Articles | Volume 15, issue 11
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Atmospheric brown clouds reach the Tibetan Plateau by crossing the Himalayas
Z. L. Lüthi
Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research and CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing, China
ETH Zurich, Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, Zürich, Switzerland
School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
IASS Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies, Potsdam, Germany
IASS Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies, Potsdam, Germany
IASS Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies, Potsdam, Germany
Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research and CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing, China
State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Science, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Lanzhou, China
No articles found.
Serin Kim, Daewon Kim, Hyunkee Hong, Lim-Seok Chang, Hanlim Lee, Deok-Rae Kim, Donghee Kim, Jeong-Ah Yu, Dongwon Lee, Ukkyo Jeong, Chang-Kuen Song, Sang-Woo Kim, Sang Seo Park, Jhoon Kim, Thomas F. Hanisco, Junsung Park, Wonei Choi, and Kwangyul Lee
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
A first evaluation of GEMS NO2 carried out via comparison with the NO2 data obtained from the ground-based Pandora direct-sun measurement at four sites in Seosan, Korea. Comparisons were performed according to GEMS cloud fraction and observed the correlations of the GEMS NO2 shows more good agreement against those of Pandora in a less cloudy condition. And mean correlations at the four sites increased when correction for horizontal representativeness considered.
Manuel Schlund, Birgit Hassler, Axel Lauer, Bouwe Andela, Patrick Jöckel, Rémi Kazeroni, Saskia Loosveldt Tomas, Brian Medeiros, Valeriu Predoi, Stéphane Sénési, Jérôme Servonnat, Tobias Stacke, Javier Vegas-Regidor, Klaus Zimmermann, and Veronika Eyring
Geosci. Model Dev., 16, 315–333,Short summary
The Earth System Model Evaluation Tool (ESMValTool) is a community diagnostics and performance metrics tool for routine evaluation of Earth system models. Originally, ESMValTool was designed to process reformatted output provided by large model intercomparison projects like the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP). Here, we describe a new extension of ESMValTool that allows for reading and processing native climate model output, i.e., data that have not been reformatted before.
Xiufeng Yin, Dipesh Rupakheti, Guoshuai Zhang, Jiali Luo, Shichang Kang, Benjamin de Foy, Junhua Yang, Zhenming Ji, Zhiyuan Cong, Maheswar Rupakheti, Ping Li, and Qianggong Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The monthly mean surface ozone concentrations peaked earlier in the south in April and later in the north in July over the High-Mountain Asia. The migration of monthly surface ozone peaks was coupled with the synchronous movement of tropopause folding and westerly jet that created a conducive conditions for stratospheric ozone intrusion. Stratospheric ozone intrusion contributed ~65 % of surface ozone across the High-Mountain Asia.
Mukesh Rai, Shichang Kang, Junhua Yang, Maheswar Rupakheti, Dipesh Rupakheti, Lekhendra Tripathee, Yuling Hu, and Xintong Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Our study revealed distinctive seasonality with the maximum and minimum aerosol concentrations during the winter and summer seasons respectively. However, interestingly summer high (AOD > 0.8) was observed over South Asia. The highest aerosols are laden over South Asia and East China within 1–2 km, however, aerosol overshooting found up to 10 km due to the deep convection process. Whereas, integrated aerosol transport for OC during spring was found to be 5 times higher than the annual mean.
Clémence Rose, Martine Collaud Coen, Elisabeth Andrews, Yong Lin, Isaline Bossert, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Thomas Tuch, Alfred Wiedensohler, Markus Fiebig, Pasi Aalto, Andrés Alastuey, Elisabeth Alonso-Blanco, Marcos Andrade, Begoña Artíñano, Todor Arsov, Urs Baltensperger, Susanne Bastian, Olaf Bath, Johan Paul Beukes, Benjamin T. Brem, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Juan Andrés Casquero-Vera, Sébastien Conil, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Olivier Favez, Harald Flentje, Maria I. Gini, Francisco Javier Gómez-Moreno, Martin Gysel-Beer, Anna Gannet Hallar, Ivo Kalapov, Nikos Kalivitis, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Melita Keywood, Jeong Eun Kim, Sang-Woo Kim, Adam Kristensson, Markku Kulmala, Heikki Lihavainen, Neng-Huei Lin, Hassan Lyamani, Angela Marinoni, Sebastiao Martins Dos Santos, Olga L. Mayol-Bracero, Frank Meinhardt, Maik Merkel, Jean-Marc Metzger, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Jakub Ondracek, Marco Pandolfi, Noemi Pérez, Tuukka Petäjä, Jean-Eudes Petit, David Picard, Jean-Marc Pichon, Veronique Pont, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Fabienne Reisen, Karine Sellegri, Sangeeta Sharma, Gerhard Schauer, Patrick Sheridan, James Patrick Sherman, Andreas Schwerin, Ralf Sohmer, Mar Sorribas, Junying Sun, Pierre Tulet, Ville Vakkari, Pieter Gideon van Zyl, Fernando Velarde, Paolo Villani, Stergios Vratolis, Zdenek Wagner, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Kay Weinhold, Rolf Weller, Margarita Yela, Vladimir Zdimal, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17185–17223,Short summary
Aerosol particles are a complex component of the atmospheric system the effects of which are among the most uncertain in climate change projections. Using data collected at 62 stations, this study provides the most up-to-date picture of the spatial distribution of particle number concentration and size distribution worldwide, with the aim of contributing to better representation of aerosols and their interactions with clouds in models and, therefore, better evaluation of their impact on climate.
Katja Weigel, Lisa Bock, Bettina K. Gier, Axel Lauer, Mattia Righi, Manuel Schlund, Kemisola Adeniyi, Bouwe Andela, Enrico Arnone, Peter Berg, Louis-Philippe Caron, Irene Cionni, Susanna Corti, Niels Drost, Alasdair Hunter, Llorenç Lledó, Christian Wilhelm Mohr, Aytaç Paçal, Núria Pérez-Zanón, Valeriu Predoi, Marit Sandstad, Jana Sillmann, Andreas Sterl, Javier Vegas-Regidor, Jost von Hardenberg, and Veronika Eyring
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3159–3184,Short summary
This work presents new diagnostics for the Earth System Model Evaluation Tool (ESMValTool) v2.0 on the hydrological cycle, extreme events, impact assessment, regional evaluations, and ensemble member selection. The ESMValTool v2.0 diagnostics are developed by a large community of scientists aiming to facilitate the evaluation and comparison of Earth system models (ESMs) with a focus on the ESMs participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP).
Saehee Lim, Meehye Lee, Paolo Laj, Sang-Woo Kim, Kang-Ho Ahn, Junsoo Gil, Xiaona Shang, Marco Zanatta, and Kyeong-Sik Kang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
This study identifies the main drivers of the formation and transformation processes of submicron particles and highlights that the thick coating of rBC was a result of active conversion of hygroscopic inorganic salts leading to fine aerosol pollution. Consequently, we suggest BC particles as a key contributor to PM2.5 mass increase, which implies that BC reduction is an effective mitigation against haze pollution as well as climate change in Northeast Asia.
Manuel Schlund, Axel Lauer, Pierre Gentine, Steven C. Sherwood, and Veronika Eyring
Earth Syst. Dynam., 11, 1233–1258,Short summary
As an important measure of climate change, the Equilibrium Climate Sensitivity (ECS) describes the change in surface temperature after a doubling of the atmospheric CO2 concentration. Climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) show a wide range in ECS. Emergent constraints are a technique to reduce uncertainties in ECS with observational data. Emergent constraints developed with data from CMIP phase 5 show reduced skill and higher ECS ranges when applied to CMIP6 data.
Yongjoo Choi, Yugo Kanaya, Masayuki Takigawa, Chunmao Zhu, Seung-Myung Park, Atsushi Matsuki, Yasuhiro Sadanaga, Sang-Woo Kim, Xiaole Pan, and Ignacio Pisso
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13655–13670,
Axel Lauer, Veronika Eyring, Omar Bellprat, Lisa Bock, Bettina K. Gier, Alasdair Hunter, Ruth Lorenz, Núria Pérez-Zanón, Mattia Righi, Manuel Schlund, Daniel Senftleben, Katja Weigel, and Sabrina Zechlau
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4205–4228,Short summary
The Earth System Model Evaluation Tool is a community software tool designed for evaluation and analysis of climate models. New features of version 2.0 include analysis scripts for important large-scale features in climate models, diagnostics for extreme events, regional model and impact evaluation. In this paper, newly implemented climate metrics, emergent constraints for climate-relevant feedbacks and diagnostics for future model projections are described and illustrated with examples.
Paolo Laj, Alessandro Bigi, Clémence Rose, Elisabeth Andrews, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Martine Collaud Coen, Yong Lin, Alfred Wiedensohler, Michael Schulz, John A. Ogren, Markus Fiebig, Jonas Gliß, Augustin Mortier, Marco Pandolfi, Tuukka Petäja, Sang-Woo Kim, Wenche Aas, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Olga Mayol-Bracero, Melita Keywood, Lorenzo Labrador, Pasi Aalto, Erik Ahlberg, Lucas Alados Arboledas, Andrés Alastuey, Marcos Andrade, Begoña Artíñano, Stina Ausmeel, Todor Arsov, Eija Asmi, John Backman, Urs Baltensperger, Susanne Bastian, Olaf Bath, Johan Paul Beukes, Benjamin T. Brem, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Sébastien Conil, Cedric Couret, Derek Day, Wan Dayantolis, Anna Degorska, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Prodromos Fetfatzis, Olivier Favez, Harald Flentje, Maria I. Gini, Asta Gregorič, Martin Gysel-Beer, A. Gannet Hallar, Jenny Hand, Andras Hoffer, Christoph Hueglin, Rakesh K. Hooda, Antti Hyvärinen, Ivo Kalapov, Nikos Kalivitis, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Jeong Eun Kim, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Irena Kranjc, Radovan Krejci, Markku Kulmala, Casper Labuschagne, Hae-Jung Lee, Heikki Lihavainen, Neng-Huei Lin, Gunter Löschau, Krista Luoma, Angela Marinoni, Sebastiao Martins Dos Santos, Frank Meinhardt, Maik Merkel, Jean-Marc Metzger, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Nhat Anh Nguyen, Jakub Ondracek, Noemi Pérez, Maria Rita Perrone, Jean-Eudes Petit, David Picard, Jean-Marc Pichon, Veronique Pont, Natalia Prats, Anthony Prenni, Fabienne Reisen, Salvatore Romano, Karine Sellegri, Sangeeta Sharma, Gerhard Schauer, Patrick Sheridan, James Patrick Sherman, Maik Schütze, Andreas Schwerin, Ralf Sohmer, Mar Sorribas, Martin Steinbacher, Junying Sun, Gloria Titos, Barbara Toczko, Thomas Tuch, Pierre Tulet, Peter Tunved, Ville Vakkari, Fernando Velarde, Patricio Velasquez, Paolo Villani, Sterios Vratolis, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Kay Weinhold, Rolf Weller, Margarita Yela, Jesus Yus-Diez, Vladimir Zdimal, Paul Zieger, and Nadezda Zikova
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4353–4392,Short summary
The paper establishes the fiducial reference of the GAW aerosol network providing the fully characterized value chain to the provision of four climate-relevant aerosol properties from ground-based sites. Data from almost 90 stations worldwide are reported for a reference year, 2017, providing a unique and very robust view of the variability of these variables worldwide. Current gaps in the GAW network are analysed and requirements for the Global Climate Monitoring System are proposed.
Teruyuki Nakajima, Monica Campanelli, Huizheng Che, Victor Estellés, Hitoshi Irie, Sang-Woo Kim, Jhoon Kim, Dong Liu, Tomoaki Nishizawa, Govindan Pandithurai, Vijay Kumar Soni, Boossarasiri Thana, Nas-Urt Tugjsurn, Kazuma Aoki, Sujung Go, Makiko Hashimoto, Akiko Higurashi, Stelios Kazadzis, Pradeep Khatri, Natalia Kouremeti, Rei Kudo, Franco Marenco, Masahiro Momoi, Shantikumar S. Ningombam, Claire L. Ryder, Akihiro Uchiyama, and Akihiro Yamazaki
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4195–4218,Short summary
This paper overviews the progress in sky radiometer technology and the development of the network called SKYNET. It is found that the technology has produced useful on-site calibration methods, retrieval algorithms, and data analyses from sky radiometer observations of aerosol, cloud, water vapor, and ozone. The paper also discusses current issues of SKYNET to provide better information for the community.
Veronika Eyring, Lisa Bock, Axel Lauer, Mattia Righi, Manuel Schlund, Bouwe Andela, Enrico Arnone, Omar Bellprat, Björn Brötz, Louis-Philippe Caron, Nuno Carvalhais, Irene Cionni, Nicola Cortesi, Bas Crezee, Edouard L. Davin, Paolo Davini, Kevin Debeire, Lee de Mora, Clara Deser, David Docquier, Paul Earnshaw, Carsten Ehbrecht, Bettina K. Gier, Nube Gonzalez-Reviriego, Paul Goodman, Stefan Hagemann, Steven Hardiman, Birgit Hassler, Alasdair Hunter, Christopher Kadow, Stephan Kindermann, Sujan Koirala, Nikolay Koldunov, Quentin Lejeune, Valerio Lembo, Tomas Lovato, Valerio Lucarini, François Massonnet, Benjamin Müller, Amarjiit Pandde, Núria Pérez-Zanón, Adam Phillips, Valeriu Predoi, Joellen Russell, Alistair Sellar, Federico Serva, Tobias Stacke, Ranjini Swaminathan, Verónica Torralba, Javier Vegas-Regidor, Jost von Hardenberg, Katja Weigel, and Klaus Zimmermann
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3383–3438,Short summary
The Earth System Model Evaluation Tool (ESMValTool) is a community diagnostics and performance metrics tool designed to improve comprehensive and routine evaluation of earth system models (ESMs) participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP). It has undergone rapid development since the first release in 2016 and is now a well-tested tool that provides end-to-end provenance tracking to ensure reproducibility.
Martine Collaud Coen, Elisabeth Andrews, Andrés Alastuey, Todor Petkov Arsov, John Backman, Benjamin T. Brem, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Cédric Couret, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Harald Flentje, Markus Fiebig, Martin Gysel-Beer, Jenny L. Hand, András Hoffer, Rakesh Hooda, Christoph Hueglin, Warren Joubert, Melita Keywood, Jeong Eun Kim, Sang-Woo Kim, Casper Labuschagne, Neng-Huei Lin, Yong Lin, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Krista Luoma, Hassan Lyamani, Angela Marinoni, Olga L. Mayol-Bracero, Nikos Mihalopoulos, Marco Pandolfi, Natalia Prats, Anthony J. Prenni, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Ludwig Ries, Fabienne Reisen, Karine Sellegri, Sangeeta Sharma, Patrick Sheridan, James Patrick Sherman, Junying Sun, Gloria Titos, Elvis Torres, Thomas Tuch, Rolf Weller, Alfred Wiedensohler, Paul Zieger, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8867–8908,Short summary
Long-term trends of aerosol radiative properties (52 stations) prove that aerosol load has significantly decreased over the last 20 years. Scattering trends are negative in Europe (EU) and North America (NA), not ss in Asia, and show a mix of positive and negative trends at polar stations. Absorption has mainly negative trends. The single scattering albedo has positive trends in Asia and eastern EU and negative in western EU and NA, leading to a global positive median trend of 0.02 % per year.
August Andersson, Elena N. Kirillova, Stefano Decesari, Langley DeWitt, Jimmy Gasore, Katherine E. Potter, Ronald G. Prinn, Maheswar Rupakheti, Jean de Dieu Ndikubwimana, Julius Nkusi, and Bonfils Safari
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4561–4573,Short summary
Large-scale biomass burning events seasonally cover sub-Saharan Africa with air particles. In this study, we find that the concentrations of these particles at a remote mountain site in Rwanda may increase by a factor of 10 during such dry biomass burning periods, with strong implications for the regional climate and human health. These results provide quantitative constraints that could contribute to reducing the large uncertainties regarding the environmental impact of these fires.
Mattia Righi, Bouwe Andela, Veronika Eyring, Axel Lauer, Valeriu Predoi, Manuel Schlund, Javier Vegas-Regidor, Lisa Bock, Björn Brötz, Lee de Mora, Faruk Diblen, Laura Dreyer, Niels Drost, Paul Earnshaw, Birgit Hassler, Nikolay Koldunov, Bill Little, Saskia Loosveldt Tomas, and Klaus Zimmermann
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1179–1199,Short summary
This paper describes the second major release of ESMValTool, a community diagnostic and performance metrics tool for the evaluation of Earth system models. This new version features a brand new design, with an improved interface and a revised preprocessor. It takes advantage of state-of-the-art computational libraries and methods to deploy efficient and user-friendly data processing, improving the performance over its predecessor by more than a factor of 30.
Md. Robiul Islam, Thilina Jayarathne, Isobel J. Simpson, Benjamin Werden, John Maben, Ashley Gilbert, Puppala S. Praveen, Sagar Adhikari, Arnico K. Panday, Maheswar Rupakheti, Donald R. Blake, Robert J. Yokelson, Peter F. DeCarlo, William C. Keene, and Elizabeth A. Stone
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2927–2951,Short summary
The Kathmandu Valley experiences high levels of air pollution. In this study, atmospheric gases and particulate matter were characterized by online and off-line measurements, with an emphasis on understanding their sources. The major sources of particulate matter and trace gases were identified as garbage burning, biomass burning, and vehicles. The majority of secondary organic aerosol was attributed to anthropogenic precursors, while a minority was attributed to biogenic gases.
Kyunghwa Lee, Jinhyeok Yu, Sojin Lee, Mieun Park, Hun Hong, Soon Young Park, Myungje Choi, Jhoon Kim, Younha Kim, Jung-Hun Woo, Sang-Woo Kim, and Chul H. Song
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1055–1073,Short summary
For the purpose of providing reliable and robust air quality predictions, an operational air quality prediction system was developed for the main air quality criteria species in South Korea (PM10, PM2.5, CO, O3 and SO2) by preparing the initial conditions for model simulations via data assimilation using satellite- and ground-based observations. The performance of the developed air quality prediction system was evaluated using ground in situ data during the KORUS-AQ campaign period.
Yongjoo Choi, Yugo Kanaya, Seung-Myung Park, Atsushi Matsuki, Yasuhiro Sadanaga, Sang-Woo Kim, Itsushi Uno, Xiaole Pan, Meehye Lee, Hyunjae Kim, and Dong Hee Jung
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 83–98,Short summary
The relationship between black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO) can differ by the different structure of fuel consumption. By investigating the representativeness of the BC and CO emission inventory for real-world comparison with reliable observations, this study suggested that accurate CO emissions should be preferentially investigated to enhance the accuracy of the BC emission rate over East Asia.
Jun Zhu, Xiangao Xia, Huizheng Che, Jun Wang, Zhiyuan Cong, Tianliang Zhao, Shichang Kang, Xuelei Zhang, Xingna Yu, and Yanlin Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14637–14656,Short summary
The long-term temporal–spatial variations of the aerosol optical properties over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) based on the multiple ground-based sun photometer sites and the MODIS product are presented. Besides, the aerosol pollution and aerosol transport processes over the TP are also analyzed by the observations and models. The results in this region could help reduce the assessment uncertainties of aerosol radiative forcing and provide more information on aerosol transportation.
Pankaj Sadavarte, Maheswar Rupakheti, Prakash Bhave, Kiran Shakya, and Mark Lawrence
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12953–12973,Short summary
Emission inventory studies are an important regulatory tool for quantifying the amount of pollutants released in the atmosphere using the fuel consumption and emission rates for different fuels. This study developed an emission inventory over Nepal for 2001–2016 that reveals the changing fuel consumption and subsequently the pollution across different sectors of industrial, transport, agricultural, commercial and residential uses with the use of spatial distribution of anthropogenic activities.
Min Zhong, Eri Saikawa, Alexander Avramov, Chen Chen, Boya Sun, Wenlu Ye, William C. Keene, Robert J. Yokelson, Thilina Jayarathne, Elizabeth A. Stone, Maheswar Rupakheti, and Arnico K. Panday
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8209–8228,Short summary
Air pollution is one of the most pressing environmental issues in the Kathmandu Valley, the capital city of Nepal. We estimated emissions from two of the major source types in the valley (vehicles and brick kilns) and found that they have significant impacts on air quality surrounding the valley. Our results highlight the importance of improving local emissions estimates for air quality modeling.
Xin Wan, Shichang Kang, Maheswar Rupakheti, Qianggong Zhang, Lekhendra Tripathee, Junming Guo, Pengfei Chen, Dipesh Rupakheti, Arnico K. Panday, Mark G. Lawrence, Kimitaka Kawamura, and Zhiyuan Cong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2725–2747,Short summary
The sources of primary and secondary aerosols in the Hindu Kush–Himalayan–Tibetan Plateau region are not well known. Organic molecular tracers are useful for aerosol source apportionment. The characterization of molecular tracers were first systemically investigated and the contribution from primary and secondary sources to carbonaceous aerosols was estimated in the Kathmandu Valley. Our results demonstrate that biomass burning contributed a significant fraction to OC in the Kathmandu Valley.
H. Langley DeWitt, Jimmy Gasore, Maheswar Rupakheti, Katherine E. Potter, Ronald G. Prinn, Jean de Dieu Ndikubwimana, Julius Nkusi, and Bonfils Safari
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2063–2078,Short summary
Air quality in rapidly developing East Africa is a growing but understudied concern. We analyzed long-term black carbon, carbon monoxide, and ozone measurements from the remote Rwanda Climate Observatory and found that seasonal regional biomass burning raised black carbon levels to above-urban concentrations 6 months out of the year. Additional local pollution could exacerbate this issue. More regional monitoring needs to be done to understand and reduce air pollution in this region.
Huiming Lin, Yindong Tong, Xiufeng Yin, Qianggong Zhang, Hui Zhang, Haoran Zhang, Long Chen, Shichang Kang, Wei Zhang, James Schauer, Benjamin de Foy, Xiaoge Bu, and Xuejun Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1373–1391,Short summary
Located in the world's
third Poleand a remote region connecting the Indian and Eurasian plates, Qomolangma National Nature Preserve is an ideal region to study the long-range transport of atmospheric pollutants. Covering both the pre-Indian summer monsoon and Indian summer monsoon periods, our measurement and modeling results have addressed the need for more specific identification of Hg sources in this area and the importance of international cooperation regarding global mercury controls.
Ashish Singh, Khadak S. Mahata, Maheswar Rupakheti, Wolfgang Junkermann, Arnico K. Panday, and Mark G. Lawrence
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 245–258,Short summary
This paper reports the first airborne measurement campaign in the central Himalayan foothill region, one of the polluted but relatively poorly sampled regions of the world. The measurement campaign quantifies the vertical distribution of aerosols over a polluted mountain valley in the Himalayan foothills and investigates the extent of regional emission transport.
Khadak Singh Mahata, Maheswar Rupakheti, Arnico Kumar Panday, Piyush Bhardwaj, Manish Naja, Ashish Singh, Andrea Mues, Paolo Cristofanelli, Deepak Pudasainee, Paolo Bonasoni, and Mark G. Lawrence
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14113–14132,Short summary
This paper presents the first-time simultaneous measurement of CO and O3 at multiple sites in the Kathmandu Valley bottom, its mountain rim and a river outlet, providing their spatial, temporal and seasonal–diurnal variations. Our study reveals that high O3, especially during premonsoon, in observed sites is of high concern for human health and ecosystems in the region. We also estimated CO emission flux to be 2–14 times higher than widely used emission databases (EDGAR HTAP, REAS and INTEX-B).
Piyush Bhardwaj, Manish Naja, Maheswar Rupakheti, Aurelia Lupascu, Andrea Mues, Arnico Kumar Panday, Rajesh Kumar, Khadak Singh Mahata, Shyam Lal, Harish C. Chandola, and Mark G. Lawrence
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11949–11971,Short summary
This study provides information about the regional variabilities in some of the pollutants using observations in Nepal and India. It is shown that agricultural crop residue burning leads to a significant enhancement in ozone and CO over a wider region. Further, the wintertime higher ozone levels are shown to be largely due to local emissions, while regional transport could be important in spring and hence shows the role of regional sources versus local sources in the Kathmandu Valley.
Friderike Kuik, Andreas Kerschbaumer, Axel Lauer, Aurelia Lupascu, Erika von Schneidemesser, and Tim M. Butler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8203–8225,Short summary
Modelled NOx concentrations are often underestimated compared to observations, and measurement studies show that reported NOx emissions in urban areas are often too low when the contribution from traffic is largest. This modelling study quantifies the underestimation of traffic NOx emissions in the Berlin–Brandenburg and finds that they are underestimated by ca. 50 % in the core urban area. More research is needed in order to more accurately understand real-world NOx emissions from traffic.
Andrea Mues, Axel Lauer, Aurelia Lupascu, Maheswar Rupakheti, Friderike Kuik, and Mark G. Lawrence
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 2067–2091,
D. Rupakheti, S. Kang, Z. Cong, M. Rupakheti, L. Tripathee, A. K. Panday, and B. Holben
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-3, 1493–1497,
Axel Lauer, Colin Jones, Veronika Eyring, Martin Evaldsson, Stefan Hagemann, Jarmo Mäkelä, Gill Martin, Romain Roehrig, and Shiyu Wang
Earth Syst. Dynam., 9, 33–67,
Duseong S. Jo, Rokjin J. Park, Jaein I. Jeong, Gabriele Curci, Hyung-Min Lee, and Sang-Woo Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Astrid M. M. Manders, Peter J. H. Builtjes, Lyana Curier, Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon, Carlijn Hendriks, Sander Jonkers, Richard Kranenburg, Jeroen J. P. Kuenen, Arjo J. Segers, Renske M. A. Timmermans, Antoon J. H. Visschedijk, Roy J. Wichink Kruit, W. Addo J. van Pul, Ferd J. Sauter, Eric van der Swaluw, Daan P. J. Swart, John Douros, Henk Eskes, Erik van Meijgaard, Bert van Ulft, Peter van Velthoven, Sabine Banzhaf, Andrea C. Mues, Rainer Stern, Guangliang Fu, Sha Lu, Arnold Heemink, Nils van Velzen, and Martijn Schaap
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 4145–4173,Short summary
The regional-scale air quality model LOTOS–EUROS has been developed by a consortium of Dutch institutes. Recently, version 2.0 of the model was released as an open-source version. Next to a technical description and model evaluation for 2012, this paper presents the model developments in context of the history of air quality modelling and provides an outlook for future directions. Key and innovative applications of LOTOS–EUROS are also highlighted.
Khadak Singh Mahata, Arnico Kumar Panday, Maheswar Rupakheti, Ashish Singh, Manish Naja, and Mark G. Lawrence
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12573–12596,Short summary
The paper provides an overview of CH4, CO2, and CO mixing ratios, including diurnal and seasonal variation, and discusses the association of potential sources and meteorology with the observed temporal variation in the Kathmandu Valley. The study will provide an important dataset for a poorly studied region and will be useful for validating estimates from emission inventories, regional models, and satellite observations and assisting in the design of mitigation measures in the region.
Chaeyoon Cho, Sang-Woo Kim, Maheswar Rupakheti, Jin-Soo Park, Arnico Panday, Soon-Chang Yoon, Ji-Hyoung Kim, Hyunjae Kim, Haeun Jeon, Minyoung Sung, Bong Mann Kim, Seungkyu K. Hong, Rokjin J. Park, Dipesh Rupakheti, Khadak Singh Mahata, Puppala Siva Praveen, Mark G. Lawrence, and Brent Holben
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12617–12632,Short summary
We investigated the optical and chemical properties and direct radiative effects of aerosols in the Kathmandu Valley. We concluded that the ratio of light-absorbing to scattering aerosols as well as the concentration of light-absorbing aerosols is much higher at Kathmandu than other comparable regions, and it contributes to a great atmospheric absorption efficiency. This study provides unprecedented insights into aerosol optical properties and their radiative forcings in the Kathmandu Valley.
Lauren Schmeisser, Elisabeth Andrews, John A. Ogren, Patrick Sheridan, Anne Jefferson, Sangeeta Sharma, Jeong Eun Kim, James P. Sherman, Mar Sorribas, Ivo Kalapov, Todor Arsov, Christo Angelov, Olga L. Mayol-Bracero, Casper Labuschagne, Sang-Woo Kim, András Hoffer, Neng-Huei Lin, Hao-Ping Chia, Michael Bergin, Junying Sun, Peng Liu, and Hao Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12097–12120,Short summary
Three methods are used to classify aerosol type from aerosol optical properties measured in situ at 24 surface sites. Classification methods work best at sites with stable, homogenous aerosol at particularly polluted and dust-prone continental and marine sites. Classification methods are poor at remote marine and Arctic sites. Using these methods to extrapolate aerosol type from optical properties can help determine aerosol radiative forcing and improve aerosol satellite retrieval algorithms.
Dipesh Rupakheti, Bhupesh Adhikary, Puppala Siva Praveen, Maheswar Rupakheti, Shichang Kang, Khadak Singh Mahata, Manish Naja, Qianggong Zhang, Arnico Kumar Panday, and Mark G. Lawrence
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11041–11063,Short summary
For the first time, atmospheric composition was monitored during pre-monsoon season of 2013 at Lumbini (UNESCO world heritage site as birthplace of the Buddha). PM and O3 frequently exceeded WHO guidelines. Pollution concentration, diurnal characteristics and influence of open burning on air quality in Lumbini were investigated. Potential source regions were also identified. Results show that air pollution at this site is of a great concern, requiring prompt attention for mitigation.
Xin Wan, Shichang Kang, Quanlian Li, Dipesh Rupakheti, Qianggong Zhang, Junming Guo, Pengfei Chen, Lekhendra Tripathee, Maheswar Rupakheti, Arnico K. Panday, Wu Wang, Kimitaka Kawamura, Shaopeng Gao, Guangming Wu, and Zhiyuan Cong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8867–8885,Short summary
Biomass burning (BB) tracers in the aerosols in Lumbini, northern IGP, were studied for the first time. The levoglucosan was the predominant tracer and BB significantly contributed to the air quality in Lumbini. Mixed crop residues and hardwood were main burning materials. BB emissions constituted large fraction of OC, especially during the post-monsoon season. The sources of BB aerosols in Lumbini varies seasonally due to the influence of local emissions and long-range transport.
Andrea Mues, Maheswar Rupakheti, Christoph Münkel, Axel Lauer, Heiko Bozem, Peter Hoor, Tim Butler, and Mark G. Lawrence
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8157–8176,Short summary
Ceilometer measurements taken in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, were used to study the temporal and spatial evolution of the mixing layer height in the valley. This provides important information on the vertical structure of the atmosphere and can thus also help to understand the mixing of air pollutants (e.g. black carbon) in the valley. The seasonal and diurnal cycles of the mixing layer were found to be highly dependent on meteorology and mainly anticorrelated to black carbon concentrations.
Chinmoy Sarkar, Vinayak Sinha, Baerbel Sinha, Arnico K. Panday, Maheswar Rupakheti, and Mark G. Lawrence
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8129–8156,Short summary
This study provides quantitative information regarding the source contributions of the major non-methane volatile organic compound sources in the Kathmandu Valley. Combining high-resolution in situ NMVOC data and model analyses, we show that REAS v2.1 and EDGAR v4.2 emission inventories underestimate the contribution of traffic and do not take the contribution of brick kilns into account. Furthermore, REAS v2.1 overestimates the contribution of residential biofuel use and industries.
Kabindra M. Shakya, Maheswar Rupakheti, Anima Shahi, Rejina Maskey, Bidya Pradhan, Arnico Panday, Siva P. Puppala, Mark Lawrence, and Richard E. Peltier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6503–6516,Short summary
Particulate matter levels were monitored at six major roadway intersections in the Kathmandu Valley during two seasons in 2014. The study documented distinct seasonal (dry season versus wet season) and diel variations in particulate matter levels. This study suggests traffic-related emissions, and soil–dust–construction materials were found to be a major source of particulate matter at these locations.
Friderike Kuik, Axel Lauer, Galina Churkina, Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon, Daniel Fenner, Kathleen A. Mar, and Tim M. Butler
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 4339–4363,Short summary
The study evaluates the performance of a setup of the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry and aerosols (WRF–Chem) for the Berlin–Brandenburg region of Germany. Its sensitivity to updating urban input parameters based on structural data for Berlin is tested, specifying land use classes on a sub-grid scale, downscaling the original emissions to a resolution of ca. 1 km by 1 km for Berlin based on proxy data and model resolution.
Carolina Cavazos Guerra, Axel Lauer, Andreas B. Herber, Tim M. Butler, Annette Rinke, and Klaus Dethloff
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
Accurate description of the Arctic atmosphere is a challenge for the modelling comunity. We evaluate the performance of the Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF) in the Eurasian Arctic and analyse the implications of data to initialise the model and a land surface scheme. The results show that biases can be related to the quality of data used and in the case of black carbon concentrations, to emission data. More long term measurements are need for model Validation in the area.
Davide Putero, Paolo Cristofanelli, Michael Sprenger, Bojan Škerlak, Laura Tositti, and Paolo Bonasoni
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14203–14217,Short summary
The aim of this paper is to present STEFLUX, a tool to obtain a fast-computing identification of the stratospheric intrusion (SI) events occurring at a specific location and during a specified time window. STEFLUX results are compared to the SI observations at two high-mountain WMO/GAW global stations in Nepal and Italy, representative of two hot spots for climate change. Furthermore, the climatology of SI at the two stations is assessed, and the impact of several climate factors investigated.
Dimitris Akritidis, Andrea Pozzer, Prodromos Zanis, Evangelos Tyrlis, Bojan Škerlak, Michael Sprenger, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14025–14039,Short summary
We investigate the contribution of tropopause folds in the summertime tropospheric ozone pool over the eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East. For this purpose we use the EMAC atmospheric chemistry–climate model and a fold identification algorithm. A clear increase of ozone is found in the middle troposphere due to fold activity. The interannual variability of near-surface ozone over the eastern Mediterranean is related to that of both tropopause folds and ozone in the free troposphere.
B. Quennehen, J.-C. Raut, K. S. Law, N. Daskalakis, G. Ancellet, C. Clerbaux, S.-W. Kim, M. T. Lund, G. Myhre, D. J. L. Olivié, S. Safieddine, R. B. Skeie, J. L. Thomas, S. Tsyro, A. Bazureau, N. Bellouin, M. Hu, M. Kanakidou, Z. Klimont, K. Kupiainen, S. Myriokefalitakis, J. Quaas, S. T. Rumbold, M. Schulz, R. Cherian, A. Shimizu, J. Wang, S.-C. Yoon, and T. Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10765–10792,Short summary
This paper evaluates the ability of six global models and one regional model in reproducing short-lived pollutants (defined here as ozone and its precursors, aerosols and black carbon) concentrations over Asia using satellite, ground-based and airborne observations. Key findings are that models homogeneously reproduce the trace gas observations although nitrous oxides are underestimated, whereas the aerosol distributions are heterogeneously reproduced, implicating important uncertainties.
Simone Dietmüller, Patrick Jöckel, Holger Tost, Markus Kunze, Catrin Gellhorn, Sabine Brinkop, Christine Frömming, Michael Ponater, Benedikt Steil, Axel Lauer, and Johannes Hendricks
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 2209–2222,Short summary
Four new radiation related submodels (RAD, AEROPT, CLOUDOPT, and ORBIT) are available within the MESSy framework now. They are largely based on the original radiation scheme of ECHAM5. RAD simulates radiative transfer, AEROPT calculates aerosol optical properties, CLOUDOPT calculates cloud optical properties, and ORBIT is responsible for Earth orbit calculations. Multiple diagnostic calls of the radiation routine are possible, so radiative forcing can be calculated during the model simulation.
Veronika Eyring, Mattia Righi, Axel Lauer, Martin Evaldsson, Sabrina Wenzel, Colin Jones, Alessandro Anav, Oliver Andrews, Irene Cionni, Edouard L. Davin, Clara Deser, Carsten Ehbrecht, Pierre Friedlingstein, Peter Gleckler, Klaus-Dirk Gottschaldt, Stefan Hagemann, Martin Juckes, Stephan Kindermann, John Krasting, Dominik Kunert, Richard Levine, Alexander Loew, Jarmo Mäkelä, Gill Martin, Erik Mason, Adam S. Phillips, Simon Read, Catherine Rio, Romain Roehrig, Daniel Senftleben, Andreas Sterl, Lambertus H. van Ulft, Jeremy Walton, Shiyu Wang, and Keith D. Williams
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 1747–1802,Short summary
A community diagnostics and performance metrics tool for the evaluation of Earth system models (ESMs) in CMIP has been developed that allows for routine comparison of single or multiple models, either against predecessor versions or against observations.
Chinmoy Sarkar, Vinayak Sinha, Vinod Kumar, Maheswar Rupakheti, Arnico Panday, Khadak S. Mahata, Dipesh Rupakheti, Bhogendra Kathayat, and Mark G. Lawrence
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3979–4003,Short summary
First deployment of PTR-TOF-MS in South Asia. High acetaldehyde and biogenic isoprene concentrations detected even in winter in the Kathmandu Valley. Isocyanic acid, formamide, acetamide, naphthalene and nitromethane were detected for the first time in South Asian air. Oxygenated VOCs and isoprene-dominated OH reactivity and ozone production potentials (> 68 % OPP). Regulation of emissions from biomass co-fired brick kilns' by cleaner technology would improve air quality of the valley.
Duseong S. Jo, Rokjin J. Park, Seungun Lee, Sang-Woo Kim, and Xiaolu Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3413–3432,Short summary
We develop a new approach to estimate global emission of primary brown carbon from biomass burning and biofuel use and explicitly simulate brown carbon aerosol that has not been considered in climate and air quality models despite of its importance for solar absorption at UV and short visible wavelengths. Using our best simulation results, we estimate radiative effects of brown carbon aerosol for climate and photochemistry.
Peng Fei Chen, Chao Liu Li, Shi Chang Kang, Maheswar Rupakheti, Arnico K. Panday, Fang Ping Yan, Quan Lian Li, Qiang Gong Zhang, Jun Ming Guo, Dipesh Rupakheti, and Wei Luo
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
PAHs were measured at six sites along two south-north transects across the central Himalayas. The annual average PAHs and their dry deposition fluxes decreased noticeably from the south to north sides, however, a similar compostion pattern was found at three remote sites, suggesting the northern slope of the Himalayas may be affected by anthropogenic emissions form Indo-Gangetic Plain. PAHs showed a clear seasonal variation at Nepal and they were mainly form biomass and fossil combustion .
E. W. Butt, A. Rap, A. Schmidt, C. E. Scott, K. J. Pringle, C. L. Reddington, N. A. D. Richards, M. T. Woodhouse, J. Ramirez-Villegas, H. Yang, V. Vakkari, E. A. Stone, M. Rupakheti, P. S. Praveen, P. G. van Zyl, J. P. Beukes, M. Josipovic, E. J. S. Mitchell, S. M. Sallu, P. M. Forster, and D. V. Spracklen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 873–905,Short summary
We estimate the impact of residential emissions (cooking and heating) on atmospheric aerosol, human health, and climate. We find large contributions to annual mean ambient PM2.5 in residential sources regions resulting in significant but uncertain global premature mortality when key uncertainties in emission flux are considered. We show that residential emissions exert an uncertain global radiative effect and suggest more work is needed to characterise residential emissions climate importance.
D. Putero, P. Cristofanelli, A. Marinoni, B. Adhikary, R. Duchi, S. D. Shrestha, G. P. Verza, T. C. Landi, F. Calzolari, M. Busetto, G. Agrillo, F. Biancofiore, P. Di Carlo, A. K. Panday, M. Rupakheti, and P. Bonasoni
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13957–13971,Short summary
The aim of this paper is to present a full-year analysis of simultaneous measurements of ozone, black carbon, and aerosol number concentration at Paknajol, in the Kathmandu Valley, one of the global “hot spots” in terms of air pollution. Results indicate persisting poor air quality conditions throughout the measurement period, and suggest that the pollutants' variability is mainly driven by local pollution source activity, local- and large-scale dynamics, photochemistry, and vegetation fires.
P. Reutter, B. Škerlak, M. Sprenger, and H. Wernli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10939–10953,Short summary
In this manuscript, we investigate the exchange of air masses across the dynamical tropopause (stratosphere-troposphere exchange, STE) in the vicinity of North Atlantic cyclones. By using two 6-hourly resolved ERA-Interim climatologies of STE and cyclones from 1979 to 2011, we are able to directly compute the amount of STE in the vicinity of every individual cyclone in this time period. This enables us to provide a robust and consistent quantification of STE near North Atlantic cyclones.
F. Kuik, A. Lauer, J. P. Beukes, P. G. Van Zyl, M. Josipovic, V. Vakkari, L. Laakso, and G. T. Feig
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8809–8830,Short summary
The numerical model WRF-Chem is used to estimate the contribution of anthropogenic emissions to BC, aerosol optical depth and atmospheric heating rates over southern Africa. An evaluation of the model with observational data including long-term BC measurements shows that the basic meteorology is reproduced reasonably well but simulated near-surface BC concentrations are underestimated by up to 50%. It is found that up to 100% of the BC in highly industrialized regions is of anthropogenic origin.
L. Drinovec, G. Močnik, P. Zotter, A. S. H. Prévôt, C. Ruckstuhl, E. Coz, M. Rupakheti, J. Sciare, T. Müller, A. Wiedensohler, and A. D. A. Hansen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1965–1979,Short summary
We present a new real-time algorithm for compensation of the filter-loading effect in filter photometers, based on a two parallel spot measurement of optical absorption. This algorithm has been incorporated into the new Aethalometer AE33. Intercomparison studies show excellent reproducibility of the AE33 measurements and very good agreement with post-processed data obtained using earlier aethalometer models and other filter-based absorption photometers.
Z. Cong, S. Kang, K. Kawamura, B. Liu, X. Wan, Z. Wang, S. Gao, and P. Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1573–1584,
S. Seo, J. Kim, H. Lee, U. Jeong, W. Kim, B. N. Holben, S.-W. Kim, C. H. Song, and J. H. Lim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 319–334,Short summary
The estimation of PM10 from optical measurement of AERONET and MODIS by various empirical models was evaluated for the DRAGON-Asia campaign. The results showed the importance of boundary layer height (BLH) and effective radius (Reff) in estimating PM10. The highest correlation between the estimated and measured values was found to be 0.81 in winter due to the stagnant air mass and low BLH, while the poorest values were 0.54 in spring due to the influence of long-range transport above BLH.
B. Qu, J. Ming, S.-C. Kang, G.-S. Zhang, Y.-W. Li, C.-D. Li, S.-Y. Zhao, Z.-M. Ji, and J.-J. Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11117–11128,
S. Lim, M. Lee, S.-W. Kim, S.-C. Yoon, G. Lee, and Y. J. Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7781–7793,
B. Škerlak, M. Sprenger, and H. Wernli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 913–937,
A. Mues, J. Kuenen, C. Hendriks, A. Manders, A. Segers, Y. Scholz, C. Hueglin, P. Builtjes, and M. Schaap
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 939–955,
M. Jenkins, S. Kaspari, S. Kang, B. Grigholm, and P. A. Mayewski
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
J. Jung, H. Furutani, M. Uematsu, S. Kim, and S. Yoon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 411–428,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)The dependence of aerosols' global and local precipitation impacts on the emitting regionAssessing the climate and air quality effects of future aerosol mitigation in India using a global climate model combined with statistical downscalingAggravated air pollution and health burden due to traffic congestion in urban ChinaLate summer transition from a free-tropospheric to boundary layer source of Aitken mode aerosol in the high ArcticSelf-lofting of wildfire smoke in the troposphere and stratosphere: simulations and space lidar observationsRole of K-feldspar and quartz in global ice nucleation by mineral dust in mixed-phase cloudsProjected increases in wildfires may challenge regulatory curtailment of PM2.5 over the eastern US by 2050Meteorological export and deposition fluxes of black carbon on glaciers of the central Chilean AndesFuture changes in atmospheric rivers over East Asia under stratospheric aerosol interventionModeling the influence of chain length on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation via multiphase reactions of alkanesHow aerosol size matters in aerosol optical depth (AOD) assimilation and the optimization using the Ångström exponentMicrophysical, macrophysical, and radiative responses of subtropical marine clouds to aerosol injectionsHemispheric-wide climate response to regional COVID-19-related aerosol emission reductions: the prominent role of atmospheric circulation adjustmentsImpacts of an aerosol layer on a midlatitude continental system of cumulus clouds: how do these impacts depend on the vertical location of the aerosol layer?Impact of phase state and non-ideal mixing on equilibration timescales of secondary organic aerosol partitioningA global climatology of ice-nucleating particles under cirrus conditions derived from model simulations with MADE3 in EMACEnviro-HIRLAM model estimates of elevated black carbon pollution over Ukraine resulted from forest firesWhere does the dust deposited over the Sierra Nevada snow come from?Instant and delayed effects of March biomass burning aerosols over the Indochina PeninsulaAerosol–cloud interaction in the atmospheric chemistry model GRAPES_Meso5.1/CUACE and its impacts on mesoscale numerical weather prediction under haze pollution conditions in Jing–Jin–Ji in ChinaSurvival probabilities of atmospheric particles: comparison based on theory, cluster population simulations, and observations in BeijingModel-based insights into aerosol perturbation on pristine continental convective precipitationThe impact of assimilating Aeolus wind data on regional Aeolian dust model simulations using WRF-ChemThe simulation of mineral dust in the United Kingdom Earth System Model UKESM1Dust pollution in China affected by different spatial and temporal types of El NiñoAn improved representation of aerosol mixing state for air quality–weather interactionsCirculation-regulated impacts of aerosol pollution on urban heat island in BeijingSize-resolved dust direct radiative effect efficiency derived from satellite observationsA Global Evaluation of Daily to Seasonal Aerosol and Water Vapor Relationships Using a Combination of AERONET and NAAPS Reanalysis DataModeling coarse and giant desert dust particlesLocal and remote climate impacts of future African aerosol emissionsFire–climate interactions through the aerosol radiative effect in a global chemistry–climate–vegetation modelContributions of meteorology and anthropogenic emissions to the trends in winter PM2.5 in eastern China 2013–2018Impacts of condensable particulate matter on atmospheric organic aerosols and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in ChinaMapping the dependence of black carbon radiative forcing on emission region and seasonRegional PM2.5 pollution confined by atmospheric internal boundaries in the North China Plain: boundary layer structures and numerical simulationToward targeted observations of the meteorological initial state for improving the PM2.5 forecast of a heavy haze event that occurred in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei regionBelow-cloud scavenging of aerosol by rain: a review of numerical modelling approaches and sensitivity simulations with mineral dust in the Met Office's Unified ModelOn the differences in the vertical distribution of modeled aerosol optical depth over the southeast AtlanticPredicting gridded winter PM2.5 concentration in the east of ChinaSatellite-based evaluation of AeroCom model bias in biomass burning regionsImpacts of marine organic emissions on low-level stratiform clouds – a large eddy simulator studyAviation contrail climate effects in the North Atlantic from 2016 to 2021Source attribution of cloud condensation nuclei and their impact on stratocumulus clouds and radiation in the south-eastern AtlanticSimulating wildfire emissions and plume rise using geostationary satellite fire radiative power measurements: a case study of the 2019 Williams Flats fireAtomistic and coarse-grained simulations reveal increased ice nucleation activity on silver iodide surfaces in slit and wedge geometriesSecondary aerosol formation in marine Arctic environments: a model measurement comparison at Ny-ÅlesundEffective radiative forcing of anthropogenic aerosols in E3SM version 1: historical changes, causality, decomposition, and parameterization sensitivitiesExamination of aerosol impacts on convective clouds and precipitation in two metropolitan areas in East Asia; how varying depths of convective clouds between the areas diversify those aerosol effects?Influence of emission size distribution and nucleation on number concentrations over Greater Paris
Geeta G. Persad
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3435–3452,Short summary
Human-induced aerosol pollution has major impacts on both local and global precipitation. This study demonstrates using a global climate model that both the strength and localization of aerosols' precipitation impacts are highly dependent on which region the aerosols are emitted from. The findings highlight that the geographic distribution of human-induced aerosol emissions must be accounted for when quantifying their influence on global precipitation.
Tuuli Miinalainen, Harri Kokkola, Antti Lipponen, Antti-Pekka Hyvärinen, Vijay Kumar Soni, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, and Thomas Kühn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3471–3491,Short summary
We simulated the effects of aerosol emission mitigation on both global and regional radiative forcing and city-level air quality with a global-scale climate model. We used a machine learning downscaling approach to bias-correct the PM2.5 values obtained from the global model for the Indian megacity New Delhi. Our results indicate that aerosol mitigation could result in both improved air quality and less radiative heating for India.
Peng Wang, Ruhan Zhang, Shida Sun, Meng Gao, Bo Zheng, Dan Zhang, Yanli Zhang, Gregory R. Carmichael, and Hongliang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2983–2996,Short summary
In China, the number of vehicles has jumped significantly in the last decade. This caused severe traffic congestion and aggravated air pollution. In this study, we developed a new temporal allocation approach to quantify the impacts of traffic congestion. We found that traffic congestion worsens air quality and the health burden across China, especially in the urban clusters. More effective and comprehensive vehicle emission control policies should be implemented to improve air quality in China.
Ruth Price, Andrea Baccarini, Julia Schmale, Paul Zieger, Ian M. Brooks, Paul Field, and Ken S. Carslaw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2927–2961,Short summary
Arctic clouds can control how much energy is absorbed by the surface or reflected back to space. Using a computer model of the atmosphere we investigated the formation of atmospheric particles that allow cloud droplets to form. We found that particles formed aloft are transported to the lowest part of the Arctic atmosphere and that this is a key source of particles. Our results have implications for the way Arctic clouds will behave in the future as climate change continues to impact the region.
Kevin Ohneiser, Albert Ansmann, Jonas Witthuhn, Hartwig Deneke, Alexandra Chudnovsky, Gregor Walter, and Fabian Senf
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2901–2925,Short summary
This study shows that smoke layers can reach the tropopause via the self-lofting effect within 3–7 d in the absence of pyrocumulonimbus convection if the aerosol optical thickness is larger than approximately 2 for a longer time period. When reaching the stratosphere, wildfire smoke can sensitively influence the stratospheric composition on a hemispheric scale and thus can affect the Earth’s climate and the ozone layer.
Marios Chatziparaschos, Nikos Daskalakis, Stelios Myriokefalitakis, Nikos Kalivitis, Athanasios Nenes, María Gonçalves Ageitos, Montserrat Costa-Surós, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Medea Zanoli, Mihalis Vrekoussis, and Maria Kanakidou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1785–1801,Short summary
Ice formation is enabled by ice-nucleating particles (INP) at higher temperatures than homogeneous formation and can profoundly affect the properties of clouds. Our global model results show that K-feldspar is the most important contributor to INP concentrations globally, affecting mid-level mixed-phase clouds. However, quartz can significantly contribute and dominates the lowest and the highest altitudes of dust-derived INP, affecting mainly low-level and high-level mixed-phase clouds.
Chandan Sarangi, Yun Qian, L. Ruby Leung, Yang Zhang, Yufei Zou, and Yuhang Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1769–1783,Short summary
We show that for air quality, the densely populated eastern US may see even larger impacts of wildfires due to long-distance smoke transport and associated positive climatic impacts, partially compensating the improvements from regulations on anthropogenic emissions. This study highlights the tension between natural and anthropogenic contributions and the non-local nature of air pollution that complicate regulatory strategies for improving future regional air quality for human health.
Rémy Lapere, Nicolás Huneeus, Sylvain Mailler, Laurent Menut, and Florian Couvidat
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1749–1768,Short summary
Glaciers in the Andes of central Chile are shrinking rapidly in response to global warming. This melting is accelerated by the deposition of opaque particles onto snow and ice. In this work, model simulations quantify typical deposition rates of soot on glaciers in summer and winter months and show that the contribution of emissions from Santiago is not as high as anticipated. Additionally, the combination of regional- and local-scale meteorology explains the seasonality in deposition.
Ju Liang and Jim Haywood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1687–1703,Short summary
The recent record-breaking flood events in China during the summer of 2021 highlight the importance of mitigating the risks from future changes in high-impact weather systems under global warming. Based on a state-of-the-art Earth system model, we demonstrate a pilot study on the responses of atmospheric rivers and extreme precipitation over East Asia to anthropogenically induced climate warming and an unconventional mitigation strategy – stratospheric aerosol injection.
Azad Madhu, Myoseon Jang, and David Deacon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1661–1675,Short summary
SOA formation is simulated using the UNIPAR model for series of linear alkanes. The inclusion of autoxidation reactions within the explicit gas mechanisms of C9–C12 was found to significantly improve predictions. Available product distributions were extrapolated with an incremental volatility coefficient (IVC) to predict SOA formation of alkanes without explicit mechanisms. These product distributions were used to simulate SOA formation from C13 and C15 and had good agreement with chamber data.
Jianbing Jin, Bas Henzing, and Arjo Segers
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1641–1660,Short summary
Aerosol models and satellite retrieval algorithms rely on different aerosol size assumptions. In practice, differences between simulations and observations do not always reflect the difference in aerosol amount. To avoid inconsistencies, we designed a hybrid assimilation approach. Different from a standard aerosol optical depth (AOD) assimilation that directly assimilates AODs, the hybrid one estimates aerosol size parameters by assimilating Ängström observations before assimilating the AODs.
Je-Yun Chun, Robert Wood, Peter Blossey, and Sarah J. Doherty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1345–1368,Short summary
We investigate the impact of injected aerosol on subtropical low marine clouds under a variety of meteorological conditions using high-resolution model simulations. This study illustrates processes perturbed by aerosol injections and their impact on cloud properties (e.g., cloud number concentration, thickness, and cover). We show that those responses are highly sensitive to background meteorological conditions, such as precipitation, and background cloud properties.
Nora L. S. Fahrenbach and Massimo A. Bollasina
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 877–894,Short summary
We studied the monthly-scale climate response to COVID-19 aerosol emission reductions during January–May 2020 using climate models. Our results show global temperature and rainfall anomalies driven by circulation changes. The climate patterns reverse polarity from JF to MAM due to a shift in the main SO2 reduction region from China to India. This real-life example of rapid climate adjustments to abrupt, regional aerosol emission reduction has large implications for future climate projections.
Seoung Soo Lee, Junshik Um, Won Jun Choi, Kyung-Ja Ha, Chang Hoon Jung, Jianping Guo, and Youtong Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 273–286,Short summary
This paper elaborates on process-level mechanisms regarding how the interception of radiation by aerosols interacts with the surface heat fluxes and atmospheric instability in warm cumulus clouds. This paper elucidates how these mechanisms vary with the location or altitude of an aerosol layer. This elucidation indicates that the location of aerosol layers should be taken into account for parameterizations of aerosol–cloud interactions.
Meredith Schervish and Manabu Shiraiwa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 221–233,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) can exhibit complex non-ideal behavior and adopt an amorphous semisolid state. We simulate condensation of semi-volatile compounds into a phase-separated particle to investigate the effect of non-ideality and particle phase state on the equilibration timescale of SOA partitioning. Our results provide useful insights into the interpretation of experimental observations and the description and treatment of SOA in aerosol models.
Christof G. Beer, Johannes Hendricks, and Mattia Righi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15887–15907,Short summary
Ice-nucleating particles (INPs) have important influences on cirrus clouds and the climate system; however, their global atmospheric distribution in the cirrus regime is still very uncertain. We present a global climatology of INPs under cirrus conditions derived from model simulations, considering the mineral dust, soot, crystalline ammonium sulfate, and glassy organics INP types. The comparison of respective INP concentrations indicates the large importance of ammonium sulfate particles.
Mykhailo Savenets, Larysa Pysarenko, Svitlana Krakovska, Alexander Mahura, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15777–15791,Short summary
The paper explores the spatio-temporal variability of black carbon during a wildfire in August 2010, with a focus on Ukraine. As a research tool, the seamless Enviro-HIRLAM modelling system is used for investigating the atmospheric transport of aerosol particles emitted by wildfires from remote and local sources. The results of this study improve our understanding of the physical and chemical processes and the interactions of aerosols in the atmosphere.
Huilin Huang, Yun Qian, Ye Liu, Cenlin He, Jianyu Zheng, Zhibo Zhang, and Antonis Gkikas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15469–15488,Short summary
Using a clustering method developed in the field of artificial neural networks, we identify four typical dust transport patterns across the Sierra Nevada, associated with the mesoscale and regional-scale wind circulations. Our results highlight the connection between dust transport and dominant weather patterns, which can be used to understand dust transport in a changing climate.
Anbao Zhu, Haiming Xu, Jiechun Deng, Jing Ma, and Shaofeng Hua
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15425–15447,Short summary
This study demonstrates the instant and delayed effects of biomass burning (BB) aerosols on precipitation over the Indochina Peninsula (ICP). The convection suppression due to the BB aerosol-induced stabilized atmosphere dominates over the favorable water-vapor condition induced by large-scale circulation responses, leading to an overall reduced precipitation in March, while the delayed effect promotes precipitation from early April to mid April due to the anomalous atmospheric circulations.
Wenjie Zhang, Hong Wang, Xiaoye Zhang, Liping Huang, Yue Peng, Zhaodong Liu, Xiao Zhang, and Huizheng Che
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15207–15221,Short summary
Aerosol–cloud interaction (ACI) is first implemented in the atmospheric chemistry system GRAPES_Meso5.1/CUACE. ACI can improve the simulated cloud, temperature, and precipitation under haze pollution conditions in Jing-Jin-Ji in China. This paper demonstrates the critical role of ACI in current numerical weather prediction over the severely polluted region.
Santeri Tuovinen, Runlong Cai, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Jingkun Jiang, Chao Yan, Markku Kulmala, and Jenni Kontkanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15071–15091,Short summary
We compare observed survival probabilities of atmospheric particles from Beijing, China, with survival probabilities based on analytical formulae and model simulations. We find observed survival probabilities under polluted conditions at smaller sizes to be higher, while at larger sizes they are lower than or similar to theoretical survival probabilities. Uncertainties in condensation sink and growth rate are unlikely to explain higher-than-predicted survival probabilities at smaller sizes.
Mengjiao Jiang, Yaoting Li, Weiji Hu, Yinshan Yang, and Guy Brasseur
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Relatively clean background aerosol over the Tibet Plateau makes the study on the aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions distinctive. A convection on 24 July 2014 in Naqu was selected using WRF model including the Thompson aerosol-aware microphysical scheme. Our study has adopted a compromise approach to use the limited observations. The result shows that the transformation of cloud water to graupel and the development of convective clouds are favored under polluted situations.
Pantelis Kiriakidis, Antonis Gkikas, George Papangelis, Theodoros Christoudias, Jonilda Kushta, Emmanouil Proestakis, Anna Kampouri, Eleni Marinou, Eleni Drakaki, Angela Benedetti, Michael Rennie, Christian Retscher, Anne Grete Straume, Alexandru Dandocsi, Jean Sciare, and Vasilis Amiridis
With the launch of the Aeolus satellite higher accuracy wind products became available. The research was carried out to validate the assimilated wind products by testing their effect on the WRF-Chem model predictive ability of dust processes. This was carried out for the East Mediterranean and Middle East region for two, two-month long periods in autumn and spring 2020. The use of the assimilated products improved the dust forecasts both quantitatively and qualitatively for the autumn season.
Stephanie Woodward, Alistair A. Sellar, Yongming Tang, Marc Stringer, Andrew Yool, Eddy Robertson, and Andy Wiltshire
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14503–14528,Short summary
We describe the dust scheme in the UKESM1 Earth system model and show generally good agreement with observations. Comparing with the closely related HadGEM3-GC3.1 model, we show that dust differences are not only due to inter-model differences but also to the dust size distribution. Under climate change, HadGEM3-GC3.1 dust hardly changes, but UKESM1 dust decreases because that model includes the vegetation response which, in our models, has a bigger impact on dust than climate change itself.
Yang Yang, Liangying Zeng, Hailong Wang, Pinya Wang, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14489–14502,Short summary
Using an aerosol–climate model, dust pollution in China affected by different spatial and temporal types of El Niño are examined. Both eastern and central Pacific El Niño and short-duration El Niño increase winter dust concentrations over northern China, while long-duration El Niño decreases concentrations. Only long-duration El Niño events can significantly affect dust over China in the following spring. This study has profound implications for air pollution control and dust storm prediction.
Robin Stevens, Andrei Ryjkov, Mahtab Majdzadeh, and Ashu Dastoor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13527–13549,Short summary
Absorbing particles like black carbon can be coated with other matter. How much radiation these particles absorb depends on the coating thickness. The removal of these particles by clouds and rain depends on the coating composition. These effects are important for both climate and air quality. We implement a more detailed representation of these particles in an air quality model which accounts for both coating thickness and composition. We find a significant effect on particle concentrations.
Fan Wang, Gregory R. Carmichael, Jing Wang, Bin Chen, Bo Huang, Yuguo Li, Yuanjian Yang, and Meng Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13341–13353,Short summary
Unprecedented urbanization in China has led to serious urban heat island (UHI) issues, exerting intense heat stress on urban residents. We find diverse influences of aerosol pollution on urban heat island intensity (UHII) under different circulations. Our results also highlight the role of black carbon in aggravating UHI, especially during nighttime. It could thus be targeted for cooperative management of heat islands and aerosol pollution.
Qianqian Song, Zhibo Zhang, Hongbin Yu, Jasper F. Kok, Claudia Di Biagio, Samuel Albani, Jianyu Zheng, and Jiachen Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13115–13135,Short summary
This study developed a dataset that enables us to efficiently calculate dust direct radiative effect (DRE, i.e., cooling or warming our planet) for any given dust size distribution in addition to three sets of dust mineral components and two dust shapes. We demonstrate and validate the method of using this dataset to calculate dust DRE. Moreover, using this dataset we found that dust mineral composition is a more important factor in determining dust DRE than dust size and shape.
Juli I. Rubin, Jeffrey S. Reid, Peng Xian, Christopher M. Selman, and Thomas F. Eck
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This work aims to quantify the covariability between aerosol optical depth/extinction with water vapor (PW) globally, using NASA AERONET observations and NAAPS model data. Findings are important for data assimilation and radiative transfer. The study shows statistically significant and positive AOD/PW relationships are found across the globe, varying in strength with location and season and tied to large scale aerosol events. Hygroscopic growth was also found to be an important factor.
Eleni Drakaki, Vassilis Amiridis, Alexandra Tsekeri, Antonis Gkikas, Emmanouil Proestakis, Sotirios Mallios, Stavros Solomos, Christos Spyrou, Eleni Marinou, Claire L. Ryder, Demetri Bouris, and Petros Katsafados
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12727–12748,Short summary
State-of-the-art atmospheric dust models have limitations in accounting for a realistic dust size distribution (emission, transport). We modify the parameterization of the mineral dust cycle by including particles with diameter >20 μm, as indicated by observations over deserts. Moreover, we investigate the effects of reduced settling velocities of dust particles. Model results are evaluated using airborne and spaceborne dust measurements above Cabo Verde.
Christopher D. Wells, Matthew Kasoar, Nicolas Bellouin, and Apostolos Voulgarakis
The climate is altered by greenhouse gases and air pollutant particles, and such emissions are likely to change drastically in the future over Africa. Air pollutants do not travel far, so their climate effect depends on where they are emitted. This study uses a climate model to find the climate impacts of future African pollutant emissions being either high or low. The particles absorb and scatter sunlight, causing the ground nearby to be cooler, but elsewhere the increased heat causes warming.
Chenguang Tian, Xu Yue, Jun Zhu, Hong Liao, Yang Yang, Yadong Lei, Xinyi Zhou, Hao Zhou, Yimian Ma, and Yang Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12353–12366,Short summary
We quantify the impacts of fire aerosols on climate through direct, indirect, and albedo effects. In atmosphere-only simulations, we find global fire aerosols cause surface cooling and rainfall inhibition over many land regions. These fast atmospheric perturbations further lead to a reduction in regional leaf area index and lightning activities. By considering the feedback of fire aerosols on humidity, lightning, and leaf area index, we predict a slight reduction in fire emissions.
Yanxing Wu, Run Liu, Yanzi Li, Junjie Dong, Zhijiong Huang, Junyu Zheng, and Shaw Chen Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11945–11955,Short summary
Multiple linear regression (MLR) analyses often interpret the correlation coefficient (r2) as the contribution of an independent variable to the dependent variable. Since a good correlation does not imply a causal relationship, we propose that r2 should be interpreted as the maximum possible contribution. Moreover, MLR results are sensitive to the length of time analyzed; long-term analysis gives a more accurate assessment because of its additional constraints.
Mengying Li, Shaocai Yu, Xue Chen, Zhen Li, Yibo Zhang, Zhe Song, Weiping Liu, Pengfei Li, Xiaoye Zhang, Meigen Zhang, Yele Sun, Zirui Liu, Caiping Sun, Jingkun Jiang, Shuxiao Wang, Benjamin N. Murphy, Kiran Alapaty, Rohit Mathur, Daniel Rosenfeld, and John H. Seinfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11845–11866,Short summary
This study constructed an emission inventory of condensable particulate matter (CPM) in China with a focus on organic aerosols (OAs), based on collected CPM emission information. The results show that OA emissions are enhanced twofold for the years 2014 and 2017 after the inclusion of CPM in the new inventory. Sensitivity cases demonstrated the significant contributions of CPM emissions from stationary combustion and mobile sources to primary, secondary, and total OA concentrations.
Petri Räisänen, Joonas Merikanto, Risto Makkonen, Mikko Savolahti, Alf Kirkevåg, Maria Sand, Øyvind Seland, and Antti-Ilari Partanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11579–11602,Short summary
A climate model is used to evaluate how the radiative forcing (RF) associated with black carbon (BC) emissions depends on the latitude, longitude, and seasonality of emissions. It is found that both the direct RF (BC absorption of solar radiation in air) and snow RF (BC absorption in snow/ice) depend strongly on the emission region and season. The results suggest that, for a given mass of BC emitted, climatic impacts are likely to be largest for high-latitude emissions due to the large snow RF.
Xipeng Jin, Xuhui Cai, Mingyuan Yu, Yu Song, Xuesong Wang, Hongsheng Zhang, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11409–11427,Short summary
Meteorological discontinuities in the vertical direction define the lowest atmosphere as the boundary layer, while in the horizontal direction it identifies the contrast zone as the internal boundary. Both of them determine the polluted air mass dimension over the North China Plain. This study reveals the boundary layer structures under three categories of internal boundaries, modified by thermal, dynamical, and blending effects. It provides a new insight to understand regional pollution.
Lichao Yang, Wansuo Duan, Zifa Wang, and Wenyi Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11429–11453,Short summary
The initial meteorological state has a great impact on PM2.5 forecasts. Assimilating additional observations is an effective way to improve the accuracy of the initial meteorological state. Here we used an advanced optimization approach to identify where we should preferentially place the meteorological observations associated with PM2.5 forecasts in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region of China. We provide evidence that the target observation strategy is effective for improving PM2.5 forecasts.
Anthony C. Jones, Adrian Hill, John Hemmings, Pascal Lemaitre, Arnaud Quérel, Claire L. Ryder, and Stephanie Woodward
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11381–11407,Short summary
As raindrops fall to the ground, they capture aerosol (i.e. below-cloud scavenging or BCS). Many different BCS schemes are available to climate models, and it is unclear what the impact of selecting one scheme over another is. Here, various BCS models are outlined and then applied to mineral dust in climate model simulations. We find that dust concentrations are highly sensitive to the BCS scheme, with dust atmospheric lifetimes ranging from 5 to 44 d.
Ian Chang, Lan Gao, Connor J. Flynn, Yohei Shinozuka, Sarah J. Doherty, Michael S. Diamond, Karla M. Longo, Gonzalo A. Ferrada, Gregory R. Carmichael, Patricia Castellanos, Arlindo M. da Silva, Pablo E. Saide, Calvin Howes, Zhixin Xue, Marc Mallet, Ravi Govindaraju, Qiaoqiao Wang, Yafang Cheng, Yan Feng, Sharon P. Burton, Richard A. Ferrare, Samuel E. LeBlanc, Meloë S. Kacenelenbogen, Kristina Pistone, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, Kerry G. Meyer, Ju-Mee Ryoo, Leonhard Pfister, Adeyemi A. Adebiyi, Robert Wood, Paquita Zuidema, Sundar A. Christopher, and Jens Redemann
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Abundant aerosols are present above low-level liquid clouds over the southeast Atlantic during austral winter and spring. The model simulation differences in the proportion of aerosol residing in the planetary boundary layer and in the free troposphere can greatly affect the regional aerosol radiative effects. This study examines aerosol optical depths and planetary boundary layer depths among various models and evaluates them against measurements from the NASA ORACLES field campaign.
Zhicong Yin, Mingkeng Duan, Yuyan Li, Tianbao Xu, and Huijun Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11173–11185,Short summary
The PM2.5 concentration has been greatly reduced in recent years in China and has entered a crucial stage that required fine seasonal prediction. However, there is still no study aimed at predicting gridded PM2.5 concentration. A model for seasonal prediction of gridded winter PM2.5 concentration in the east of China was developed by analyzing the contributions of emissions and climate variability, which could provide scientific support for air pollution control at the regional and city levels.
Qirui Zhong, Nick Schutgens, Guido van der Werf, Twan van Noije, Kostas Tsigaridis, Susanne E. Bauer, Tero Mielonen, Alf Kirkevåg, Øyvind Seland, Harri Kokkola, Ramiro Checa-Garcia, David Neubauer, Zak Kipling, Hitoshi Matsui, Paul Ginoux, Toshihiko Takemura, Philippe Le Sager, Samuel Rémy, Huisheng Bian, Mian Chin, Kai Zhang, Jialei Zhu, Svetlana G. Tsyro, Gabriele Curci, Anna Protonotariou, Ben Johnson, Joyce E. Penner, Nicolas Bellouin, Ragnhild B. Skeie, and Gunnar Myhre
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11009–11032,Short summary
Aerosol optical depth (AOD) errors for biomass burning aerosol (BBA) are evaluated in 18 global models against satellite datasets. Notwithstanding biases in satellite products, they allow model evaluations. We observe large and diverse model biases due to errors in BBA. Further interpretations of AOD diversities suggest large biases exist in key processes for BBA which require better constraining. These results can contribute to further model improvement and development.
Marje Prank, Juha Tonttila, Jaakko Ahola, Harri Kokkola, Thomas Kühn, Sami Romakkaniemi, and Tomi Raatikainen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10971–10992,Short summary
Aerosols and clouds persist as the dominant sources of uncertainty in climate projections. In this modelling study, we investigate the role of marine aerosols in influencing the lifetime of low-level clouds. Our high resolution simulations show that sea spray can both extend and shorten the lifetime of the cloud layer depending on the model setup. The impact of the primary marine organics is relatively limited while secondary aerosol from monoterpenes can have larger impact.
Roger Teoh, Ulrich Schumann, Edward Gryspeerdt, Marc Shapiro, Jarlath Molloy, George Koudis, Christiane Voigt, and Marc E. J. Stettler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10919–10935,Short summary
Aircraft condensation trails (contrails) contribute to over half of the climate forcing attributable to aviation. This study uses historical air traffic and weather data to simulate contrails in the North Atlantic over 5 years, from 2016 to 2021. We found large intra- and inter-year variability in contrail radiative forcing and observed a 66 % reduction due to COVID-19. Most warming contrails predominantly result from night-time flights in winter.
Haochi Che, Philip Stier, Duncan Watson-Parris, Hamish Gordon, and Lucia Deaconu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10789–10807,Short summary
Extensive stratocumulus clouds over the south-eastern Atlantic (SEA) can lead to a cooling effect on the climate. A key pathway by which aerosols affect cloud properties is by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Here, we investigated the source attribution of CCN in the SEA as well as the cloud responses. Our results show that aerosol nucleation contributes most to CCN in the marine boundary layer. In terms of emissions, anthropogenic sources contribute most to the CCN and cloud droplets.
Aditya Kumar, R. Bradley Pierce, Ravan Ahmadov, Gabriel Pereira, Saulo Freitas, Georg Grell, Chris Schmidt, Allen Lenzen, Joshua P. Schwarz, Anne E. Perring, Joseph M. Katich, John Hair, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, and Hongyu Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10195–10219,Short summary
We use the WRF-Chem model with new implementations of GOES-16 wildfire emissions and plume rise based on fire radiative power (FRP) to interpret aerosol observations during the 2019 NASA–NOAA FIREX-AQ field campaign and perform model evaluations. The model shows significant improvements in simulating the variety of aerosol loading environments sampled during FIREX-AQ. Our results also highlight the importance of accurate wildfire diurnal cycle and aerosol chemical mechanisms in models.
Golnaz Roudsari, Olli H. Pakarinen, Bernhard Reischl, and Hanna Vehkamäki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10099–10114,Short summary
We use atomistic simulations to study heterogeneous ice nucleation on silver iodide surfaces in slit and wedge geometries at low supercooling which serve as a model of irregularities on real atmospheric aerosol particle surfaces. The revealed microscopic ice nucleation mechanisms in confined geometries strongly support the experimental evidence for the importance of surface features such as cracks or pits functioning as active sites for ice nucleation in the atmosphere.
Carlton Xavier, Metin Baykara, Robin Wollesen de Jonge, Barbara Altstädter, Petri Clusius, Ville Vakkari, Roseline Thakur, Lisa Beck, Silvia Becagli, Mirko Severi, Rita Traversi, Radovan Krejci, Peter Tunved, Mauro Mazzola, Birgit Wehner, Mikko Sipilä, Markku Kulmala, Michael Boy, and Pontus Roldin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10023–10043,Short summary
The focus of this work is to study and improve our understanding of processes involved in the formation and growth of new particles in a remote Arctic marine environment. We run the 1D model ADCHEM along air mass trajectories arriving at Ny-Ålesund in May 2018. The model finds that ion-mediated H2SO4–NH3 nucleation can explain the observed new particle formation at Ny-Ålesund. The growth of particles is driven via H2SO4 condensation and formation of methane sulfonic acid in the aqueous phase.
Kai Zhang, Wentao Zhang, Hui Wan, Philip J. Rasch, Steven J. Ghan, Richard C. Easter, Xiangjun Shi, Yong Wang, Hailong Wang, Po-Lun Ma, Shixuan Zhang, Jian Sun, Susannah M. Burrows, Manish Shrivastava, Balwinder Singh, Yun Qian, Xiaohong Liu, Jean-Christophe Golaz, Qi Tang, Xue Zheng, Shaocheng Xie, Wuyin Lin, Yan Feng, Minghuai Wang, Jin-Ho Yoon, and L. Ruby Leung
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9129–9160,Short summary
Here we analyze the effective aerosol forcing simulated by E3SM version 1 using both century-long free-running and short nudged simulations. The aerosol forcing in E3SMv1 is relatively large compared to other models, mainly due to the large indirect aerosol effect. Aerosol-induced changes in liquid and ice cloud properties in E3SMv1 have a strong correlation. The aerosol forcing estimates in E3SMv1 are sensitive to the parameterization changes in both liquid and ice cloud processes.
Seoung Soo Lee, Jinho Choi, Goun Kim, Kyung-Ja Ha, Kyong-Hwan Seo, Chang Hoon Jung, Junshik Um, Youtong Zheng, Jianping Guo, Sang-Keun Song, Yun Gon Lee, and Nobuyuki Utsumi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9059–9081,Short summary
This study investigates how aerosols affect clouds and precipitation and how the aerosol effects vary with varying types of clouds that are characterized by cloud depth in two metropolitan areas in East Asia. As cloud depth increases, the enhancement of precipitation amount transitions to no changes in precipitation amount with increasing aerosol concentrations. This indicates that cloud depth needs to be considered for a comprehensive understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions.
Karine Sartelet, Youngseob Kim, Florian Couvidat, Maik Merkel, Tuukka Petäjä, Jean Sciare, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8579–8596,Short summary
A methodology is defined to estimate number emissions from an inventory providing mass emissions. Number concentrations are simulated over Greater Paris using different nucleation parameterisations (binary, ternary involving sulfuric acid and ammonia, and heteromolecular involving sulfuric acid and extremely low-volatility organics, ELVOCs). The comparisons show that ternary nucleation may not be a dominant process for new particle formation in cities, but they stress the role of ELVOCs.
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The Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau region (HTP) is regularly exposed to polluted air masses that might influence glaciers as well as climate on regional to global scales. We found that atmospheric brown clouds from South Asia reach the HTP by crossing the Himalayas not only through the major north--south river valleys but rather over large areas by being lifted and advected at mid-troposheric levels. The transport is enabled by a combination of synoptic and local meteorological settings.
The Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau region (HTP) is regularly exposed to polluted air masses...