christian D. Kummerow, Patrick Eriksson, and Teodor Norrestad
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5033–5060,Short summary
The Global Precipitation Measurement mission is an international satellite mission providing regular global rain measurements. We present two newly developed machine-learning-based implementations of one of the algorithms responsible for turning the satellite observations into rain measurements. We show that replacing the current algorithm with a neural network improves the accuracy of the measurements. A neural network that also makes use of spatial information unlocks further improvements.
William G. Read, Gabriele Stiller, Stefan Lossow, Michael Kiefer, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Dale Hurst, Holger Vömel, Karen Rosenlof, Bianca M. Dinelli, Piera Raspollini, Gerald E. Nedoluha, John C. Gille, Yasuko Kasai, Patrick Eriksson, Christopher E. Sioris, Kaley A. Walker, Katja Weigel, John P. Burrows, and Alexei Rozanov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3377–3400,Short summary
This paper attempts to provide an assessment of the accuracy of 21 satellite-based instruments that remotely measure atmospheric humidity in the upper troposphere of the Earth's atmosphere. The instruments made their measurements from 1984 to the present time; however, most of these instruments began operations after 2000, and only a few are still operational. The objective of this study is to quantify the accuracy of each satellite humidity data set.
Qing Yue, Eric J. Fetzer, Likun Wang, Brian H. Kahn, Nadia Smith, John M. Blaisdell, Kerry G. Meyer, Mathias Schreier, Bjorn Lambrigtsen, and Irina Tkatcheva
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2099–2123,Short summary
The self-consistency and continuity of cloud retrievals from infrared sounders and imagers aboard Aqua and SNPP (Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership) are examined at the pixel scale. Cloud products are found to be consistent with each other. Differences between sounder products are mainly due to cloud clearing and the treatment of clouds in scenes with unsuccessful atmospheric retrievals. The impact of algorithm and instrument differences is clearly seen in the imager cloud retrievals.
Simon Pfreundschuh, Stuart Fox, Patrick Eriksson, David Duncan, Stefan A. Buehler, Manfred Brath, Richard Cotton, and Florian Ewald
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 677–699,Short summary
We test a novel method to remotely measure ice particles in clouds. This is important because such measurements are required to improve climate and weather models. The method combines a radar with newly developed sensors measuring microwave radiation at very short wavelengths. We use observations made from aircraft flying above the cloud and compare them to real measurements from inside the cloud. This works well given that one can model the ice particles in the cloud sufficiently well.
Alan J. Geer, Peter Bauer, Katrin Lonitz, Vasileios Barlakas, Patrick Eriksson, Jana Mendrok, Amy Doherty, James Hocking, and Philippe Chambon
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 7497–7526,Short summary
Satellite observations of radiation from the earth can have strong sensitivity to cloud and precipitation in the atmosphere, with applications in weather forecasting and the development of models. Computing the radiation received at the satellite sensor using radiative transfer theory requires a simulation of the optical properties of a volume containing a large number of cloud and precipitation particles. This article describes the physics used to generate these
Jie Gong, Dong L. Wu, and Patrick Eriksson
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5369–5387,Short summary
Launched from the International Space Station, the IceCube radiometer orbited the Earth for 15 months and collected the first spaceborne radiance measurements at 874–883 GHz. This channel is uniquely important to fill in the sensitivity gap between operational visible–infrared and microwave remote sensing for atmospheric cloud ice and snow. This paper delivers the IceCube Level 1 radiance data processing algorithm and provides a data quality evaluation and discussion on its scientific merit.
Francesco Grieco, Kristell Pérot, Donal Murtagh, Patrick Eriksson, Bengt Rydberg, Michael Kiefer, Maya Garcia-Comas, Alyn Lambert, and Kaley A. Walker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5823–5857,Short summary
We present improved Odin/SMR mesospheric H2O concentration and temperature data sets, reprocessed assuming a bigger sideband leakage of the instrument. The validation study shows how the improved SMR data sets agree better with other instruments' observations than the old SMR version did. Given their unique time extension and geographical coverage, and H2O being a good tracer of mesospheric circulation, the new data sets are valuable for the study of dynamical processes and multi-year trends.
Vasileios Barlakas, Alan J. Geer, and Patrick Eriksson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3427–3447,Short summary
Oriented nonspherical ice particles induce polarization that is ignored when cloud-sensitive satellite observations are used in numerical weather prediction systems. We present a simple approach for approximating particle orientation, requiring minor adaption of software and no additional calculation burden. With this approach, the system realistically simulates the observed polarization patterns, increasing the physical consistency between instruments with different polarizations.
Inderpreet Kaur, Patrick Eriksson, Simon Pfreundschuh, and David Ian Duncan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2957–2979,Short summary
Currently, cloud contamination in microwave humidity channels is addressed using filtering schemes. We present an approach to correct the cloud-affected microwave humidity radiances using a Bayesian machine learning technique. The technique combines orthogonal information from microwave channels to obtain a probabilistic prediction of the clear-sky radiances. With this approach, we are able to predict bias-free clear-sky radiances with well-represented case-specific uncertainty estimates.
Robin Ekelund, Patrick Eriksson, and Michael Kahnert
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6933–6944,Short summary
Raindrops become flattened due to aerodynamic drag as they increase in mass and fall speed. This study calculated the electromagnetic interaction between microwave radiation and non-spheroidal raindrops. The calculations are made publicly available to the scientific community, in order to promote accurate representations of raindrops in measurements. Tests show that the drop shape can have a noticeable effect on microwave observations of heavy rainfall.
Francesco Grieco, Kristell Pérot, Donal Murtagh, Patrick Eriksson, Peter Forkman, Bengt Rydberg, Bernd Funke, Kaley A. Walker, and Hugh C. Pumphrey
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5013–5031,Short summary
We present a unique – by time extension and geographical coverage – dataset of satellite observations of carbon monoxide (CO) in the mesosphere which will allow us to study dynamical processes, since CO is a very good tracer of circulation in the mesosphere. Previously, the dataset was unusable due to instrumental artefacts that affected the measurements. We identify the cause of the artefacts, eliminate them and prove the quality of the results by comparing with other instrument measurements.
Thomas von Clarmann, Douglas A. Degenstein, Nathaniel J. Livesey, Stefan Bender, Amy Braverman, André Butz, Steven Compernolle, Robert Damadeo, Seth Dueck, Patrick Eriksson, Bernd Funke, Margaret C. Johnson, Yasuko Kasai, Arno Keppens, Anne Kleinert, Natalya A. Kramarova, Alexandra Laeng, Bavo Langerock, Vivienne H. Payne, Alexei Rozanov, Tomohiro O. Sato, Matthias Schneider, Patrick Sheese, Viktoria Sofieva, Gabriele P. Stiller, Christian von Savigny, and Daniel Zawada
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4393–4436,Short summary
Remote sensing of atmospheric state variables typically relies on the inverse solution of the radiative transfer equation. An adequately characterized retrieval provides information on the uncertainties of the estimated state variables as well as on how any constraint or a priori assumption affects the estimate. This paper summarizes related techniques and provides recommendations for unified error reporting.
Simon Pfreundschuh, Patrick Eriksson, Stefan A. Buehler, Manfred Brath, David Duncan, Richard Larsson, and Robin Ekelund
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4219–4245,Short summary
The next generation of European operational weather satellites will carry a novel microwave sensor, the Ice Cloud Imager (ICI), which will provide observations of clouds at microwave frequencies that were not available before. We investigate the potential benefits of combining observations from ICI with that of a radar. We find that such combined observations provide additional information on the properties of the cloud and help to reduce uncertainties in retrieved mass and number densities.
Manfred Brath, Robin Ekelund, Patrick Eriksson, Oliver Lemke, and Stefan A. Buehler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2309–2333,Short summary
Microwave dual-polarization observations consistently show that larger atmospheric ice particles tend to have a preferred orientation. We provide a publicly available database of microwave and submillimeter wave scattering properties of oriented ice particles based on discrete dipole approximation scattering calculations. Detailed radiative transfer simulations, recreating observed polarization patterns, are additionally presented in this study.
Robin Ekelund, Patrick Eriksson, and Simon Pfreundschuh
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 501–520,Short summary
Atmospheric ice particles (e.g. snow and ice crystals) are an important part of weather, climate, and the hydrological cycle. This study investigates whether combined satellite measurements by radar and radiometers at microwave wavelengths can be used to find the most likely shape of such ice particles. The method was limited when using only currently operating sensors (CloudSat radar and the GPM Microwave Imager) but shows promise if the upcoming Ice Cloud Imager is also considered.
Patrick Eriksson, Bengt Rydberg, Vinia Mattioli, Anke Thoss, Christophe Accadia, Ulf Klein, and Stefan A. Buehler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 53–71,Short summary
The Ice Cloud Imager (ICI) will be the first operational satellite sensor operating at sub-millimetre wavelengths and this novel mission will thus provide important new data to weather forecasting and climate studies. The series of ICI instruments will together cover about 20 years. This article presents the basic technical characteristics of the sensor and outlines the day-one operational retrievals. An updated estimation of the expected retrieval performance is also presented.
David Ian Duncan, Patrick Eriksson, and Simon Pfreundschuh
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6341–6359,Short summary
The overlapping beams of some satellite observations contain spatial information that is discarded by most data processing techniques. This study applies an established technique in a new way to improve the spatial resolution of retrieval targets, effectively using the overlapping information to achieve a higher ultimate resolution. It is argued that this is a more optimal use of the total information available from current microwave sensors, using AMSR2 as an example.
Alexandre Guillaume, Brian H. Kahn, Eric J. Fetzer, Qing Yue, Gerald J. Manipon, Brian D. Wilson, and Hook Hua
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4361–4377,Short summary
A method is described to classify cloud mixtures of cloud top types, termed cloud scenes, using cloud type classification derived from the CloudSat radar. The scale dependence of the cloud scenes is quantified. The cloud scenes are used to assess the characteristics of spatially collocated Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) thermodynamic-phase and ice cloud property retrievals within scenes of varying cloud type complexity.
David Ian Duncan, Patrick Eriksson, Simon Pfreundschuh, Christian Klepp, and Daniel C. Jones
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6969–6984,Short summary
Raindrop size distributions have not been systematically studied over the oceans but are significant for remotely sensing, assimilating, and modeling rain. Here we investigate raindrop populations with new global in situ data, compare them against satellite estimates, and explore a new technique to classify the shapes of these distributions. The results indicate the inadequacy of a commonly assumed shape in some regions and the sizable impact of shape variability on satellite measurements.
Stefan Lossow, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Michael Kiefer, Kaley A. Walker, Jean-Loup Bertaux, Laurent Blanot, James M. Russell, Ellis E. Remsberg, John C. Gille, Takafumi Sugita, Christopher E. Sioris, Bianca M. Dinelli, Enzo Papandrea, Piera Raspollini, Maya García-Comas, Gabriele P. Stiller, Thomas von Clarmann, Anu Dudhia, William G. Read, Gerald E. Nedoluha, Robert P. Damadeo, Joseph M. Zawodny, Katja Weigel, Alexei Rozanov, Faiza Azam, Klaus Bramstedt, Stefan Noël, John P. Burrows, Hideo Sagawa, Yasuko Kasai, Joachim Urban, Patrick Eriksson, Donal P. Murtagh, Mark E. Hervig, Charlotta Högberg, Dale F. Hurst, and Karen H. Rosenlof
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2693–2732,
Jui-Lin Frank Li, Mark Richardson, Wei-Liang Lee, Eric Fetzer, Graeme Stephens, Jonathan Jiang, Yulan Hong, Yi-Hui Wang, Jia-Yuh Yu, and Yinghui Liu
The Cryosphere, 13, 969–980,Short summary
Observed summer Arctic sea ice retreat has been faster than simulated by the average CMIP5 models, most of which exclude falling ice particles from their radiative calculations. We use controlled CESM1-CAM5 simulations to show for the first time that snowflakes' radiative effects can accelerate sea ice retreat. September retreat rates are doubled above current CO2 levels, highlighting falling ice radiative effects as a high priority for inclusion in future modelling of the Arctic.
Stuart Fox, Jana Mendrok, Patrick Eriksson, Robin Ekelund, Sebastian J. O'Shea, Keith N. Bower, Anthony J. Baran, R. Chawn Harlow, and Juliet C. Pickering
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1599–1617,Short summary
Airborne observations of ice clouds are used to validate radiative transfer simulations using a state-of-the-art database of cloud ice optical properties. Simulations at these wavelengths are required to make use of future satellite instruments such as the Ice Cloud Imager. We show that they can generally reproduce observed cloud signals, but for a given total ice mass there is considerable sensitivity to the cloud microphysics, including the particle shape and distribution of ice mass.
Charlotta Högberg, Stefan Lossow, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Ralf Bauer, Kaley A. Walker, Patrick Eriksson, Donal P. Murtagh, Gabriele P. Stiller, Jörg Steinwagner, and Qiong Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2497–2526,Short summary
Five δD (H2O) data sets obtained from satellite observations have been evaluated using profile-to-profile and climatological comparisons. The focus is on stratospheric altitudes, but results from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere are also provided. There are clear quantitative differences in the δD ratio in key areas of scientific interest, resulting in difficulties drawing robust conclusions on atmospheric processes affecting the water vapour budget and distribution.
Joonas Kiviranta, Kristell Pérot, Patrick Eriksson, and Donal Murtagh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13393–13410,Short summary
This paper investigates how the activity of the Sun affects the amount of nitric oxide (NO) in the upper atmosphere. If NO descends lower down in the atmosphere, it can destroy ozone. We analyze satellite measurements of NO to create a model that can simulate the amount of NO at any given time. This model can indeed simulate NO with reasonable accuracy and it can potentially be used as an input for a larger model of the atmosphere that attempts to explain how the Sun affects our atmosphere.
David Ian Duncan and Patrick Eriksson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11205–11219,Short summary
Ice cloud mass is assessed on a global scale using the latest satellite and reanalysis datasets. While ice cloud variability driven by large-scale circulations is an area of relative consensus, models and observations disagree strongly on the overall magnitude and finer-scale variability of atmospheric ice mass. The results reflect limitations of the current Earth observing system and indicate ice microphysical assumptions as the likely culprit of disagreement.
Simon Pfreundschuh, Patrick Eriksson, David Duncan, Bengt Rydberg, Nina Håkansson, and Anke Thoss
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4627–4643,Short summary
A novel neural-network-based retrieval method is proposed that combines the flexibility and computational efficiency of machine learning retrievals with the consistent treatment of uncertainties of Bayesian methods. Numerical experiments are presented that show the consistency of the proposed method with the Bayesian formulation as well as its ability to represent non-Gaussian retrieval errors. With this, the proposed method overcomes important limitations of traditional methods.
Philippe Baron, Donal Murtagh, Patrick Eriksson, Jana Mendrok, Satoshi Ochiai, Kristell Pérot, Hideo Sagawa, and Makoto Suzuki
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4545–4566,Short summary
This paper investigates with computer simulations the measurement performances of the satellite Stratospheric Inferred Winds (SIW) in the altitude range 10–90 km. SIW is a Swedish mission that will be launched close to 2022. It is intended to fill the current altitude gap between 30 and 70 km in wind measurements and to pursue the monitoring of temperature and key stratospheric constituents for better understanding climate change effects.
Farahnaz Khosrawi, Stefan Lossow, Gabriele P. Stiller, Karen H. Rosenlof, Joachim Urban, John P. Burrows, Robert P. Damadeo, Patrick Eriksson, Maya García-Comas, John C. Gille, Yasuko Kasai, Michael Kiefer, Gerald E. Nedoluha, Stefan Noël, Piera Raspollini, William G. Read, Alexei Rozanov, Christopher E. Sioris, Kaley A. Walker, and Katja Weigel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4435–4463,Short summary
Time series of stratospheric and lower mesospheric water vapour using 33 data sets from 15 satellite instruments were compared in the framework of the second SPARC water vapour assessment. We find that most data sets can be considered in observational and modelling studies addressing, e.g. stratospheric and lower mesospheric water vapour variability and trends if data-set-specific characteristics (e.g. a drift) and restrictions (e.g. temporal and spatial coverage) are taken into account.
Patrick Eriksson, Robin Ekelund, Jana Mendrok, Manfred Brath, Oliver Lemke, and Stefan A. Buehler
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1301–1326,Short summary
A main application of microwave remote sensing is to observe atmospheric particles consisting of ice. This application requires data on how particles with different shapes and sizes affect the observations. A database of such properties has been developed. The database is the most comprehensive of its type. Main strengths are a good representation of particles of aggregate type and broad frequency coverage.
Verena Grützun, Stefan A. Buehler, Lukas Kluft, Jana Mendrok, Manfred Brath, and Patrick Eriksson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4217–4237,Short summary
The global observation of ice clouds is crucial because they are important factors in the climate system but still are amongst the greatest uncertainties for estimating the Earth's energy budget in a changing climate. However, reliable global long-term measurements are scarce. Using atmospheric model data from the ICON model in combination with the radiative transfer simulator ARTS we explore the potential of passive millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength measurements to fill that gap.
Stefan A. Buehler, Jana Mendrok, Patrick Eriksson, Agnès Perrin, Richard Larsson, and Oliver Lemke
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1537–1556,Short summary
The Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator (ARTS) is a public domain software for simulating how radiation in the microwave to infrared spectral range travels through an atmosphere. The program can simulate satellite observations, in cloudy and clear atmospheres, and can also be used to calculate radiative energy fluxes. The main feature of this release is a planetary toolbox that allows simulations for the planets Venus, Mars, and Jupiter, in addition to Earth.
Manfred Brath, Stuart Fox, Patrick Eriksson, R. Chawn Harlow, Martin Burgdorf, and Stefan A. Buehler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 611–632,Short summary
A method to estimate the amounts of ice, liquid water, and water vapor from aircraft radiation measurements at wavelengths just over and under 1 mm is presented and its performance is estimated. The method uses an ensemble of artificial neural networks. It strongly benefits from the submillimeter frequencies reducing the error for the estimated amount of ice by a factor of 2 compared to a traditional microwave method. The method was applied to measurement of a precipitating frontal system.
Brian H. Kahn, Georgios Matheou, Qing Yue, Thomas Fauchez, Eric J. Fetzer, Matthew Lebsock, João Martins, Mathias M. Schreier, Kentaroh Suzuki, and João Teixeira
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9451–9468,Short summary
The global-scale patterns of subtropical marine boundary layer clouds are investigated with coincident NASA A-train satellite and reanalysis data. This study is novel in that all data are used at the finest spatial and temporal resolution possible. Our results are consistent with surface-based data and suggest that the combination of satellite and reanalysis data sets have potential to add to the global context of our understanding of the subtropical cumulus-dominated marine boundary layer.
Stefan Lossow, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Gerald E. Nedoluha, Faiza Azam, Klaus Bramstedt, John. P. Burrows, Bianca M. Dinelli, Patrick Eriksson, Patrick J. Espy, Maya García-Comas, John C. Gille, Michael Kiefer, Stefan Noël, Piera Raspollini, William G. Read, Karen H. Rosenlof, Alexei Rozanov, Christopher E. Sioris, Gabriele P. Stiller, Kaley A. Walker, and Katja Weigel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1111–1137,
Richard Larsson, Mathias Milz, Patrick Eriksson, Jana Mendrok, Yasuko Kasai, Stefan Alexander Buehler, Catherine Diéval, David Brain, and Paul Hartogh
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 6, 27–37,Short summary
By computer simulations, we explore and quantify how to use radiation emitted by molecular oxygen in the Martian atmosphere to measure the magnetic field from the crust of the planet. This crustal magnetic field is important to understand the past evolution of Mars. Our method can measure the magnetic field at lower altitudes than has so far been done, which could give important information on the characteristics of the crustal sources if a mission with the required instrument is launched.
Ole Martin Christensen, Susanne Benze, Patrick Eriksson, Jörg Gumbel, Linda Megner, and Donal P. Murtagh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12587–12600,Short summary
This study investigates the properties of ice clouds forming in the upper summer mesosphere known as polar mesospheric clouds, and their relationship with the background atmosphere combining two different satellite instruments. We find that temperature variations in the atmosphere of the order of some hours reduce the amount of ice in these clouds and see indications of strong vertical transport in these clouds.
Richard Larsson, Mathias Milz, Peter Rayer, Roger Saunders, William Bell, Anna Booton, Stefan A. Buehler, Patrick Eriksson, and Viju O. John
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 841–857,Short summary
By modeling the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder's mesospheric measurements, inversions methods can be applied to retreive mesospheric temperatures. We compare the fast forward model used by Met Office with reference simulations and find that there is a reasonable agreement between both models and measurements. Thus we recommend that the fast model is used in data assimilation to improve mesospheric temperature retrievals.
P. Forkman, O. M. Christensen, P. Eriksson, B. Billade, V. Vassilev, and V. M. Shulga
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 27–44,Short summary
Microwave radiometry is the only ground-based technique that can provide vertical profiles of gases in the middle atmosphere both day and night, and even during cloudy conditions. Today these measurements are performed at relatively few sites, more simple and reliable instruments are required to make the measurement technique more widely spread. In this study a compact double-sideband frequency-switched radiometer system for simultaneous observations of mesospheric CO and O3 is presented.
O. M. Christensen, P. Eriksson, J. Urban, D. Murtagh, K. Hultgren, and J. Gumbel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1981–1999,Short summary
Polar mesospheric clouds are clouds that form in the summer polar mesopause, 80km above the surface. In this study we present new measurements by the Odin satellite, which are able to determine water vapour, temperature and cloud coverage with a high resolution and a large geographical coverage. Using these data we can see structures in the clouds and background atmosphere that have not been detectable by previous measurements.
P. Eriksson, M. Jamali, J. Mendrok, and S. A. Buehler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1913–1933,Short summary
The optical properties of randomly oriented ice hydrometeors are reviewed from a perspective of microwave mass retrievals. The soft particle approximation is found to be highly problematic, and the alternative approach presented by Geer and Baordo (2014) should instead be used. We present a simplified version of this approach, and point out several critical limitations of existing DDA data.
F. Navas-Guzmán, N. Kämpfer, A. Murk, R. Larsson, S. A. Buehler, and P. Eriksson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1863–1874,Short summary
In this work we study the Zeeman effect on stratospheric O2 using ground-based microwave radiometer measurements. The interaction of the Earth magnetic field with the oxygen dipole leads to a splitting of O2 energy states which polarizes the emission spectra. A special campaign was carried out in order to measure for the first time the polarization state of the radiation due to the Zeeman effect in the main isotopologue of oxygen from ground-based microwave measurements.
V. S. Galligani, C. Prigent, E. Defer, C. Jimenez, P. Eriksson, J.-P. Pinty, and J.-P. Chaboureau
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1605–1616,
R. Rüfenacht, A. Murk, N. Kämpfer, P. Eriksson, and S. A. Buehler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4491–4505,Short summary
Only very few techniques for wind measurements in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere exist. Moreover, none of these instruments is running on a continuous basis. This paper describes the development of ground-based microwave Doppler radiometry. Time series of daily wind profile measurements from four different locations at polar, mid- and tropical latitudes are presented. The agreement with ECMWF model data is good in the stratosphere, but discrepancies were found in the mesosphere.
P. Eriksson, B. Rydberg, H. Sagawa, M. S. Johnston, and Y. Kasai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12613–12629,Short summary
The sub-millimetre wavelength region has been identified as very useful for measurements of cloud ice mass. The only satellite sensors operating in this wavelength region are so far limb sounders, and results from two such instruments are presented and sample applications are demonstrated. The results have high intrinsic value, but serve also as a practical preparation for planned dedicated sub-millimetre cloud missions.
M. S. Johnston, S. Eliasson, P. Eriksson, R. M. Forbes, A. Gettelman, P. Räisänen, and M. D. Zelinka
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8701–8721,
B. H. Kahn, F. W. Irion, V. T. Dang, E. M. Manning, S. L. Nasiri, C. M. Naud, J. M. Blaisdell, M. M. Schreier, Q. Yue, K. W. Bowman, E. J. Fetzer, G. C. Hulley, K. N. Liou, D. Lubin, S. C. Ou, J. Susskind, Y. Takano, B. Tian, and J. R. Worden
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 399–426,
M. S. Johnston, S. Eliasson, P. Eriksson, R. M. Forbes, K. Wyser, and M. D. Zelinka
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12043–12058,
O. Stähli, A. Murk, N. Kämpfer, C. Mätzler, and P. Eriksson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2477–2494,
O. M. Christensen and P. Eriksson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1597–1609,
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from the polar-orbiting Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer and the FY-4A Geostationary Interferometric Infrared SounderInterannual variability in the Australian carbon cycle over 2015–2019, based on assimilation of Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) satellite dataSource and variability of formaldehyde (HCHO) at northern high latitudes: an integrated satellite, aircraft, and model studyVolcanic SO2 layer height by TROPOMI/S5P: evaluation against IASI/MetOp and CALIOP/CALIPSO observationsSpaceborne tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) observations from 2005–2020 over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), China: variabilities, implications, and driversNovel assessment of numerical forecasting model relative humidity with satellite probabilistic estimatesInfluence of springtime atmospheric circulation types on the distribution of air pollutants in the ArcticTechnical note: Evaluation of profile retrievals of aerosols and trace gases for MAX-DOAS measurements under different aerosol scenarios based on radiative transfer simulationsDiurnal evolution of total column and surface atmospheric ammonia in the megacity of Paris, France, during an intense springtime pollution episodeThe reduction in C2H6 from 2015 to 2020 over Hefei, eastern China, points to air quality improvement in ChinaMapping the drivers of formaldehyde (HCHO) variability from 2015 to 2019 over eastern China: insights from Fourier transform infrared observation and GEOS-Chem model simulationThe impact of Los Angeles Basin pollution and stratospheric intrusions on the surrounding San Gabriel Mountains as seen by surface measurements, lidar, and numerical modelsSudden changes in nitrogen dioxide emissions over Greece due to lockdown after the outbreak of COVID-19Monitoring CO emissions of the metropolis Mexico City using TROPOMI CO observationsPollution trace gas distributions and their transport in the Asian monsoon upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere during the StratoClim campaign 2017Spatial distribution of enhanced BrO and its relation to meteorological parameters in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice regionsTrends of atmospheric water vapour in Switzerland from ground-based radiometry, FTIR and GNSS dataA Raman lidar tropospheric water vapour climatology and height-resolved trend analysis over Payerne, SwitzerlandThe potential of Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 data to reduce the uncertainties in CO2 surface fluxes over Australia using a variational assimilation schemeObserving carbon dioxide emissions over China's cities and industrial areas with the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2Observational evidence of moistening the lowermost stratosphere via isentropic mixing across the subtropical jetFourier transform infrared time series of tropospheric HCN in eastern China: seasonality, interannual variability, and source attributionNH3 emissions from large point sources derived from CrIS and IASI satellite observationsDiurnal cycle of short-term fluctuations of integrated water vapour above SwitzerlandRetrieval of total column and surface NO2 from Pandora zenith-sky measurementsMAX-DOAS measurements of tropospheric NO2 and HCHO in Nanjing and a comparison to ozone monitoring instrument observationsConsistency and representativeness of integrated water vapour from ground-based GPS observations and ERA-Interim reanalysisTowards monitoring localized CO2 emissions from space: co-located regional CO2 and NO2 enhancements observed by the OCO-2 and S5P satellitesVariability of bulk water vapor content in the marine cloudy boundary layers from microwave and near-infrared imageryTrends and trend reversal detection in 2 decades of tropospheric NO2 satellite observationsSatellite-derived sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from the 2014–2015 Holuhraun eruption (Iceland)Emissions of methane in Europe inferred by total column measurementsOn the interpretation of upper-tropospheric humidity based on a second-order retrieval from infrared radiancesCarbon monoxide air pollution on sub-city scales and along arterial roads detected by the Tropospheric Monitoring InstrumentGround-based MAX-DOAS observations of tropospheric formaldehyde VCDs and comparisons with the CAMS model at a rural site near Beijing during APEC 2014Trends in global tropospheric ozone inferred from a composite record of TOMS/OMI/MLS/OMPS satellite measurements and the MERRA-2 GMI simulationSpatial and temporal changes in SO2 regimes over China in the recent decade and the driving mechanismGlobal IWV trends and variability in atmospheric reanalyses and GPS observationsOzone seasonal evolution and photochemical production regime in the polluted troposphere in eastern China derived from high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometry (FTS) observationsAtmospheric CO and CH4 time series and seasonal variations on Reunion Island from ground-based in situ and FTIR (NDACC and TCCON) measurementsHarmonisation and trends of 20-year tropical tropospheric ozone dataCharacterizing biospheric carbon balance using CO2 observations from the OCO-2 satelliteDetection of O4 absorption around 328 and 419 nm in measured atmospheric absorption spectraInvestigations of temporal and spatial distribution of precursors SO2 and NO2 vertical columns in the North China Plain using mobile DOAS
Peng Yuan, Roeland Van Malderen, Xungang Yin, Hannes Vogelmann, Weiping Jiang, Joseph Awange, Bernhard Heck, and Hansjörg Kutterer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3517–3541,Short summary
Water vapour plays an important role in various weather and climate processes. However, due to its large spatiotemporal variability, its high-accuracy quantification remains a challenge. In this study, 20+ years of GPS-derived integrated water vapour (IWV) retrievals in Europe were obtained. They were then used to characterise the temporal features of Europe's IWV and assess six atmospheric reanalyses. Results show that ERA5 outperforms the other reanalyses at most temporal scales.
Jing Wei, Zhanqing Li, Jun Wang, Can Li, Pawan Gupta, and Maureen Cribb
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1511–1532,Short summary
This study estimated the daily seamless 10 km ambient gaseous pollutants (NO2, SO2, and CO) across China using machine learning with extensive input variables measured on monitors, satellites, and models. Our dataset yields a high data quality via cross-validation at varying spatiotemporal scales and outperforms most previous related studies, making it most helpful to future (especially short-term) air pollution and environmental health-related studies.
Daniel A. Potts, Roger Timmis, Emma J. S. Ferranti, and Joshua D. Vande Hey
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
With the launch of the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) in 2017, it is now possible to observe pollutants emitted from individual industrial facilities on a daily basis around the globe. By using observations of Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) from 17 different industrial sites, we show how the Coriolis Effect influences the trajectory of many of these emission plumes, and have demonstrated how the additional curvature can lead to a substantial underestimation of the calculated emissions.
Camille Viatte, Rimal Abeed, Shoma Yamanouchi, William C. Porter, Sarah Safieddine, Martin Van Damme, Lieven Clarisse, Beatriz Herrera, Michel Grutter, Pierre-Francois Coheur, Kimberly Strong, and Cathy Clerbaux
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12907–12922,Short summary
Large cities can experience high levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution linked to ammonia (NH3) mainly emitted from agricultural activities. Using a combination of PM2.5 and NH3 measurements from in situ instruments, satellite infrared spectrometers, and atmospheric model simulations, we have demonstrated the role of NH3 and meteorological conditions on pollution events occurring over Paris, Toronto, and Mexico City.
Hossain Mohammed Syedul Hoque, Kengo Sudo, Hitoshi Irie, Alessandro Damiani, Manish Naja, and Al Mashroor Fatmi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12559–12589,Short summary
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and formaldehyde (HCHO) are essential trace graces regulating tropospheric ozone chemistry. These trace constituents are measured using an optical passive remote sensing technique. In addition, NO2 and HCHO are simulated with a computer model and evaluated against the observations. Such evaluations are essential to assess model uncertainties and improve their predictability. The results yielded good agreement between the two datasets with some discrepancies.
Qiansi Tu, Matthias Schneider, Frank Hase, Farahnaz Khosrawi, Benjamin Ertl, Jaroslaw Necki, Darko Dubravica, Christopher J. Diekmann, Thomas Blumenstock, and Dianjun Fang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9747–9765,Short summary
Three-year satellite observations and high-resolution model forecast of XCH4 are used to derive CH4 emissions in the USCB region, Poland – a region of intense coal mining activities. The wind-assigned anomalies for two opposite wind directions are calculated and the estimated emission rates are very close to the inventories and in reasonable agreement with the previous studies. Our method is quite robust and can serve as a simple method to estimate CH4 or CO2 emissions for other regions.
Pu Liu, Jia Ding, Lei Liu, Wen Xu, and Xuejun Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9099–9110,Short summary
Ammonia (NH3) is the important alkaline gas and the key component of fine particulate matter. We used satellite-based observations to analyze the changes in hourly NH3 concentrations and estimated surface NH3 concentrations and NH3 emissions in China. This study shows enormous potential for using satellite data to estimate surface NH3 concentrations and NH3 emissions and provides an important reference for understanding NH3 variation in China.
Yohanna Villalobos, Peter J. Rayner, Jeremy D. Silver, Steven Thomas, Vanessa Haverd, Jürgen Knauer, Zoë M. Loh, Nicholas M. Deutscher, David W. T. Griffith, and David F. Pollard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8897–8934,Short summary
We study the interannual variability in Australian carbon fluxes for 2015–2019 derived from OCO-2 satellite data. Our results suggest that Australia's semi-arid ecosystems are highly responsive to variations in climate drivers such as rainfall and temperature. We found that high rainfall and low temperatures recorded in 2016 led to an anomalous carbon sink over savanna and sparsely vegetated regions, while unprecedented dry and hot weather in 2019 led to anomalous carbon release.
Tianlang Zhao, Jingqiu Mao, William R. Simpson, Isabelle De Smedt, Lei Zhu, Thomas F. Hanisco, Glenn M. Wolfe, Jason M. St. Clair, Gonzalo González Abad, Caroline R. Nowlan, Barbara Barletta, Simone Meinardi, Donald R. Blake, Eric C. Apel, and Rebecca S. Hornbrook
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7163–7178,Short summary
Monitoring formaldehyde (HCHO) can help us understand Arctic vegetation change. Here, we compare satellite data and model and show that Alaska summertime HCHO is largely dominated by a background from methane oxidation during mild wildfire years and is dominated by wildfire (largely from direct emission of fire) during strong fire years. Consequently, it is challenging to use satellite HCHO to study vegetation change in the Arctic region.
Maria-Elissavet Koukouli, Konstantinos Michailidis, Pascal Hedelt, Isabelle A. Taylor, Antje Inness, Lieven Clarisse, Dimitris Balis, Dmitry Efremenko, Diego Loyola, Roy G. Grainger, and Christian Retscher
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5665–5683,Short summary
Volcanic eruptions eject large amounts of ash and trace gases into the atmosphere. The use of space-borne instruments enables the global monitoring of volcanic SO2 emissions in an economical and risk-free manner. The main aim of this paper is to present its extensive verification, accomplished within the ESA S5P+I: SO2LH project, over major recent volcanic eruptions, against collocated space-borne measurements, as well as assess its impact on the forecasts provided by CAMS.
Hao Yin, Youwen Sun, Justus Notholt, Mathias Palm, and Cheng Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4167–4185,Short summary
In this study, we quantity the long-term variabilities and the underlying drivers of NO2 from 2005 to 2020 over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), one of the most densely populated and highly industrialized city clusters in China. We reveal the significant effect of the Action Plan on the Prevention and Control of Air Pollution since 2013 adopted by the Chinese government to reduce NOx pollution. Our study can improve the understanding of pollution control measures on a regional scale.
Chloé Radice, Hélène Brogniez, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, and Philippe Chambon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3811–3825,Short summary
A novel probabilistic approach is proposed to evaluate relative humidity (RH) profiles simulated by an atmospheric model with respect to satellite-based RH defined from probability distributions. It improves upon deterministic comparisons by enhancing the information content to enable a finer assessment of each model–observation discrepancy, highlighting significant departures within a deterministic confidence range. Geographical and vertical distributions of the model biases are discussed.
Manu Anna Thomas, Abhay Devasthale, and Tiina Nygård
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16593–16608,Short summary
The impact of transported pollutants and their spatial distribution in the Arctic are governed by the local atmospheric circulation or weather states. Therefore, we investigated eight different atmospheric circulation types observed during the spring season in the Arctic. Using satellite and reanalysis datasets, this study provides a comprehensive assessment of the typical circulation patterns that can lead to enhanced or reduced pollution concentrations in the different sectors of the Arctic.
Xin Tian, Yang Wang, Steffen Beirle, Pinhua Xie, Thomas Wagner, Jin Xu, Ang Li, Steffen Dörner, Bo Ren, and Xiaomei Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12867–12894,Short summary
The performances of two MAX-DOAS inversion algorithms were evaluated for various aerosol pollution scenarios. One inversion algorithm is based on optimal estimation; the other uses a parameterized approach. In this analysis, three types of profile shapes for aerosols and NO2 were considered: exponential, Boltzmann, and Gaussian. The evaluation results can effectively guide the application of the two inversion algorithms in the actual atmosphere and improve the accuracy of the actual inversion.
Rebecca D. Kutzner, Juan Cuesta, Pascale Chelin, Jean-Eudes Petit, Mokhtar Ray, Xavier Landsheere, Benoît Tournadre, Jean-Charles Dupont, Amandine Rosso, Frank Hase, Johannes Orphal, and Matthias Beekmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12091–12111,Short summary
Our work investigates the diurnal evolution of atmospheric ammonia concentrations during a major pollution event. It analyses it in regard of both chemical (gas–particle conversion) and physical (vertical mixing, meteorology) processes in the atmosphere. These mechanisms are key for understanding the evolution of the physicochemical state of the atmosphere; therefore, it clearly fits into the scope of Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics.
Youwen Sun, Hao Yin, Cheng Liu, Emmanuel Mahieu, Justus Notholt, Yao Té, Xiao Lu, Mathias Palm, Wei Wang, Changgong Shan, Qihou Hu, Min Qin, Yuan Tian, and Bo Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11759–11779,Short summary
The variability, sources, and transport of ethane (C2H6) over eastern China from 2015 to 2020 were studied using ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and GEOS-Chem simulations. C2H6 variability is driven by both meteorological and emission factors. The reduction in C2H6 in recent years over eastern China points to air quality improvement in China.
Youwen Sun, Hao Yin, Cheng Liu, Lin Zhang, Yuan Cheng, Mathias Palm, Justus Notholt, Xiao Lu, Corinne Vigouroux, Bo Zheng, Wei Wang, Nicholas Jones, Changong Shan, Min Qin, Yuan Tian, Qihou Hu, Fanhao Meng, and Jianguo Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6365–6387,Short summary
This study mapped the drivers of HCHO variability from 2015 to 2019 over eastern China. Hydroxyl (OH) radical production rates from HCHO photolysis were evaluated. The relative contributions of emitted and photochemical sources to the observed HCHO abundance were analyzed. Contributions of various emission sources and geographical regions to the observed HCHO summertime enhancements were determined.
Fernando Chouza, Thierry Leblanc, Mark Brewer, Patrick Wang, Sabino Piazzolla, Gabriele Pfister, Rajesh Kumar, Carl Drews, Simone Tilmes, Louisa Emmons, and Matthew Johnson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6129–6153,Short summary
The tropospheric ozone lidar at the JPL Table Mountain Facility (TMF) was used to investigate the impact of Los Angeles (LA) Basin pollution transport and stratospheric intrusions in the planetary boundary layer on the San Gabriel Mountains. The results of this study indicate a dominant role of the LA Basin pollution on days when high ozone levels were observed at TMF (March–October period).
Maria-Elissavet Koukouli, Ioanna Skoulidou, Andreas Karavias, Isaak Parcharidis, Dimitris Balis, Astrid Manders, Arjo Segers, Henk Eskes, and Jos van Geffen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1759–1774,Short summary
In recent years, satellite observations have contributed to monitoring air quality. During the first COVID-19 lockdown, lower levels of nitrogen dioxide were observed over Greece by S5P/TROPOMI for March and April 2020 (than the preceding year) due to decreased transport emissions. Taking meteorology into account, using LOTOS-EUROS CTM simulations, the resulting decline due to the lockdown was estimated to range between 0 % and −37 % for the five largest Greek cities, with an average of ~ −10 %.
Tobias Borsdorff, Agustín García Reynoso, Gilberto Maldonado, Bertha Mar-Morales, Wolfgang Stremme, Michel Grutter, and Jochen Landgraf
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15761–15774,
Sören Johansson, Michael Höpfner, Oliver Kirner, Ingo Wohltmann, Silvia Bucci, Bernard Legras, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Norbert Glatthor, Erik Kretschmer, Jörn Ungermann, and Gerald Wetzel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14695–14715,Short summary
We present high-resolution measurements of pollutant trace gases (PAN, C2H2, and HCOOH) in the Asian monsoon UTLS from the airborne limb imager GLORIA during StratoClim 2017. Enhancements are observed up to 16 km altitude, and PAN and C2H2 even up to 18 km. Two atmospheric models, CAMS and EMAC, reproduce the pollutant's large-scale structures but not finer structures. Convection is investigated using backward trajectories of the models ATLAS and TRACZILLA with advanced detection of convection.
Sora Seo, Andreas Richter, Anne-Marlene Blechschmidt, Ilias Bougoudis, and John Philip Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12285–12312,Short summary
In this study, we present spatial distributions of occurrence frequency of enhanced total BrO column and various meteorological parameters affecting it in the Arctic and Antarctic sea ice regions by using 10 years of GOME-2 measurements and meteorological model data. Statistical analysis using the long-term dataset shows clear differences in the meteorological conditions between the mean field and the situation of enhanced total BrO columns in both polar sea ice regions.
Leonie Bernet, Elmar Brockmann, Thomas von Clarmann, Niklaus Kämpfer, Emmanuel Mahieu, Christian Mätzler, Gunter Stober, and Klemens Hocke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11223–11244,Short summary
With global warming, water vapour increases in the atmosphere. Water vapour is an important gas because it is a natural greenhouse gas and affects the formation of clouds, rain and snow. How much water vapour increases can vary in different regions of the world. To verify if it increases as expected on a regional scale, we analysed water vapour measurements in Switzerland. We found that water vapour generally increases as expected from temperature changes, except in winter.
Shannon Hicks-Jalali, Robert J. Sica, Giovanni Martucci, Eliane Maillard Barras, Jordan Voirin, and Alexander Haefele
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9619–9640,Short summary
We have calculated an 11.5-year water vapour climatology using the Raman Lidar for Meteorological Observations (RALMO), located in Payerne, Switzerland. The climatology shows that the highest water vapour concentrations are in the summer months and the lowest in the winter months. We present for the first time height-resolved water vapour trends, which show that water vapour increases specific humidity by between 5 % and 15 % per decade depending on the altitude.
Yohanna Villalobos, Peter Rayner, Steven Thomas, and Jeremy Silver
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8473–8500,Short summary
Estimated carbon fluxes for Australia are subject to considerable uncertainty. We ran simulation experiments over Australia to determine how much these uncertainties can be constrained using satellite data. We found that the satellite data has the potential to reduce these uncertainties up to 80 % across the whole continent. For 1 month, this percentage corresponds to 0.51 Pg C y-1 for Australia. This method could lead to significantly more accurate estimates of Australia's carbon budget.
Bo Zheng, Frédéric Chevallier, Philippe Ciais, Grégoire Broquet, Yilong Wang, Jinghui Lian, and Yuanhong Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8501–8510,Short summary
The Paris Climate Agreement requires all parties to report CO2 emissions regularly. Given the self-reporting nature of this system, it is critical to evaluate the emission reports with independent observation systems. Here we present the direct observations of city CO2 plumes from space and the quantification of CO2 emissions from these observations over the largest emitter country China. The emissions from 46 hot-spot regions representing 13 % of China's total emissions can be well constrained.
Jeffery Langille, Adam Bourassa, Laura L. Pan, Daniel Letros, Brian Solheim, Daniel Zawada, and Doug Degenstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5477–5486,Short summary
Water vapour (WV) is a highly variable and extremely important trace gas in Earth’s atmosphere. Due to its radiative and chemical properties, it is coupled to the climate in an extremely complex manner. This is especially true in the lowermost stratosphere (LMS). Despite its importance, the physical processes that control mixing and the distribution of WV in the LMS are poorly understood. This study provides observational evidence of moistening the LMS via mixing across the subtropical jet.
Youwen Sun, Cheng Liu, Lin Zhang, Mathias Palm, Justus Notholt, Hao Yin, Corinne Vigouroux, Erik Lutsch, Wei Wang, Changong Shan, Thomas Blumenstock, Tomoo Nagahama, Isamu Morino, Emmanuel Mahieu, Kimberly Strong, Bavo Langerock, Martine De Mazière, Qihou Hu, Huifang Zhang, Christof Petri, and Jianguo Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5437–5456,Short summary
We present multiyear time series of ground-based Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy measurements of HCN in densely populated eastern China. The seasonality and interannual variability of tropospheric HCN columns were investigated. The potential sources that drive the observed HCN seasonality and interannual variability were determined using a GEOS-Chem tagged CO simulation, global fire maps, and potential source contribution function values calculated using HYSPLIT back trajectories.
Enrico Dammers, Chris A. McLinden, Debora Griffin, Mark W. Shephard, Shelley Van Der Graaf, Erik Lutsch, Martijn Schaap, Yonatan Gainairu-Matz, Vitali Fioletov, Martin Van Damme, Simon Whitburn, Lieven Clarisse, Karen Cady-Pereira, Cathy Clerbaux, Pierre Francois Coheur, and Jan Willem Erisman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12261–12293,Short summary
Ammonia is an essential molecule in the environment, but at its current levels it is unsustainable. However, the emissions are highly uncertain. We explore the use of satellites to estimate the ammonia lifetime and emissions around point sources to help improve the budget. The same method applied to different satellite instruments shows consistent results. Comparison to the emission inventories shows that those are underestimating emissions of point sources by on average a factor of 2.5.
Klemens Hocke, Leonie Bernet, Jonas Hagen, Axel Murk, Matthias Renker, and Christian Mätzler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12083–12090,Short summary
The Tropospheric Water Radiometer (TROWARA) observed an enhanced intensity of short-term integrated water vapour (IWV) fluctuations during daytime in summer. These IWV fluctuations are possibly related to latent heat flux and thermal convective activity in the lower troposphere. The observed climatology and spectra of IWV fluctuations might be useful for modelling studies of water vapour convection in the atmospheric boundary layer at mid latitudes.
Xiaoyi Zhao, Debora Griffin, Vitali Fioletov, Chris McLinden, Jonathan Davies, Akira Ogyu, Sum Chi Lee, Alexandru Lupu, Michael D. Moran, Alexander Cede, Martin Tiefengraber, and Moritz Müller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10619–10642,Short summary
New nitrogen dioxide (NO2) retrieval algorithms are developed for Pandora zenith-sky measurements. A column-to-surface conversion look-up table was produced for the Pandora instruments; therefore, quick and practical Pandora-based surface NO2 concentration data can be obtained for air quality monitoring purposes. It is demonstrated that the surface NO2 concentration is controlled not only by the planetary boundary layer height but also by both boundary layer dynamics and photochemistry.
Ka Lok Chan, Zhuoru Wang, Aijun Ding, Klaus-Peter Heue, Yicheng Shen, Jing Wang, Feng Zhang, Yining Shi, Nan Hao, and Mark Wenig
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10051–10071,Short summary
The paper presents long-term observations of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and formaldehyde (HCHO) in Nanjing using a MAX-DOAS instrument. The measurements were performed from April 2013 to February 2017. The MAX-DOAS measurements of NO2 and HCHO are used to validate OMI satellite observations and to investigate the influences of region transport of air pollutants on the air quality in Nanjing.
Olivier Bock and Ana C. Parracho
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9453–9468,Short summary
We examine the consistency of global IWV data from ERA-Interim reanalysis and 16 years of GPS observations. Representativeness differences are found to be a dominant error source, with a strong dependence on geographic, topographic, and climatic features, which explain both average and extreme differences. A methodology for reducing the representativeness errors and detecting the extreme, outlying, cases is discussed.
Maximilian Reuter, Michael Buchwitz, Oliver Schneising, Sven Krautwurst, Christopher W. O'Dell, Andreas Richter, Heinrich Bovensmann, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9371–9383,Short summary
The quantification of anthropogenic emissions with current CO2 satellite sensors is difficult, but NO2 is co-emitted, making it a suitable tracer of recently emitted CO2. We analyze enhancements of CO2 and NO2 observed by OCO-2 and S5P and estimate the CO2 plume cross-sectional fluxes that we compare with emission databases. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of simultaneous satellite observations of CO2 and NO2 as envisaged for the European Copernicus anthropogenic CO2 monitoring mission
Luis F. Millán, Matthew D. Lebsock, and Joao Teixeira
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8491–8502,Short summary
The synergy of the collocated Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provides daily global estimates of marine boundary layer water vapor. AMSR provides the total column water vapor, while MODIS provides the water vapor above the cloud layers. The difference between the two gives the vapor between the surface and the cloud top, which may be interpreted as the boundary layer water vapor.
Aristeidis K. Georgoulias, Ronald J. van der A, Piet Stammes, K. Folkert Boersma, and Henk J. Eskes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6269–6294,Short summary
In this paper, a ∼21-year self-consistent global dataset from four different satellite sensors is compiled for the first time to study the long-term tropospheric NO2 patterns and trends. A novel method capable of detecting the year when a reversal of trends happened shows that tropospheric NO2 concentrations switched from positive to negative trends and vice versa over several regions around the globe during the last 2 decades.
Elisa Carboni, Tamsin A. Mather, Anja Schmidt, Roy G. Grainger, Melissa A. Pfeffer, Iolanda Ialongo, and Nicolas Theys
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4851–4862,Short summary
The 2014–2015 Holuhraun eruption was the largest in Iceland for 200 years, emitting huge quantities of gas into the troposphere, at times overwhelming European anthropogenic emissions. Infrared Atmospheric sounding Interferometer data are used to derive the first time series of daily sulfur dioxide mass and vertical distribution over the eruption period. A scheme is used to estimate sulfur dioxide fluxes, the total erupted mass, and how long the sulfur dioxide remains in the atmosphere.
Debra Wunch, Dylan B. A. Jones, Geoffrey C. Toon, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Frank Hase, Justus Notholt, Ralf Sussmann, Thorsten Warneke, Jeroen Kuenen, Hugo Denier van der Gon, Jenny A. Fisher, and Joannes D. Maasakkers
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3963–3980,Short summary
We used five atmospheric observatories in Europe measuring total column dry-air mole fractions of methane and carbon monoxide to infer methane emissions in the area between the observatories. We find that the methane emissions are overestimated by the state-of-the-art inventories, and that this is likely due, at least in part, to the inventory disaggregation. We find that there is significant uncertainty in the carbon monoxide inventories that requires further investigation.
Klaus Gierens and Kostas Eleftheratos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3733–3746,Short summary
We derive a new method to retrieve upper-tropospheric humidity (UTH) from High-resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) channel 12 brightness temperatures. With the new method we solve an old problem, namely that the wavelength change that occurred between HIRS 2 on NOAA 14 and HIRS 3 on NOAA 15 led to the retrieval of many more events with high UTH; that is, the time series shows strong jumps at high UTH values. This old problem is solved with the new retrieval.
Tobias Borsdorff, Joost aan de Brugh, Sudhanshu Pandey, Otto Hasekamp, Ilse Aben, Sander Houweling, and Jochen Landgraf
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3579–3588,Short summary
The Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) on the Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite provides carbon monoxide (CO) total column concentrations based on measurements in the 2.3 μm spectral range with a spatial resolution of 7 km x 7 km and daily global coverage. In this study, we analyzed local CO enhancements in an area around Iran from 1 November to 20 December 2017 using the WRF model and evaluated CO emissions from the cities of Tehran, Yerevan, Urmia, and Tabriz.
Xin Tian, Pinhua Xie, Jin Xu, Yang Wang, Ang Li, Fengcheng Wu, Zhaokun Hu, Cheng Liu, and Qiong Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3375–3393,Short summary
We used the MAX-DOAS instrument installed at the UCAS, Beijing, to evaluate effects on HCHO. The daily variation, transport, sources, and the effect of APEC emission control measures on HCHO were analyzed. Dependences of HCHO VCDs on wind fields indicated that the HCHO values were affected by the transport of pollutants from the south. The results from comparing the MAX-DOAS with the CAMS model indicate the CAMS model can simulate the effects of transport and the secondary sources of HCHO well.
Jerry R. Ziemke, Luke D. Oman, Sarah A. Strode, Anne R. Douglass, Mark A. Olsen, Richard D. McPeters, Pawan K. Bhartia, Lucien Froidevaux, Gordon J. Labow, Jacquie C. Witte, Anne M. Thompson, David P. Haffner, Natalya A. Kramarova, Stacey M. Frith, Liang-Kang Huang, Glen R. Jaross, Colin J. Seftor, Mathew T. Deland, and Steven L. Taylor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3257–3269,Short summary
Both a 38-year merged satellite record of tropospheric ozone from TOMS/OMI/MLS/OMPS and a MERRA-2 GMI model simulation show large increases of 6–7 Dobson units from the Near East to India–East Asia and eastward over the Pacific. These increases in tropospheric ozone are attributed to increases in pollution over the region over the last several decades. Secondary 38-year increases of 4–5 Dobson units with both GMI model and satellite measurements occur over central African–tropical Atlantic.
Ting Wang, Pucai Wang, Nicolas Theys, Dan Tong, François Hendrick, Qiang Zhang, and Michel Van Roozendael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 18063–18078,Short summary
In the last decade, four temporal regimes of SO2 in China have been identified. After an initial rise, SO2 undergoes two sharp drops in 2007–2008 and 2014–2016, during which 5-year rebounding is sustained. Different mechanisms are tied to North and South China. The industrial emission is responsible for SO2 variation in North China, while in South China the meteorological conditions make a large contribution. The result is crucial to the understanding of SO2 changes and future polices.
Ana C. Parracho, Olivier Bock, and Sophie Bastin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16213–16237,Short summary
Integrated water vapour from GPS observations and two modern atmospheric reanalyses were compared for 1995–2010. Means, variability and trend signs were in general good agreement. Regions and GPS stations with poor agreement were investigated further. Representativeness issues, uncertainties in reanalyses, and inhomogeneities in GPS were evidenced. Reanalyses were compared for an extended period, and a focus on north Africa and Australia highlighted the impact of dynamics on water vapour trends.
Youwen Sun, Cheng Liu, Mathias Palm, Corinne Vigouroux, Justus Notholt, Qihou Hu, Nicholas Jones, Wei Wang, Wenjing Su, Wenqiang Zhang, Changong Shan, Yuan Tian, Xingwei Xu, Martine De Mazière, Minqiang Zhou, and Jianguo Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14569–14583,Short summary
The seasonal evolution of O3 and its photochemical production regime in a polluted region of eastern China between 2014 and 2017 was investigated using FTS observations. We observed a broad summer O3 maximum in Hefei, China, and the ozone production is mainly NOx limited in spring and summer and is mainly VOC or mixed VOC–NOx limited in autumn and winter.
Minqiang Zhou, Bavo Langerock, Corinne Vigouroux, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Michel Ramonet, Marc Delmotte, Emmanuel Mahieu, Whitney Bader, Christian Hermans, Nicolas Kumps, Jean-Marc Metzger, Valentin Duflot, Zhiting Wang, Mathias Palm, and Martine De Mazière
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13881–13901,Short summary
This study focuses on atmospheric CO and CH4 time series and seasonal variations on Reunion Island based on in situ and FTIR measurements from two sites, Saint Denis and Maido. Ground-based in situ and FTIR (NDACC and TCCON) measurements are used to show their complementarity with regards to obtaining the CO and CH4 concentrations at the surface and in the troposphere and stratosphere. FLEXPART and GEOS-Chem models are applied to understand the seasonal variations of CO and CH4 at this site.
Elpida Leventidou, Mark Weber, Kai-Uwe Eichmann, John P. Burrows, Klaus-Peter Heue, Anne M. Thompson, and Bryan J. Johnson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9189–9205,Short summary
Three individual tropical tropospheric ozone (TTCO) datasets (1996–2015) retrieved with the convective-cloud differential method (Leventidou et al., 2016) have been harmonised in order to study the global and regional TTCO trends. The trends range between −4 to 4 DU per decade testing six different merging scenarios. No trend has been found for the global tropics using the preferred scenario. It is concluded that harmonisation is one of the major sources of uncertainty in the trend estimates.
Scot M. Miller, Anna M. Michalak, Vineet Yadav, and Jovan M. Tadić
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6785–6799,Short summary
NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2) satellite observes CO2 in the atmosphere globally. We evaluate the extent to which current OCO-2 observations can inform scientific understanding of the biospheric carbon balance. We find that current observations are best-equipped to constrain the biospheric carbon balance across continental or hemispheric regions and provide limited information on smaller regions.
Johannes Lampel, Johannes Zielcke, Stefan Schmitt, Denis Pöhler, Udo Frieß, Ulrich Platt, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1671–1683,Short summary
Previous publications on the absorptions of the oxygen dimer O2–O2 (or short: O4) list absorption peaks at 328 nm and 419 nm, for which no spectrally resolved literature cross sections are available. As these absorptions potentially influence the spectral retrieval of various other trace gases, their shape and magnitude need to be quantified. We approximate the absorption peaks at 328 nm and 419 nm by their respective neighboring absorption peaks to estimate their magnitude and peak wavelength.
Fengcheng Wu, Pinhua Xie, Ang Li, Fusheng Mou, Hao Chen, Yi Zhu, Tong Zhu, Jianguo Liu, and Wenqing Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1535–1554,Short summary
Investigating the temporal and spatial distribution of pollutants, emissions, and pollution transport is necessary to better understand the effect of various sources on air quality. We report on mobile differential optical absorption spectroscopy (mobile DOAS) observations of precursors SO2 and NO2 vertical columns in NCP in the summer of 2013 (from 11 June to 7 July) in this study.
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Measurements from the SAPHIR onboard Megha-Tropiques are used to evaluate the diurnal cycle of tropospheric humidity in the tropical region. The results show a large inhomogeneity in the amplitude and peak time of tropospheric humidity. The diurnal amplitude tends to be larger over convective regions than over subsidence regions. An early morning peak time is observed over most regions but there are substantial regions where the diurnal peak occurs at the other times of day.
Measurements from the SAPHIR onboard Megha-Tropiques are used to evaluate the diurnal cycle of...