Articles | Volume 15, issue 1
Research article 09 Jan 2015
Research article | 09 Jan 2015
Global and regional modeling of clouds and aerosols in the marine boundary layer during VOCALS: the VOCA intercomparison
M. C. Wyant et al.
No articles found.
Xinxin Ye, Pargoal Arab, Ravan Ahmadov, Eric James, Georg A. Grell, Bradley Pierce, Aditya Kumar, Paul Makar, Jack Chen, Didier Davignon, Greg R. Carmichael, Gonzalo Ferrada, Jeff McQueen, Jianping Huang, Rajesh Kumar, Louisa Emmons, Farren L. Herron-Thorpe, Mark Parrington, Richard Engelen, Vincent-Henri Peuch, Arlindo da Silva, Amber Soja, Emily Gargulinski, Elizabeth Wiggins, Johnathan W. Hair, Marta Fenn, Taylor Shingler, Shobha Kondragunta, Alexei Lyapustin, Yujie Wang, Brent Holben, David M. Giles, and Pablo E. Saide
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14427–14469,Short summary
Wildfire smoke has crucial impacts on air quality, while uncertainties in the numerical forecasts remain significant. We present an evaluation of 12 real-time forecasting systems. Comparison of predicted smoke emissions suggests a large spread in magnitudes, with temporal patterns deviating from satellite detections. The performance for AOD and surface PM2.5 and their discrepancies highlighted the role of accurately represented spatiotemporal emission profiles in improving smoke forecasts.
Jie Zhang, Kalli Furtado, Steven T. Turnock, Jane P. Mulcahy, Laura J. Wilcox, Ben B. Booth, David Sexton, Tongwen Wu, Fang Zhang, and Qianxia Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The CMIP6 ESMs systematically underestimate TAS anomalies in the NH midlatitudes, especially from 1960 to 1990. The anomalous cooling is concurrent in time and space with anthropogenic SO2 emissions. The overestimated aerosol concentrations and aerosol-forcing-sensitivity (AFS) are responsible for the spurious drop in TAS. Considering the crucial role of cloud properties on the inter-model spread in AFS, the aerosol-cloud interactions should be a focus in development of aerosol schemes.
Josué Bock, Martine Michou, Pierre Nabat, Manabu Abe, Jane P. Mulcahy, Dirk J. L. Olivié, Jörg Schwinger, Parvadha Suntharalingam, Jerry Tjiputra, Marco van Hulten, Michio Watanabe, Andrew Yool, and Roland Séférian
Biogeosciences, 18, 3823–3860,Short summary
In this study we analyse surface ocean dimethylsulfide (DMS) concentration and flux to the atmosphere from four CMIP6 Earth system models over the historical and ssp585 simulations. Our analysis of contemporary (1980–2009) climatologies shows that models better reproduce observations in mid to high latitudes. The models disagree on the sign of the trend of the global DMS flux from 1980 onwards. The models agree on a positive trend of DMS over polar latitudes following sea-ice retreat dynamics.
Kristina Pistone, Paquita Zuidema, Robert Wood, Michael Diamond, Arlindo M. da Silva, Gonzalo Ferrada, Pablo E. Saide, Rei Ueyama, Ju-Mee Ryoo, Leonhard Pfister, James Podolske, David Noone, Ryan Bennett, Eric Stith, Gregory Carmichael, Jens Redemann, Connor Flynn, Samuel LeBlanc, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, and Yohei Shinozuka
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9643–9668,Short summary
Using aircraft-based measurements off the Atlantic coast of Africa, we found the springtime smoke plume was strongly correlated with the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere (more smoke indicated more humidity). We see the same general feature in satellite-assimilated and free-running models. Our analysis suggests this relationship is not caused by the burning but originates due to coincident continental meteorology plus fires. This air is transported over the ocean without further mixing.
Anthony C. Jones, Adrian Hill, Samuel Remy, N. Luke Abraham, Mohit Dalvi, Catherine Hardacre, Alan J. Hewitt, Ben Johnson, Jane P. Mulcahy, and Steven T. Turnock
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Ammonium nitrate is hard to model because it forms and evaporates rapidly. One approach is to relate its equilibrium concentration to temperature, humidity, and the amount of nitric acid and ammonia gases. Using this approach, we limit the rate at which equilibrium is reached using various condensation rates in a climate model. We show that ammonium nitrate concentrations are highly sensitive to the condensation rate. Our results will help improve the representation of nitrate in climate models.
Sarah J. Doherty, Pablo E. Saide, Paquita Zuidema, Yohei Shinozuka, Gonzalo A. Ferrada, Hamish Gordon, Marc Mallet, Kerry Meyer, David Painemal, Steven G. Howell, Steffen Freitag, Amie Dobracki, James R. Podolske, Sharon P. Burton, Richard A. Ferrare, Calvin Howes, Pierre Nabat, Gregory R. Carmichael, Arlindo da Silva, Kristina Pistone, Ian Chang, Lan Gao, Robert Wood, and Jens Redemann
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
Between July and October, biomass burning smoke is advected over the southeast Atlantic Ocean, leading to climate forcing. Model calculations of forcing by this plume vary significantly, in both magnitude and sign. This paper compares aerosol and cloud properties, observed during three NASA ORACLES field campaigns to the same in four models. It quantifies modeled biases in properties key to aerosol direct radiative forcing, and how these biases propagate to biases in forcing.
Catherine Hardacre, Jane P. Mulcahy, Richard Pope, Colin G. Jones, Steven R. Rumbold, Can Li, and Steven T. Turnock
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
We investigate UKESM1's ability to represent the sulphur (S) cycle in the recent historical period. The S cycle is a key driver of historical radiative forcing. Earth system models such as UKESM1 should represent the S cycle well so that we can have confidence in their projections of future climate. We compare UKESM1 to observations of sulphur compounds finding that the model generally performs well. We also identify areas for UKESM1’s development, focussing on how SO2 is removed from the air.
Behrooz Roozitalab, Gregory R. Carmichael, and Sarath K. Guttikunda
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2837–2860,Short summary
We used air quality modeling to study an extreme pollution episode in November 2017 in India. We found both local and regional emissions contribute to high pollution levels. The extreme pollution values were the result of agricultural fires in the northwest of India. Ozone should be considered in future air quality management strategies.
Jens Redemann, Robert Wood, Paquita Zuidema, Sarah J. Doherty, Bernadette Luna, Samuel E. LeBlanc, Michael S. Diamond, Yohei Shinozuka, Ian Y. Chang, Rei Ueyama, Leonhard Pfister, Ju-Mee Ryoo, Amie N. Dobracki, Arlindo M. da Silva, Karla M. Longo, Meloë S. Kacenelenbogen, Connor J. Flynn, Kristina Pistone, Nichola M. Knox, Stuart J. Piketh, James M. Haywood, Paola Formenti, Marc Mallet, Philip Stier, Andrew S. Ackerman, Susanne E. Bauer, Ann M. Fridlind, Gregory R. Carmichael, Pablo E. Saide, Gonzalo A. Ferrada, Steven G. Howell, Steffen Freitag, Brian Cairns, Brent N. Holben, Kirk D. Knobelspiesse, Simone Tanelli, Tristan S. L'Ecuyer, Andrew M. Dzambo, Ousmane O. Sy, Greg M. McFarquhar, Michael R. Poellot, Siddhant Gupta, Joseph R. O'Brien, Athanasios Nenes, Mary Kacarab, Jenny P. S. Wong, Jennifer D. Small-Griswold, Kenneth L. Thornhill, David Noone, James R. Podolske, K. Sebastian Schmidt, Peter Pilewskie, Hong Chen, Sabrina P. Cochrane, Arthur J. Sedlacek, Timothy J. Lang, Eric Stith, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, Richard A. Ferrare, Sharon P. Burton, Chris A. Hostetler, David J. Diner, Felix C. Seidel, Steven E. Platnick, Jeffrey S. Myers, Kerry G. Meyer, Douglas A. Spangenberg, Hal Maring, and Lan Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1507–1563,Short summary
Southern Africa produces significant biomass burning emissions whose impacts on regional and global climate are poorly understood. ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS) is a 5-year NASA investigation designed to study the key processes that determine these climate impacts. The main purpose of this paper is to familiarize the broader scientific community with the ORACLES project, the dataset it produced, and the most important initial findings.
Fiona M. O'Connor, N. Luke Abraham, Mohit Dalvi, Gerd A. Folberth, Paul T. Griffiths, Catherine Hardacre, Ben T. Johnson, Ron Kahana, James Keeble, Byeonghyeon Kim, Olaf Morgenstern, Jane P. Mulcahy, Mark Richardson, Eddy Robertson, Jeongbyn Seo, Sungbo Shim, João C. Teixeira, Steven T. Turnock, Jonny Williams, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Stephanie Woodward, and Guang Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1211–1243,Short summary
This paper calculates how changes in emissions and/or concentrations of different atmospheric constituents since the pre-industrial era have altered the Earth's energy budget at the present day using a metric called effective radiative forcing. The impact of land use change is also assessed. We find that individual contributions do not add linearly, and different Earth system interactions can affect the magnitude of the calculated effective radiative forcing.
Gillian Thornhill, William Collins, Dirk Olivié, Ragnhild B. Skeie, Alex Archibald, Susanne Bauer, Ramiro Checa-Garcia, Stephanie Fiedler, Gerd Folberth, Ada Gjermundsen, Larry Horowitz, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Martine Michou, Jane Mulcahy, Pierre Nabat, Vaishali Naik, Fiona M. O'Connor, Fabien Paulot, Michael Schulz, Catherine E. Scott, Roland Séférian, Chris Smith, Toshihiko Takemura, Simone Tilmes, Kostas Tsigaridis, and James Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1105–1126,Short summary
We find that increased temperatures affect aerosols and reactive gases by changing natural emissions and their rates of removal from the atmosphere. Changing the composition of these species in the atmosphere affects the radiative budget of the climate system and therefore amplifies or dampens the climate response of climate models of the Earth system. This study found that the largest effect is a dampening of climate change as warmer temperatures increase the emissions of cooling aerosols.
Gillian D. Thornhill, William J. Collins, Ryan J. Kramer, Dirk Olivié, Ragnhild B. Skeie, Fiona M. O'Connor, Nathan Luke Abraham, Ramiro Checa-Garcia, Susanne E. Bauer, Makoto Deushi, Louisa K. Emmons, Piers M. Forster, Larry W. Horowitz, Ben Johnson, James Keeble, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Martine Michou, Michael J. Mills, Jane P. Mulcahy, Gunnar Myhre, Pierre Nabat, Vaishali Naik, Naga Oshima, Michael Schulz, Christopher J. Smith, Toshihiko Takemura, Simone Tilmes, Tongwen Wu, Guang Zeng, and Jie Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 853–874,Short summary
This paper is a study of how different constituents in the atmosphere, such as aerosols and gases like methane and ozone, affect the energy balance in the atmosphere. Different climate models were run using the same inputs to allow an easy comparison of the results and to understand where the models differ. We found the effect of aerosols is to reduce warming in the atmosphere, but this effect varies between models. Reactions between gases are also important in affecting climate.
Jane P. Mulcahy, Colin Johnson, Colin G. Jones, Adam C. Povey, Catherine E. Scott, Alistair Sellar, Steven T. Turnock, Matthew T. Woodhouse, Nathan Luke Abraham, Martin B. Andrews, Nicolas Bellouin, Jo Browse, Ken S. Carslaw, Mohit Dalvi, Gerd A. Folberth, Matthew Glover, Daniel P. Grosvenor, Catherine Hardacre, Richard Hill, Ben Johnson, Andy Jones, Zak Kipling, Graham Mann, James Mollard, Fiona M. O'Connor, Julien Palmiéri, Carly Reddington, Steven T. Rumbold, Mark Richardson, Nick A. J. Schutgens, Philip Stier, Marc Stringer, Yongming Tang, Jeremy Walton, Stephanie Woodward, and Andrew Yool
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6383–6423,Short summary
Aerosols are an important component of the Earth system. Here, we comprehensively document and evaluate the aerosol schemes as implemented in the physical and Earth system models, HadGEM3-GC3.1 and UKESM1. This study provides a useful characterisation of the aerosol climatology in both models, facilitating the understanding of the numerous aerosol–climate interaction studies that will be conducted for CMIP6 and beyond.
Yohei Shinozuka, Pablo E. Saide, Gonzalo A. Ferrada, Sharon P. Burton, Richard Ferrare, Sarah J. Doherty, Hamish Gordon, Karla Longo, Marc Mallet, Yan Feng, Qiaoqiao Wang, Yafang Cheng, Amie Dobracki, Steffen Freitag, Steven G. Howell, Samuel LeBlanc, Connor Flynn, Michal Segal-Rosenhaimer, Kristina Pistone, James R. Podolske, Eric J. Stith, Joseph Ryan Bennett, Gregory R. Carmichael, Arlindo da Silva, Ravi Govindaraju, Ruby Leung, Yang Zhang, Leonhard Pfister, Ju-Mee Ryoo, Jens Redemann, Robert Wood, and Paquita Zuidema
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11491–11526,Short summary
In the southeast Atlantic, well-defined smoke plumes from Africa advect over marine boundary layer cloud decks; both are most extensive around September, when most of the smoke resides in the free troposphere. A framework is put forth for evaluating the performance of a range of global and regional atmospheric composition models against observations made during the NASA ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS) airborne mission in September 2016.
Prodromos Zanis, Dimitris Akritidis, Aristeidis K. Georgoulias, Robert J. Allen, Susanne E. Bauer, Olivier Boucher, Jason Cole, Ben Johnson, Makoto Deushi, Martine Michou, Jane Mulcahy, Pierre Nabat, Dirk Olivié, Naga Oshima, Adriana Sima, Michael Schulz, Toshihiko Takemura, and Konstantinos Tsigaridis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8381–8404,Short summary
In this work, we use Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) simulations from 10 Earth system models (ESMs) and general circulation models (GCMs) to study the fast climate responses on pre-industrial climate, due to present-day aerosols. All models carried out two sets of simulations: a control experiment with all forcings set to the year 1850 and a perturbation experiment with all forcings identical to the control, except for aerosols with precursor emissions set to the year 2014.
Pablo E. Saide, Meng Gao, Zifeng Lu, Daniel L. Goldberg, David G. Streets, Jung-Hun Woo, Andreas Beyersdorf, Chelsea A. Corr, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Bruce Anderson, Johnathan W. Hair, Amin R. Nehrir, Glenn S. Diskin, Jose L. Jimenez, Benjamin A. Nault, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jack Dibb, Eric Heim, Kara D. Lamb, Joshua P. Schwarz, Anne E. Perring, Jhoon Kim, Myungje Choi, Brent Holben, Gabriele Pfister, Alma Hodzic, Gregory R. Carmichael, Louisa Emmons, and James H. Crawford
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6455–6478,Short summary
Air quality forecasts over the Korean Peninsula captured aerosol optical depth but largely overpredicted surface PM during a Chinese haze transport event. Model deficiency was related to the calculation of optical properties. In order to improve it, aerosol size representation needs to be refined in the calculations, and the representation of aerosol properties, such as size distribution, chemical composition, refractive index, hygroscopicity parameter, and density, needs to be improved.
Sungyeon Choi, Lok N. Lamsal, Melanie Follette-Cook, Joanna Joiner, Nickolay A. Krotkov, William H. Swartz, Kenneth E. Pickering, Christopher P. Loughner, Wyat Appel, Gabriele Pfister, Pablo E. Saide, Ronald C. Cohen, Andrew J. Weinheimer, and Jay R. Herman
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2523–2546,
Sojin Lee, Chul Han Song, Kyung Man Han, Daven K. Henze, Kyunghwa Lee, Jinhyeok Yu, Jung-Hun Woo, Jia Jung, Yunsoo Choi, Pablo E. Saide, and Gregory R. Carmichael
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Alexander T. Archibald, Fiona M. O'Connor, Nathan Luke Abraham, Scott Archer-Nicholls, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Mohit Dalvi, Gerd A. Folberth, Fraser Dennison, Sandip S. Dhomse, Paul T. Griffiths, Catherine Hardacre, Alan J. Hewitt, Richard S. Hill, Colin E. Johnson, James Keeble, Marcus O. Köhler, Olaf Morgenstern, Jane P. Mulcahy, Carlos Ordóñez, Richard J. Pope, Steven T. Rumbold, Maria R. Russo, Nicholas H. Savage, Alistair Sellar, Marc Stringer, Steven T. Turnock, Oliver Wild, and Guang Zeng
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1223–1266,Short summary
Here we present a description and evaluation of the UKCA stratosphere–troposphere chemistry scheme (StratTrop vn 1.0) implemented in the UK Earth System Model (UKESM1). UKCA StratTrop represents a substantial step forward compared to previous versions of UKCA. We show here that it is fully suited to the challenges of representing interactions in a coupled Earth system model and identify key areas and components for future development that will make it even better in the future.
Meng Gao, Zirui Liu, Bo Zheng, Dongsheng Ji, Peter Sherman, Shaojie Song, Jinyuan Xin, Cheng Liu, Yuesi Wang, Qiang Zhang, Jia Xing, Jingkun Jiang, Zifa Wang, Gregory R. Carmichael, and Michael B. McElroy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1497–1505,Short summary
We quantified the relative influences of anthropogenic emissions and meteorological conditions on PM2.5 concentrations in Beijing over the winters of 2002–2016. Meteorological conditions over the study period would have led to an increase of haze in Beijing, but the strict emission control measures have suppressed the unfavorable influences of the recent climate.
Meng Gao, Zhiwei Han, Zhining Tao, Jiawei Li, Jeong-Eon Kang, Kan Huang, Xinyi Dong, Bingliang Zhuang, Shu Li, Baozhu Ge, Qizhong Wu, Hyo-Jung Lee, Cheol-Hee Kim, Joshua S. Fu, Tijian Wang, Mian Chin, Meng Li, Jung-Hun Woo, Qiang Zhang, Yafang Cheng, Zifa Wang, and Gregory R. Carmichael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1147–1161,Short summary
Topic 3 of the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) Phase III examines how online coupled air quality models perform in simulating high aerosol pollution in the North China Plain region during wintertime haze events and evaluates the importance of aerosol radiative feedbacks. This paper discusses the estimates of aerosol radiative forcing, aerosol feedbacks, and possible causes for the differences among the models.
Lei Kong, Xiao Tang, Jiang Zhu, Zifa Wang, Joshua S. Fu, Xuemei Wang, Syuichi Itahashi, Kazuyo Yamaji, Tatsuya Nagashima, Hyo-Jung Lee, Cheol-Hee Kim, Chuan-Yao Lin, Lei Chen, Meigen Zhang, Zhining Tao, Jie Li, Mizuo Kajino, Hong Liao, Zhe Wang, Kengo Sudo, Yuesi Wang, Yuepeng Pan, Guiqian Tang, Meng Li, Qizhong Wu, Baozhu Ge, and Gregory R. Carmichael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 181–202,Short summary
Evaluation and uncertainty investigation of NO2, CO and NH3 modeling over China were conducted in this study using 14 chemical transport model results from MICS-Asia III. All models largely underestimated CO concentrations and showed very poor performance in reproducing the observed monthly variations of NH3 concentrations. Potential factors related to such deficiencies are investigated and discussed in this paper.
Laura E. Revell, Stefanie Kremser, Sean Hartery, Mike Harvey, Jane P. Mulcahy, Jonny Williams, Olaf Morgenstern, Adrian J. McDonald, Vidya Varma, Leroy Bird, and Alex Schuddeboom
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15447–15466,Short summary
Aerosols over the Southern Ocean consist primarily of sea salt and sulfate, yet are seasonally biased in our model. We test three sulfate chemistry schemes to investigate DMS oxidation, which forms sulfate aerosol. Simulated cloud droplet number concentrations improve using more complex sulfate chemistry. We also show that a new sea spray aerosol source function, developed from measurements made on a recent Southern Ocean research voyage, improves the model's simulation of aerosol optical depth.
Samuel Rémy, Zak Kipling, Johannes Flemming, Olivier Boucher, Pierre Nabat, Martine Michou, Alessio Bozzo, Melanie Ades, Vincent Huijnen, Angela Benedetti, Richard Engelen, Vincent-Henri Peuch, and Jean-Jacques Morcrette
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 4627–4659,Short summary
This article describes the IFS-AER aerosol module used operationally in the Integrated Forecasting System (IFS) cycle 45R1, operated by the ECMWF in the framework of the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Services (CAMS). We describe the different parameterizations for aerosol sources, sinks, and how the aerosols are integrated in the larger atmospheric composition forecasting system. The skill of PM and AOD simulations against observations is improved compared to the older cycle 40R2.
Jie Li, Tatsuya Nagashima, Lei Kong, Baozhu Ge, Kazuyo Yamaji, Joshua S. Fu, Xuemei Wang, Qi Fan, Syuichi Itahashi, Hyo-Jung Lee, Cheol-Hee Kim, Chuan-Yao Lin, Meigen Zhang, Zhining Tao, Mizuo Kajino, Hong Liao, Meng Li, Jung-Hun Woo, Jun-ichi Kurokawa, Zhe Wang, Qizhong Wu, Hajime Akimoto, Gregory R. Carmichael, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12993–13015,Short summary
This study evaluated and intercompared 14 CTMs with ozone observations in East Asia, within the framework of the Model Inter-Comparison Study for ASIA Phase III (MICS-Asia III). Potential causes of the discrepancies between model results and observation were investigated by assessing the planetary boundary layer heights, emission fluxes, dry deposition, chemistry and vertical transport among models. Finally, a multi-model estimate of pollution distributions was provided.
Myungje Choi, Hyunkwang Lim, Jhoon Kim, Seoyoung Lee, Thomas F. Eck, Brent N. Holben, Michael J. Garay, Edward J. Hyer, Pablo E. Saide, and Hongqing Liu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4619–4641,Short summary
Satellite-based aerosol optical depth (AOD) products have been improved continuously and available from multiple low Earth orbit sensors, such as MODIS, MISR, and VIIRS, and geostationary sensors, such as GOCI and AHI, over East Asia. These multi-satellite AOD products are validated, intercompared, analyzed, and integrated to understand different characteristics, such as quality and spatio-temporal coverage, focused on several aerosol transportation cases during the 2016 KORUS-AQ campaign.
David Walters, Anthony J. Baran, Ian Boutle, Malcolm Brooks, Paul Earnshaw, John Edwards, Kalli Furtado, Peter Hill, Adrian Lock, James Manners, Cyril Morcrette, Jane Mulcahy, Claudio Sanchez, Chris Smith, Rachel Stratton, Warren Tennant, Lorenzo Tomassini, Kwinten Van Weverberg, Simon Vosper, Martin Willett, Jo Browse, Andrew Bushell, Kenneth Carslaw, Mohit Dalvi, Richard Essery, Nicola Gedney, Steven Hardiman, Ben Johnson, Colin Johnson, Andy Jones, Colin Jones, Graham Mann, Sean Milton, Heather Rumbold, Alistair Sellar, Masashi Ujiie, Michael Whitall, Keith Williams, and Mohamed Zerroukat
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 1909–1963,Short summary
Global Atmosphere (GA) configurations of the Unified Model (UM) and Global Land (GL) configurations of JULES are developed for use in any global atmospheric modelling application. We describe a recent iteration of these configurations, GA7/GL7, which includes new aerosol and snow schemes and addresses the four critical errors identified in GA6. GA7/GL7 will underpin the UK's contributions to CMIP6, and hence their documentation is important.
Marc Mallet, Pierre Nabat, Paquita Zuidema, Jens Redemann, Andrew Mark Sayer, Martin Stengel, Sebastian Schmidt, Sabrina Cochrane, Sharon Burton, Richard Ferrare, Kerry Meyer, Pablo Saide, Hiren Jethva, Omar Torres, Robert Wood, David Saint Martin, Romain Roehrig, Christina Hsu, and Paola Formenti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4963–4990,Short summary
The model is able to represent LWP but not the LCF. AOD is consistent over the continent but also over ocean (ACAOD). Differences are observed in SSA due to the absence of internal mixing in ALADIN-Climate. A significant regional gradient of the forcing at TOA is observed. An intense positive forcing is simulated over Gabon. Results highlight the significant effect of enhanced moisture on BBA extinction. The surface dimming modifies the energy budget.
Daniel L. Goldberg, Pablo E. Saide, Lok N. Lamsal, Benjamin de Foy, Zifeng Lu, Jung-Hun Woo, Younha Kim, Jinseok Kim, Meng Gao, Gregory Carmichael, and David G. Streets
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1801–1818,Short summary
Using satellite data, we are able to estimate the emissions of NOx (NOx=NO+NO2), a toxic group of air pollutants, in the Seoul metropolitan area. We first develop an enhanced satellite product that better observes NO2 in urban regions. Using this new product, we derive NOx emissions to be twice as large as the emissions reported by the South Korean government. The implication is that the measures taken to reduce NOx emissions in South Korea have not been as effective as regulators have thought.
Maryam Abdi-Oskouei, Gabriele Pfister, Frank Flocke, Negin Sobhani, Pablo Saide, Alan Fried, Dirk Richter, Petter Weibring, James Walega, and Gregory Carmichael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16863–16883,Short summary
This study presents a quantification of model uncertainties due to configurations and errors in the emission inventories. The analysis includes performing simulations with different configurations and comparisons with airborne and ground-based observations with a focus on capturing transport and emissions from the oil and gas sector. The presented results reflect the challenges that one may face when attempting to improve emission inventories by contrasting measured with modeled concentrations.
Elizabeth M. Lennartson, Jun Wang, Juping Gu, Lorena Castro Garcia, Cui Ge, Meng Gao, Myungje Choi, Pablo E. Saide, Gregory R. Carmichael, Jhoon Kim, and Scott J. Janz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15125–15144,Short summary
This paper is among the first to study the diurnal variations of AOD, PM2.5, and their relationships in South Korea. We show that the PM2.5–AOD relationship has strong diurnal variations, and, hence, using AOD data retrieved from geostationary satellite can improve the monitoring of surface PM2.5 air quality on a daily basis as well as constrain the diurnal variation of aerosol emission.
Michael S. Diamond, Amie Dobracki, Steffen Freitag, Jennifer D. Small Griswold, Ashley Heikkila, Steven G. Howell, Mary E. Kacarab, James R. Podolske, Pablo E. Saide, and Robert Wood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14623–14636,Short summary
Smoke from Africa can mix into clouds over the southeast Atlantic and create new droplets, which brightens the clouds, reflects more sunlight, and thus cools the region. Using aircraft data from a NASA field campaign, we find that cloud properties are correlated with smoke as expected when the smoke is below the clouds but not when smoke is above the clouds because it takes several days for clouds to mix smoke downward. We recommend methods that can track clouds as they move for future studies.
Meng Gao, Zhiwei Han, Zirui Liu, Meng Li, Jinyuan Xin, Zhining Tao, Jiawei Li, Jeong-Eon Kang, Kan Huang, Xinyi Dong, Bingliang Zhuang, Shu Li, Baozhu Ge, Qizhong Wu, Yafang Cheng, Yuesi Wang, Hyo-Jung Lee, Cheol-Hee Kim, Joshua S. Fu, Tijian Wang, Mian Chin, Jung-Hun Woo, Qiang Zhang, Zifa Wang, and Gregory R. Carmichael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4859–4884,Short summary
Topic 3 of the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) Phase III examines how online coupled air quality models perform in simulating high aerosol pollution in the North China Plain region during wintertime haze events and evaluates the importance of aerosol radiative and microphysical feedbacks. A comprehensive overview of the MICS-ASIA III Topic 3 study design is presented.
Stefano Galmarini, Brigitte Koffi, Efisio Solazzo, Terry Keating, Christian Hogrefe, Michael Schulz, Anna Benedictow, Jan Jurgen Griesfeller, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Greg Carmichael, Joshua Fu, and Frank Dentener
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1543–1555,Short summary
We present an overview of the coordinated global numerical modelling experiments performed during 2012–2016 by the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP), the regional experiments by the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) over Europe and North America, and the Model Intercomparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia). Given the organizational complexity of bringing together these three initiatives, the experiment organization is presented.
Meng Li, Qiang Zhang, Jun-ichi Kurokawa, Jung-Hun Woo, Kebin He, Zifeng Lu, Toshimasa Ohara, Yu Song, David G. Streets, Gregory R. Carmichael, Yafang Cheng, Chaopeng Hong, Hong Huo, Xujia Jiang, Sicong Kang, Fei Liu, Hang Su, and Bo Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 935–963,Short summary
An anthropogenic emission inventory for Asia is developed for the years 2008 and 2010 to support the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) and the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP) projects by a mosaic of up-to-date regional emission inventories. The total Asian emissions in 2010 are estimated as follows: 51.3 Tg SO2, 52.1 Tg NOx, 336.5 Tg CO, 67.0 Tg NMVOC, 28.7 Tg NH3, 31.7 Tg PM10, 22.7 Tg PM2.5, 3.5 Tg BC, 8.3 Tg OC, and 17.3 Pg CO2.
Ben T. Johnson, James M. Haywood, Justin M. Langridge, Eoghan Darbyshire, William T. Morgan, Kate Szpek, Jennifer K. Brooke, Franco Marenco, Hugh Coe, Paulo Artaxo, Karla M. Longo, Jane P. Mulcahy, Graham W. Mann, Mohit Dalvi, and Nicolas Bellouin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14657–14685,Short summary
Biomass burning is a large source of carbonaceous aerosols, which scatter and absorb solar radiation, and modify cloud properties. We evaluate the simulation of biomass burning aerosol processes and properties in the HadGEM3 climate model using observations, including those from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis. We find that modelled aerosol optical depths are underestimated unless aerosol emissions (Global Fire Emission Database v3) are increased by a factor of 1.6–2.0.
Meng Gao, Gregory R. Carmichael, Pablo E. Saide, Zifeng Lu, Man Yu, David G. Streets, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11837–11851,Short summary
The WRF-Chem model was used to examine how the winter PM2.5 concentrations change in response to changes in emissions and meteorology in North China from 1960 to 2010. The discussions in this study indicate that dramatic changes in emissions are the main cause of increasing haze events in North China, and long-term trends in atmospheric circulations maybe another important cause. We also found aerosol feedbacks have been significantly enhanced from 1960 to 2010, due to higher aerosol loadings.
Dan Chen, Zhiquan Liu, Jerome Fast, and Junmei Ban
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10707–10724,Short summary
Extreme haze events occurred frequently over China recently, and adequately predicting peak PM2.5 concentrations is still challenging. In this study, the sulfate–nitrate–ammonium relevant heterogeneous reactions were parameterized for the first time in the WRF-Chem model. We evaluated the performance of WRF-Chem and used the model to investigate the sensitivity of heterogeneous reactions on simulated peak sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium concentrations in the vicinity of Beijing during October 2014.
Chun Zhao, Maoyi Huang, Jerome D. Fast, Larry K. Berg, Yun Qian, Alex Guenther, Dasa Gu, Manish Shrivastava, Ying Liu, Stacy Walters, Gabriele Pfister, Jiming Jin, John E. Shilling, and Carsten Warneke
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 1959–1976,Short summary
In this study, the latest version of MEGAN is coupled within CLM4 in WRF-Chem. In this implementation, MEGAN shares a consistent vegetation map with CLM4. This improved modeling framework is used to investigate the impact of two land surface schemes on BVOCs and examine the sensitivity of BVOCs to vegetation distributions in California. This study indicates that more effort is needed to obtain the most appropriate and accurate land cover data sets for climate and air quality models.
N. Huneeus, S. Basart, S. Fiedler, J.-J. Morcrette, A. Benedetti, J. Mulcahy, E. Terradellas, C. Pérez García-Pando, G. Pejanovic, S. Nickovic, P. Arsenovic, M. Schulz, E. Cuevas, J. M. Baldasano, J. Pey, S. Remy, and B. Cvetkovic
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4967–4986,Short summary
Five dust models are evaluated regarding their performance in predicting an intense Saharan dust outbreak affecting western and northern Europe (NE). Models predict the onset and evolution of the event for all analysed lead times. On average, differences among the models are larger than differences in lead times for each model. The models tend to underestimate the long-range transport towards NE. This is partly due to difficulties in simulating the vertical dust distribution and horizontal wind.
Franco Marenco, Ben Johnson, Justin M. Langridge, Jane Mulcahy, Angela Benedetti, Samuel Remy, Luke Jones, Kate Szpek, Jim Haywood, Karla Longo, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2155–2174,Short summary
A widespread and persistent smoke layer was observed in the Amazon region during the biomass burning season, spanning a distance of 2200 km and a period of 14 days. The larger smoke content was typically found in elevated layers, from 1–1.5 km to 4–6 km. Measurements have been compared to model predictions, and the latter were able to reproduce the general features of the smoke layer, but with some differences which are analysed and described in the paper.
L. Kleinman, C. Kuang, A. Sedlacek, G. Senum, S. Springston, J. Wang, Q. Zhang, J. Jayne, J. Fast, J. Hubbe, J. Shilling, and R. Zaveri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1729–1746,Short summary
Atmospheric measurements of total organic aerosol (OA) and tracers of anthropogenic and biogenic emissions are used to quantify synergistic effects (A–B interactions) between two classes of precursors in the formation of OA. Regressions are consistent with the Sacramento plume composed mainly of modern carbon, and OA correlating best with an anthropogenic tracer. It is found that meteorological conditions during a pollution episode can mimic effects of A–B interactions.
M. Gao, G. R. Carmichael, Y. Wang, P. E. Saide, M. Yu, J. Xin, Z. Liu, and Z. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1673–1691,Short summary
The WRF-Chem model was applied to study the 2010 winter haze in North China. Air pollutants outside Beijing contributed about 64.5 % to the PM2.5 levels in Beijing during this haze event, and most of them are from south Hebei, Tianjin city, Shandong and Henan provinces. In addition, aerosol feedback has important impacts on surface temperature, Relative Humidity (RH) and wind speeds, and these meteorological variables affect aerosol distribution and formation in turn.
G. Roberts, M. J. Wooster, W. Xu, P. H. Freeborn, J.-J. Morcrette, L. Jones, A. Benedetti, H. Jiangping, D. Fisher, and J. W. Kaiser
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13241–13267,Short summary
Characterising the dynamics of wildfires at high temporal resolution is best achieved using observations from geostationary satellite sensors. The SEVIRI Fire Radiative Power (FRP) products have been developed using such imagery at up to 15-minute temporal frequency. These data are used to estimate wildfire fuel consumption and to the characterise smoke emissions from the 2007 Peloponnese "mega fires" within an atmospheric transport model.
A. Lupascu, R. Easter, R. Zaveri, M. Shrivastava, M. Pekour, J. Tomlinson, Q. Yang, H. Matsui, A. Hodzic, Q. Zhang, and J. D. Fast
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12283–12313,
S. R. Kolusu, J. H. Marsham, J. Mulcahy, B. Johnson, C. Dunning, M. Bush, and D. V. Spracklen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12251–12266,
L. Zhang, D. K. Henze, G. A. Grell, G. R. Carmichael, N. Bousserez, Q. Zhang, O. Torres, C. Ahn, Z. Lu, J. Cao, and Y. Mao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10281–10308,Short summary
We attempt to reduce uncertainties in BC emissions and improve BC model simulations by developing top-down, spatially resolved, estimates of BC emissions through assimilation of OMI observations of aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) with the GEOS-Chem model and its adjoint for April and October of 2006. Despite the limitations and uncertainties, using OMI AAOD to constrain BC sources we are able to improve model representation of BC distributions, particularly over China.
H. S. Chen, Z. F. Wang, J. Li, X. Tang, B. Z. Ge, X. L. Wu, O. Wild, and G. R. Carmichael
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2857–2876,Short summary
A new global nested atmospheric mercury transport model was developed and introduced. Model performance was found significantly better in North America and Europe than in East Asia. Nested simulation has been conducted in East Asia and shows improved skill at capturing the high spatial variability of Hg concentrations and deposition. The trans-boundary transport of Chinese primary anthropogenic mercury emissions was quantified for the first time.
Y. Shinozuka, A. D. Clarke, A. Nenes, A. Jefferson, R. Wood, C. S. McNaughton, J. Ström, P. Tunved, J. Redemann, K. L. Thornhill, R. H. Moore, T. L. Lathem, J. J. Lin, and Y. J. Yoon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7585–7604,
A. H. Berner, C. S. Bretherton, and R. Wood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5851–5871,
R. Kumar, M. C. Barth, V. S. Nair, G. G. Pfister, S. Suresh Babu, S. K. Satheesh, K. Krishna Moorthy, G. R. Carmichael, Z. Lu, and D. G. Streets
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5415–5428,Short summary
We examine differences in the surface BC between the Bay of Bengal (BoB) and the Arabian Sea (AS) and identify dominant sources of BC in South Asia during ICARB. Anthropogenic emissions were the main source of BC during ICARB and had about 5 times stronger influence on the BoB compared to the AS. Regional-scale transport contributes up to 25% of BC mass concentrations in western and eastern India, suggesting that surface BC mass concentrations cannot be linked directly to the local emissions.
M. Bocquet, H. Elbern, H. Eskes, M. Hirtl, R. Žabkar, G. R. Carmichael, J. Flemming, A. Inness, M. Pagowski, J. L. Pérez Camaño, P. E. Saide, R. San Jose, M. Sofiev, J. Vira, A. Baklanov, C. Carnevale, G. Grell, and C. Seigneur
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5325–5358,Short summary
Data assimilation is used in atmospheric chemistry models to improve air quality forecasts, construct re-analyses of concentrations, and perform inverse modeling. Coupled chemistry meteorology models (CCMM) are atmospheric chemistry models that simulate meteorological processes and chemical transformations jointly. We review here the current status of data assimilation in atmospheric chemistry models, with a particular focus on future prospects for data assimilation in CCMM.
E. Cuevas, C. Camino, A. Benedetti, S. Basart, E. Terradellas, J. M. Baldasano, J. J. Morcrette, B. Marticorena, P. Goloub, A. Mortier, A. Berjón, Y. Hernández, M. Gil-Ojeda, and M. Schulz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3991–4024,Short summary
Atmospheric mineral dust from a MACC-II short reanalysis (2007-2008) has been evaluated over northern Africa and the Middle East using satellite aerosol products, AERONET data, in situ PM10 concentrations, and extinction vertical profiles. The MACC-II AOD spatial and temporal variability shows good agreement with satellite sensors and AERONET. We find a good agreement in averaged extinction vertical profiles between MACC-II and lidars. MACC correctly reproduces daily to interannual PM10.
L. Marelle, J.-C. Raut, J. L. Thomas, K. S. Law, B. Quennehen, G. Ancellet, J. Pelon, A. Schwarzenboeck, and J. D. Fast
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3831–3850,
L. K. Berg, M. Shrivastava, R. C. Easter, J. D. Fast, E. G. Chapman, Y. Liu, and R. A. Ferrare
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 409–429,Short summary
This work presents a new methodology for representing regional-scale impacts of cloud processing on both aerosol and trace gases in sub-grid-scale convective clouds. Using the new methodology, we can better simulate the aerosol lifecycle over large areas. The results presented in this work highlight the potential change in column-integrated amounts of black carbon, organic aerosol, and sulfate aerosol, which were found to range from -50% for black carbon to +40% for sulfate.
S. Kulkarni, N. Sobhani, J. P. Miller-Schulze, M. M. Shafer, J. J. Schauer, P. A. Solomon, P. E. Saide, S. N. Spak, Y. F. Cheng, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, Z. Lu, D. G. Streets, G. Janssens-Maenhout, C. Wiedinmyer, J. Lantz, M. Artamonova, B. Chen, S. Imashev, L. Sverdlik, J. T. Deminter, B. Adhikary, A. D'Allura, C. Wei, and G. R. Carmichael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1683–1705,Short summary
This study presents a regional-scale modeling analysis of aerosols in the Central Asia region including detailed characterization of seasonal source region and sector contributions along with the predicted changes in distribution of aerosols using 2030 future emission scenarios. The influence of long transport and impact of varied emission sources including dust, biomass burning, and anthropogenic sources on the regional aerosol distributions and the associated transport pathways are discussed.
W. R. Sessions, J. S. Reid, A. Benedetti, P. R. Colarco, A. da Silva, S. Lu, T. Sekiyama, T. Y. Tanaka, J. M. Baldasano, S. Basart, M. E. Brooks, T. F. Eck, M. Iredell, J. A. Hansen, O. C. Jorba, H.-M. H. Juang, P. Lynch, J.-J. Morcrette, S. Moorthi, J. Mulcahy, Y. Pradhan, M. Razinger, C. B. Sampson, J. Wang, and D. L. Westphal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 335–362,Short summary
T. Amnuaylojaroen, M. C. Barth, L. K. Emmons, G. R. Carmichael, J. Kreasuwun, S. Prasitwattanaseree, and S. Chantara
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12983–13012,
S. Nordmann, Y. F. Cheng, G. R. Carmichael, M. Yu, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, Q. Zhang, P. E. Saide, U. Pöschl, H. Su, W. Birmili, and A. Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12683–12699,
S. Archer-Nicholls, D. Lowe, S. Utembe, J. Allan, R. A. Zaveri, J. D. Fast, Ø. Hodnebrog, H. Denier van der Gon, and G. McFiggans
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2557–2579,
X. Wang, C. L. Heald, D. A. Ridley, J. P. Schwarz, J. R. Spackman, A. E. Perring, H. Coe, D. Liu, and A. D. Clarke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10989–11010,
P. Marrapu, Y. Cheng, G. Beig, S. Sahu, R. Srinivas, and G. R. Carmichael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10619–10630,
H. Matsui, M. Koike, Y. Kondo, J. D. Fast, and M. Takigawa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10315–10331,
J. D. Fast, J. Allan, R. Bahreini, J. Craven, L. Emmons, R. Ferrare, P. L. Hayes, A. Hodzic, J. Holloway, C. Hostetler, J. L. Jimenez, H. Jonsson, S. Liu, Y. Liu, A. Metcalf, A. Middlebrook, J. Nowak, M. Pekour, A. Perring, L. Russell, A. Sedlacek, J. Seinfeld, A. Setyan, J. Shilling, M. Shrivastava, S. Springston, C. Song, R. Subramanian, J. W. Taylor, V. Vinoj, Q. Yang, R. A. Zaveri, and Q. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10013–10060,
V. H. Almanza, L. T. Molina, G. Li, J. Fast, and G. Sosa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8483–8499,
C. R. Terai, C. S. Bretherton, R. Wood, and G. Painter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8071–8088,
C. Knote, A. Hodzic, J. L. Jimenez, R. Volkamer, J. J. Orlando, S. Baidar, J. Brioude, J. Fast, D. R. Gentner, A. H. Goldstein, P. L. Hayes, W. B. Knighton, H. Oetjen, A. Setyan, H. Stark, R. Thalman, G. Tyndall, R. Washenfelder, E. Waxman, and Q. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6213–6239,
A. J. Scarino, M. D. Obland, J. D. Fast, S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, L. K. Berg, B. Lefer, C. Haman, J. W. Hair, R. R. Rogers, C. Butler, A. L. Cook, and D. B. Harper
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5547–5560,
S. G. Howell, A. D. Clarke, S. Freitag, C. S. McNaughton, V. Kapustin, V. Brekovskikh, J.-L. Jimenez, and M. J. Cubison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5073–5087,
G. W. Mann, K. S. Carslaw, C. L. Reddington, K. J. Pringle, M. Schulz, A. Asmi, D. V. Spracklen, D. A. Ridley, M. T. Woodhouse, L. A. Lee, K. Zhang, S. J. Ghan, R. C. Easter, X. Liu, P. Stier, Y. H. Lee, P. J. Adams, H. Tost, J. Lelieveld, S. E. Bauer, K. Tsigaridis, T. P. C. van Noije, A. Strunk, E. Vignati, N. Bellouin, M. Dalvi, C. E. Johnson, T. Bergman, H. Kokkola, K. von Salzen, F. Yu, G. Luo, A. Petzold, J. Heintzenberg, A. Clarke, J. A. Ogren, J. Gras, U. Baltensperger, U. Kaminski, S. G. Jennings, C. D. O'Dowd, R. M. Harrison, D. C. S. Beddows, M. Kulmala, Y. Viisanen, V. Ulevicius, N. Mihalopoulos, V. Zdimal, M. Fiebig, H.-C. Hansson, E. Swietlicki, and J. S. Henzing
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4679–4713,
J. P. Mulcahy, D. N. Walters, N. Bellouin, and S. F. Milton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4749–4778,
P.-L. Ma, P. J. Rasch, J. D. Fast, R. C. Easter, W. I. Gustafson Jr., X. Liu, S. J. Ghan, and B. Singh
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 755–778,
V. Cesnulyte, A. V. Lindfors, M. R. A. Pitkänen, K. E. J. Lehtinen, J.-J. Morcrette, and A. Arola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 593–608,
S. Freitag, A. D. Clarke, S. G. Howell, V. N. Kapustin, T. Campos, V. L. Brekhovskikh, and J. Zhou
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 107–128,
A. Baklanov, K. Schlünzen, P. Suppan, J. Baldasano, D. Brunner, S. Aksoyoglu, G. Carmichael, J. Douros, J. Flemming, R. Forkel, S. Galmarini, M. Gauss, G. Grell, M. Hirtl, S. Joffre, O. Jorba, E. Kaas, M. Kaasik, G. Kallos, X. Kong, U. Korsholm, A. Kurganskiy, J. Kushta, U. Lohmann, A. Mahura, A. Manders-Groot, A. Maurizi, N. Moussiopoulos, S. T. Rao, N. Savage, C. Seigneur, R. S. Sokhi, E. Solazzo, S. Solomos, B. Sørensen, G. Tsegas, E. Vignati, B. Vogel, and Y. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 317–398,
P. E. Saide, G. R. Carmichael, Z. Liu, C. S. Schwartz, H. C. Lin, A. M. da Silva, and E. Hyer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10425–10444,
R. C. Moffet, T. C. Rödel, S. T. Kelly, X. Y. Yu, G. T. Carroll, J. Fast, R. A. Zaveri, A. Laskin, and M. K. Gilles
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10445–10459,
M. Lefèvre, A. Oumbe, P. Blanc, B. Espinar, B. Gschwind, Z. Qu, L. Wald, M. Schroedter-Homscheidt, C. Hoyer-Klick, A. Arola, A. Benedetti, J. W. Kaiser, and J.-J. Morcrette
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2403–2418,
A. D. Clarke, S. Freitag, R. M. C. Simpson, J. G. Hudson, S. G. Howell, V. L. Brekhovskikh, T. Campos, V. N. Kapustin, and J. Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7511–7529,
R. Blot, A. D. Clarke, S. Freitag, V. Kapustin, S. G. Howell, J. B. Jensen, L. M. Shank, C. S. McNaughton, and V. Brekhovskikh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7263–7278,
R. C. George, R. Wood, C. S. Bretherton, and G. Painter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6305–6328,
P. Nabat, S. Somot, M. Mallet, I. Chiapello, J. J. Morcrette, F. Solmon, S. Szopa, F. Dulac, W. Collins, S. Ghan, L. W. Horowitz, J. F. Lamarque, Y. H. Lee, V. Naik, T. Nagashima, D. Shindell, and R. Skeie
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1287–1314,
J. L. Thomas, J.-C. Raut, K. S. Law, L. Marelle, G. Ancellet, F. Ravetta, J. D. Fast, G. Pfister, L. K. Emmons, G. S. Diskin, A. Weinheimer, A. Roiger, and H. Schlager
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3825–3848,
C. H. Twohy, J. R. Anderson, D. W. Toohey, M. Andrejczuk, A. Adams, M. Lytle, R. C. George, R. Wood, P. Saide, S. Spak, P. Zuidema, and D. Leon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2541–2562,
N. Bellouin, J. Quaas, J.-J. Morcrette, and O. Boucher
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2045–2062,
J. E. Shilling, R. A. Zaveri, J. D. Fast, L. Kleinman, M. L. Alexander, M. R. Canagaratna, E. Fortner, J. M. Hubbe, J. T. Jayne, A. Sedlacek, A. Setyan, S. Springston, D. R. Worsnop, and Q. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2091–2113,
M. Huang, G. R. Carmichael, T. Chai, R. B. Pierce, S. J. Oltmans, D. A. Jaffe, K. W. Bowman, A. Kaduwela, C. Cai, S. N. Spak, A. J. Weinheimer, L. G. Huey, and G. S. Diskin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 359–391,
Related subject area
Subject: Clouds and Precipitation | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Aerosol–cloud interactions: the representation of heterogeneous ice activation in cloud modelsSensitivity of precipitation formation to secondary ice production in winter orographic mixed-phase cloudsEnvironmental sensitivities of shallow-cumulus dilution – Part 2: Vertical wind profileSupersaturation, buoyancy, and deep convection dynamicsStatistical properties of a stochastic model of eddy hoppingUnderstanding the model representation of clouds based on visible and infrared satellite observationsImpact of high- and low-vorticity turbulence on cloud–environment mixing and cloud microphysics processesPreconditioning of overcast-to-broken cloud transitions by riming in marine cold air outbreaksAitken mode particles as CCN in aerosol- and updraft-sensitive regimes of cloud droplet formationImpact of hygroscopic seeding on the initiation of precipitation formation: results of a hybrid bin microphysics parcel modelIce multiplication from ice–ice collisions in the high Arctic: sensitivity to ice habit, rimed fraction, ice type and uncertainties in the numerical description of the processThe climate impact of COVID-19-induced contrail changesA large-eddy simulation study of deep-convection initiation through the collision of two sea-breeze frontsSoot PCF: pore condensation and freezing framework for soot aggregatesAir traffic and contrail changes over Europe during COVID-19: a model studyIs a more physical representation of aerosol activation needed for simulations of fog?Microphysical processes producing high ice water contents (HIWCs) in tropical convective clouds during the HAIC-HIWC field campaign: evaluation of simulations using bulk microphysical schemesWhat is Adiabatic Fraction in Cumulus Clouds: High-Resolution Simulations with Passive TracerOverview towards improved understanding of the mechanisms leading to heavy precipitation in the Western Mediterranean: lessons learned from HyMeXImpacts of secondary ice production on Arctic mixed-phase clouds based on ARM observations and CAM6 single-column model simulationsThe temperature dependence of ice-nucleating particle concentrations affects the radiative properties of tropical convective cloud systemsTracking the influence of cloud condensation nuclei on summer diurnal precipitating systems over complex topography in TaiwanThe behavior of high-CAPE (convective available potential energy) summer convection in large-domain large-eddy simulations with ICONCloud droplet diffusional growth in homogeneous isotropic turbulence: bin microphysics versus Lagrangian super-droplet simulationsCloud droplet number closure for tropical convective clouds during the ACRIDICON–CHUVA campaignThe importance of Aitken mode aerosol particles for cloud sustenance in the summertime high Arctic – a simulation study supported by observational dataMid-latitude mixed-phase stratocumulus clouds and their interactions with aerosols: how ice processes affect microphysical, dynamic and thermodynamic development in those clouds and interactions?Sensitivity of mixed-phase moderately deep convective clouds to parameterizations of ice formation – an ensemble perspectiveShallow cumulus cloud feedback in large eddy simulations – bridging the gap to storm-resolving modelsImpacts of cloud microphysics parameterizations on simulated aerosol–cloud interactions for deep convective clouds over HoustonCold cloud microphysical process rates in a global chemistry–climate modelPrecipitation enhancement in stratocumulus clouds through airborne seeding: sensitivity analysis by UCLALES-SALSASecondary ice production in summer clouds over the Antarctic coast: an underappreciated process in atmospheric modelsOpinion: Cloud-phase climate feedback and the importance of ice-nucleating particlesOn the ice-nucleating potential of warm hydrometeors in mixed-phase cloudsThe enhancement of droplet collision by electric charges and atmospheric electric fieldsCloud adjustments dominate the overall negative aerosol radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols in UKESM1 climate model simulations over the south-eastern AtlanticDependence of predictability of precipitation in the northwestern Mediterranean coastal region on the strength of synoptic controlThe decomposition of cloud–aerosol forcing in the UK Earth System Model (UKESM1)Sensitivity of warm clouds to large particles in measured marine aerosol size distributions – a theoretical studyHectometric-scale simulations of a Mediterranean heavy-precipitation event during the Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment (HyMeX) first Special Observation Period (SOP1)Urbanization-induced land and aerosol impacts on sea-breeze circulation and convective precipitationSnow-induced buffering in aerosol–cloud interactionsEnvironmental sensitivities of shallow-cumulus dilution – Part 1: Selected thermodynamic conditionsEmploying airborne radiation and cloud microphysics observations to improve cloud representation in ICON at kilometer-scale resolution in the ArcticAn idealized model sensitivity study on Dead Sea desertification with a focus on the impact on convectionModelling mixed-phase clouds with the large-eddy model UCLALES–SALSADevelopment of aerosol activation in the double-moment Unified Model and evaluation with CLARIFY measurementsSize dependence in chord characteristics from simulated and observed continental shallow cumulusImpact of aerosols and turbulence on cloud droplet growth: an in-cloud seeding case study using a parcel–DNS (direct numerical simulation) approach
Bernd Kärcher and Claudia Marcolli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15213–15220,Short summary
Aerosol–cloud interactions play an important role in climate change. Simulations of the competition between homogeneous solution droplet freezing and heterogeneous ice nucleation can be compromised by the misapplication of ice-active particle fractions frequently derived from laboratory measurements or parametrizations. Our study frames the problem and establishes a solution that is easy to implement in cloud models.
Zane Dedekind, Annika Lauber, Sylvaine Ferrachat, and Ulrike Lohmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15115–15134,Short summary
The RACLETS campaign combined cloud and snow research to improve the understanding of precipitation formation in clouds. A numerical weather prediction model, COSMO, was used to assess the importance of ice crystal enhancement by ice–ice collisions for cloud properties. We found that the number of ice crystals increased by 1 to 3 orders of magnitude when ice–ice collisions were permitted to occur, reducing localized regions of high precipitation and, thereby, improving the model performance.
Sonja Drueke, Daniel J. Kirshbaum, and Pavlos Kollias
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14039–14058,Short summary
This numerical study provides insights into the sensitivity of shallow-cumulus dilution to geostrophic vertical wind profile. The cumulus dilution is strongly sensitive to vertical wind shear in the cloud layer, with shallow cumuli being more diluted in sheared environments. On the other hand, wind shear in the subcloud layer leads to less diluted cumuli. The sensitivities are explained by jointly considering the impacts of vertical velocity and the properties of the entrained air.
Wojciech W. Grabowski and Hugh Morrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13997–14018,Short summary
The paper provides a discussion of key elements of moist convective dynamics: cloud buoyancy, latent heating, precipitation, and entrainment. The motivation comes from recent discussions concerning differences in convective dynamics in polluted and pristine environments.
Izumi Saito, Takeshi Watanabe, and Toshiyuki Gotoh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13119–13130,Short summary
We provide various statistical properties for the stochastic model of eddy hopping, which is a novel cloud microphysical model that accounts for the effect of the supersaturation fluctuation at unresolved scales on the growth of cloud droplets and on spectral broadening in a turbulent cloud. Our results indicate that the model can be improved to have better fidelity to the reference data and to require less computational cost.
Stefan Geiss, Leonhard Scheck, Alberto de Lozar, and Martin Weissmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12273–12290,Short summary
This study demonstrates the benefits of using both visible and infrared satellite channels to evaluate clouds in numerical weather prediction models. Combining these highly resolved observations provides significantly more and complementary information than using only infrared observations. The visible observations are particularly sensitive to subgrid water clouds, which are not well constrained by other observations.
Bipin Kumar, Rahul Ranjan, Man-Kong Yau, Sudarsan Bera, and Suryachandra A. Rao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12317–12329,Short summary
The characteristics of turbulent clouds are affected by the entrainment of ambient dry air and its subsequent mixing. A turbulent flow generates vorticities of different intensities, and regions with high vorticity (HV) and low vorticity (LV) exist. This study provides a detailed analysis of different properties of turbulent flows and cloud droplets in the HV and LV regions in order to understand the impact of vorticity production on cloud microphysical and mixing processes.
Florian Tornow, Andrew S. Ackerman, and Ann M. Fridlind
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12049–12067,Short summary
Cold air outbreaks affect the local energy budget by forming bright boundary layer clouds that, once it rains, evolve into dimmer, broken cloud fields that are depleted of condensation nuclei – an evolution consistent with closed-to-open cell transitions. We find that cloud ice accelerates this evolution, primarily via riming prior to rain onset, which (1) reduces liquid water, (2) reduces condensation nuclei, and (3) leads to early precipitation cooling and moistening below cloud.
Mira L. Pöhlker, Minghui Zhang, Ramon Campos Braga, Ovid O. Krüger, Ulrich Pöschl, and Barbara Ervens
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11723–11740,Short summary
Clouds cool our atmosphere. The role of small aerosol particles in affecting them represents one of the largest uncertainties in current estimates of climate change. Traditionally it is assumed that cloud droplets only form particles of diameters ~ 100 nm (
accumulation mode). Previous studies suggest that this can also occur in smaller particles (
Aitken mode). Our study provides a general framework to estimate under which aerosol and cloud conditions Aitken mode particles affect clouds.
Istvan Geresdi, Lulin Xue, Sisi Chen, Youssef Wehbe, Roelof Bruintjes, Jared Lee, Roy Rasmussen, Wojciech Grabowski, Noemi Sarkadi, and Sarah Tessendorf
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
By releasing soluble aerosols into the convective clouds, cloud seeding potentially enhances rainfall. The seeding impacts are hard to quantify with observations only. Numerical models that represent the detailed physics of aerosols, cloud and rain formation are used to investigate the seeding impacts on rain enhancement under different natural aerosol backgrounds and using different seeding materials. Our results indicate that seeding may enhance rainfall under certain conditions.
Georgia Sotiropoulou, Luisa Ickes, Athanasios Nenes, and Annica M. L. Ekman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9741–9760,Short summary
Mixed-phase clouds are a large source of uncertainty in projections of the Arctic climate. This is partly due to the poor representation of the cloud ice formation processes. Implementing a parameterization for ice multiplication due to mechanical breakup upon collision of two ice particles in a high-resolution model improves cloud ice phase representation; however, cloud liquid remains overestimated.
Andrew Gettelman, Chieh-Chieh Chen, and Charles G. Bardeen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9405–9416,Short summary
The COVID-19 pandemic caused significant economic disruption in 2020 and severely impacted air traffic. We use a climate model to evaluate the effect of the reductions in aviation on climate in 2020. Contrails, in general, warm the planet, and COVID-19-related reductions in contrails cooled the land surface in 2020. The timing of reductions in aviation was important, and this may change how we think about the future effects of contrails.
Shizuo Fu, Richard Rotunno, Jinghua Chen, Xin Deng, and Huiwen Xue
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9289–9308,Short summary
Deep-convection initiation (DCI) determines when and where deep convection develops and hence affects both weather and climate. However, our understanding of DCI is still limited. Here, we simulate DCI over a peninsula using large-eddy simulation and high-output frequency. We find that DCI is accomplished through the development of multiple generations of convection, and the earlier generation affects the later generation by producing downdrafts and cold pools.
Claudia Marcolli, Fabian Mahrt, and Bernd Kärcher
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7791–7843,Short summary
Pores are aerosol particle features that trigger ice nucleation, as they take up water by capillary condensation below water saturation that freezes at low temperatures. The pore ice can then grow into macroscopic ice crystals making up cirrus clouds. Here, we investigate the pores in soot aggregates responsible for pore condensation and freezing (PCF). Moreover, we present a framework to parameterize soot PCF that is able to predict the ice nucleation activity based on soot properties.
Ulrich Schumann, Ian Poll, Roger Teoh, Rainer Koelle, Enrico Spinielli, Jarlath Molloy, George S. Koudis, Robert Baumann, Luca Bugliaro, Marc Stettler, and Christiane Voigt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7429–7450,Short summary
The roughly 70 % reduction of air traffic during the COVID-19 pandemic from March–August 2020 compared to 2019 provides a test case for the relationship between air traffic density, contrails, and their radiative forcing of climate change. This paper investigates the induced traffic and contrail changes in a model study. Besides strong weather changes, the model results indicate aviation-induced cirrus and top-of-the-atmosphere irradiance changes, which can be tested with observations.
Craig Poku, Andrew N. Ross, Adrian A. Hill, Alan M. Blyth, and Ben Shipway
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7271–7292,Short summary
We present a new aerosol activation scheme suitable for modelling both fog and convective clouds. Most current activation schemes are designed for convective clouds, and we demonstrate that using them to model fog can negatively impact its life cycle. Our scheme has been used to model an observed fog case in the UK, where we demonstrate that a more physically based representation of aerosol activation is required to capture the transition to a deeper layer – more in line with observations.
Yongjie Huang, Wei Wu, Greg M. McFarquhar, Xuguang Wang, Hugh Morrison, Alexander Ryzhkov, Yachao Hu, Mengistu Wolde, Cuong Nguyen, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, Jason Milbrandt, Alexei V. Korolev, and Ivan Heckman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6919–6944,Short summary
Numerous small ice crystals in the tropical convective storms are difficult to detect and could be potentially hazardous for commercial aircraft. This study evaluated the numerical models against the airborne observations and investigated the potential cloud processes that could lead to the production of these large numbers of small ice crystals. It is found that key microphysical processes are still lacking or misrepresented in current numerical models to realistically simulate the phenomenon.
Eshkol Eytan, Ilan Koren, Orit Altaratz, Mark Pinsky, and Alexander Khain
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The adiabatic fraction of cloudy volumes is an important and commonly used variable, as mixing is still an open question in cloud physics. High-resolution simulations of single clouds with a passive tracer are used to test the accuracy of the different methods that were used in previous studies to calculate the adiabatic fraction. The results emphasize the limitation of adiabatic fraction and the errors that are introduced with different assumptions under some environmental conditions.
Samira Khodayar, Silvio Davolio, Paolo Di Girolamo, Cindy Lebeaupin Brossier, Emmanouil Flaounas, Nadia Fourrie, Keun-Ok Lee, Didier Ricard, Benoit Vie, Francois Bouttier, Alberto Caldas-Alvarez, and Veronique Ducrocq
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Heavy precipitation (HP) constitutes a major meteorological threat in the western Mediterranean. Every year, recurrent events affect the area with fatal consequences. Despite this being a well-known issue, still open questions remain. The understanding of the underlying mechanisms and the modelling representation of the events must be improved. In this article we present the most recent lessons learned from the Hydrological cYcle in the Mediterranean eXperiment (HyMeX).
Xi Zhao, Xiaohong Liu, Vaughan T. J. Phillips, and Sachin Patade
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5685–5703,Short summary
Arctic mixed-phase clouds significantly influence the energy budget of the Arctic. We show that a climate model considering secondary ice production (SIP) can explain the observed cloud ice number concentrations, vertical distribution pattern, and probability density distribution of ice crystal number concentrations. The mixed-phase cloud occurrence and phase partitioning are also improved.
Rachel E. Hawker, Annette K. Miltenberger, Jonathan M. Wilkinson, Adrian A. Hill, Ben J. Shipway, Zhiqiang Cui, Richard J. Cotton, Ken S. Carslaw, Paul R. Field, and Benjamin J. Murray
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5439–5461,Short summary
The impact of aerosols on clouds is a large source of uncertainty for future climate projections. Our results show that the radiative properties of a complex convective cloud field in the Saharan outflow region are sensitive to the temperature dependence of ice-nucleating particle concentrations. This means that differences in the aerosol source or composition, for the same aerosol size distribution, can cause differences in the outgoing radiation from regions dominated by tropical convection.
Yu-Hung Chang, Wei-Ting Chen, Chien-Ming Wu, Chistopher Moseley, and Chia-Chun Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The impacts of increasing cloud condensation nuclei on the summertime diurnal precipitation under weak synoptic weather regime over complex topography in Taiwan were investigated, by applying object-based tracking analyses to the semi-realistic large-eddy simulations. Our results highlight that, for convective clouds that are locked by topography, precipitation initiation is postponed significantly, and the occurrence of cloud objects with extreme maximum rain rates doubles.
Harald Rybka, Ulrike Burkhardt, Martin Köhler, Ioanna Arka, Luca Bugliaro, Ulrich Görsdorf, Ákos Horváth, Catrin I. Meyer, Jens Reichardt, Axel Seifert, and Johan Strandgren
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4285–4318,Short summary
Estimating the impact of convection on the upper-tropospheric water budget remains a problem for models employing resolutions of several kilometers or more. A sub-kilometer high-resolution model is used to study summertime convection. The results suggest mostly close agreement with ground- and satellite-based observational data while slightly overestimating total frozen water path and anvil lifetime. The simulations are well suited to supplying information for parameterization development.
Wojciech W. Grabowski and Lois Thomas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4059–4077,Short summary
This paper presents a modeling study that investigates the impact of cloud turbulence on the diffusional growth of cloud droplets and compares modeling results to analytic solutions published in the past. The focus is on comparing the two microphysics modeling methodologies – the Eulerian bin microphysics and Lagrangian particle-based microphysics – and exposing their limitations.
Ramon Campos Braga, Barbara Ervens, Daniel Rosenfeld, Meinrat O. Andreae, Jan-David Förster, Daniel Fütterer, Lianet Hernández Pardo, Bruna A. Holanda, Tina Jurkat, Ovid O. Krüger, Oliver Lauer, Luiz A. T. Machado, Christopher Pöhlker, Daniel Sauer, Christiane Voigt, Adrian Walser, Manfred Wendisch, Ulrich Pöschl, and Mira L. Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Interactions of aerosol particles with clouds represent a large uncertainty in estimates of climate change. Properties of aerosol particles control their ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei. Using aerosol measurements in the Amazon, we performed model studies to compare predicted and measured cloud droplet number concentrations at cloud bases. Our results confirm previous estimates of particle hygroscopicity in this region.
Ines Bulatovic, Adele L. Igel, Caroline Leck, Jost Heintzenberg, Ilona Riipinen, and Annica M. L. Ekman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3871–3897,Short summary
We use detailed numerical modelling to show that small aerosol particles (diameters ~25–80 nm; so-called Aitken mode particles) significantly influence low-level cloud properties in the clean summertime high Arctic. The small particles can help sustain clouds when the concentration of larger particles is low (<10–20 cm-3). Measurements from four different observational campaigns in the high Arctic support the modelling results as they indicate that Aitken mode aerosols are frequently activated.
Seoung Soo Lee, Kyung-Ja Ha, Manguttathil Gopalakrishnan Manoj, Mohammad Kamruzzaman, Hyungjun Kim, Nobuyuki Utsumi, and Jianping Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Using a modeling framework, a mid-latitude stratocumulus-cloud system is simulated. It is found that cloud mass in the system becomes very low due to interactions between ice and liquid particles as compared to that in the absence of ice particles. It is also found that interactions between cloud mass and aerosols lead to a reduction in cloud mass in the system and this is contrary to an aerosol-induced increase in cloud mass in the absence of ice particles.
Annette K. Miltenberger and Paul R. Field
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3627–3642,Short summary
The formation of ice in clouds is an important processes in mixed-phase and ice-phase clouds. However, the representation of ice formation in numerical models is highly uncertain. In the last decade, several new parameterizations for heterogeneous freezing have been proposed. Here, we investigate the impact of the parameterization choice on the representation of the convective cloud field and compare the impact to that of initial condition uncertainty.
Jule Radtke, Thorsten Mauritsen, and Cathy Hohenegger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3275–3288,Short summary
Shallow trade wind clouds are a key source of uncertainty to projections of the Earth's changing climate. We perform high-resolution simulations of trade cumulus and investigate how the representation and climate feedback of these clouds depend on the specific grid spacing. We find that the cloud feedback is positive when simulated with kilometre but near zero when simulated with hectometre grid spacing. These findings suggest that storm-resolving models may exaggerate the trade cloud feedback.
Yuwei Zhang, Jiwen Fan, Zhanqing Li, and Daniel Rosenfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2363–2381,Short summary
Impacts of anthropogenic aerosols on deep convective clouds (DCCs) and precipitation are examined using both the Morrison bulk and spectral bin microphysics (SBM) schemes. With the SBM scheme, anthropogenic aerosols notably invigorate convective intensity and precipitation, causing better agreement between the simulated DCCs and observations; this effect is absent with the Morrison scheme, mainly due to limitations of the saturation adjustment approach for droplet condensation and evaporation.
Sara Bacer, Sylvia C. Sullivan, Odran Sourdeval, Holger Tost, Jos Lelieveld, and Andrea Pozzer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1485–1505,Short summary
We investigate the relative importance of the rates of both microphysical processes and unphysical correction terms that act as sources or sinks of ice crystals in cold clouds. By means of numerical simulations performed with a global chemistry–climate model, we assess the relevance of these rates at global and regional scales. This estimation is of fundamental importance to assign priority to the development of microphysics parameterizations and compare model output with observations.
Juha Tonttila, Ali Afzalifar, Harri Kokkola, Tomi Raatikainen, Hannele Korhonen, and Sami Romakkaniemi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1035–1048,Short summary
The focus of this study is on rain enhancement by deliberate injection of small particles into clouds (
cloud seeding). The particles, usually released from an aircraft, are expected to enhance cloud droplet growth, but its practical feasibility is somewhat uncertain. To improve upon this, we simulate the seeding effects with a numerical model. The model reproduces the main features seen in field observations, with a strong sensitivity to the total mass of the injected particle material.
Georgia Sotiropoulou, Étienne Vignon, Gillian Young, Hugh Morrison, Sebastian J. O'Shea, Thomas Lachlan-Cope, Alexis Berne, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 755–771,Short summary
Summer clouds have a significant impact on the radiation budget of the Antarctic surface and thus on ice-shelf melting. However, these are poorly represented in climate models due to errors in their microphysical structure, including the number of ice crystals that they contain. We show that breakup from ice particle collisions can substantially magnify the ice crystal number concentration with significant implications for surface radiation. This process is currently missing in climate models.
Benjamin J. Murray, Kenneth S. Carslaw, and Paul R. Field
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 665–679,Short summary
The balance between the amounts of ice and supercooled water in clouds over the world's oceans strongly influences how much these clouds can dampen or amplify global warming. Aerosol particles which catalyse ice formation can dramatically reduce the amount of supercooled water in clouds; hence we argue that we need a concerted effort to improve our understanding of these ice-nucleating particles if we are to improve our predictions of climate change.
Michael Krayer, Agathe Chouippe, Markus Uhlmann, Jan Dušek, and Thomas Leisner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 561–575,Short summary
We address the phenomenon of ice enhancement in the vicinity of warm hydrometeors using highly accurate flow simulation techniques. It is found that the transiently supersaturated zones induced by the hydrometeor's wake are by far larger than what has been previously estimated. The ice enhancement is quantified on the micro- and macroscale, and its relevance is discussed. The results provided may contribute to a (currently unavailable) parametrization of the phenomenon.
Shian Guo and Huiwen Xue
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 69–85,Short summary
Observations in previous studies show that cloud droplets carry electric charges. We are curious about whether the electric interaction enhances the collision of cloud droplets. The effect of the electric charge and atmospheric electric field on the raindrop-formation process is studied numerically. Results indicate that a cloud with a small droplet size is more sensitive to an electric charge and field, which could significantly trigger droplet collision and accelerate raindrop formation.
Haochi Che, Philip Stier, Hamish Gordon, Duncan Watson-Parris, and Lucia Deaconu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17–33,Short summary
The south-eastern Atlantic is semi-permanently covered by some of the largest stratocumulus clouds and is influenced by one-third of the biomass burning emissions from African fires. A UKEMS1 model simulation shows that the absorption effect of biomass burning aerosols is the most significant on clouds and radiation. The dominate cooling and rapid adjustments induced by the radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols result in an overall cooling in the south-eastern Atlantic.
Christian Keil, Lucie Chabert, Olivier Nuissier, and Laure Raynaud
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15851–15865,Short summary
During strong synoptic control, which dominates the weather on 80 % of the days in the 2-month HyMeX-SOP1 period, the domain-integrated precipitation predictability assessed with the normalized ensemble standard deviation is above average, the wet bias is smaller and the forecast quality is generally better. In contrast, the spatial forecast quality of the most intense precipitation in the afternoon, as quantified with its 95th percentile, is superior during weakly forced synoptic regimes.
Daniel P. Grosvenor and Kenneth S. Carslaw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15681–15724,Short summary
Particles arising from human activity interact with clouds and affect how much of the Sun's energy is reflected away. Lack of understanding about how to represent this in models leads to large uncertainties in climate predictions. We quantify cloud responses to particles in the latest UK Met Office climate model over the North Atlantic Ocean, showing that, in contrast to suggestions elsewhere, increases in cloud coverage and thickness are important over large areas.
Tom Dror, J. Michel Flores, Orit Altaratz, Guy Dagan, Zev Levin, Assaf Vardi, and Ilan Koren
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15297–15306,Short summary
We used in situ aerosol measurements over the Atlantic, Caribbean, and Pacific to initialize a cloud model and study the impact of aerosol concentration and sizes on warm clouds. We show that high aerosol concentration increases cloud mass and reduces surface rain when giant particles (diameter > 9 µm) are present. The large aerosols changed the timing and magnitude of internal cloud processes and resulted in an enhanced evaporation below cloud base and dramatically reduced surface rain.
Olivier Nuissier, Fanny Duffourg, Maxime Martinet, Véronique Ducrocq, and Christine Lac
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14649–14667,Short summary
This present article demonstrates how numerical simulations with very high horizontal resolution (150 m) can contribute to better understanding the key physical processes (turbulence and microphysics) that lead to Mediterranean heavy precipitation.
Jiwen Fan, Yuwei Zhang, Zhanqing Li, Jiaxi Hu, and Daniel Rosenfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14163–14182,Short summary
We investigate the urbanization-induced land and aerosol impacts on convective clouds and precipitation over Houston. We find that Houston urbanization notably enhances storm intensity and precipitation, with the anthropogenic aerosol effect more significant. Urban land effect strengthens sea-breeze circulation, leading to a faster development of warm cloud into mixed-phase cloud and earlier rain. The anthropogenic aerosol effect accelerates the development of storms into deep convection.
Takuro Michibata, Kentaroh Suzuki, and Toshihiko Takemura
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13771–13780,Short summary
This work reveals that prognostic precipitation significantly reduces the magnitude of aerosol–cloud interactions (ERFaci), mainly due to the collection process associated with snowflakes and underlying cloud droplets. This precipitation-driven buffering effect, which is missing in traditional GCMs, can explain the model–observation discrepancy in ERFaci. These results underscore the necessity for a prognostic precipitation framework in GCMs for more reliable climate simulations.
Sonja Drueke, Daniel J. Kirshbaum, and Pavlos Kollias
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13217–13239,Short summary
This numerical study provides insights into selected environmental sensitivities of shallow-cumulus dilution. Among the parameters under consideration, the dilution of the cloud cores is strongly sensitive to continentality and cloud-layer relative humidity and weakly sensitive to subcloud- and cloud-layer depths. The impacts of all four parameters are interpreted using a similarity theory of shallow cumulus and buoyancy-sorting arguments.
Jan Kretzschmar, Johannes Stapf, Daniel Klocke, Manfred Wendisch, and Johannes Quaas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13145–13165,Short summary
This study compares simulations with the ICON model at the kilometer scale to airborne radiation and cloud microphysics observations that have been derived during the ACLOUD aircraft campaign around Svalbard, Norway, in May/June 2017. We find an overestimated surface warming effect of clouds compared to the observations in our setup. This bias was reduced by considering subgrid-scale vertical motion in the activation of cloud condensation nuclei in the two-moment microphysical scheme used.
Samiro Khodayar and Johannes Hoerner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12011–12031,
Jaakko Ahola, Hannele Korhonen, Juha Tonttila, Sami Romakkaniemi, Harri Kokkola, and Tomi Raatikainen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11639–11654,Short summary
In this study, we present an improved cloud model that reproduces the behaviour of mixed-phase clouds containing liquid droplets and ice crystals in more detail than before. This model is a convenient computational tool that enables the study of phenomena that cannot fit into a laboratory. These clouds have a significant role in climate, but they are not yet properly understood. Here, we show the advantages of the new model in a case study focusing on Arctic mixed-phase clouds.
Hamish Gordon, Paul R. Field, Steven J. Abel, Paul Barrett, Keith Bower, Ian Crawford, Zhiqiang Cui, Daniel P. Grosvenor, Adrian A. Hill, Jonathan Taylor, Jonathan Wilkinson, Huihui Wu, and Ken S. Carslaw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10997–11024,Short summary
The Met Office's Unified Model is widely used both for weather forecasting and climate prediction. We present the first version of the model in which both aerosol and cloud particle mass and number concentrations are allowed to evolve separately and independently, which is important for studying how aerosols affect weather and climate. We test the model against aircraft observations near Ascension Island in the Atlantic, focusing on how aerosols can "activate" to become cloud droplets.
Philipp J. Griewank, Thijs Heus, Neil P. Lareau, and Roel A. J. Neggers
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10211–10230,Short summary
The idea that larger shallow cumulus clouds have stronger updrafts than small shallow cumulus clouds is as intuitive as it is old. In this paper we gather years of upward-pointing laser measurements from a plain in Oklahoma and combine them with 28 d of high-resolution simulations. Our approach, which has much more data than previous studies, confirms that updraft strength and cloud size are linked and that the simulations reproduce the observed cloud wind and moisture structure.
Sisi Chen, Lulin Xue, and Man-Kong Yau
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10111–10124,Short summary
This study employs a parcel–DNS (direct numerical simulation) modeling framework to accurately resolve the aerosol–droplet–turbulence interactions in an ascending air parcel. The effect of turbulence, aerosol hygroscopicity, and aerosol mass loading on droplet growth and rain formation is investigated through a series of in-cloud seeding experiments in which hygroscopic particles were seeded near the cloud base.
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Simulations from a group of GCMs, forecast models, and regional models are compared with aircraft and ship observations of the marine boundary layer (MBL) in the southeast Pacific region during the VOCALS-REx field campaign of October-November 2008. Gradients of cloud, aerosol, and chemical properties in and above the MBL extending from the Peruvian coast westward along 20 degrees south are compared during the period.
Simulations from a group of GCMs, forecast models, and regional models are compared with...