Articles | Volume 15, issue 7
Research article 02 Apr 2015
Research article | 02 Apr 2015
Simultaneous reductions in emissions of black carbon and co-emitted species will weaken the aerosol net cooling effect
Z. L. Wang et al.
No articles found.
Xiaojing Shen, Junying Sun, Fangqun Yu, Ying Wang, Junting Zhong, Yangmei Zhang, Xinyao Hu, Can Xia, Sinan Zhang, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7039–7052,Short summary
In this work, we revealed the changes of PNSD and NPF events during the COVID-19 lockdown period in Beijing, China, to illustrate the impact of reduced primary emission and elavated atmospheric oxidized capicity on the nucleation and growth processes. The subsequent growth of nucleated particles and their contribution to the aerosol pollution formation were also explored, to highlight the necessity of controlling the nanoparticles in the future air quality management.
Qingyang Xiao, Yixuan Zheng, Guannan Geng, Cuihong Chen, Xiaomeng Huang, Huizheng Che, Xiaoye Zhang, Kebin He, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We used both statistical methods and the chemical transport model to assess the contribution of meteorology and emissions to PM2.5 during 2000–2018. Both methods revealed that emissions dominated the long-term PM2.5 trend with notable meteorological effects ranged up to 37.9 % of regional annual average PM2.5. The meteorological contribution became more beneficial to PM2.5 control in south China but more unfavorable in north China, thus strict clean air actions are needed to avoid haze events.
Linlin Liang, Guenter Engling, Chang Liu, Wanyun Xu, Xuyan Liu, Yuan Cheng, Zhenyu Du, Gen Zhang, Junying Sun, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3181–3192,Short summary
A unique episode with extreme biomass burning (BB) impact, with daily concentration of levoglucosan as high as 4.37 µg m-3, was captured at an area upwind of Beijing. How this extreme BB pollution event was generated and what were the chemical properties of PM2.5 under this kind severe BB pollution level in the real atmospheric environment were both presented in this measurement report. Moreover, the variation of the ratios of BB tracers during different BB pollution periods was also exhibited.
Lei Zhang, Sunling Gong, Tianliang Zhao, Chunhong Zhou, Yuesi Wang, Jiawei Li, Dongsheng Ji, Jianjun He, Hongli Liu, Ke Gui, Xiaomei Guo, Jinhui Gao, Yunpeng Shan, Hong Wang, Yaqiang Wang, Huizheng Che, and Xiaoye Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 703–718,Short summary
Development of chemical transport models with advanced physics and chemical schemes is important for improving air-quality forecasts. This study develops the chemical module CUACE by updating with a new particle dry deposition scheme and adding heterogenous chemical reactions and couples it with the WRF model. The coupled model (WRF/CUACE) was able to capture well the variations of PM2.5, O3, NO2, and secondary inorganic aerosols in eastern China.
Yucong Miao, Huizheng Che, Xiaoye Zhang, and Shuhua Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5899–5909,Short summary
By combining long-term observational data analyses, synoptic classifications, and meteorology–chemistry coupled simulations, the complicated impacts of large-scale synoptic forcing and local boundary layer processes on the aerosol pollution in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region have been investigated. The influences of the aerosol radiative effect on boundary layer structure and pollution were also examined. This study has important implications for better understanding pollution in China.
Linlin Liang, Guenter Engling, Chang Liu, Wanyun Xu, Xuyan Liu, Yuan Cheng, Zhenyu Du, Gen Zhang, Junying Sun, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Our study captured an episode with extreme biomass burning tracer level at an agricultural site in North China, with concentrations of levoglucosan as high as 4.37 μg m−3. Based on comparison of the chemical composition between different biomass burning periods, it appeared that biomass burning can obviously elevate the levels of organic components, but seems to have no significant effect on the production of secondary inorganic ions, although their precursors increased during the episode.
Renmin Yuan, Xiaoye Zhang, Hao Liu, Yu Gui, Bohao Shao, Xiaoping Tao, Yaqiang Wang, Junting Zhong, Yubin Li, and Zhiqiu Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12857–12874,Short summary
To understand the contribution of ground emission during heavy pollution in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei, aerosol fluxes were estimated in Beijing and Gucheng areas. The results show that in the three stages of a heavy pollution process (transport, accumulative and removal stages: TS, AS and RS), the ground emissions in the TS and RS stages are stronger, while the ground discharge in the AS stage is weak. The weakened mass flux indicates that the already weak turbulence would be further weakened.
Huizheng Che, Xiangao Xia, Hujia Zhao, Oleg Dubovik, Brent N. Holben, Philippe Goloub, Emilio Cuevas-Agulló, Victor Estelles, Yaqiang Wang, Jun Zhu, Bing Qi, Wei Gong, Honglong Yang, Renjian Zhang, Leiku Yang, Jing Chen, Hong Wang, Yu Zheng, Ke Gui, Xiaochun Zhang, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11843–11864,Short summary
A full-scale description of ground-based aerosol microphysical and optical properties over China is presented. Moreover, the results have also provided significant information about optical and radiative aerosol properties for different types of sites covering a broad expanse of China. The results have considerable value for ground-truthing satellite observations and validating aerosol models.
Xianyi Yang, Huizheng Che, Hitoshi Irie, Quanliang Chen, Ke Gui, Ying Cai, Yu Zheng, Linchang An, Hujia Zhao, Lei Li, Yuanxin Liang, Yaqiang Wang, Hong Wang, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
This study assesses the performance of SKYNET in comparison to AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) for retrieving aerosol optical properties (AOPs) in Beijing, China. SKYNET data retrieved by SR-CEReS analysis package are used to analyze a serious pollution event in winter over Beijing. The AOPs under three weather conditions (clean, dusty, haze) in Beijing are discussed. Measurements from the SKYNET skyradiometer can be used to analyze the AOPs over Beijing reasonably.
Huizheng Che, Ke Gui, Xiangao Xia, Yaqiang Wang, Brent N. Holben, Philippe Goloub, Emilio Cuevas-Agulló, Hong Wang, Yu Zheng, Hujia Zhao, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10497–10523,Short summary
A comprehensive assessment of the global and regional AOD trends over the past 37 years (1980–2016) is presented. AOD observations from both AERONET and CARSNET were used for the first time to assess the performance of the MERRA-2 AOD dataset on a global scale. Based on statistical models, we found the meteorological parameters explained a larger proportion of the regional AOD variability (20.4 %–2.8 %) when compared with emission factors (0 %%–56 %).
Hua Yu, Weijun Li, Yangmei Zhang, Peter Tunved, Manuel Dall'Osto, Xiaojing Shen, Junying Sun, Xiaoye Zhang, Jianchao Zhang, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10433–10446,Short summary
Interaction of anthropogenic particles with radiation and clouds plays an important role in Arctic climate change. The mixing state of different aerosols is a key parameter influencing such interactions. However, little is known of this parameter, preventing an accurate representation of this information in global models. Multi-microscopic techniques were used to find one general core–shell structure in which secondary sulfate particles were covered by organic coating in the Arctic atmosphere.
Weijun Li, Lei Liu, Qi Yuan, Liang Xu, Yanhong Zhu, Bingbing Wang, Hua Yu, Xiaokun Ding, Jian Zhang, Dao Huang, Dantong Liu, Wei Hu, Daizhou Zhang, Pingqing Fu, Maosheng Yao, Min Hu, Xiaoye Zhang, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
The real state of individual primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) derived from natural sources is under mystery, although many studies well evaluate the morphology, mixing state, and elemental composition of anthropogenic particles. It induces that some studies mislead some anthropogenic particles into biological particles through electron microscopy. Here we firstly estimate the full database of individual PBAPs through two microscopic instruments. The database is good for research.
Linlin Wang, Junkai Liu, Zhiqiu Gao, Yubin Li, Meng Huang, Sihui Fan, Xiaoye Zhang, Yuanjian Yang, Shiguang Miao, Han Zou, Yele Sun, Yong Chen, and Ting Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6949–6967,Short summary
Urban boundary layer (UBL) affects the physical and chemical processes of the pollutants, and UBL structure can also be altered by pollutants. This paper presents the interactions between air pollution and the UBL structure by using the field data mainly collected from a 325 m meteorology tower, as well as from a Doppler wind lidar, during a severe heavy pollution event that occurred during 1–4 December 2016 in Beijing.
Junting Zhong, Xiaoye Zhang, Yaqiang Wang, Jizhi Wang, Xiaojing Shen, Hongsheng Zhang, Tijian Wang, Zhouqing Xie, Cheng Liu, Hengde Zhang, Tianliang Zhao, Junying Sun, Shaojia Fan, Zhiqiu Gao, Yubin Li, and Linlin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3287–3306,Short summary
In various haze regions in China, including the Guanzhong Plain, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the Pearl River Delta, the Sichuan Basin, and the Northeast China Plain, heavy aerosol pollution episodes include inter-/trans-regional transport stages and cumulative stages (CSs). During CSs a two-way feedback mechanism exists between unfavorable meteorological conditions and cumulative aerosol pollution. This two-way feedback is further quantified and its magnitude is compared.
Angela Benedetti, Francesca Di Giuseppe, Luke Jones, Vincent-Henri Peuch, Samuel Rémy, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 987–998,
Hong Wang, Yue Peng, Xiaoye Zhang, Hongli Liu, Meng Zhang, Huizheng Che, Yanli Cheng, and Yu Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17717–17733,Short summary
The explosive growth (EG) of PM2.5 resulted in a PM2.5 maximum, which was generally underestimated by atmospheric chemical models due to the deficient description of the local
turbulence intermittent. The aerosol–radiation feedback (AF) and decrease in turbulence diffusion (DTD) may reduce the underestimation of PM2.5 EG by 20–25% and 14–20%, respectively. The modeled EG stage PM2.5 error was decreased from −40 to −51% to −11 to 2% by the combined effects of AF and DTD in Jing–Jin–Ji.
Yue Peng, Hong Wang, Yubin Li, Changwei Liu, Tianliang Zhao, Xiaoye Zhang, Zhiqiu Gao, Tong Jiang, Huizheng Che, and Meng Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17421–17435,Short summary
Two surface layer schemes are evaluated in eastern China based on observational flux data. The results indicate that the Li scheme better describes regional atmosphere stratification compared with the MM5 scheme, especially for the transition stage from unstable to stable atmosphere conditions, corresponding to PM2.5 accumulation. Our research suggests the potential improved possibilities for severe haze prediction in eastern China by coupling Li online into atmosphere chemical models.
Xiaoye Zhang, Junting Zhong, Jizhi Wang, Yaqiang Wang, and Yanju Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5991–5999,Short summary
The relation between interdecadal changes in weather conditions and climate warming is uncertain. Here, the decadal worsening of meteorological conditions since the 1960s in the Beijing area was found to be partly attributed to climate warming, which is defined by more warming in the higher layers of the boundary layer (BL) than the lower layers. This worsening may also partly be related to the impact on the increasing aerosol pollution (particularly after 2010).
Tianze Sun, Huizheng Che, Bing Qi, Yaqiang Wang, Yunsheng Dong, Xiangao Xia, Hong Wang, Ke Gui, Yu Zheng, Hujia Zhao, Qianli Ma, Rongguang Du, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2949–2971,Short summary
The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region is a key hub in China with air pollution problems. We applied various data from observations and satellites, finding particles in summer prefer hygroscopic growth leading to high scatter. Transported scatter particles lead to a cooling effect which lowers the boundary layer, creating positive feedback. Transported pollutants over YRD are from the North China Plain, northwestern deserts, and southern biomass burning. This finding helps air quality control.
Xiaojing Shen, Junying Sun, Niku Kivekäs, Adam Kristensson, Xiaoye Zhang, Yangmei Zhang, Lu Zhang, Ruxia Fan, Xuefei Qi, Qianli Ma, and Huaigang Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 587–599,Short summary
In this study we used the NanoMap method by applying back trajectories and particle number size distribution in different rural sites in China to evaluate the spatial distribution of NPF events and their occurrence probability. We found difference in the horizontal spatial distribution of new particle source areas was connected to typical meteorological conditions. The horizontal extent of NPF reached to larger than 500 km at two sites, favoured by the fast transport of northwesterly air masses.
Huizheng Che, Bing Qi, Hujia Zhao, Xiangao Xia, Thomas F. Eck, Philippe Goloub, Oleg Dubovik, Victor Estelles, Emilio Cuevas-Agulló, Luc Blarel, Yunfei Wu, Jun Zhu, Rongguang Du, Yaqiang Wang, Hong Wang, Ke Gui, Jie Yu, Yu Zheng, Tianze Sun, Quanliang Chen, Guangyu Shi, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 405–425,Short summary
Sun photometer measurements from seven sites in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) from 2011 to 2015 were used to characterize the climatology of aerosol microphysical and optical properties, calculate direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF) and classify aerosols based on size and absorption. This study contributes to our understanding of aerosols and regional climate/air quality, and the results will be useful for validating satellite retrievals and for improving climate models and remote sensing.
Junting Zhong, Xiaoye Zhang, Yunsheng Dong, Yaqiang Wang, Cheng Liu, Jizhi Wang, Yangmei Zhang, and Haochi Che
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 247–258,Short summary
Beijing heavy pollution episodes are characterized by the transport stage (TS) and the cumulative stage (CS). PM2.5 pollution formation in the TS is primarily caused by pollutants transported from the south of Beijing. PM2.5 cumulative explosive growth in the CS is dominated by stable atmospheric stratification due to the interaction of particulate matter (PM) and meteorological factors. The positive meteorological feedback on PM2.5 mass noted explains over 70% of cumulative explosive growth.
Shurui Chen, Liang Xu, Yinxiao Zhang, Bing Chen, Xinfeng Wang, Xiaoye Zhang, Mei Zheng, Jianmin Chen, Wenxing Wang, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, and Weijun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1259–1270,Short summary
Many studies have focused on the unusually severe hazes instead of the more frequent light and moderate hazes (22–63 %) in winter in the North China Plain (NCP). The morphology, mixing state, and size of organic aerosols in the L & M hazes were characterized. We conclude that the direct emissions from residential coal stoves without any pollution controls in rural and urban outskirts contribute large amounts of primary OM particles to the regional L & M hazes in winter in the NCP.
Y. Q. Yang, J. Z. Wang, S. L. Gong, X. Y. Zhang, H. Wang, Y. Q. Wang, J. Wang, D. Li, and J. P. Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1353–1364,Short summary
A new model, PLAM/h, has been developed and used in near-real-time air quality forecasts by considering both meteorology and pollutant emissions, based on the two-dimensional probability density function diagnosis model for emissions. The results show that combining the influence of regular meteorological conditions and emission factors together in the PLAM/h parameterization scheme is very effective in improving the forecasting ability for fog-haze weather in North China.
P. Wang, H. Wang, Y. Q. Wang, X. Y. Zhang, S. L. Gong, M. Xue, C. H. Zhou, H. L. Liu, X. Q. An, T. Niu, and Y. L. Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 989–1002,Short summary
An ensemble optimal interpolation (EnOI) data assimilation technique is used to investigate the possibility of optimally recovering the spatially resolved emissions bias of BC. The inversed emission over China in January is 240.1 Gg, and annual emission is about 2539 Gg. Even though only monthly mean BC measurements are employed to inverse the emissions, the accuracy of the daily model simulation improves. We finds that EnOI is a useful and computation-free method to make top-down estimation.
C. Zhou, X. Zhang, S. Gong, Y. Wang, and M. Xue
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 145–160,Short summary
A comprehensive aerosol-cloud-precipitation interaction (ACI) scheme from emissions to precipitation has been developed under the CMA chemical weather modeling system GRAPES/CUACE. The ACI for January 2013 has been studied using this model. The interactive microphysical properties of clouds improve the precipitation, showing 24 to 48 % enhancements of threat score for 6 h precipitation in all regions and reduction of the regional mean bias of temperature by 3 °C in certain precipitation events.
Y. Q. Wang, X. Y. Zhang, J. Y. Sun, X. C. Zhang, H. Z. Che, and Y. Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13585–13598,Short summary
Concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 were monitored at 24 stations of CAWNET from 2006 to 2014. The average levels of particulate matter (PM) concentrations and relationships were investigated. Seasonal, interannual and diurnal variations of the PM were revealed. The effects of meteorological factors on the PM were discussed. The highest PM concentrations were observed at the stations of Xian, Zhengzhou and Gucheng, in Guanzhong and the Huabei Plain.
X. Y. Zhang, J. Z. Wang, Y. Q. Wang, H. L. Liu, J. Y. Sun, and Y. M. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12935–12952,Short summary
No obvious changes were found in annual mean concentrations of major chemical components and PM10 in 2013, relative to 2012. But wintertime mass were quite different; approximately 60% of the winter mass increase from 2012 to 2013 can be attributed to severe meteorological conditions in the HBP area, and mass of chemical components exhibited a decline during 2006 to 2010, and then a rise till 2013. Coal-combustion was still the largest anthropogenic source of aerosol pollution in 2013 in China.
J. W. Chi, W. J. Li, D. Z. Zhang, J. C. Zhang, Y. T. Lin, X. J. Shen, J. Y. Sun, J. M. Chen, X. Y. Zhang, Y. M. Zhang, and W. X. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11341–11353,Short summary
Sea salt aerosols (SSA) are dominant particles in the Arctic atmosphere. Our result suggests that the hydrophilic MgCl2 coating in fresh SSA likely intrigued the heterogeneous reactions at the beginning of SSA and acidic gases in the Arctic. The content of organic matter increased in the aged SSA compared with the fresh SSA, which suggests organic acids (beside inorganic acids) participate in the ageing of SSA in the Arctic.
L. Zhang, J. Y. Sun, X. J. Shen, Y. M. Zhang, H. Che, Q. L. Ma, Y. W. Zhang, X. Y. Zhang, and J. A. Ogren
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8439–8454,Short summary
The aerosol hygroscopic properties at a rural background site in the Yangtze River delta of China was discussed. The results show the scattering coefficient and backscattering coefficient increased by 58 and 25% as relative humidity (RH) increased from 40 to 85%, while the hemispheric backscatter fraction decreased by 21%. Aerosol hygroscopic growth caused a 47% increase in calculated aerosol direct radiative forcing at 85% RH compared to the forcing at 40% RH. Nitrate played a vital role.
H. Che, X.-Y. Zhang, X. Xia, P. Goloub, B. Holben, H. Zhao, Y. Wang, X.-C. Zhang, H. Wang, L. Blarel, B. Damiri, R. Zhang, X. Deng, Y. Ma, T. Wang, F. Geng, B. Qi, J. Zhu, J. Yu, Q. Chen, and G. Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7619–7652,Short summary
This work studied more than 10 years of measurements of aerosol optical depths (AODs) made for 50 sites of CARSNET compiled into a climatology of aerosol optical properties for China. It lets us see a detailed full-scale description of AOD observations over China. The results would benefit us a lot in comprehending the temporal and special distribution aerosol optical property over China. Also the data would be valuable to communities of aerosol satellite retrieval, modelling, etc.
H. Wang, M. Xue, X. Y. Zhang, H. L. Liu, C. H. Zhou, S. C. Tan, H. Z. Che, B. Chen, and T. Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3257–3275,
Y. M. Zhang, X. Y. Zhang, J. Y. Sun, G. Y. Hu, X. J. Shen, Y. Q. Wang, T. T. Wang, D. Z. Wang, and Y. Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12237–12249,Short summary
An AMS was employed to measure the mass and size distributions of PM1 at an elevated site. Features of PM1 at four seasons, during different kinds of episodes including NPF, polluted, PBL, LFT and in-cloud, were discussed. The characterizations of PM1 at seven clusters of air masses were also analyzed. BBOA, CCOA and oxidized organic aerosols were resolved by AMS-PMF (positive matrix function). Almost half of OA were oxidized, and BBOA is 34% of OA in summer; CCOA is 22% of OA in winter as well.
K. Tsigaridis, N. Daskalakis, M. Kanakidou, P. J. Adams, P. Artaxo, R. Bahadur, Y. Balkanski, S. E. Bauer, N. Bellouin, A. Benedetti, T. Bergman, T. K. Berntsen, J. P. Beukes, H. Bian, K. S. Carslaw, M. Chin, G. Curci, T. Diehl, R. C. Easter, S. J. Ghan, S. L. Gong, A. Hodzic, C. R. Hoyle, T. Iversen, S. Jathar, J. L. Jimenez, J. W. Kaiser, A. Kirkevåg, D. Koch, H. Kokkola, Y. H Lee, G. Lin, X. Liu, G. Luo, X. Ma, G. W. Mann, N. Mihalopoulos, J.-J. Morcrette, J.-F. Müller, G. Myhre, S. Myriokefalitakis, N. L. Ng, D. O'Donnell, J. E. Penner, L. Pozzoli, K. J. Pringle, L. M. Russell, M. Schulz, J. Sciare, Ø. Seland, D. T. Shindell, S. Sillman, R. B. Skeie, D. Spracklen, T. Stavrakou, S. D. Steenrod, T. Takemura, P. Tiitta, S. Tilmes, H. Tost, T. van Noije, P. G. van Zyl, K. von Salzen, F. Yu, Z. Wang, Z. Wang, R. A. Zaveri, H. Zhang, K. Zhang, Q. Zhang, and X. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10845–10895,
H. Zhang, X. Jing, and J. Li
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 737–754,
H. Che, X. Xia, J. Zhu, Z. Li, O. Dubovik, B. Holben, P. Goloub, H. Chen, V. Estelles, E. Cuevas-Agulló, L. Blarel, H. Wang, H. Zhao, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, J. Sun, R. Tao, X. Zhang, and G. Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2125–2138,
A. Petzold, J. A. Ogren, M. Fiebig, P. Laj, S.-M. Li, U. Baltensperger, T. Holzer-Popp, S. Kinne, G. Pappalardo, N. Sugimoto, C. Wehrli, A. Wiedensohler, and X.-Y. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8365–8379,
H. Jiang, H. Liao, H. O. T. Pye, S. Wu, L. J. Mickley, J. H. Seinfeld, and X. Y. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7937–7960,
C. A. Randles, S. Kinne, G. Myhre, M. Schulz, P. Stier, J. Fischer, L. Doppler, E. Highwood, C. Ryder, B. Harris, J. Huttunen, Y. Ma, R. T. Pinker, B. Mayer, D. Neubauer, R. Hitzenberger, L. Oreopoulos, D. Lee, G. Pitari, G. Di Genova, J. Quaas, F. G. Rose, S. Kato, S. T. Rumbold, I. Vardavas, N. Hatzianastassiou, C. Matsoukas, H. Yu, F. Zhang, H. Zhang, and P. Lu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2347–2379,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Improved representation of the global dust cycle using observational constraints on dust properties and abundanceContribution of the world's main dust source regions to the global cycle of desert dustEffect of volcanic emissions on clouds during the 2008 and 2018 Kilauea degassing eventsWintertime direct radiative effects due to black carbon (BC) over the Indo-Gangetic Plain as modelled with new BC emission inventories in CHIMEREFuture changes in Beijing haze events under different anthropogenic aerosol emission scenariosPresent-day radiative effect from radiation-absorbing aerosols in snowSeasonal variation in atmospheric pollutants transport in central Chile: dynamics and consequencesNon-equilibrium interplay between gas–particle partitioning and multiphase chemical reactions of semi-volatile compounds: mechanistic insights and practical implications for atmospheric modeling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonsAerosol acidity and liquid water content regulate the dry deposition of inorganic reactive nitrogenEnhanced light absorption and reduced snow albedo due to internally mixed mineral dust in grains of snowCoral-reef-derived dimethyl sulfide and the climatic impact of the loss of coral reefsHow Asian aerosols impact regional surface temperatures across the globeAerosol dynamics and dispersion of radioactive particlesDevelopment and intercity transferability of land-use regression models for predicting ambient PM10, PM2.5, NO2 and O3 concentrations in northern TaiwanConstraints on global aerosol number concentration, SO2 and condensation sink in UKESM1 using ATom measurementsTurbulence-permitting air pollution simulation for the Stuttgart metropolitan areaTemporally resolved sectoral and regional contributions to air pollution in Beijing: informing short-term emission controlsDrivers of the fungal spore bioaerosol budget: observational analysis and global modelingImproving the sectional Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry (MOSAIC) aerosols of the Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model with the revised Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation system and multi-wavelength aerosol optical measurements: the dust aerosol observation campaign at Kashi, near the Taklimakan Desert, northwestern ChinaA revised mineral dust emission scheme in GEOS-Chem: improvements in dust simulations over ChinaQuantifying the range of the dust direct radiative effect due to source mineralogy uncertaintyTechnical note: The enhancement limit of coagulation scavenging of small charged particlesThe effect of meteorological conditions and atmospheric composition in the occurrence and development of new particle formation (NPF) events in EuropeEffectiveness of emission control in reducing PM2.5 pollution in central China during winter haze episodes under various potential synoptic controlsAssessment of meteorology vs. control measures in the China fine particular matter trend from 2013 to 2019 by an environmental meteorology indexA global model perturbed parameter ensemble study of secondary organic aerosol formationAssimilating aerosol optical properties related to size and absorption from POLDER/PARASOL with an ensemble data assimilation systemChanges in black carbon emissions over Europe due to COVID-19 lockdownsEffects of marine organic aerosols as sources of immersion-mode ice-nucleating particles on high-latitude mixed-phase cloudsInsights into particulate matter pollution in the North China Plain during wintertime: local contribution or regional transport?Factors controlling marine aerosol size distributions and their climate effects over the northwest Atlantic Ocean regionMass accommodation and gas–particle partitioning in secondary organic aerosols: dependence on diffusivity, volatility, particle-phase reactions, and penetration depthEvident PM2.5 drops in the east of China due to the COVID-19 quarantine measures in FebruaryOn the Contribution of Fast and Slow Responses to Precipitation Changes Caused by Aerosol PerturbationsWildfire smoke-plume rise: a simple energy balance parameterizationEffective radiative forcing from emissions of reactive gases and aerosols – a multi-model comparisonProcesses controlling the vertical aerosol distribution in marine stratocumulus regions – a sensitivity study using the climate model NorESM1-MPrecipitation response to aerosol–radiation and aerosol–cloud interactions in regional climate simulations over EuropePresent and future aerosol impacts on Arctic climate change in the GISS-E2.1 Earth system modelAeroCom phase III multi-model evaluation of the aerosol life cycle and optical properties using ground- and space-based remote sensing as well as surface in situ observationsResponse of dust emissions in southwestern North America to 21st century trends in climate, CO2 fertilization, and land use: implications for air qualityRevisiting the relationship between Atlantic dust and tropical cyclone activity using aerosol optical depth reanalyses: 2003–2018Weaker cooling by aerosols due to dust–pollution interactionsSource backtracking for dust storm emission inversion using an adjoint method: case study of Northeast ChinaCharacteristics of surface energy balance and atmospheric circulation during hot-and-polluted episodes and their synergistic relationships with urban heat islands over the Pearl River Delta regionStudy on the impact of three Asian industrial regions on PM2.5 in Taiwan and the process analysis during transportParticle aging and aerosol–radiation interaction affect volcanic plume dispersion: evidence from the Raikoke 2019 eruptionThe warming Tibetan Plateau improves winter air quality in the Sichuan Basin, ChinaUncertainty in aerosol radiative forcing impacts the simulated global monsoon in the 20th centuryEffects of 3D electric field on saltation during dust storms: an observational and numerical study
Jasper F. Kok, Adeyemi A. Adebiyi, Samuel Albani, Yves Balkanski, Ramiro Checa-Garcia, Mian Chin, Peter R. Colarco, Douglas S. Hamilton, Yue Huang, Akinori Ito, Martina Klose, Danny M. Leung, Longlei Li, Natalie M. Mahowald, Ron L. Miller, Vincenzo Obiso, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Adriana Rocha-Lima, Jessica S. Wan, and Chloe A. Whicker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8127–8167,Short summary
Desert dust interacts with virtually every component of the Earth system, including the climate system. We develop a new methodology to represent the global dust cycle that integrates observational constraints on the properties and abundance of desert dust with global atmospheric model simulations. We show that the resulting representation of the global dust cycle is more accurate than what can be obtained from a large number of current climate global atmospheric models.
Jasper F. Kok, Adeyemi A. Adebiyi, Samuel Albani, Yves Balkanski, Ramiro Checa-Garcia, Mian Chin, Peter R. Colarco, Douglas S. Hamilton, Yue Huang, Akinori Ito, Martina Klose, Longlei Li, Natalie M. Mahowald, Ron L. Miller, Vincenzo Obiso, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Adriana Rocha-Lima, and Jessica S. Wan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8169–8193,Short summary
The many impacts of dust on the Earth system depend on dust mineralogy, which varies between dust source regions. We constrain the contribution of the world’s main dust source regions by integrating dust observations with global model simulations. We find that Asian dust contributes more and that North African dust contributes less than models account for. We obtain a dataset of each source region’s contribution to the dust cycle that can be used to constrain dust impacts on the Earth system.
Katherine H. Breen, Donifan Barahona, Tianle Yuan, Huisheng Bian, and Scott C. James
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7749–7771,Short summary
Increases in atmospheric aerosols affect the scattering and absorption of solar radiation by altering the macrophysical and microphysical processes of clouds. We analyzed aerosol–cloud interactions in response to degassing events from the Kilauea volcano in 2008 and 2018 by comparing satellite and simulated cloud properties. Results showed a threshold response to overcome meteorological effects that is largely controlled by aerosol concentration, composition, plume height, and ENSO state.
Sanhita Ghosh, Shubha Verma, Jayanarayanan Kuttippurath, and Laurent Menut
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7671–7694,Short summary
Wintertime direct radiative perturbation due to black carbon (BC) aerosols was assessed over the Indo-Gangetic Plain with an efficiently modelled BC distribution. The atmospheric radiative warming due to BC was about 50–70 % larger than surface cooling. Compared to the atmosphere without BC, for which a net cooling at the top of the atmosphere was exhibited, enhanced atmospheric radiative warming by 2–3 times and a reduction in surface cooling by 10–20 % were found due to BC.
Lixia Zhang, Laura J. Wilcox, Nick J. Dunstone, David J. Paynter, Shuai Hu, Massimo Bollasina, Donghuan Li, Jonathan K. P. Shonk, and Liwei Zou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7499–7514,Short summary
The projected frequency of circulation patterns associated with haze events and global warming increases significantly due to weakening of the East Asian winter monsoon. Rapid reduction in anthropogenic aerosol further increases the frequency of circulation patterns, but haze events are less dangerous. We revealed competing effects of aerosol emission reductions on future haze events through their direct contribution to haze intensity and their influence on the atmospheric circulation patterns.
Paolo Tuccella, Giovanni Pitari, Valentina Colaiuda, Edoardo Raparelli, and Gabriele Curci
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6875–6893,Short summary
We calculate the radiation-absorbing aerosol quantity in snow with a global chemical and transport atmospheric model, validated with global observations. The perturbation to snow albedo and related climatic impact are assessed. The resulting average radiative flux change in snow is 0.068 W m−2. Black carbon is a major contributor (+0.033 W m−2), followed by dust (+0.012 W m−2) and brown carbon (+0.0066 W m−2). The impact is also characterized by significant seasonal and geographical variability.
Rémy Lapere, Laurent Menut, Sylvain Mailler, and Nicolás Huneeus
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6431–6454,Short summary
Based on modeling, the transport dynamics of ozone and fine particles in central Chile are investigated. Santiago emissions are found to influence air quality along a 1000 km plume as far as Argentina and northern Chile. In turn, emissions outside the metropolis contribute significantly to its recorded particles concentration. Emissions of precursors from Santiago are found to lead to the formation of a persistent ozone bubble in altitude, a phenomenon which is described for the first time.
Jake Wilson, Ulrich Pöschl, Manabu Shiraiwa, and Thomas Berkemeier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6175–6198,Short summary
This work explores the gas–particle partitioning of PAHs on soot with a kinetic model. We show that the equilibration timescale depends on PAH molecular structure, temperature, and particle number concentration. We explore scenarios in which the particulate fraction is perturbed from equilibrium by chemical loss and discuss implications for chemical transport models that assume instantaneous equilibration at each model time step.
Athanasios Nenes, Spyros N. Pandis, Maria Kanakidou, Armistead G. Russell, Shaojie Song, Petros Vasilakos, and Rodney J. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6023–6033,Short summary
Ecosystems and air quality are affected by the dry deposition of inorganic reactive nitrogen (Nr, the sum of ammonium and nitrate). Its large variability is driven by the large difference in deposition velocity of N when in the gas or particle phase. Here we show that aerosol liquid water and acidity, by affecting gas–particle partitioning, modulate the dry deposition velocity of NH3, HNO3, and Nr worldwide. These effects explain the rapid accumulation of nitrate aerosol during haze events.
Tenglong Shi, Jiecan Cui, Yang Chen, Yue Zhou, Wei Pu, Xuanye Xu, Quanliang Chen, Xuelei Zhang, and Xin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6035–6051,Short summary
We assess the effect of dust external and internal mixing with snow grains on the absorption coefficient and albedo of snowpack. The results suggest that dust–snow internal mixing strongly enhances snow absorption coefficient and albedo reduction relative to external mixing. Meanwhile, the possible non-uniform distribution of dust in snow grains may lead to significantly different values of absorption coefficient and albedo of snowpack in the visible spectral range.
Sonya L. Fiddes, Matthew T. Woodhouse, Todd P. Lane, and Robyn Schofield
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5883–5903,Short summary
Coral reefs are known to produce the aerosol precursor dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Currently, this source of coral DMS is unaccounted for in climate modelling, and the impact of coral reef extinction on aerosol and climate is unknown. In this study, we address this problem using a coupled chemistry–climate model for the first time. We find that coral reefs make a minimal contribution to the aerosol population and are unlikely to play a role in climate modulation.
Joonas Merikanto, Kalle Nordling, Petri Räisänen, Jouni Räisänen, Declan O'Donnell, Antti-Ilari Partanen, and Hannele Korhonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5865–5881,Short summary
Human-induced aerosols concentrate around their emission sources, yet their climate effects span far and wide. Here, we use two climate models to robustly identify the mechanisms of how Asian anthropogenic aerosols impact temperatures across the globe. A total removal of Asian anthropogenic aerosols increases the global temperatures by 0.26 ± 0.04 °C in the models, with the strongest warming taking place over the Arctic due to increased atmospheric transport of energy towards the high north.
Pontus von Schoenberg, Peter Tunved, Håkan Grahn, Alfred Wiedensohler, Radovan Krejci, and Niklas Brännström
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5173–5193,Short summary
In a radiological emergency preparedness system, Lagrangian particle dispersion models are often used to track the dispersion of radioactive material. In this study we have shown the importance of simulating advanced aerosol dynamic processes that are commonly neglected or simplified in these simulations. We show that inclusion of detailed ambient-aerosol dynamics can play a large role in the model result in simulations adopting a more detailed representation of aerosol–cloud interactions.
Zhiyuan Li, Kin-Fai Ho, Hsiao-Chi Chuang, and Steve Hung Lam Yim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5063–5078,Short summary
This study established land-use regression (LUR) models using only routine air quality measurement data to support long-term health studies in an Asian metropolitan area. The established LUR models captured the spatial variability in exposure to air pollution with remarkable predictive accuracy. This is the first Asian study to evaluate intercity transferability of LUR models, and it highlights that there exist uncertainties when transferring LUR models between nearby cities.
Ananth Ranjithkumar, Hamish Gordon, Christina Williamson, Andrew Rollins, Kirsty Pringle, Agnieszka Kupc, Nathan Luke Abraham, Charles Brock, and Ken Carslaw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4979–5014,Short summary
The effect aerosols have on climate can be better understood by studying their vertical and spatial distribution throughout the atmosphere. We use observation data from the ATom campaign and evaluate the vertical profile of aerosol number concentration, sulfur dioxide and condensation sink using the UKESM (UK Earth System Model). We identify uncertainties in key atmospheric processes that help improve their theoretical representation in global climate models.
Thomas Schwitalla, Hans-Stefan Bauer, Kirsten Warrach-Sagi, Thomas Bönisch, and Volker Wulfmeyer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4575–4597,Short summary
A prototype of an air quality forecasting system (AQFS) on a turbulence-permitting (TP) horizontal resolution of 50 m is developed. AQFS is based on the WRF-Chem model and uses high-resolution emission data from different pollution sources. A simulation case study of a typical winter day in south Germany serves as a test bed. Results indicate that the complex topography plays an important role for the horizontal and vertical pollution distribution over the Stuttgart metropolitan area.
Tabish Umar Ansari, Oliver Wild, Edmund Ryan, Ying Chen, Jie Li, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4471–4485,Short summary
We use novel modelling approaches to quantify the lingering effects of 1 d local and regional emission controls on subsequent days, the effects of longer continuous emission controls of individual sectors over different regions, and the effects of combined emission controls of multiple sectors and regions on air quality in Beijing under varying weather conditions to inform precise short-term emission control policies for avoiding heavy haze pollution in Beijing.
Ruud H. H. Janssen, Colette L. Heald, Allison L. Steiner, Anne E. Perring, J. Alex Huffman, Ellis S. Robinson, Cynthia H. Twohy, and Luke D. Ziemba
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4381–4401,Short summary
Bioaerosols are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and have the potential to affect cloud formation, as well as human and ecosystem health. However, their emissions are not well quantified, which hinders the assessment of their role in atmospheric processes. Here, we develop two new emission schemes for fungal spores based on multi-annual datasets of spore counts. We find that our modeled global emissions and burden are an order of magnitude lower than previous estimates.
Wenyuan Chang, Ying Zhang, Zhengqiang Li, Jie Chen, and Kaitao Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4403–4430,Short summary
Aerosol simulation in WRF-Chem often uses the MOSAIC aerosol mechanism. Still, we need variational data assimilation (DA) for the MOSAIC aerosols to blend aerosol optical measurements. This study provides a developed GSI variational DA system, with a tangent linear operator designed for multi-source and multi-wavelength aerosol optical measurements. We successfully applied the DA system in an aerosol field campaign to assimilate aerosol optical data in northwestern China.
Rong Tian, Xiaoyan Ma, and Jianqi Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4319–4337,Short summary
We improve the treatment of the dust emission process in GEOS-Chem by considering the effect of geographical variation of aerodynamic roughness length, smooth roughness length and soil texture, as well as the Owen effect and a more physically based formulation of sandblasting efficiency, which improve estimated threshold friction velocity and dust concentrations over China. Our study highlights the importance of incorporation of realistic land-surface properties into the dust emission scheme.
Longlei Li, Natalie M. Mahowald, Ron L. Miller, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Martina Klose, Douglas S. Hamilton, Maria Gonçalves Ageitos, Paul Ginoux, Yves Balkanski, Robert O. Green, Olga Kalashnikova, Jasper F. Kok, Vincenzo Obiso, David Paynter, and David R. Thompson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3973–4005,Short summary
For the first time, this study quantifies the range of the dust direct radiative effect due to uncertainty in the soil mineral abundance using all currently available information. We show that the majority of the estimated direct radiative effect range is due to uncertainty in the simulated mass fractions of iron oxides and thus their soil abundance, which is independent of the model employed. We therefore prove the necessity of considering mineralogy for understanding dust–climate interactions.
Naser G. A. Mahfouz and Neil M. Donahue
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3827–3832,Short summary
In this technical note, we show that the limit of the coagulation scavenging enhancement of charged particles is asymptotically 2; that is, at the limit, charged particles are lost at twice the rate of their neutral counterparts. This has serious implications for aerosol particle survivability where ions play a role in nucleation and growth. Such cases can happen readily in experiments and cannot be neglected in the atmosphere.
Dimitrios Bousiotis, James Brean, Francis D. Pope, Manuel Dall'Osto, Xavier Querol, Andrés Alastuey, Noemi Perez, Tuukka Petäjä, Andreas Massling, Jacob Klenø Nøjgaard, Claus Nordstrøm, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Stergios Vratolis, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Jarkko V. Niemi, Harri Portin, Alfred Wiedensohler, Kay Weinhold, Maik Merkel, Thomas Tuch, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3345–3370,Short summary
New particle formation events from 16 sites over Europe have been studied, and the influence of meteorological and atmospheric composition variables has been investigated. Some variables, like solar radiation intensity and temperature, have a positive effect on the occurrence of these events, while others have a negative effect, affecting different aspects such as the rate at which particles are formed or grow. This effect varies depending on the site type and magnitude of these variables.
Yingying Yan, Yue Zhou, Shaofei Kong, Jintai Lin, Jian Wu, Huang Zheng, Zexuan Zhang, Aili Song, Yongqing Bai, Zhang Ling, Dantong Liu, and Tianliang Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3143–3162,Short summary
We analyze the effectiveness of emission reduction for local and upwind regions during winter haze episodes controlled by the main potential synoptic patterns over central China, a regional pollutant transport hub with sub-basin topography. Our results provide an opportunity to effectively mitigate haze pollution via local emission control actions in coordination with regional collaborative actions according to different synoptic patterns.
Sunling Gong, Hongli Liu, Bihui Zhang, Jianjun He, Hengde Zhang, Yaqiang Wang, Shuxiao Wang, Lei Zhang, and Jie Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2999–3013,Short summary
Surface concentrations of PM2.5 in China have had a declining trend since 2013 across the country. This research found that the control measures of emission reduction are the dominant factors in the PM2.5 declining trends in various regions. The contribution by the meteorology to the surface PM2.5 concentrations from 2013 to 2019 was not found to show a consistent trend, fluctuating positively or negatively by about 5% on the annual average and 10–20% for the fall–winter heavy-pollution seasons.
Kamalika Sengupta, Kirsty Pringle, Jill S. Johnson, Carly Reddington, Jo Browse, Catherine E. Scott, and Ken Carslaw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2693–2723,Short summary
Global models consistently underestimate atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA), which has significant climatic implications. We use a perturbed parameter model ensemble and ground-based observations to reduce the uncertainty in modelling SOA formation from oxidation of volatile organic compounds. We identify plausible parameter spaces for the yields of extremely low-volatility, low-volatility, and semi-volatile organic compounds based on model–observation match for three key model outputs.
Athanasios Tsikerdekis, Nick A. J. Schutgens, and Otto P. Hasekamp
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2637–2674,Short summary
Accurate representation of aerosols in the atmosphere is hard to achieve due to their complex microphysical and optical properties and uncertain emissions. In our work, we employ a data assimilation method which integrates model simulations with satellite observation related to the amount, size and the light absorption of aerosol. The use of these observations in an experiment improves aerosol representation and it is recommended for utilization in future data assimilation practices.
Nikolaos Evangeliou, Stephen M. Platt, Sabine Eckhardt, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Paolo Laj, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, John Backman, Benjamin T. Brem, Markus Fiebig, Harald Flentje, Angela Marinoni, Marco Pandolfi, Jesus Yus-Dìez, Natalia Prats, Jean P. Putaud, Karine Sellegri, Mar Sorribas, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Stergios Vratolis, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Andreas Stohl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2675–2692,Short summary
Following the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to Europe, social distancing rules were introduced to prevent further spread. We investigate the impacts of the European lockdowns on black carbon (BC) emissions by means of in situ observations and inverse modelling. BC emissions declined by 23 kt in Europe during the lockdowns as compared with previous years and by 11 % as compared to the period prior to lockdowns. Residential combustion prevailed in Eastern Europe, as confirmed by remote sensing data.
Xi Zhao, Xiaohong Liu, Susannah M. Burrows, and Yang Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2305–2327,Short summary
Organic sea spray particles influence aerosol and cloud processes over the ocean. This study introduces the emission, cloud droplet activation, and ice nucleation (IN) of marine organic aerosol (MOA) into the Community Earth System Model. Our results indicate that MOA IN particles dominate primary ice nucleation below 400 hPa over the Southern Ocean and Arctic boundary layer. MOA enhances cloud forcing over the Southern Ocean in the austral winter and summer.
Jiarui Wu, Naifang Bei, Yuan Wang, Xia Li, Suixin Liu, Lang Liu, Ruonan Wang, Jiaoyang Yu, Tianhao Le, Min Zuo, Zhenxing Shen, Junji Cao, Xuexi Tie, and Guohui Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2229–2249,Short summary
A source-oriented version of the WRF-Chem model is developed to conduct source identification of wintertime PM2.5 in the North China Plain. Trans-boundary transport of air pollutants generally dominates the haze pollution in Beijing and Tianjin. The air quality in Hebei, Shandong, and Shanxi is generally controlled by local emissions. Primary aerosol species, such as EC and POA, are generally controlled by local emissions, while secondary aerosol shows evident regional characteristics.
Betty Croft, Randall V. Martin, Richard H. Moore, Luke D. Ziemba, Ewan C. Crosbie, Hongyu Liu, Lynn M. Russell, Georges Saliba, Armin Wisthaler, Markus Müller, Arne Schiller, Martí Galí, Rachel Y.-W. Chang, Erin E. McDuffie, Kelsey R. Bilsback, and Jeffrey R. Pierce
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1889–1916,Short summary
North Atlantic Aerosols and Marine Ecosystems Study measurements combined with GEOS-Chem-TOMAS modeling suggest that several not-well-understood key factors control northwest Atlantic aerosol number and size. These synergetic and climate-relevant factors include particle formation near and above the marine boundary layer top, particle growth by marine secondary organic aerosol on descent, particle formation/growth related to dimethyl sulfide, sea spray aerosol, and ship emissions.
Manabu Shiraiwa and Ulrich Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1565–1580,Short summary
Mass accommodation is a crucial process in secondary organic aerosol partitioning that depends on volatility, diffusivity, reactivity, and particle penetration depth of the chemical species involved. For efficient kinetic modeling, we introduce an effective mass accommodation coefficient that accounts for the above influencing factors, can be applied in the common Fuchs–Sutugin approximation, and helps to resolve inconsistencies and shortcomings of earlier experimental and model investigations.
Zhicong Yin, Yijia Zhang, Huijun Wang, and Yuyan Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1581–1592,Short summary
It is a must to disentangle the contributions of stable meteorology from the effects of the COVID-19 lockdown. A 59 % decline in PM2.5 related to the COVID-19 pandemic was found in North China. The COVID-19 quarantine measures decreased the PM2.5 in the Yangtze River Delta by 72 %. In Hubei Province where most pneumonia cases were confirmed, the impact of the total emission reduction (72 %) evidently exceeded the rising percentage of PM2.5 driven by meteorology (13 %).
Shipeng Zhang, Philip Stier, and Duncan Watson-Parris
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The relationship between aerosol-induced changes in atmospheric energetics and precipitation responses across different scales are studied in terms of fast (radiatively or microphysically mediated) and slow (temperature mediated) responses. We introduced a method to decompose rainfall changes into contributions from clouds, aerosols, and clear-clean sky from an energetic perspective. It provides a way to better interpret and quantify the precipitation changes caused by aerosol perturbations.
Nadya Moisseeva and Roland Stull
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1407–1425,Short summary
Wildfire smoke-plume rise, which determines the emissions injection height, is widely recognized as an area of uncertainty within regional and global chemical transport models. In this work we propose a simple energy balance parameterization to predict the mean smoke equilibrium height for fires of arbitrary shape and intensity.
Gillian D. Thornhill, William J. Collins, Ryan J. Kramer, Dirk Olivié, Ragnhild B. Skeie, Fiona M. O'Connor, Nathan Luke Abraham, Ramiro Checa-Garcia, Susanne E. Bauer, Makoto Deushi, Louisa K. Emmons, Piers M. Forster, Larry W. Horowitz, Ben Johnson, James Keeble, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Martine Michou, Michael J. Mills, Jane P. Mulcahy, Gunnar Myhre, Pierre Nabat, Vaishali Naik, Naga Oshima, Michael Schulz, Christopher J. Smith, Toshihiko Takemura, Simone Tilmes, Tongwen Wu, Guang Zeng, and Jie Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 853–874,Short summary
This paper is a study of how different constituents in the atmosphere, such as aerosols and gases like methane and ozone, affect the energy balance in the atmosphere. Different climate models were run using the same inputs to allow an easy comparison of the results and to understand where the models differ. We found the effect of aerosols is to reduce warming in the atmosphere, but this effect varies between models. Reactions between gases are also important in affecting climate.
Lena Frey, Frida A.-M. Bender, and Gunilla Svensson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 577–595,Short summary
We investigate the vertical distribution of aerosol in the climate model NorESM1-M in five regions of marine stratocumulus clouds. We thereby analyze the total aerosol extinction to facilitate a comparison with satellite data. We find that the model underestimates aerosol extinction throughout the troposphere, especially elevated aerosol layers. Further, we perform sensitivity experiments to identify the processes most important for vertical aerosol distribution in our model.
José María López-Romero, Juan Pedro Montávez, Sonia Jerez, Raquel Lorente-Plazas, Laura Palacios-Peña, and Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 415–430,Short summary
The effect of aerosols on regional climate simulations presents large uncertainties due to their complex and non-linear interactions with a wide variety of factors, including aerosol–radiation and aerosol–cloud interactions. We show how these interactions are strongly conditioned by the meteorological situation and the type of aerosol. While natural aerosols tend to increase precipitation in some areas, anthropogenic aerosols decrease the number of rainy days in some pollutant regions.
Ulas Im, Kostas Tsigaridis, Gregory Faluvegi, Peter L. Langen, Joshua P. French, Rashed Mahmood, Thomas Manu, Knut von Salzen, Daniel C. Thomas, Cynthia H. Whaley, Zbigniew Klimont, Henrik Skov, and Jørgen Brandt
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Future (2015–2050) simulations of the aerosol burdens and their climate impacts over the Arctic under various emission projections show that although the Arctic aerosol burdens are projected to decrease significantly, the Arctic surface air temperatures will continue to increase by up to 2.6 °C in 2050. Regardless of the magnitude of aerosol reductions, similar responses in surface air temperatures are calculated, while high mitigation of aerosols are still necessary to limit sea-ice loss.
Jonas Gliß, Augustin Mortier, Michael Schulz, Elisabeth Andrews, Yves Balkanski, Susanne E. Bauer, Anna M. K. Benedictow, Huisheng Bian, Ramiro Checa-Garcia, Mian Chin, Paul Ginoux, Jan J. Griesfeller, Andreas Heckel, Zak Kipling, Alf Kirkevåg, Harri Kokkola, Paolo Laj, Philippe Le Sager, Marianne Tronstad Lund, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Hitoshi Matsui, Gunnar Myhre, David Neubauer, Twan van Noije, Peter North, Dirk J. L. Olivié, Samuel Rémy, Larisa Sogacheva, Toshihiko Takemura, Kostas Tsigaridis, and Svetlana G. Tsyro
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 87–128,Short summary
Simulated aerosol optical properties as well as the aerosol life cycle are investigated for 14 global models participating in the AeroCom initiative. Considerable diversity is found in the simulated aerosol species emissions and lifetimes, also resulting in a large diversity in the simulated aerosol mass, composition, and optical properties. A comparison with observations suggests that, on average, current models underestimate the direct effect of aerosol on the atmosphere radiation budget.
Yang Li, Loretta J. Mickley, and Jed O. Kaplan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 57–68,Short summary
Climate models predict a shift toward warmer, drier environments in southwestern North America. Under future climate, the two main drivers of dust trends play opposing roles: (1) CO2 fertilization enhances vegetation and, in turn, decreases dust, and (2) increasing land use enhances dust emissions from northern Mexico. In the worst-case scenario, elevated dust concentrations spread widely over the domain by 2100 in spring, suggesting a large climate penalty on air quality and human health.
Peng Xian, Philip J. Klotzbach, Jason P. Dunion, Matthew A. Janiga, Jeffrey S. Reid, Peter R. Colarco, and Zak Kipling
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15357–15378,Short summary
Using dust AOD (DAOD) data from three aerosol reanalyses, we explored the correlative relationships between DAOD and multiple indices representing seasonal Atlantic TC activities. A robust negative correlation with Caribbean DAOD and Atlantic TC activity was found. We documented for the first time the regional differences of this relationship for over the Caribbean and the tropical North Atlantic. We also evaluated the impacts of potential confounding climate factors in this relationship.
Klaus Klingmüller, Vlassis A. Karydis, Sara Bacer, Georgiy L. Stenchikov, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15285–15295,Short summary
Particulate air pollution cools the climate and partially masks the greenhouse warming by reflecting sunlight and enhancing the reflection by clouds. The intensity of this cooling depends on interactions between pollution and desert dust within the atmosphere. Our simulations with a global atmospheric chemistry-climate model indicate that these interactions significantly weaken the cooling.
Jianbing Jin, Arjo Segers, Hong Liao, Arnold Heemink, Richard Kranenburg, and Hai Xiang Lin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15207–15225,Short summary
Data assimilation provides a powerful tool to estimate emission inventories by feeding observations. This emission inversion relies on the correct assumption about the emission uncertainty, which describes the potential spatiotemporal spreads of sources. However, an unrepresentative uncertainty is unavoidable. Especially in the complex dust emission, the uncertainties can hardly all be taken into account. This study reports how adjoint can be used to detect errors in the emission uncertainty.
Ifeanyichukwu C. Nduka, Steve Hung Lam Yim, Chi-Yung Tam, and Jianping Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This study analyzed the nature, mechanisms and drivers for Hot-and-Polluted episodes (HPEs) in the Pearl River Delta, China. A total of eight HPEs were identified and can be grouped into three clusters of HPEs that were respectively driven (1) by weak subsidence and convection induced by approaching tropical cyclones, (2) by calm conditions with low wind speed at the lower atmosphere, and (3) by the combination of both aforementioned conditions.
Ming-Tung Chuang, Maggie Chel Gee Ooi, Neng-Huei Lin, Joshua S. Fu, Chung-Te Lee, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Ming-Cheng Yen, Steven Soon-Kai Kong, and Wei-Syun Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14947–14967,Short summary
This study evaluated the impact of Asian haze from the three biggest industrial regions on Taiwan and analyzed the process during transport. The production and removal process revealed the mechanisms of long-range transport. This is the first time that the brute force method and process analysis technique has been applied in a Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System. Also, this study simulated the interesting transboundary transport of pollutants from southern mainland China to Taiwan.
Lukas O. Muser, Gholam Ali Hoshyaripour, Julia Bruckert, Ákos Horváth, Elizaveta Malinina, Sandra Wallis, Fred J. Prata, Alexei Rozanov, Christian von Savigny, Heike Vogel, and Bernhard Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15015–15036,Short summary
Volcanic aerosols endanger aircraft and thus disrupt air travel globally. For aviation safety, it is vital to know the location and lifetime of such aerosols in the atmosphere. Here we show that the interaction of volcanic particles with each other eventually reduces their atmospheric lifetime. Moreover, we demonstrate that sunlight heats these particles, which lifts them several kilometers in the atmosphere. These findings support a more reliable forecast of volcanic aerosol dispersion.
Shuyu Zhao, Tian Feng, Xuexi Tie, and Zebin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14873–14887,Short summary
The Tibetan Plateau has been experiencing a rapid warming during the last 40 years, particularly in winter. The warming leads to an increase in the planetary boundary layer height and a decrease in the relative humidity in the Sichuan Basin, causing a reduction of PM2.5 concentration by 17.5 % (~25.1 μg m−3), of which the reduction in secondary aerosols is 19.7 μg m−3. These findings indicate that the warming plateau plays an important role in mitigating air quality in downstream.
Jonathan K. P. Shonk, Andrew G. Turner, Amulya Chevuturi, Laura J. Wilcox, Andrea J. Dittus, and Ed Hawkins
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14903–14915,Short summary
We use a set of model simulations of the 20th century to demonstrate that the uncertainty in the cooling effect of man-made aerosol emissions has a wide range of impacts on global monsoons. For the weakest cooling, the impact of aerosol is overpowered by greenhouse gas (GHG) warming and monsoon rainfall increases in the late 20th century. For the strongest cooling, aerosol impact dominates over GHG warming, leading to reduced monsoon rainfall, particularly from 1950 to 1980.
Huan Zhang and You-He Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14801–14820,Short summary
We assess the effects of triboelectric charging on wind-blown sand via observations and a numerical model. The 3D electric field within a few centimetres of the ground is characterized for the first time. By using the discrete element method together with the particle-charging model, we explicitly account for the particle–particle charging during collisions. We find that triboelectric charging could enhance the total mass flux and saltation height by up to 20 % and 15 %, respectively.
Abdul-Razzak, H. and Ghan, S. J.: A parameterization of aerosol activation, 2. Multiple aerosol types, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 6837–6844, https://doi.org/10.1029/1999JD901161, 2000.
Albrecht, B.: Aerosols, cloud microphysics, and fractional cloudiness, Science, 245, 1227–1230, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.245.4923.1227, 1989.
Bond, T. C., Streets, D. G., Yarber, K. F., Nelson, S. M., Woo, J.-H., and Klimont, Z.: A technology-based global inventory of black and organic carbon emissions from combustion, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D14203, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JD003697, 2004.
Bond, T. C., Doherty, S. J., Fahey, D. W., Forster, P. M., Berntsen, T., DeAngelo, B. J., Flanner, M. G., Ghan, S., Kärcher, B., Koch, D., Kinne, S., Kondo, Y., Quinn, P. K., Sarofim, M. C., Schultz, M. G., Schulz, M., Venkataraman, C., Zhang, H., Zhang, S., Bellouin, N., Guttikunda, S. K., Hopke, P. K., Jacobson, M. Z., Kaiser, J. W., Klimont, Z., Lohmann, U., Schwarz, J. P., Shindell, D., Storelvmo, T., Warren, S. G., and Zender, C. S.: Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: a scientific assessment, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 118, 1–173, https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrd.50171, 2013.
Boucher, O., Randall, D., Artaxo, P., Bretherton, C., Feingold, G., Forster, P., Kerminen, V.-M., Kondo, Y., Liao, H., Lohmann, U., Rasch, P., Satheesh, S. K., Sherwood, S., Stevens, B., and Zhang, X. Y.: Clouds and aerosols, in: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by: Stocker, T. F., Qin, D., Plattner, G.-K., Tignor, M., Allen, S. K., Boschung, J., Nauels, A., Xia, Y., Bex, V., and Midgley, P. M., Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK, New York, NY, USA, 573–632, 2013.
Chen, W.-T., Lee, Y. H., Adams, P. J., Nenes, A., and Seinfeld, J. H.: Will black carbon mitigation dampen aerosol indirect forcing?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L09801, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GL042886, 2010.
Chin, M., Diehl, T., Tan, Q., Prospero, J. M., Kahn, R. A., Remer, L. A., Yu, H., Sayer, A. M., Bian, H., Geogdzhayev, I. V., Holben, B. N., Howell, S. G., Huebert, B. J., Hsu, N. C., Kim, D., Kucsera, T. L., Levy, R. C., Mishchenko, M. I., Pan, X., Quinn, P. K., Schuster, G. L., Streets, D. G., Strode, S. A., Torres, O., and Zhao, X.-P.: Multi-decadal aerosol variations from 1980 to 2009: a perspective from observations and a global model, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3657–3690, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-3657-2014, 2014.
Chuang, C. C., Penner, J. E., Prospero, J. M., Grant, K. E., Rau, G. H., and Kawamoto, K.: Cloud susceptibility and the first aerosol indirect forcing: sensitivity to black carbon and aerosol concentrations, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 4564, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000JD000215, 2002.
Cohen, J. B. and Wang, C.: Estimating global black carbon emissions using a top-down Kalman Filter approach, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 119, 307–323, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013JD019912, 2014.
d'Almeida, G. A., Koepke, P., and Shettle, E.: Atmospheric Aerosols: Global Climatology and Radiative Forcing, 561 pp., A. Deepak, Hampton, Va, 1991.
DeMott, P. J., Rogers, D. C., and Kreidenweis, S. M.: The susceptibility of ice formation in upper tropospheric clouds to insoluble aerosol components, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 19575–19584, https://doi.org/10.1029/97JD01138, 1997.
Ghan, S. J.: Technical Note: Estimating aerosol effects on cloud radiative forcing, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9971–9974, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-9971-2013, 2013.
Ghan, S. J., Liu, X., Easter, R. C., Zaveri, R., Rasch, P. J., Yoon, J.-H., and Eaton, B.: Toward a minimal representation of aerosols in climate models: Comparative decomposition of aerosol direct, semi-direct and indirect radiative forcing, J. Climate, 25, 6461–6476, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00650.1, 2012.
Gillett, N. P. and Salzen, K. V.: The role of reduced aerosol precursor emissions in driving near-term warming, Environ. Res. Lett., 8, 034008, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/8/3/034008, 2013.
Gong, S. L., Barrie, L. A., and Lazare, M.: Canadian Aerosol Module (CAM): a size-segregated simulation of atmospheric aerosol processes for climate and air quality models, 2. Global seasalt aerosol and its budgets, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 4779, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD002004, 2002.
Gong, S. L., Barrie, L. A., Blanchet, J.-P., Salzen, K. V., Lohmann, U., Lesins, G., Spacek, L., Zhang, L. M., Girard, E., Lin, H., Leaitch, R., Leighton, H., Chylek, P., and Huang, P.: Canadian Aerosol Module: a size-segregated simulation of atmospheric aerosol processes for climate and air quality models 1. Module development, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4007, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD002002, 2003.
Hansen, J., Sato, M., Ruedy, R., Lacis, A., and Oinas, V.: Global warming in the twenty-first century: an alternative scenario, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 97, 9875–9880, 2000.
Hodnebrog, Ø., Myhre, G., and Samset, B. H.: How shorter black carbon lifetime alters its climate effect, Nature Communications, 5, 5065, https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms6065, 2014.
Hurrell, J. W., Hack, J. J., Shea, D., Caron, J. M., and Rosinski, J.: A new sea surface temperature and sea ice boundary dataset for the Community Atmosphere Model, J. Climate, 21, 5145–5153, 2008.
Jacobson, M. Z.: Short-term effects of controlling fossil-fuel soot, biofuel soot and gases, and methane on climate, Arctic ice, and air pollution health, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D14209, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JD013795, 2010.
Jacobson, M. Z.: Investigating cloud absorption effects: Global absorption properties of black carbon, tar balls, and soil dust in clouds and aerosols, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D06205, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JD017218, 2012.
Jing, X. and Zhang, H.: Application and evaluation of McICA scheme in BCC_AGCM2.0.1, AIP Conf. Proc., 1531, 756, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4804880, 2013.
Koch, D. and Del Genio, A. D.: Black carbon semi-direct effects on cloud cover: review and synthesis, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 7685–7696, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-7685-2010, 2010.
Lamarque, J.-F., Bond, T. C., Eyring, V., Granier, C., Heil, A., Klimont, Z., Lee, D., Liousse, C., Mieville, A., Owen, B., Schultz, M. G., Shindell, D., Smith, S. J., Stehfest, E., Van Aardenne, J., Cooper, O. R., Kainuma, M., Mahowald, N., McConnell, J. R., Naik, V., Riahi, K., and van Vuuren, D. P.: Historical (1850–2000) gridded anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions of reactive gases and aerosols: methodology and application, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 7017–7039, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-7017-2010, 2010.
Lee, Y. H., Lamarque, J.-F., Flanner, M. G., Jiao, C., Shindell, D. T., Berntsen, T., Bisiaux, M. M., Cao, J., Collins, W. J., Curran, M., Edwards, R., Faluvegi, G., Ghan, S., Horowitz, L. W., McConnell, J. R., Ming, J., Myhre, G., Nagashima, T., Naik, V., Rumbold, S. T., Skeie, R. B., Sudo, K., Takemura, T., Thevenon, F., Xu, B., and Yoon, J.-H.: Evaluation of preindustrial to present-day black carbon and its albedo forcing from Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2607–2634, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-2607-2013, 2013.
Levy, H., Horowitz, L. W., Schwarzkopf, M. D., Ming, Y., Golaz, J.-C., Naik, V., and Ramaswamy, V.: The roles of aerosol direct and indirect effects in past and future climate change, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 118, 4521–4532, https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrd.50192, 2013.
Morrison, H. and Gettelman, A.: A new two-moment bulk stratiform cloud microphysics scheme in the Community Atmosphere Model, version 3 (CAM3), part I: description and numerical tests, J. Climate, 21, 3642–3659, 2008.
Myhre, G., Samset, B. H., Schulz, M., Balkanski, Y., Bauer, S., Berntsen, T. K., Bian, H., Bellouin, N., Chin, M., Diehl, T., Easter, R. C., Feichter, J., Ghan, S. J., Hauglustaine, D., Iversen, T., Kinne, S., Kirkevåg, A., Lamarque, J.-F., Lin, G., Liu, X., Lund, M. T., Luo, G., Ma, X., van Noije, T., Penner, J. E., Rasch, P. J., Ruiz, A., Seland, Ø., Skeie, R. B., Stier, P., Takemura, T., Tsigaridis, K., Wang, P., Wang, Z., Xu, L., Yu, H., Yu, F., Yoon, J.-H., Zhang, K., Zhang, H., and Zhou, C.: Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect from AeroCom Phase II simulations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1853–1877, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-1853-2013, 2013a.
Myhre, G., Shindell, D., Bréon, F.-M., Collins, W., Fuglestvedt, J., Huang, J., Koch, D., Lamarque, J.-F., Lee, D., Mendoza, B., Nakajima, T., Robock, A., Stephens, G., Takemura, T., and Zhang, H.: Anthropogenic and natural radiative forcing, in: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by: Stocker, T. F., Qin, D., Plattner, G.-K., Tignor, M., Allen, S. K., Boschung, J., Nauels, A., Xia, Y., Bex, V., and Midgley, P. M., Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK, New York, NY, USA, 659–740, 2013b.
Pincus, R., Barker, H. W., and Morcrette, J.-J.: A fast, flexible, approximate technique for computing radiative transfer in inhomogeneous cloud fields, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4376, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD003322, 2003.
Ramanathan, V. and Carmichael, G.: Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon, Nature, 1, 221–227, 2008.
Reddy, S. M. and Venkataraman, C.: Inventory of aerosol and sulphur dioxide emissions from India: Part I – fossil fuel combustion, Atmos. Environ., 36, 677–697, 2002.
Rogelj, J., Schaeffer, M., Meinshausen, M., Shindell, D. T., Hare, W., Klimont, Z., Velders, G. J. M., Amann, M., and Schellnhuber, H. J.: Disentangling the effects of CO2 and short-lived climate forcer mitigation, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 111, 46, 16325–16330, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1415631111, 2014.
Samset, B. H., Myhre, G., Herber, A., Kondo, Y., Li, S.-M., Moteki, N., Koike, M., Oshima, N., Schwarz, J. P., Balkanski, Y., Bauer, S. E., Bellouin, N., Berntsen, T. K., Bian, H., Chin, M., Diehl, T., Easter, R. C., Ghan, S. J., Iversen, T., Kirkevåg, A., Lamarque, J.-F., Lin, G., Liu, X., Penner, J. E., Schulz, M., Seland, Ø, Skeie, R. B., Stier, P., Takemura, T., Tsigaridis, K., and Zhang, K.: Modeled black carbon radiative forcing and atmospheric lifetime in AeroCom Phase II constrained by aircraft observations, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 14, 20083–20115, https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-14-20083-2014, 2014.
Shindell, D., Kuylenstierna, J. C. I., Vignati, E., van Dingenen, R., Amann, M., Klimont, Z., Anenberg, S. C., Muller, N., Janssens-Maenhout, G., Raes, F., Schwartz, J., Faluvegi, G., Pozzoli, L, Kupiainen, K., Hoglund-Isaksson, L., Emberson, L., Streets, D., Ramanathan, V., Hicks, K., Kim Oanh, N. T., Milly, G., Williams, M., Demkine, V., and Fowler, D.: Simultaneously mitigating near-term climate change and improving human health and food security, Science, 335, 183–189, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1210026, 2012.
Twomey, S. A.: The influence of pollution on the shortwave albedo of clouds, J. Atmos. Sci., 34, 1149–1152, 1977.
van Donkelaar, A., Martin, R. V., Brauer, M., Kahn, R., Levy, R., Verduzco, C., and Villeneuve, P. J.: Global estimates of ambient fine particulate matter concentrations from satellite-based aerosol optical depth: Development and application, Environ. Health Persp., 118, 847–855, https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.0901623, 2010.
van Vuuren, D. P., Edmonds, J., Kainuma, M., Riahi, K., Thomson, A., Hibbard, K., Hurtt, G. C., Kram, T., Krey, V., and Lamarque, J.-F.: The representative concentration pathways: an overview, Climatic Change, 109, 5–31, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-011-0148-z, 2011.
Wang, Q., Jacob, D. J., Spackman, J. R., Perring, A. E., Schwarz, J. P., Moteki, N., Marais, E. A., Ge, C., Wang, J., and Barrett, S. R. H.: Global budget and radiative forcing of black carbon aerosol: Constraints from pole-to-pole (HIPPO) observations across the Pacific, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 119, 195–206, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013jd020824, 2014.
Wang, Z. L., Zhang, H., and Shen, X. S.: Radiative forcing and climate response due to black carbon in snow and ice, Adv. Atmos. Sci., 28, 1336–1344, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-011-0117-5, 2011.
Wang, Z. L., Zhang, H., Li, J., Jing, X. W., and Lu, P.: Radiative forcing and climate response due to the presence of black carbon in cloud droplets, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 3662–3675, https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrd.50312, 2013a.
Wang, Z. L., Zhang, H., Jing, X. W., and Wei, X. D.: Effect of non-spherical dust aerosol on its direct radiative forcing, Atmos. Res., 120, 112–126, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2012.08.006, 2013b.
Wang, Z. L., Zhang, H., and Lu, P.: Improvement of cloud microphysics in the aerosol-climate model BCC_AGCM2.0.1_CUACE/Aero, evaluation against observations, and updated aerosol indirect effect, J. Geophys. Res., 119, 8400–8417, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JD021886, 2014.
Wei, X. D. and Zhang, H.: Analysis of optical properties of nonspherical dust-like aerosols, Acta Optica Sinica, 31, 0501002-1–0501002-8, https://doi.org/10.3788/AOS201131.0501002, 2011.
Wu, T., Yu, R. C., Zhang, F., Wang, Z. Z., Dong, M., Wang, L., Jin, X., Chen, D., and Li, L.: The Beijing Climate Center atmospheric general circulation model: description and its performance for the present-day, Clim. Dynam., 34, 123–147, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-009-0594-8, 2010.
Zhang, H., Nakajima, T., Shi, G. Y., Suzuki, T., and Imasu, R.: An optimal approach to overlapping bands with correlated-k distribution method and its application to radiative transfer calculations, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4641, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD003358, 2003.
Zhang, H., Shi, G. Y., Nakajima, T., and Suzuki, T.: The effects of the choice of the k-interval number on radiative calculations, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra., 98, 31–43, 2006a.
Zhang, H., Suzuki, T., Nakajima, T., Shi, G. Y., Zhang, X. Y., and Liu, Y.: Effects of band division on radiative calculations, Opt. Eng., 45, 016002, https://doi.org/10.1117/1.2160521, 2006b.
Zhang, H., Wang, Z. L., Wang, Z. Z., Liu, Q., Gong, S., Zhang, X. Y., Shen, Z., Lu, P., Wei, X., Che, H., and Li, L.: Simulation of direct radiative forcing of typical aerosols and their effects on global climate using an online AGCM-aerosol coupled model system, Clim. Dynam., 38, 1675–1693, 2012a.
Zhang, H., Shen, Z. P., Wei, X. D., Zhang, M.-G., and Li, Z.: Comparison of optical properties of nitrate and sulfate aerosol and the direct radiative forcing due to nitrate in China, Atmos. Res., 113, 113–125, 2012b.
Zhang, H., Jing, X., and Li, J.: Application and evaluation of a new radiation code under McICA scheme in BCC_AGCM2.0.1, Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 737–754, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-7-737-2014, 2014.
Zhang, Q., Streets, D. G., Carmichael, G. R., He, K. B., Huo, H., Kannari, A., Klimont, Z., Park, I. S., Reddy, S., Fu, J. S., Chen, D., Duan, L., Lei, Y., Wang, L. T., and Yao, Z. L.: Asian emissions in 2006 for the NASA INTEX-B mission, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 5131–5153, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-5131-2009, 2009.
Zhang, X. Y., Wang, Y. Q., Niu, T., Zhang, X. C., Gong, S. L., Zhang, Y. M., and Sun, J. Y.: Atmospheric aerosol compositions in China: spatial/temporal variability, chemical signature, regional haze distribution and comparisons with global aerosols, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 779–799, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-779-2012, 2012.
Zhao, S. Y., Zhang, H., Feng, S., and Fu, Q.: Simulating direct effects of dust aerosol on arid and semi-arid regions using an aerosol-climate coupled system, Int. J. Climatol., https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.4093, online first, 2014.
Zhou, C. H., Gong, S., Zhang, X.-Y., Liu, H. L., Xue, M., Cao, G. L., An, X. Q., Che, H. Z., Zhang, Y. M., and Niu, T.: Towards the improvements of simulating the chemical and optical properties of Chinese aerosols using an online coupled model-CUACE/Aero, Tellus B, 64, 18965, https://doi.org/10.3402/tellusb.v64i0.18965, 2012.
This study highlights that there are no effective ways to remove the black carbon exclusively without influencing the other co-emitted components, our results therefore indicate that a reduction in BC emission can lead to an unexpected warming on the Earth’s climate system in the future.
This study highlights that there are no effective ways to remove the black carbon exclusively...