Articles | Volume 14, issue 18
26 Sep 2014
Research article | 26 Sep 2014
Size-resolved cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity and closure analysis at the HKUST Supersite in Hong Kong
J. W. Meng et al.
No articles found.
Beatrix Rosette Go Mabato, Yong Jie Li, Dan Dan Huang, Yalin Wang, and Chak Keung Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We compared non-phenolic and phenolic methoxybenzaldehydes as photosensitizers for aqueous secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA) formation under cloud/fog conditions. We showed that the structural features of photosensitizers affect aqSOA formation. We also elucidated potential interactions between photosensitization and ammonium nitrate photolysis. Our findings would be useful for evaluating the importance of photosensitized reactions on aqSOA formation, which could improve aqSOA-predictive models.
Zhancong Liang, Yangxi Chu, Masao Gen, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3017–3044,Short summary
The properties and fate of individual airborne particles can be significantly different, leading to distinct environmental impacts (e.g., climate and human health). While many instruments only analyze an ensemble of these particles, single-particle Raman spectroscopy enables unambiguous characterization of individual particles. This paper comprehensively reviews the applications of such a technique in studying atmospheric particles, especially for their physicochemical processing.
Shang Gao, Mona Kurppa, Chak K. Chan, and Keith Ngan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2703–2726,Short summary
The contribution of cooking emissions to organic aerosols may exceed that of motor vehicles. However, little is known about how cooking-generated aerosols evolve in the outdoor environment. In this paper, we present a numerical study of the dispersion of cooking emissions. For plausible choices of the emission strength, cooking can yield much higher concentrations than traffic. This has important implications for public health and city planning.
Beatrix Rosette Go Mabato, Yan Lyu, Yan Ji, Yong Jie Li, Dan Dan Huang, Xue Li, Theodora Nah, Chun Ho Lam, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 273–293,Short summary
Biomass burning (BB) is a global phenomenon that releases large quantities of pollutants such as phenols and aromatic carbonyls into the atmosphere. These compounds can form secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) which play an important role in the Earth’s energy budget. In this work, we demonstrated that the direct irradiation of vanillin (VL) could generate aqueous SOA (aqSOA) such as oligomers. In the presence of nitrate, VL photo-oxidation can also form nitrated compounds.
Wei Yuan, Ru-Jin Huang, Lu Yang, Ting Wang, Jing Duan, Jie Guo, Haiyan Ni, Yang Chen, Qi Chen, Yongjie Li, Ulrike Dusek, Colin O'Dowd, and Thorsten Hoffmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3685–3697,Short summary
We characterized the seasonal variations in nitrated aromatic compounds (NACs) in composition, sources, and their light absorption contribution to brown carbon (BrC) aerosol in Xi'an, Northwest China. Our results show that secondary formation and vehicular emission were dominant sources in summer (~80 %), and biomass burning and coal combustion were major sources in winter (~75 %), and they indicate that the composition and sources of NACs have a profound impact on the light absorption of BrC
Yan Zheng, Xi Cheng, Keren Liao, Yaowei Li, Yong Jie Li, Ru-Jin Huang, Weiwei Hu, Ying Liu, Tong Zhu, Shiyi Chen, Limin Zeng, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Qi Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2457–2472,Short summary
This paper provides important information to help researchers to understand the mass quantification and source apportionment by Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometers.
Wei Yuan, Ru-Jin Huang, Lu Yang, Jie Guo, Ziyi Chen, Jing Duan, Ting Wang, Haiyan Ni, Yongming Han, Yongjie Li, Qi Chen, Yang Chen, Thorsten Hoffmann, and Colin O'Dowd
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5129–5144,Short summary
We characterized light-absorbing properties, chromophore composition and sources of brown carbon (BrC) in Xi'an; identified three groups of light-absorbing organics; and quantified their contribution to overall BrC absorption. Our results showed that vehicle emissions and secondary formation are major sources of BrC in spring, coal combustion and vehicle emissions are major sources in fall, biomass burning and coal combustion become major sources in winter, and secondary BrC dominates in summer.
Jing Duan, Ru-Jin Huang, Yongjie Li, Qi Chen, Yan Zheng, Yang Chen, Chunshui Lin, Haiyan Ni, Meng Wang, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Darius Ceburnis, Chunying Chen, Douglas R. Worsnop, Thorsten Hoffmann, Colin O'Dowd, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3793–3807,Short summary
We characterized secondary aerosol formation in Beijing. Our results showed that relative humidity (RH) and Ox have opposite effects on sulfate and nitrate formation in summer and winter. The wintertime more-oxidized OOA (MO-OOA) showed a good correlation with aerosol liquid water content (ALWC). Meanwhile, the dependence of less-oxidized OOA (LO-OOA) and the mass ratio of LO-OOA to MO-OOA in Ox both degraded when RH > 60 %, suggesting that RH or ALWC may also affect LO-OOA formation.
Liyuan Zhou, Åsa M. Hallquist, Mattias Hallquist, Christian M. Salvador, Samuel M. Gaita, Åke Sjödin, Martin Jerksjö, Håkan Salberg, Ingvar Wängberg, Johan Mellqvist, Qianyun Liu, Berto P. Lee, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1701–1722,Short summary
The study reports the transition in the atmospheric emission of particles and gases from on-road heavy-duty trucks (HDTs) caused by the modernisation of the fleet. We measured particle number (PN), particle mass (PM), black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC), particle size distributions, and volatility in the plumes of 556 individual HDTs. Significant but different changes in emissions were evident for various pollutants with respect to emission standards.
Mingjin Tang, Chak K. Chan, Yong Jie Li, Hang Su, Qingxin Ma, Zhijun Wu, Guohua Zhang, Zhe Wang, Maofa Ge, Min Hu, Hong He, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12631–12686,Short summary
Hygroscopicity is one of the most important properties of aerosol particles, and a number of experimental techniques, which differ largely in principles, configurations and cost, have been developed to investigate hygroscopic properties of atmospherically relevant particles. Our paper provides a comprehensive and critical review of available techniques for aerosol hygroscopicity studies.
Carly L. Reddington, Luke Conibear, Christoph Knote, Ben J. Silver, Yong J. Li, Chak K. Chan, Steve R. Arnold, and Dominick V. Spracklen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11887–11910,Short summary
We use a high-resolution model over South and East Asia to explore air quality and human health benefits of eliminating emissions from six man-made pollution sources. We find that preventing emissions from either residential energy use, industry, or open biomass burning yields the largest reductions in ground-level particulate matter pollution and its associated disease burden over this region. We also summarize previous estimates of the source-specific disease burden in China and India.
Zhujie Li, Haobo Tan, Jun Zheng, Li Liu, Yiming Qin, Nan Wang, Fei Li, Yongjie Li, Mingfu Cai, Yan Ma, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11669–11685,Short summary
Comprehensive field measurements were conducted to investigate aerosol compositions, optical properties, source origins, and radiative forcing effects in Guangzhou. Particulate brown carbon (BrC) light absorption was differentiated from that of black carbon. BrC was mostly due to primary emissions, such as straw burning, rather than secondary formation. BrC may cause ∼2.3 W m−2 radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and contribute to ∼15.8 % of the aerosol warming effect.
Meng Wang, Ru-Jin Huang, Junji Cao, Wenting Dai, Jiamao Zhou, Chunshui Lin, Haiyan Ni, Jing Duan, Ting Wang, Yang Chen, Yongjie Li, Qi Chen, Imad El Haddad, and Thorsten Hoffmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4779–4789,Short summary
The analytical performances of SE-GC-MS and TD-GC-MS for the determination of n-alkanes, PAHs and hopanes were evaluated and compared. The two methods show a good agreement with a high correlation efficient (R2 > 0.98) and a slope close to unity. The concentrations of n-alkanes, PAHs and hopanes are found to be much higher in Beijing than those in Chengdu, Shanghai and Guangzhou, most likely due to emissions from coal combustion for wintertime heating in Beijing.
Jing Duan, Ru-Jin Huang, Chunshui Lin, Wenting Dai, Meng Wang, Yifang Gu, Ying Wang, Haobin Zhong, Yan Zheng, Haiyan Ni, Uli Dusek, Yang Chen, Yongjie Li, Qi Chen, Douglas R. Worsnop, Colin D. O'Dowd, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10319–10334,Short summary
We present the seasonal distinction of secondary aerosol formation in urban Beijing. Both photochemical oxidation and aqueous-phase processing played important roles in SOA (secondary organic aerosol) formation during all three seasons; while for sulfate formation, gas-phase photochemical oxidation was the major pathway in late summer, aqueous-phase reactions were more responsible during early winter, and both processes had contributions during autumn.
Ru-Jin Huang, Yichen Wang, Junji Cao, Chunshui Lin, Jing Duan, Qi Chen, Yongjie Li, Yifang Gu, Jin Yan, Wei Xu, Roman Fröhlich, Francesco Canonaco, Carlo Bozzetti, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Darius Ceburnis, Manjula R. Canagaratna, John Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, Imad El-Haddad, André S. H. Prévôt, and Colin D. O'Dowd
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2283–2298,Short summary
We found that in wintertime Shijiazhuang fine PM was mostly from primary emissions without sufficient atmospheric aging. In addition, secondary inorganic and organic aerosol dominated in pollution events under high-RH conditions, likely due to enhanced aqueous-phase chemistry, whereas primary organic aerosol dominated in pollution events under low-RH and stagnant conditions. Our results also highlighted the importance of meteorological conditions for PM pollution in this highly polluted city.
Mingjin Tang, Wenjun Gu, Qingxin Ma, Yong Jie Li, Cheng Zhong, Sheng Li, Xin Yin, Ru-Jin Huang, Hong He, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2247–2258,
Liya Guo, Wenjun Gu, Chao Peng, Weigang Wang, Yong Jie Li, Taomou Zong, Yujing Tang, Zhijun Wu, Qinhao Lin, Maofa Ge, Guohua Zhang, Min Hu, Xinhui Bi, Xinming Wang, and Mingjin Tang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2115–2133,Short summary
In this work, hygroscopic properties of eight Ca- and Mg-containing salts were systematically investigated using two complementary techniques. The results largely improve our knowledge of the physicochemical properties of mineral dust and sea salt aerosols.
Mingfu Cai, Haobo Tan, Chak K. Chan, Yiming Qin, Hanbing Xu, Fei Li, Misha I. Schurman, Li Liu, and Jun Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16419–16437,Short summary
Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) play a critical role in cloud formation which affects solar radiation and climate. We employed advanced instruments to measure aerosol hygroscopicity and chemical composition and used them to predict CCN activity. Our results found that the CCN activity was largely dependent on the hygroscopicity parameter and the surface tension of the particles. Our study highlights the need for evaluating the effects of organics in order to accurately predict CCN activity.
Yi Ming Qin, Hao Bo Tan, Yong Jie Li, Zhu Jie Li, Misha I. Schurman, Li Liu, Cheng Wu, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16409–16418,Short summary
We developed the relationship between the chemical and optical characteristics of BrC in Guangzhou, China. We determined wavelength-dependent mass absorption coefficients of organic aerosol with different sources. The BrC absorption coefficient was associated with N-containing ion fragments and depended on their degrees of unsaturation/cyclization and oxygenation.
Michael Le Breton, Åsa M. Hallquist, Ravi Kant Pathak, David Simpson, Yujue Wang, John Johansson, Jing Zheng, Yudong Yang, Dongjie Shang, Haichao Wang, Qianyun Liu, Chak Chan, Tao Wang, Thomas J. Bannan, Michael Priestley, Carl J. Percival, Dudley E. Shallcross, Keding Lu, Song Guo, Min Hu, and Mattias Hallquist
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13013–13030,Short summary
We apply state-of-the-art chemical characterization to determine the chloride radical production in Beijing via measurement of inorganic halogens at a semi-rural site. The high concentration of inorganic halogens, namely nitryl chloride, enables the production of chlorinated volatile organic compounds which are measured in both the gas and particle phases simultaneously. This enables the secondary production of aerosols via chlorine oxidation to be directly observed in ambient air.
Yangxi Chu, Erin Evoy, Saeid Kamal, Young Chul Song, Jonathan P. Reid, Chak K. Chan, and Allan K. Bertram
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4809–4822,Short summary
The viscosity of erythritol, a tetrol found in aerosol particles, is highly uncertain. To help resolve this uncertainty, we measured the viscosities of erythritol–water particles using rectangular-area fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and aerosol optical tweezers techniques. These results should help improve the understanding of the viscosity of secondary organic aerosol particles. In addition, we present an intercomparison of techniques for measuring the viscosity of particles.
Tengyu Liu, Zhaoyi Wang, Xinming Wang, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11363–11374,Short summary
POA and SOA from seven heated cooking oil emissions were investigated in a smog chamber. We found that PMF analysis separated POA and SOA better than the residual spectrum method and the traditional method, assuming first-order POA loss. The PMF factors mass spectra were compared with those of ambient PMF factors. Our results suggest that COA source analysis from ambient data is likely complicated by the cooking style and atmospheric oxidation conditions.
Michael Le Breton, Yujue Wang, Åsa M. Hallquist, Ravi Kant Pathak, Jing Zheng, Yudong Yang, Dongjie Shang, Marianne Glasius, Thomas J. Bannan, Qianyun Liu, Chak K. Chan, Carl J. Percival, Wenfei Zhu, Shengrong Lou, David Topping, Yuchen Wang, Jianzhen Yu, Keding Lu, Song Guo, Min Hu, and Mattias Hallquist
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10355–10371,Short summary
This paper utilizes a chemical ionisation mass spectrometer measuring gas and particle-phase organosulfates (OS) simultaneously during a field campaign in Beijing, China, and highlights how high time frequency online measurements enable a detailed analysis of dominant production mechanisms. We find that high aerosol acidity, organic precursor concentration and relative humidity promote the production of OS. The thermogram desorption reveals the potential for semi-volatile gas-phase OS.
Chunlei Cheng, Zuzhao Huang, Chak K. Chan, Yangxi Chu, Mei Li, Tao Zhang, Yubo Ou, Duohong Chen, Peng Cheng, Lei Li, Wei Gao, Zhengxu Huang, Bo Huang, Zhong Fu, and Zhen Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9147–9159,Short summary
Particulate amines play an important role for the particle acidity and hygroscopicity. We found amines were internally mixed with sulfate and nitrate at a rural site in the PRD, China, suggesting the formation of aminium sulfate and nitrate salts. The ammonium-poor state of amine particles in summer was associated with the low emission sources of ammonia and a possible contribution of ammonium–amine exchange reactions. Amines could be a buffer for the particle acidity of ammonium-poor particles.
Ru-Jin Huang, Junji Cao, Yang Chen, Lu Yang, Jincan Shen, Qihua You, Kai Wang, Chunshui Lin, Wei Xu, Bo Gao, Yongjie Li, Qi Chen, Thorsten Hoffmann, Colin D. O'Dowd, Merete Bilde, and Marianne Glasius
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3447–3456,
Tengyu Liu, Dan Dan Huang, Zijun Li, Qianyun Liu, ManNin Chan, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5677–5689,Short summary
The formation of SOA from toluene on initially dry and wet AS seeds was compared using an OFR at an RH of 68 %. We found that, as OH exposure increased, the SOA yield and ALW of the initially dry seeds approached those of the initially wet seeds while the wet seeds yielded SOA of a higher degree of oxidation at all exposure levels. Our results suggest that AS dry seeds soon at least partially deliquesce during SOA formation; more studies on the interplay of SOA formation and ALW are warranted.
Berto Paul Lee, Peter Kwok Keung Louie, Connie Luk, and Chak Keung Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15121–15135,Short summary
Road traffic is an important source of air pollution. This study investigates the relationship between traffic-related airborne carbonaceous particles and the composition of traffic to reveal how emissions from different vehicle types affect ambient air quality. On average, LPG vehicles showed very small contributions, while gasoline- and diesel-powered vehicles emitted similar total amounts of carbon-containing particles but with differences in chemical composition.
Masao Gen and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14025–14037,Short summary
We propose electrospray-surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (ES-SERS) for measuring the surface chemical compositions of atmospherically relevant particles. The observations of surface aqueous sulfate and adsorbed water demonstrate a possible role of the water in facilitating the dissolution of sulfate from the bulk phase into its water layers. ES-SERS of submicron ambient aerosol particles collected in Hong Kong indicated an enrichment of sulfate and organic matter on the particle surface.
Berto Paul Lee, Hao Wang, and Chak Keung Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13605–13624,Short summary
The size of atmospheric particles is an important physical property that determines environmental and health effects. We measured the size and chemical composition of particles in two locations in Hong Kong impacted by different predominant sources of particulate air pollutants to characterize how particle size and particle composition vary over different time frames, from changes within a day to long-term changes over weeks, and which processes and sources may have played important roles.
Wenjun Gu, Yongjie Li, Jianxi Zhu, Xiaohong Jia, Qinhao Lin, Guohua Zhang, Xiang Ding, Wei Song, Xinhui Bi, Xinming Wang, and Mingjin Tang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3821–3832,Short summary
In this work we describe a method to directly quantify water adsorption and mass hygroscopic growth of atmospheric particles as a function of RH at different temperature, using a commercial vapor sorption analyzer. We have demonstrated that this commercial instrument provides a simple, sensitive, and robust method to determine water adsorption and hygroscopicity of atmospheric particles.
Mingjin Tang, Xin Huang, Keding Lu, Maofa Ge, Yongjie Li, Peng Cheng, Tong Zhu, Aijun Ding, Yuanhang Zhang, Sasho Gligorovski, Wei Song, Xiang Ding, Xinhui Bi, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11727–11777,Short summary
We provide a comprehensive and critical review of laboratory studies of heterogeneous uptake of OH, NO3, O3, and their directly related species by mineral dust particles. The atmospheric importance of heterogeneous uptake as sinks for these species is also assessed. In addition, we have outlined major open questions and challenges in this field and discussed research strategies to address them.
Yi Ming Qin, Hao Bo Tan, Yong Jie Li, Misha I. Schurman, Fei Li, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10245–10258,Short summary
Freshly emitted HOA contributed significantly to the high concentrations of organics at night as heavy-duty vehicles enter downtown Guangzhou, while SOA contributed to the daytime high concentration. The large input of NOx, from automobile emissions, resulted in the significant formation of nitrate in both daytime and nighttime. Mitigating the PM pollution in urbanized areas such as Guangzhou can potentially benefit their peripheral cities, by reductions in traffic-related pollutants.
Chunlei Cheng, Mei Li, Chak K. Chan, Haijie Tong, Changhong Chen, Duohong Chen, Dui Wu, Lei Li, Cheng Wu, Peng Cheng, Wei Gao, Zhengxu Huang, Xue Li, Zhijuan Zhang, Zhong Fu, Yanru Bi, and Zhen Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9519–9533,Short summary
Oxalic acid is an abundant and ubiquitous constituent in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and can be an effective tracer for the oxidative processes leading to the formation of SOA. In this work photochemical reactions have a significant contribution to oxalic acid formation in summer, while in winter the formation of oxalic acid is closely associated with the oxidation of organic precursors in the aqueous phase.
James W. Grayson, Erin Evoy, Mijung Song, Yangxi Chu, Adrian Maclean, Allena Nguyen, Mary Alice Upshur, Marzieh Ebrahimi, Chak K. Chan, Franz M. Geiger, Regan J. Thomson, and Allan K. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8509–8524,Short summary
The viscosities of four polyols and three saccharides mixed with water were determined. The results from the polyol studies suggest viscosity increases by 1–2 orders of magnitude with the addition of an OH functional group to a carbon backbone. The results from the saccharide studies suggest that the viscosity of highly oxidized compounds is strongly dependent on molar mass and oligomerization of highly oxidized compounds in atmospheric SOM could lead to large increases in viscosity.
Tengyu Liu, Zijun Li, ManNin Chan, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7333–7344,Short summary
Formation of SOA from gas-phase emissions of five heated vegetable oils was investigated in a PAM chamber for the first time. The major SOA precursors from heated cooking oils were related to the content of monounsaturated fat and omega-6 fatty acids in cooking oils. The average production rate of SOA was 3 orders of magnitude lower compared with emission rates of PM2.5 from heated cooking oils. In these experiments, SOA was lightly oxidized.
Meike Sauerwein and Chak Keung Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6323–6339,Short summary
Heterogeneous uptake is one of the mechanisms influencing the amounts of alkylamines and ammonia in atmospheric particles. The present study investigates the simultaneous uptake of dimethylamine and ammonia at different gas molar ratios into sulfuric and oxalic acid particles at low and high relative humidity. Results showed that the particulate dimethylaminium/ammonium molar ratios changed substantially during the uptake process, depending on the extent of neutralisation and phase state.
Yi Ming Qin, Yong Jie Li, Hao Wang, Berto Paul Yok Long Lee, Dan Dan Huang, and Chak Keung Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14131–14145,Short summary
The source, formation, transformation mechanisms and mixing state of particulate matter (PM) in high episodic events under different meteorological conditions in Hong Kong remain unclear. With high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometric measurement, we successfully demonstrated the dynamic and complex nature of PM transformation during high-PM episodes. This study revealed that not only regional transport but also local secondary formation is the culprit for high PM levels.
Heidi H. Y. Cheung, Haobo Tan, Hanbing Xu, Fei Li, Cheng Wu, Jian Z. Yu, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8431–8446,Short summary
We present simultaneous measurements of aerosol volatility and carbonaceous matters in Guangzhou, China, in Feb and Mar 2014 using a VTDMA and OC / EC analyzer. Low volatility particles with no significant evaporation at 300° C in the VTDMA contributed 5–15 % of number concentrations of the 40–300 nm particles. Mass closure suggests that non-volatile organic carbon, in addition to elemental carbon, was one of the components of the non-volatile residuals measured by the VTDMA in this study.
C. Sun, B. P. Lee, D. Huang, Y. Jie Li, M. I. Schurman, P. K. K. Louie, C. Luk, and C. K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1713–1728,Short summary
This study presents results of long-term submicron aerosol measurements in Hong Kong. The presented work covers fall and winter 2013. It serves to characterize aerosol in a densely built-up urban area of a typical Asian megacity with strong primary emission sources from vehicles and cooking and presents an in-depth analysis of distinct clean and heavily polluted time periods tied with meteorological data and other gas-phase species observed in the study period.
Y. J. Li, B. P. Lee, L. Su, J. C. H. Fung, and C.K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 37–53,Short summary
(1) NR-PM1 at the HKUST Supersite was highly aged, with a high sulfate content and highly oxygenated organics. (2) Seasonal variation in NR-PM1 concentration was not obvious, but the relative fractions of different species showed strong seasonal dependence. (3) Both NR-PM1 concentrations and the relative fractions showed a strong dependence on air mass origin. (4) Both locally produced and regionally transported organic aerosols contribute to the organic content of PM at this site.
Y. J. Li, D. D. Huang, H. Y. Cheung, A. K. Y. Lee, and C. K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2871–2885,
Y. J. Li, B. Y. L. Lee, J. Z. Yu, N. L. Ng, and C. K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8739–8753,
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Outi Meinander, Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavel Amosov, Elena Aseyeva, Cliff Atkins, Alexander Baklanov, Clarissa Baldo, Sarah L. Barr, Barbara Barzycka, Liane G. Benning, Bojan Cvetkovic, Polina Enchilik, Denis Frolov, Santiago Gassó, Konrad Kandler, Nikolay Kasimov, Jan Kavan, James King, Tatyana Koroleva, Viktoria Krupskaya, Markku Kulmala, Monika Kusiak, Hanna K. Lappalainen, Michał Laska, Jerome Lasne, Marek Lewandowski, Bartłomiej Luks, James B. McQuaid, Beatrice Moroni, Benjamin Murray, Ottmar Möhler, Adam Nawrot, Slobodan Nickovic, Norman T. O’Neill, Goran Pejanovic, Olga Popovicheva, Keyvan Ranjbar, Manolis Romanias, Olga Samonova, Alberto Sanchez-Marroquin, Kerstin Schepanski, Ivan Semenkov, Anna Sharapova, Elena Shevnina, Zongbo Shi, Mikhail Sofiev, Frédéric Thevenet, Throstur Thorsteinsson, Mikhail Timofeev, Nsikanabasi Silas Umo, Andreas Uppstu, Darya Urupina, György Varga, Tomasz Werner, Olafur Arnalds, and Ana Vukovic Vimic
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11889–11930,Short summary
High-latitude dust (HLD) is a short-lived climate forcer, air pollutant, and nutrient source. Our results suggest a northern HLD belt at 50–58° N in Eurasia and 50–55° N in Canada and at >60° N in Eurasia and >58° N in Canada. Our addition to the previously identified global dust belt (GDB) provides crucially needed information on the extent of active HLD sources with both direct and indirect impacts on climate and environment in remote regions, which are often poorly understood and predicted.
Samuel E. LeBlanc, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, Jens Redemann, Connor Flynn, Roy R. Johnson, Stephen E. Dunagan, Robert Dahlgren, Jhoon Kim, Myungje Choi, Arlindo da Silva, Patricia Castellanos, Qian Tan, Luke Ziemba, Kenneth Lee Thornhill, and Meloë Kacenelenbogen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11275–11304,Short summary
Airborne observations of atmospheric particles and pollution over Korea during a field campaign in May–June 2016 showed that the smallest atmospheric particles are present in the lowest 2 km of the atmosphere. The aerosol size is more spatially variable than optical thickness. We show this with remote sensing (4STAR), in situ (LARGE) observations, satellite measurements (GOCI), and modeled properties (MERRA-2), and it is contrary to the current understanding.
Jerome D. Fast, David M. Bell, Gourihar Kulkarni, Jiumeng Liu, Fan Mei, Georges Saliba, John E. Shilling, Kaitlyn Suski, Jason Tomlinson, Jian Wang, Rahul Zaveri, and Alla Zelenyuk
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11217–11238,Short summary
Recent aircraft measurements from the HI-SCALE campaign conducted over the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in Oklahoma are used to quantify spatial variability of aerosol properties in terms of grid spacings typically used by weather and climate models. Surprisingly large horizontal gradients in aerosol properties were frequently observed in this rural area. This spatial variability can be used as an uncertainty range when comparing surface point measurements with model predictions.
Benjamin Foreback, Lubna Dada, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Chao Yan, Lili Wang, Biwu Chu, Ying Zhou, Tom V. Kokkonen, Mona Kurppa, Rosaria E. Pileci, Yonghong Wang, Tommy Chan, Juha Kangasluoma, Lin Zhuohui, Yishou Guo, Chang Li, Rima Baalbaki, Joni Kujansuu, Xiaolong Fan, Zemin Feng, Pekka Rantala, Shahzad Gani, Federico Bianchi, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Yongchun Liu, and Pauli Paasonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11089–11104,Short summary
This study analyzed air quality in Beijing during the Chinese New Year over 7 years, including data from a new in-depth measurement station. This is one of few studies to look at long-term impacts, including the outcome of firework restrictions starting in 2018. Results show that firework pollution has gone down since 2016, indicating a positive result from the restrictions. Results of this study may be useful in making future decisions about the use of fireworks to improve air quality.
Gang Zhao, Tianyi Tan, Shuya Hu, Zhuofei Du, Dongjie Shang, Zhijun Wu, Song Guo, Jing Zheng, Wenfei Zhu, Mengren Li, Limin Zeng, and Min Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10861–10873,Short summary
Black carbon is the second strongest absorbing component in the atmosphere that exerts warming effects on climate. One critical challenge in quantifying the ambient black carbon's radiative effects is addressing the BC microphysical properties. In this study, the microphysical properties of the aged and fresh BC particles are synthetically analyzed under different atmospheres. The measurement results can be further used in models to help constrain the uncertainties of the BC radiative effects.
Natalia E. Chubarova, Heike Vogel, Elizaveta E. Androsova, Alexander A. Kirsanov, Olga B. Popovicheva, Bernhard Vogel, and Gdaliy S. Rivin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10443–10466,Short summary
Effects of urban aerosol pollution in Moscow were analyzed using the COSMO-ART chemical transport model and intensive measurement campaigns. We show that urban aerosol comprises about 15–20% of columnar aerosol content, consisting mainly of fine aerosol mode. The black carbon (BC) fraction is about 5 %, depending on particle dispersion intensity (IPD). The BC fraction low value explains weak absorbing properties of the Moscow atmosphere. IPD also defines the daily cycle of urban aerosol species.
Janine Lückerath, Andreas Held, Holger Siebert, Michel Michalkow, and Birgit Wehner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10007–10021,Short summary
Three different methods were applied to estimate the vertical aerosol particle flux in the marine boundary layer (MBL) and between the MBL and free troposphere. For the first time, aerosol fluxes derived from these three methods were estimated and compared using airborne aerosol measurements using data from the ACORES field campaign in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean in July 2017. The amount of fluxes was small and directed up and down for different cases, but the methods were applicable.
Christian Tatzelt, Silvia Henning, André Welti, Andrea Baccarini, Markus Hartmann, Martin Gysel-Beer, Manuela van Pinxteren, Robin L. Modini, Julia Schmale, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9721–9745,Short summary
We present the abundance and origin of cloud-relevant aerosol particles in the preindustral-like conditions of the Southern Ocean (SO) during austral summer. Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice-nucleating particles (INP) were measured during a circum-Antarctic scientific cruise with in situ instrumentation and offline filter measurements, respectively. Transport processes were found to play an equally important role as local sources for both the CCN and INP population of the SO.
Alexander D. Harrison, Daniel O'Sullivan, Michael P. Adams, Grace C. E. Porter, Edmund Blades, Cherise Brathwaite, Rebecca Chewitt-Lucas, Cassandra Gaston, Rachel Hawker, Ovid O. Krüger, Leslie Neve, Mira L. Pöhlker, Christopher Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Alberto Sanchez-Marroquin, Andrea Sealy, Peter Sealy, Mark D. Tarn, Shanice Whitehall, James B. McQuaid, Kenneth S. Carslaw, Joseph M. Prospero, and Benjamin J. Murray
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9663–9680,Short summary
The formation of ice in clouds fundamentally alters cloud properties; hence it is important we understand the special aerosol particles that can nucleate ice when immersed in supercooled cloud droplets. In this paper we show that African desert dust that has travelled across the Atlantic to the Caribbean nucleates ice much less well than we might have expected.
Caroline Dang, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, Haochi Che, Lu Zhang, Paola Formenti, Jonathan Taylor, Amie Dobracki, Sara Purdue, Pui-Shan Wong, Athanasios Nenes, Arthur Sedlacek III, Hugh Coe, Jens Redemann, Paquita Zuidema, Steven Howell, and James Haywood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9389–9412,Short summary
Transmission electron microscopy was used to analyze aged African smoke particles and how the smoke interacts with the marine atmosphere. We found that the volatility of organic aerosol increases with biomass burning plume age, that black carbon is often mixed with potassium salts and that the marine atmosphere can incorporate Na and Cl into smoke particles. Marine salts are more processed when mixed with smoke plumes, and there are interesting Cl-rich yet Na-absent marine particles.
Siman Ren, Lei Yao, Yuwei Wang, Gan Yang, Yiliang Liu, Yueyang Li, Yiqun Lu, Lihong Wang, and Lin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9283–9297,Short summary
We improved the empirical functions between volatility and chemical formulas of organic aerosols based on lab experiments and field observations. It was found that organic compounds in ambient aerosols can be divided into two groups according to their O / C ratios and that there should be specialized volatility parameterizations for different O / C organic compounds.
Lu Zhang, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, Haochi Che, Caroline Dang, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, Ernie R. Lewis, Amie Dobracki, Jenny P. S. Wong, Paola Formenti, Steven G. Howell, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9199–9213,Short summary
Widespread biomass burning (BB) events occur annually in Africa and contribute ~ 1 / 3 of global BB emissions, which contain a large family of light-absorbing organics, known as brown carbon (BrC), whose absorption of incident radiation is difficult to estimate, leading to large uncertainties in the global radiative forcing estimation. This study quantifies the BrC absorption of aged BB particles and highlights the potential presence of absorbing iron oxides in this climatically important region.
Karin Ardon-Dryer and Mary C. Kelley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9161–9173,Short summary
Changes in the particle size distribution and particulate matter concentrations during different dust events in West Texas were examined. Analysis based on different timescales showed that current common methods used to evaluate the impact of dust events on air quality will not capture the true impact of short (convective) dust events and, therefore, do not provide an insightful understanding of their impact on the environment and human health.
Chaman Gul, Shichang Kang, Siva Praveen Puppala, Xiaokang Wu, Cenlin He, Yangyang Xu, Inka Koch, Sher Muhammad, Rajesh Kumar, and Getachew Dubache
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8725–8737,Short summary
This work aims to understand concentrations, spatial variability, and potential source regions of light-absorbing impurities (black carbon aerosols, dust particles, and organic carbon) in the surface snow of central and western Himalayan glaciers and their impact on snow albedo and radiative forcing.
Haochi Che, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, Lu Zhang, Caroline Dang, Paquita Zuidema, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, Xiaoye Zhang, and Connor Flynn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8767–8785,Short summary
A 17-month in situ study on Ascension Island found low single-scattering albedo and strong absorption enhancement of the marine boundary layer aerosols during biomass burnings on the African continent, along with apparent patterns of regular monthly variability. We further discuss the characteristics and drivers behind these changes and find that biomass burning conditions in Africa may be the main factor influencing the optical properties of marine boundary aerosols.
Ovid O. Krüger, Bruna A. Holanda, Sourangsu Chowdhury, Andrea Pozzer, David Walter, Christopher Pöhlker, Maria Dolores Andrés Hernández, John P. Burrows, Christiane Voigt, Jos Lelieveld, Johannes Quaas, Ulrich Pöschl, and Mira L. Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8683–8699,Short summary
The abrupt reduction in human activities during the first COVID-19 lockdown created unprecedented atmospheric conditions. We took the opportunity to quantify changes in black carbon (BC) as a major anthropogenic air pollutant. Therefore, we measured BC on board a research aircraft over Europe during the lockdown and compared the results to measurements from 2017. With model simulations we account for different weather conditions and find a lockdown-related decrease in BC of 41 %.
Lisa J. Beck, Siegfried Schobesberger, Heikki Junninen, Janne Lampilahti, Antti Manninen, Lubna Dada, Katri Leino, Xu-Cheng He, Iida Pullinen, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Anna Franck, Pyry Poutanen, Daniela Wimmer, Frans Korhonen, Mikko Sipilä, Mikael Ehn, Douglas R. Worsnop, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Jonathan Duplissy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8547–8577,Short summary
The presented article introduces an overview of atmospheric ions and their composition above the boreal forest. We provide the results of an extensive airborne measurement campaign with an air ion mass spectrometer and particle measurements, showing their diurnal evolution within the boundary layer and free troposphere. In addition, we compare the airborne dataset with the co-located data from the ground at SMEAR II station, Finland.
Jesús Yus-Díez, Marta Via, Andrés Alastuey, Angeliki Karanasiou, María Cruz Minguillón, Noemí Perez, Xavier Querol, Cristina Reche, Matic Ivančič, Martin Rigler, and Marco Pandolfi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8439–8456,Short summary
This study presents the absorption enhancement of internally and externally mixed black carbon (BC) particles in a Mediterranean city and countryside. We showed the importance of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) and particle ageing by increasing the BC absorption enhancement. We performed a trend analysis on the absorption enhancement. We found a positive trend of the absorption enhancement at the regional station in summer driven by the increase over time of the relative contribution of SOA.
Rachel Y.-W. Chang, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Matthew C. Boyer, Jai Prakash Chaubey, and Douglas B. Collins
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8059–8071,Short summary
During summer 2016, the ability of newly formed particles to turn into droplets was measured in the Canadian Arctic. Our observations suggest that these small particles were growing by the condensation of organic vapours likely coming from the surrounding open waters. These particles grew large enough that they could form cloud droplets and therefore affect the earth’s radiation budget. These results are relevant as the Arctic summer rapidly warms with climate change.
Mingfu Cai, Shan Huang, Baoling Liang, Qibin Sun, Li Liu, Bin Yuan, Min Shao, Weiwei Hu, Wei Chen, Qicong Song, Wei Li, Yuwen Peng, Zelong Wang, Duohong Chen, Haobo Tan, Hanbin Xu, Fei Li, Xuejiao Deng, Tao Deng, Jiaren Sun, and Jun Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8117–8136,Short summary
This study investigated the size dependence and diurnal variation in organic aerosol hygroscopicity, volatility, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity. We found that the physical properties of OA could vary in a large range at different particle sizes and affected the number concentration of CCN (NCCN) at all supersaturations. Our results highlight the importance of evaluating the atmospheric evolution processes of OA at different size ranges and their impact on climate effects.
Miska Olin, Magdalena Okuljar, Matti P. Rissanen, Joni Kalliokoski, Jiali Shen, Lubna Dada, Markus Lampimäki, Yusheng Wu, Annalea Lohila, Jonathan Duplissy, Mikko Sipilä, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Miikka Dal Maso
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8097–8115,Short summary
Atmospheric new particle formation is an important source of the total particle number concentration in the atmosphere. Several parameters for predicting new particle formation events have been suggested before, but the results have been inconclusive. This study proposes an another predicting parameter, related to a specific type of highly oxidized organic molecules, especially for similar locations to the measurement site in this study, which was a coastal agricultural site in Finland.
Linghan Zeng, Jack Dibb, Eric Scheuer, Joseph M. Katich, Joshua P. Schwarz, Ilann Bourgeois, Jeff Peischl, Tom Ryerson, Carsten Warneke, Anne E. Perring, Glenn S. Diskin, Joshua P. DiGangi, John B. Nowak, Richard H. Moore, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, Demetrios Pagonis, Hongyu Guo, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jose L. Jimenez, Lu Xu, and Rodney J. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8009–8036,Short summary
Wildfires emit aerosol particles containing brown carbon material that affects visibility and global climate and is toxic. Brown carbon is poorly characterized due to measurement limitations, and its evolution in the atmosphere is not well known. We report on aircraft measurements of brown carbon from large wildfires in the western United States. We compare two methods for measuring brown carbon and study the evolution of brown carbon in the smoke as it moved away from the burning regions.
Wei Li and Yuxuan Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7843–7859,Short summary
Fine dust is an important component of PM2.5 and can be largely modulated by droughts. In contrast to the increase in dust in the southwest USA where major dust sources are located, dust in the southeast USA is affected more by long-range transport from Africa and decreases under droughts. Both the transport and emissions of African dust are weakened when the southeast USA is under droughts, which reveals how regional-scale droughts can influence aerosol abundance through long-range transport.
Li Liu, Ye Kuang, Miaomiao Zhai, Biao Xue, Yao He, Jun Tao, Biao Luo, Wanyun Xu, Jiangchuan Tao, Changqin Yin, Fei Li, Hanbing Xu, Tao Deng, Xuejiao Deng, Haobo Tan, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7713–7726,Short summary
Using simultaneous measurements of a humidified nephelometer system and an aerosol chemical speciation monitor in winter in Guangzhou, the strongest scattering ability of more oxidized oxygenated organic aerosol (MOOA) among aerosol components considering their dry-state scattering ability and water uptake ability was revealed, leading to large impacts of MOOA on visibility degradation. This has important implications for visibility improvement in China and aerosol radiative effect simulation.
Michaël Sicard, Daniel Camilo Fortunato dos Santos Oliveira, Constantino Muñoz-Porcar, Cristina Gil-Díaz, Adolfo Comerón, Alejandro Rodríguez-Gómez, and Federico Dios Otín
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7681–7697,Short summary
Atmospheric particles can absorb water vapor, and this water uptake may change their properties, e.g., their size. In the coastal region of Barcelona, Spain, we observe that (1) smaller particles absorb more water vapor, in relative terms, than larger particles and (2) the particle capacity to absorb water vapor has no annual tendency, probably because the site background is quite constant (urban + marine aerosol regime).
Cyril Brunner, Benjamin T. Brem, Martine Collaud Coen, Franz Conen, Martin Steinbacher, Martin Gysel-Beer, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7557–7573,Short summary
Microscopic particles called ice-nucleating particles (INPs) are essential for ice crystals to form in clouds. INPs are a tiny proportion of atmospheric aerosol, and their abundance is poorly constrained. We study how the concentration of INPs changes diurnally and seasonally at a mountaintop station in central Europe. Unsurprisingly, a diurnal cycle is only found when considering air masses that have had lower-altitude ground contact. The highest INP concentrations occur in spring.
Nicole A. June, Anna L. Hodshire, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, Edward L. Winstead, Claire E. Robinson, K. Lee Thornhill, Kevin J. Sanchez, Richard H. Moore, Demetrios Pagonis, Hongyu Guo, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jose L. Jimenez, Matthew M. Coggon, Jonathan M. Dean-Day, T. Paul Bui, Jeff Peischl, Robert J. Yokelson, Matthew J. Alvarado, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Shantanu H. Jathar, and Jeffrey R. Pierce
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The evolution of organic aerosol composition and size is uncertain due to variability within and between smoke plumes. We examine the impact of plume concentration on smoke evolution from smoke plumes sampled by the NASA DC-8 during FIREX-AQ. We find that observed organic aerosol and size distribution changes are correlated to plume aerosol mass concentrations. Additionally, coagulation explains the majority of the observed growth.
Biao Luo, Ye Kuang, Shan Huang, Qicong Song, Weiwei Hu, Wei Li, Yuwen Peng, Duohong Chen, Dingli Yue, Bin Yuan, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We performed comprehensive analysis on biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) size distributions as well as mass scattering and absorption efficiencies with an improved method of on-line quantification of brown carbon absorptions, retrieved real and imaginary parts of BBOA refractive index. Both BBOA volume size distribution and refractive index depend highly on combustion condition represented by the black carbon content which have significant implications for BBOA climate effects simulations.
Zixuan Jia, Ruth M. Doherty, Carlos Ordóñez, Chaofan Li, Oliver Wild, Shipra Jain, and Xiao Tang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6471–6487,Short summary
This study investigates the modulation of daily PM2.5 over three major populated regions in China by regional meteorology and large-scale circulation during winter. These results demonstrate the benefits of considering the large-scale circulation for air quality studies. The novel circulation indices proposed here can explain a considerable fraction of the day-to-day variability of PM2.5 and can be combined with regional meteorology to improve our capability to predict the variability of PM2.5.
Maija Peltola, Clémence Rose, Jonathan V. Trueblood, Sally Gray, Mike Harvey, and Karine Sellegri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6231–6254,Short summary
Despite the importance of marine aerosol measurements for constraining climate models, these measurements are scarce. We measured the aerosol particle number size distribution in coastal New Zealand over a total period of 10 months. This paper analyses the aerosol properties at the site, with a special focus on new particle formation and marine air masses. New particle formation was observed frequently, but in marine air masses it did not follow traditional event criteria.
Liang Ran, Zhaoze Deng, Yunfei Wu, Jiwei Li, Zhixuan Bai, Ye Lu, Deqing Zhuoga, and Jianchun Bian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6217–6229,Short summary
The Tibetan Plateau (TP), the highest plateau in the world, plays a crucial role in regional and global climate. To examine the fingerprint left by human activities on the originally remote atmosphere, size distributions of particles from the ground to about 800 m were measured for the first time in summer 2020 in Lhasa, one of a few urbanized cities on TP. Potential sources of particles at different heights were explored. The contribution of emissions from religious activities was highlighted.
Russell J. Perkins, Peter J. Marinescu, Ezra J. T. Levin, Don R. Collins, and Sonia M. Kreidenweis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6197–6215,Short summary
We used 5 years (2009–2013) of aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) data from a total of seven instruments housed at the Southern Great Plains site, which were merged into a quality-controlled, continuous dataset of CCN spectra at ~45 min resolution. The data cover all seasons, are representative of a rural, agricultural mid-continental site, and are useful for model initialization and validation. Our analysis of this dataset focuses on seasonal and hourly variability.
Olga B. Popovicheva, Nikolaos Evangeliou, Vasilii O. Kobelev, Marina A. Chichaeva, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Asta Gregorič, and Nikolay S. Kasimov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5983–6000,Short summary
Measurements of black carbon (BC) combined with atmospheric transport modeling reveal that gas flaring from oil and gas extraction in Kazakhstan, Volga-Ural, Komi, Nenets and western Siberia contributes the largest share of surface BC in the Russian Arctic dominating over domestic, industrial and traffic sectors. Pollution episodes show an increasing trend in concentration levels and frequency as the station is in the Siberian gateway of the highest anthropogenic pollution to the Russian Arctic.
Ruiqi Man, Zhijun Wu, Taomou Zong, Aristeidis Voliotis, Johannes Größ, Dominik van Pinxteren, Limin Zeng, Hartmut Herrmann, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Min Hu
Regional and total deposition doses for different age groups were quantified based on explicit hygroscopicity measurements. This work found that particle hygroscopic growth led to a reduction (~24 %) in the total dose. The deposition rate of hygroscopic particles was higher in the daytime, while hydrophobic particles exhibited higher rate at nighttime and rush hours. The results will deepen the understanding of the impact of hygroscopicity and mixing state on deposition pattern in lungs.
Cyrille Flamant, Marco Gaetani, Jean-Pierre Chaboureau, Patrick Chazette, Juan Cuesta, Stuart John Piketh, and Paola Formenti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5701–5724,Short summary
Rivers of smoke extend from tropical southern Africa towards the Indian Ocean during the winter fire season, controlled by the interaction of tropical easterly waves, and westerly waves at mid latitudes. During the AEROCLO-sA field campaign in 2017, a river of smoke was directly observed over Namibia. In this paper, the evolution and atmospheric drivers of the river of smoke are described, and the role of a mid-latitude cut-off low in lifting the smoke to the upper troposphere is highlighted.
Kristina Glojek, Griša Močnik, Honey Dawn C. Alas, Andrea Cuesta-Mosquera, Luka Drinovec, Asta Gregorič, Matej Ogrin, Kay Weinhold, Irena Ježek, Thomas Müller, Martin Rigler, Maja Remškar, Dominik van Pinxteren, Hartmut Herrmann, Martina Ristorini, Maik Merkel, Miha Markelj, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5577–5601,Short summary
A pilot study to determine the emissions of wood burning under
real-world laboratoryconditions was conducted. We found that measured black carbon (eBC) and particulate matter (PM) in rural shallow terrain depressions with residential wood burning could be much greater than predicted by models. The exceeding levels are a cause for concern since similar conditions can be expected in numerous hilly and mountainous regions across Europe, where approximately 20 % of the total population lives.
Ülkü Alver Şahin, Roy M. Harrison, Mohammed S. Alam, David C. S. Beddows, Dimitrios Bousiotis, Zongbo Shi, Leigh R. Crilley, William Bloss, James Brean, Isha Khanna, and Rulan Verma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5415–5433,Short summary
Wide-range particle size spectra have been measured in three seasons in Delhi and are interpreted in terms of sources and processes. Condensational growth is a major feature of the fine fraction, and a coarse fraction contributes substantially – but only in summer.
Xianda Gong, Heike Wex, Thomas Müller, Silvia Henning, Jens Voigtländer, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5175–5194,Short summary
We conducted 10 yr measurements to characterize the atmospheric aerosol at Cabo Verde. An unsupervised machine learning algorithm, K-means, was implemented to study the aerosol types. Cloud condensation nuclei number concentrations during dust periods were 2.5 times higher than marine periods. The long-term data sets, together with the aerosol classification, can be used as a basis to improve understanding of annual cycles of aerosol, and aerosol-cloud interactions in the North Atlantic.
Aki Virkkula, Henrik Grythe, John Backman, Tuukka Petäjä, Maurizio Busetto, Christian Lanconelli, Angelo Lupi, Silvia Becagli, Rita Traversi, Mirko Severi, Vito Vitale, Patrick Sheridan, and Elisabeth Andrews
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5033–5069,Short summary
Optical properties of surface aerosols at Dome C, Antarctica, in 2007–2013 and their potential source areas are presented. The equivalent black carbon (eBC) mass concentrations were compared with eBC measured at three other Antarctic sites: the South Pole (SPO) and two coastal sites, Neumayer and Syowa. Transport analysis suggests that South American BC emissions are the largest contributor to eBC at Dome C.
Jingnan Shi, Juan Hong, Nan Ma, Qingwei Luo, Yao He, Hanbing Xu, Haobo Tan, Qiaoqiao Wang, Jiangchuan Tao, Yaqing Zhou, Shuang Han, Long Peng, Linhong Xie, Guangsheng Zhou, Wanyun Xu, Yele Sun, Yafang Cheng, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4599–4613,Short summary
In this study, we investigated the hygroscopicity of submicron aerosols at a rural site in the North China Plain during the winter of 2018, using a HTDMA and a CV-ToF-ACSM. We observed differences in aerosol hygroscopicity during two distinct episodes with different primary emissions and secondary aerosol formation processes. These results provide an improved understanding of the complex influence of sources and aerosol evolution processes on their hygroscopicity.
Mathew Sebastian, Sobhan Kumar Kompalli, Vasudevan Anil Kumar, Sandhya Jose, S. Suresh Babu, Govindan Pandithurai, Sachchidanand Singh, Rakesh K. Hooda, Vijay K. Soni, Jeffrey R. Pierce, Ville Vakkari, Eija Asmi, Daniel M. Westervelt, Antti-Pekka Hyvärinen, and Vijay P. Kanawade
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4491–4508,Short summary
Characteristics of particle number size distributions and new particle formation in six locations in India were analyzed. New particle formation occurred frequently during the pre-monsoon (spring) season and it significantly modulates the shape of the particle number size distributions. The contribution of newly formed particles to cloud condensation nuclei concentrations was ~3 times higher in urban locations than in mountain background locations.
Chenjie Yu, Dantong Liu, Kang Hu, Ping Tian, Yangzhou Wu, Delong Zhao, Huihui Wu, Dawei Hu, Wenbo Guo, Qiang Li, Mengyu Huang, Deping Ding, and James D. Allan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4375–4391,Short summary
In this study, we applied a new technique to investigate the aerosol properties on both a mass and number basis and CCN abilities in Beijing suburban regions. The size-resolved aerosol chemical compositions and CCN activation measurement enable a detailed analysis of BC-containing particle hygroscopicity and its size-dependent contribution to the CCN activation. The results presented in this study will affect future models and human health studies.
Loïc Gonzalez Carracedo, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Lauri R. Ahonen, Nina Sarnela, Sebastian Holm, Juha Kangasluoma, Markku Kulmala, Paul M. Winkler, and Dominik Stolzenburg
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Fast nanoparticle growth is essential for the survival of new aerosol particles in the atmosphere and hence their contribution to the climate. We show that using naturally charged ions for growth calculations can cause a significant error. During the diurnal cycle, the importance of ion-induced and neutral nucleation vary, causing the ion-population to have a slower measurable apparent growth. Our results suggest that data from ion spectrometers need to be considered with great care below 3 nm.
Ville Leinonen, Harri Kokkola, Taina Yli-Juuti, Tero Mielonen, Thomas Kühn, Tuomo Nieminen, Simo Heikkinen, Tuuli Miinalainen, Tommi Bergman, Ken Carslaw, Stefano Decesari, Markus Fiebig, Tareq Hussein, Niku Kivekäs, Markku Kulmala, Ari Leskinen, Andreas Massling, Nikos Mihalopoulos, Jane P. Mulcahy, Steffen M. Noe, Twan van Noije, Fiona M. O'Connor, Colin O'Dowd, Dirk Olivie, Jakob B. Pernov, Tuukka Petäjä, Øyvind Seland, Michael Schulz, Catherine E. Scott, Henrik Skov, Erik Swietlicki, Thomas Tuch, Alfred Wiedensohler, Annele Virtanen, and Santtu Mikkonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We provide the first extensive comparison of detailed aerosol size distribution trends between in-situ observations from Europe and five different earth system models. We investigated commonly used aerosol modes (nucleation, Aitken, and accumulation) separately and were able to show the differences between measured and modeled trends and especially their seasonal patterns. This provides an important addition to earlier aerosol-cloud interaction model evaluation studies.
Xiaoyun Sun, Tianliang Zhao, Yongqing Bai, Shaofei Kong, Huang Zheng, Weiyang Hu, Xiaodan Ma, and Jie Xiong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3579–3593,Short summary
This study revealed the impact of anthropogenic emissions and meteorological conditions on PM2.5 decline in the regional transport of air pollutants over a receptor region in central China. The meteorological drivers led to upwind accelerating and downward offsetting of the effects of emission reductions over the receptor region in regional PM2.5 transport, and the contribution of gaseous precursor emissions to PM2.5 pollution was enhanced with reduced anthropogenic emissions in recent years.
Marco A. Franco, Florian Ditas, Leslie A. Kremper, Luiz A. T. Machado, Meinrat O. Andreae, Alessandro Araújo, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Joel F. de Brito, Samara Carbone, Bruna A. Holanda, Fernando G. Morais, Janaína P. Nascimento, Mira L. Pöhlker, Luciana V. Rizzo, Marta Sá, Jorge Saturno, David Walter, Stefan Wolff, Ulrich Pöschl, Paulo Artaxo, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3469–3492,Short summary
In Central Amazonia, new particle formation in the planetary boundary layer is rare. Instead, there is the appearance of sub-50 nm aerosols with diameters larger than about 20 nm that eventually grow to cloud condensation nuclei size range. Here, 254 growth events were characterized which have higher predominance in the wet season. About 70 % of them showed direct relation to convective downdrafts, while 30 % occurred partly under clear-sky conditions, evidencing still unknown particle sources.
Franz Conen, Annika Einbock, Claudia Mignani, and Christoph Hüglin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3433–3444,Short summary
Above western Europe, ice typically starts to form in clouds a few kilometres above the ground if suitable aerosol particles are present. In air masses typical for that altitude, we found that such particles most likely originate from bacteria and fungi living on plants. Occasional Saharan dust intrusions seem to contribute little to the number concentration of particles able to freeze cloud droplets between 0°C and −15°C.
Stephen M. Platt, Øystein Hov, Torunn Berg, Knut Breivik, Sabine Eckhardt, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Nikolaos Evangeliou, Markus Fiebig, Rebecca Fisher, Georg Hansen, Hans-Christen Hansson, Jost Heintzenberg, Ove Hermansen, Dominic Heslin-Rees, Kim Holmén, Stephen Hudson, Roland Kallenborn, Radovan Krejci, Terje Krognes, Steinar Larssen, David Lowry, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Chris Lunder, Euan Nisbet, Pernilla B. Nizzetto, Ki-Tae Park, Christina A. Pedersen, Katrine Aspmo Pfaffhuber, Thomas Röckmann, Norbert Schmidbauer, Sverre Solberg, Andreas Stohl, Johan Ström, Tove Svendby, Peter Tunved, Kjersti Tørnkvist, Carina van der Veen, Stergios Vratolis, Young Jun Yoon, Karl Espen Yttri, Paul Zieger, Wenche Aas, and Kjetil Tørseth
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3321–3369,Short summary
Here we detail the history of the Zeppelin Observatory, a unique global background site and one of only a few in the high Arctic. We present long-term time series of up to 30 years of atmospheric components and atmospheric transport phenomena. Many of these time series are important to our understanding of Arctic and global atmospheric composition change. Finally, we discuss the future of the Zeppelin Observatory and emerging areas of future research on the Arctic atmosphere.
Jörg Wieder, Claudia Mignani, Mario Schär, Lucie Roth, Michael Sprenger, Jan Henneberger, Ulrike Lohmann, Cyril Brunner, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3111–3130,Short summary
We investigate the variation in ice-nucleating particles (INPs) relevant for primary ice formation in mixed-phased clouds over the Alps based on simultaneous in situ observations at a mountaintop and a nearby high valley (1060 m height difference). In most cases, advection from the surrounding lower regions was responsible for changes in INP concentration, causing a diurnal cycle at the mountaintop. Our study underlines the importance of the planetary boundary layer as an INP reserve.
Hao Luo, Li Dong, Yichen Chen, Yuefeng Zhao, Delong Zhao, Mengyu Huang, Deping Ding, Jiayuan Liao, Tian Ma, Maohai Hu, and Yong Han
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2507–2524,Short summary
Aerosol–planetary boundary layer (PBL) interaction is a key mechanism for stabilizing the atmosphere and exacerbating surface air pollution. Using aircraft measurements and WRF-Chem simulations, we find that the aerosol–PBL interaction of different aerosols under contrasting synoptic patterns, PBL structures, and aerosol vertical distributions vary significantly. We attempt to determine which pollutants to target in different synoptic conditions to attain more precise air pollution control.
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