Articles | Volume 22, issue 15
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Sulfuric acid in the Amazon basin: measurements and evaluation of existing sulfuric acid proxies
Deanna C. Myers
Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA
Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA
Department of Chemistry, Morgan Community College, Fort Morgan, CO, USA
Alex B. Guenther
Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA
Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
Oscar Vega Bustillos
Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares, Cidade Universitaria, São Paulo, Brazil
Instituto de Engenharia e Geociencias, Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará, Santarém, Brazil
Rodrigo A. F. Souza
Escola Superior de Tecnologia, Universidade do Estado do Amazonas, Manaus, Brazil
James N. Smith
Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA
No articles found.
Xiaoxiao Li, Yijing Chen, Yuyang Li, Runlong Cai, Yiran Li, Chenjuan Deng, Chao Yan, Hairong Cheng, Yongchun Liu, Markku Kulmala, Jiming Hao, James N. Smith, and Jingkun Jiang
This preprint is open for discussion and under review for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).Short summary
The near-continuous measurements reveal the composition, sources, and seasonal variations of UFPs in urban Beijing. Vehicle, cooking emissions, and new particle formation are the main sources of UFP numbers and aqueous/heterogeneous processes increase UFP mode diameters in urban Beijing. UFP numbers are the highest in winter due to the highest primary particle emission rates and new particle formation rates, and CHO fractions are the highest in summer due to the strongest photooxidation.
Lejish Vettikkat, Pasi Miettinen, Angela Buchholz, Pekka Rantala, Hao Yu, Simon Schallhart, Tuukka Petäjä, Roger Seco, Elisa Männistö, Markku Kulmala, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Alex B. Guenther, and Siegfried Schobesberger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2683–2698,Short summary
Wetlands cover a substantial fraction of the land mass in the northern latitudes, from northern Europe to Siberia and Canada. Yet, their isoprene and terpene emissions remain understudied. Here, we used a state-of-the-art measurement technique to quantify ecosystem-scale emissions from a boreal wetland during an unusually warm spring/summer. We found that the emissions from this wetland were (a) higher and (b) even more strongly dependent on temperature than commonly thought.
Eliane Gomes Alves, Raoni Aquino Santana, Cléo Quaresma Dias-Júnior, Santiago Botía, Tyeen Taylor, Ana Maria Yáñez-Serrano, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Pedro Ivo Lembo Silveira de Assis, Giordane Martins, Rodrigo de Souza, Sérgio Duvoisin Júnior, Alex Guenther, Dasa Gu, Anywhere Tsokankunku, Matthias Sörgel, Bruce Nelson, Davieliton Pinto, Shujiro Komiya, Diogo Martins Rosa, Bettina Weber, Cybelli Barbosa, Michelle Robin, Kenneth J. Feeley, Alvaro Duque, Viviana Londoño Lemos, Maria Paula Contreras, Alvaro Idarraga, Norberto López A., Chad Husby, and Brett Jestrow
Isoprene is emitted mainly by plants and can influence atmospheric chemistry and air quality. But, there are uncertainties in model emission estimates and follow-up atmospheric processes. In our study, with long-term observational datasets of isoprene and biological and environmental factors from central Amazonia, we show that isoprene emission estimates could be improved when biological processes were mechanistically incorporated into the model.
Susanna Strada, Andrea Pozzer, Filippo Giorgi, Graziano Giuliani, Erika Coppola, Fabien Solmon, Xiaoyan Jiang, and Alex Guenther
Water deficit modifies emissions of isoprene, an aromatic compound released by plants that influence the production of a pollutant such as surface ozone. Numerical modeling shows that, during the warmest and driest summers, isoprene decreases between −20 to −60 % over the Euro-Mediterranean region, while surface ozone only diminishes by few percents. Decreases in isoprene emissions not only happen simultaneously of dry conditions, but could also occur after prolonged or repeated water deficit.
Yuxuan Wang, Nan Lin, Wei Li, Alex Guenther, Joey C. Y. Lam, Amos P. K. Tai, Mark J. Potosnak, and Roger Seco
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14189–14208,Short summary
Drought can cause large changes in biogenic isoprene emissions. In situ field observations of isoprene emissions during droughts are confined by spatial coverage and, thus, provide limited constraints. We derived a drought stress factor based on satellite HCHO data for MEGAN2.1 in the GEOS-Chem model using water stress and temperature. This factor reduces the overestimation of isoprene emissions during severe droughts and improves the simulated O3 and organic aerosol responses to droughts.
Elizabeth Klovenski, Yuxuan Wang, Susanne E. Bauer, Kostas Tsigaridis, Greg Faluvegi, Igor Aleinov, Nancy Y. Kiang, Alex Guenther, Xiaoyan Jiang, Wei Li, and Nan Lin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13303–13323,Short summary
Severe drought stresses vegetation and causes reduced emission of isoprene. We study the impact of including a new isoprene drought stress (yd) parameterization in NASA GISS ModelE called DroughtStress_ModelE, which is specifically tuned for ModelE. Inclusion of yd leads to better simulated isoprene emissions at the MOFLUX site during the severe drought of 2012, reduced overestimation of OMI satellite ΩHCHO (formaldehyde column), and improved simulated O3 (ozone) during drought.
Detlev Helmig, Alex Guenther, Jacques Hueber, Ryan Daly, Wei Wang, Jeong-Hoo Park, Anssi Liikanen, and Arnaud P. Praplan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5439–5454,Short summary
This research demonstrates a new method for determination of the chemical reactivity of volatile organic compounds that are emitted from the leaves and needles of trees. These measurements allow elucidating if and how much of these emissions and their associated reactivity are captured and quantified by currently applicable chemical analysis methods.
Michelia Dam, Danielle C. Draper, Andrey Marsavin, Juliane L. Fry, and James N. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9017–9031,Short summary
We performed chamber experiments to measure the composition of the gas-phase reaction products of nitrate-radical-initiated oxidation of four monoterpenes. The total organic yield, effective oxygen-to-carbon ratio, and dimer-to-monomer ratio were correlated with the observed particle formation for the monoterpene systems with some exceptions. The Δ-carene system produced the most particles, followed by β-pinene, with the α-pinene and α-thujene systems producing no particles.
Katherine R. Travis, James H. Crawford, Gao Chen, Carolyn E. Jordan, Benjamin A. Nault, Hwajin Kim, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jack E. Dibb, Jung-Hun Woo, Younha Kim, Shixian Zhai, Xuan Wang, Erin E. McDuffie, Gan Luo, Fangqun Yu, Saewung Kim, Isobel J. Simpson, Donald R. Blake, Limseok Chang, and Michelle J. Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7933–7958,Short summary
The 2016 Korea–United States Air Quality (KORUS-AQ) field campaign provided a unique set of observations to improve our understanding of PM2.5 pollution in South Korea. Models typically have errors in simulating PM2.5 in this region, which is of concern for the development of control measures. We use KORUS-AQ observations to improve our understanding of the mechanisms driving PM2.5 and the implications of model errors for determining PM2.5 that is attributable to local or foreign sources.
Sabrina Chee, Kelley Barsanti, James N. Smith, and Nanna Myllys
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11637–11654,Short summary
We explored molecular properties affecting atmospheric particle formation efficiency and derived a parameterization between particle formation rate and heterodimer concentration, which showed good agreement to previously reported experimental data. Considering the simplicity of calculating heterodimer concentration, this approach has potential to improve estimates of global cloud condensation nuclei in models that are limited by the computational expense of calculating particle formation rate.
Chinmoy Sarkar, Gracie Wong, Anne Mielnik, Sanjeevi Nagalingam, Nicole Jenna Gross, Alex B. Guenther, Taehyoung Lee, Taehyun Park, Jihee Ban, Seokwon Kang, Jin-Soo Park, Joonyoung Ahn, Danbi Kim, Hyunjae Kim, Jinsoo Choi, Beom-Keun Seo, Jong-Ho Kim, Jeong-Ho Kim, Soo Bog Park, and Saewung Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11505–11518,Short summary
We present experimental proofs illustrating the emission of an unexplored volatile organic compound, tentatively assigned as ketene, in an industrial facility in South Korea. The emission of such a compound has rarely been reported, but our experimental data show that the emission rate is substantial. It potentially has tremendous implications for regional air quality and public health, as it is highly reactive and toxic at the same time.
Beata Opacka, Jean-François Müller, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, Maite Bauwens, Katerina Sindelarova, Jana Markova, and Alex B. Guenther
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8413–8436,Short summary
Isoprene is mainly emitted from plants, and about 80 % of its global emissions occur in the tropics. Current isoprene inventories are usually based on modelled vegetation maps, but high pressure on land use over the last decades has led to severe losses, especially in tropical forests, that are not considered by models. We provide a study on the present-day impact of spaceborne land cover changes on isoprene emissions and the first inventory based on high-resolution Landsat tree cover dataset.
Janaína P. Nascimento, Megan M. Bela, Bruno B. Meller, Alessandro L. Banducci, Luciana V. Rizzo, Angel Liduvino Vara-Vela, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Helber Gomes, Sameh A. A. Rafee, Marco A. Franco, Samara Carbone, Glauber G. Cirino, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Stuart A. McKeen, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6755–6779,
Dianne Sanchez, Roger Seco, Dasa Gu, Alex Guenther, John Mak, Youngjae Lee, Danbi Kim, Joonyoung Ahn, Don Blake, Scott Herndon, Daun Jeong, John T. Sullivan, Thomas Mcgee, Rokjin Park, and Saewung Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6331–6345,Short summary
We present observations of total reactive gases in a suburban forest observatory in the Seoul metropolitan area. The quantitative comparison with speciated trace gas observations illustrated significant underestimation in atmospheric reactivity from the speciated trace gas observational dataset. We present scientific discussion about potential causes.
Hui Wang, Qizhong Wu, Alex B. Guenther, Xiaochun Yang, Lanning Wang, Tang Xiao, Jie Li, Jinming Feng, Qi Xu, and Huaqiong Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4825–4848,Short summary
We assessed the influence of the greening trend on BVOC emission in China. The comparison among different scenarios showed that vegetation changes resulting from land cover management are the main driver of BVOC emission change in China. Climate variability contributed significantly to interannual variations but not much to the long-term trend during the study period.
Guilherme F. Camarinha-Neto, Julia C. P. Cohen, Cléo Q. Dias-Júnior, Matthias Sörgel, José Henrique Cattanio, Alessandro Araújo, Stefan Wolff, Paulo A. F. Kuhn, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Luciana V. Rizzo, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 339–356,Short summary
It was observed that friagem phenomena (incursion of cold waves from the high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere to the Amazon region), very common in the dry season of the Amazon region, produced significant changes in microclimate and atmospheric chemistry. Moreover, the effects of the friagem change the surface O3 and CO2 mixing ratios and therefore interfere deeply in the microclimatic conditions and the chemical composition of the atmosphere above the rainforest.
Roger Seco, Thomas Holst, Mikkel Sillesen Matzen, Andreas Westergaard-Nielsen, Tao Li, Tihomir Simin, Joachim Jansen, Patrick Crill, Thomas Friborg, Janne Rinne, and Riikka Rinnan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13399–13416,Short summary
Northern ecosystems exchange climate-relevant trace gases with the atmosphere, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs). We measured VOC fluxes from a subarctic permafrost-free fen and its adjacent lake in northern Sweden. The graminoid-dominated fen emitted mainly isoprene during the peak of the growing season, with a pronounced response to increasing temperatures stronger than assumed by biogenic emission models. The lake was a sink of acetone and acetaldehyde during both periods measured.
Chen Dayan, Erick Fredj, Pawel K. Misztal, Maor Gabay, Alex B. Guenther, and Eran Tas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12741–12759,Short summary
We studied the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds from both marine and terrestrial ecosystems in the Eastern Mediterranean Basin, a global warming hot spot. We focused on isoprene and dimethyl sulfide (DMS), which are well recognized for their effect on climate and strong impact on photochemical pollution by the former. We found high emissions of isoprene and a strong decadal decrease in the emission of DMS which can both be attributed to the strong increase in seawater temperature.
Archit Mehra, Jordan E. Krechmer, Andrew Lambe, Chinmoy Sarkar, Leah Williams, Farzaneh Khalaj, Alex Guenther, John Jayne, Hugh Coe, Douglas Worsnop, Celia Faiola, and Manjula Canagaratna
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10953–10965,Short summary
Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from plants are important for tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Real plant emissions are much more diverse than the few proxies widely used for studies of plant SOA. Here we present the first study of SOA from Californian sage plants and the oxygenated monoterpenes representing their major emissions. We identify SOA products and show the importance of the formation of highly oxygenated organic molecules and oligomers.
Chinmoy Sarkar, Alex B. Guenther, Jeong-Hoo Park, Roger Seco, Eliane Alves, Sarah Batalha, Raoni Santana, Saewung Kim, James Smith, Julio Tóta, and Oscar Vega
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7179–7191,Short summary
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are important components of the atmosphere due to their contribution to atmospheric chemistry and biogeochemical cycles. In this study, we report major BVOCs, e.g. isoprene and total monoterpene flux measurements with a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) using the eddy covariance (EC) method at a primary rainforest in eastern Amazonia. We used the measured data to evaluate the MEGAN2.1 model for the emission site.
Sam J. Silva, Colette L. Heald, and Alex B. Guenther
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 2569–2585,Short summary
Simulating the influence of the biosphere on atmospheric chemistry has traditionally been computationally intensive. We describe a surrogate canopy physics model parameterized using a statistical learning technique and specifically designed for use in large-scale chemical transport models. Our surrogate model reproduces a more detailed model to within 10 % without a large computational demand, improving the process representation of biosphere–atmosphere exchange.
Hayley S. Glicker, Michael J. Lawler, John Ortega, Suzane S. de Sá, Scot T. Martin, Paulo Artaxo, Oscar Vega Bustillos, Rodrigo de Souza, Julio Tota, Annmarie Carlton, and James N. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13053–13066,Short summary
An understanding of the chemical composition of the smallest particles in the air over the Amazon Basin provides insights into the natural and human-caused influences on particle production in this sensitive region. We present measurements of the composition of sub-100 nm diameter particles performed during the wet season and identify unique constituents that point to both natural and human-caused sources and processes.
Daun Jeong, Roger Seco, Dasa Gu, Youngro Lee, Benjamin A. Nault, Christoph J. Knote, Tom Mcgee, John T. Sullivan, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Donald R. Blake, Dianne Sanchez, Alex B. Guenther, David Tanner, L. Gregory Huey, Russell Long, Bruce E. Anderson, Samuel R. Hall, Kirk Ullmann, Hye-jung Shin, Scott C. Herndon, Youngjae Lee, Danbi Kim, Joonyoung Ahn, and Saewung Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12779–12795,
Emma L. D'Ambro, Siegfried Schobesberger, Cassandra J. Gaston, Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker, Ben H. Lee, Jiumeng Liu, Alla Zelenyuk, David Bell, Christopher D. Cappa, Taylor Helgestad, Ziyue Li, Alex Guenther, Jian Wang, Matthew Wise, Ryan Caylor, Jason D. Surratt, Theran Riedel, Noora Hyttinen, Vili-Taneli Salo, Galib Hasan, Theo Kurtén, John E. Shilling, and Joel A. Thornton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11253–11265,Short summary
Isoprene is the most abundantly emitted reactive organic gas globally, and thus it is important to understand its fate and role in aerosol formation and growth. A major product of its oxidation is an epoxydiol, IEPOX, which can be efficiently taken up by acidic aerosol to generate substantial amounts of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). We present chamber experiments exploring the properties of IEPOX SOA and reconcile discrepancies between field, laboratory, and model studies of this process.
Nanna Myllys, Jakub Kubečka, Vitus Besel, Dina Alfaouri, Tinja Olenius, James Norman Smith, and Monica Passananti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9753–9768,Short summary
In atmospheric sulfuric-acid-driven particle formation, bases are able to stabilize the initial molecular clusters and thus enhance particle formation. We have investigated the enhancing potential of different bases in atmospheric particle formation. We show that strong bases with low abundance are likely to dominate electrically neutral particle formation, whereas weak bases with high abundance have a larger role in ion-mediated particle formation.
Karena A. McKinney, Daniel Wang, Jianhuai Ye, Jean-Baptiste de Fouchier, Patricia C. Guimarães, Carla E. Batista, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Eliane G. Alves, Dasa Gu, Alex B. Guenther, and Scot T. Martin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3123–3135,Short summary
Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions influence air quality and particulate distributions, particularly in major source regions such as the Amazon. A sampler for collecting VOCs from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is described. Field tests of its performance and an initial example data set collected in the Amazon are also presented. The low cost, ease of use, and maneuverability of UAVs give this method the potential to significantly advance knowledge of the spatial distribution of VOCs.
Moshe Shechner, Alex Guenther, Robert Rhew, Asher Wishkerman, Qian Li, Donald Blake, Gil Lerner, and Eran Tas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7667–7690,Short summary
Along with other recent studies, our findings point to strong emission of a suite of volatile halogenated organic compounds (VHOCs) from saline soils and salt lakes. Some emitted VHOCs were not known to be emitted from terrestrial sources, and our observations point to apparent new common controls for the emission of several VHOCs. These findings are an important milestone toward a more complete understanding of the effect of VHOCs on atmospheric ozone concentrations and oxidation capacity.
John T. Sullivan, Thomas J. McGee, Ryan M. Stauffer, Anne M. Thompson, Andrew Weinheimer, Christoph Knote, Scott Janz, Armin Wisthaler, Russell Long, James Szykman, Jinsoo Park, Youngjae Lee, Saewung Kim, Daun Jeong, Dianne Sanchez, Laurence Twigg, Grant Sumnicht, Travis Knepp, and Jason R. Schroeder
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5051–5067,Short summary
During the May–June 2016 International Cooperative Air Quality Field Study in Korea (KORUS-AQ), pollution reached the remote Taehwa Research Forest (TRF) site. Two case studies are examined and observations clearly identify TRF and the surrounding rural areas as long-term receptor sites for severe urban pollution events. In summary, domestic emissions may be causing more pollution than by transboundary pathways, which have been historically believed to be the major source of air pollution.
Xiaoxiao Li, Sabrina Chee, Jiming Hao, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Jingkun Jiang, and James N. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1555–1570,Short summary
We performed lab experiments to explore the role of relative humidity, RH, in atmospheric monoterpene oxidation and new particle formation. These studies will provide insights into the most important steps in the process, while also more accurately representing the real atmosphere. We found that the detected compounds did not change with RH, and in fact could mostly be fully explained by the autoxidation of organic peroxy radicals followed by bimolecular reactions with other peroxy radicals.
Li Wu, Xue Li, HyeKyeong Kim, Hong Geng, Ricardo H. M. Godoi, Cybelli G. G. Barbosa, Ana F. L. Godoi, Carlos I. Yamamoto, Rodrigo A. F. de Souza, Christopher Pöhlker, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Chul-Un Ro
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1221–1240,Short summary
Aerosol samples collected at a remote site in the Amazonian rainforest (ATTO) and an urban site in Manaus, Brazil, were investigated on a single particle basis using a quantitative energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis, suggesting the different sources and formation mechanisms of secondary aerosols, i.e., the predominant presence of sulfate at the ATTO site from mostly biogenic emissions and the elevated influences of nitrates from anthropogenic activities at the Manaus site.
Fernando Santos, Karla Longo, Alex Guenther, Saewung Kim, Dasa Gu, Dave Oram, Grant Forster, James Lee, James Hopkins, Joel Brito, and Saulo Freitas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12715–12734,Short summary
We investigated the impact of biomass burning on the chemical composition of trace gases in the Amazon. The findings corroborate the influence of biomass burning activity not only on direct emissions of particulate matter but also on the oxidative capacity to produce secondary organic aerosol. The scientists plan to use this information to improve the numerical model simulation with a better representativeness of the chemical processes, which can impact on global climate prediction.
Anna L. Hodshire, Brett B. Palm, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Qijing Bian, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Eben S. Cross, Douglas A. Day, Suzane S. de Sá, Alex B. Guenther, Armin Hansel, James F. Hunter, Werner Jud, Thomas Karl, Saewung Kim, Jesse H. Kroll, Jeong-Hoo Park, Zhe Peng, Roger Seco, James N. Smith, Jose L. Jimenez, and Jeffrey R. Pierce
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12433–12460,Short summary
We investigate the nucleation and growth processes that shape the aerosol size distribution inside oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) that sampled ambient air from Colorado and the Amazon rainforest. Results indicate that organics are important for both nucleation and growth, vapor uptake was limited to accumulation-mode particles, fragmentation reactions were important to limit particle growth at higher OH exposures, and an H2SO4-organics nucleation mechanism captured new particle formation well.
Suzane S. de Sá, Brett B. Palm, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Weiwei Hu, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Lindsay D. Yee, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Igor O. Ribeiro, Glauber G. Cirino, Yingjun Liu, Ryan Thalman, Arthur Sedlacek, Aaron Funk, Courtney Schumacher, John E. Shilling, Johannes Schneider, Paulo Artaxo, Allen H. Goldstein, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Jian Wang, Karena A. McKinney, Henrique Barbosa, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Jose L. Jimenez, and Scot T. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12185–12206,Short summary
This study aimed at understanding and quantifying the changes in mass concentration and composition of submicron airborne particulate matter (PM) in Amazonia due to urban pollution. Downwind of Manaus, PM concentrations increased by up to 200 % under polluted compared with background conditions. The observed changes included contributions from both primary and secondary processes. The differences in organic PM composition suggested a shift in the pathways of secondary production with pollution.
Lindsay D. Yee, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Rebecca A. Wernis, Meng Meng, Ventura Rivera, Nathan M. Kreisberg, Susanne V. Hering, Mads S. Bering, Marianne Glasius, Mary Alice Upshur, Ariana Gray Bé, Regan J. Thomson, Franz M. Geiger, John H. Offenberg, Michael Lewandowski, Ivan Kourtchev, Markus Kalberer, Suzane de Sá, Scot T. Martin, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Brett B. Palm, Weiwei Hu, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Jose L. Jimenez, Yingjun Liu, Karena A. McKinney, Paulo Artaxo, Juarez Viegas, Antonio Manzi, Maria B. Oliveira, Rodrigo de Souza, Luiz A. T. Machado, Karla Longo, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10433–10457,Short summary
Biogenic volatile organic compounds react in the atmosphere to form secondary organic aerosol, yet the chemical pathways remain unclear. We collected filter samples and deployed a semi-volatile thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph in the central Amazon. We measured 30 sesquiterpenes and 4 diterpenes and find them to be important for reactive ozone loss. We estimate that sesquiterpene oxidation contributes at least 0.4–5 % (median 1 %) of observed submicron organic aerosol mass.
Eliane G. Alves, Julio Tóta, Andrew Turnipseed, Alex B. Guenther, José Oscar W. Vega Bustillos, Raoni A. Santana, Glauber G. Cirino, Julia V. Tavares, Aline P. Lopes, Bruce W. Nelson, Rodrigo A. de Souza, Dasa Gu, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, David K. Adams, Jin Wu, Scott Saleska, and Antonio O. Manzi
Biogeosciences, 15, 4019–4032,Short summary
This study shows that leaf quantity and leaf age have an important effect on seasonal changes in isoprene emissions and that these could play an even more important role in regulating ecosystem isoprene fluxes than light and temperature at seasonal timescales in tropical forests. These results bring novelty and new insight for future research because in the past leaf phenology was not considered as an important factor that controls biological processes in the tropics.
Chunxiang Ye, Xianliang Zhou, Dennis Pu, Jochen Stutz, James Festa, Max Spolaor, Catalina Tsai, Christopher Cantrell, Roy L. Mauldin III, Andrew Weinheimer, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Eric C. Apel, Alex Guenther, Lisa Kaser, Bin Yuan, Thomas Karl, Julie Haggerty, Samuel Hall, Kirk Ullmann, James Smith, and John Ortega
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9107–9120,Short summary
Substantial levels of HONO existed during the day throughout the troposphere over the southeastern US during NOMADSS 2013. Particulate nitrate photolysis appeared to be the major volume HONO source, while NOx was an important HONO precursor only in industrial and urban plumes. HONO was not a significant OH radical precursor in the rural troposphere away from the ground surface; however, its production from particulate nitrate photolysis was an important renoxification pathway.
Maite Bauwens, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, Jean-François Müller, Bert Van Schaeybroeck, Lesley De Cruz, Rozemien De Troch, Olivier Giot, Rafiq Hamdi, Piet Termonia, Quentin Laffineur, Crist Amelynck, Niels Schoon, Bernard Heinesch, Thomas Holst, Almut Arneth, Reinhart Ceulemans, Arturo Sanchez-Lorenzo, and Alex Guenther
Biogeosciences, 15, 3673–3690,Short summary
Biogenic isoprene fluxes are simulated over Europe with the MEGAN–MOHYCAN model for the recent past and end-of-century climate at high spatiotemporal resolution (0.1°, 3 min). Due to climate change, fluxes increased by 40 % over 1979–2014. Climate scenarios for 2070–2099 suggest an increase by 83 % due to climate, and an even stronger increase when the potential impact of CO2 fertilization is considered (up to 141 %). Accounting for CO2 inhibition cancels out a large part of these increases.
Nan Li, Qingyang He, Jim Greenberg, Alex Guenther, Jingyi Li, Junji Cao, Jun Wang, Hong Liao, Qiyuan Wang, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7489–7507,Short summary
O3 pollution has been increasing in most Chinese cities in recent years. Our study reveals that the synergistic impact of individual source contributions to O3 formation should be considered in the formation of air pollution control strategies, especially for big cities in the vicinity of forests.
Adan S. S. Medeiros, Igor O. Ribeiro, Marcos V. B. Morais, Rita V. Andreoli, Jorge A. Martins, Leila D. Martins, Carla E. Batista, Patrícia C. Guimarães, Scot T. Martin, and Rodrigo A. F. Souza
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
The study evaluates the river breezes influence on pollutant plume dispersion or canalization in central amazon, using atmospheric chemistry modelling. Manaus, a 2 million people city, is considered herein for be a major city surrounded by pristine forest and large rivers. The main conclusion is that Manaus pollution plume dispersion could at times be partially canalized leading to significant changes of surface river concentration, even most of Manaus plume following prevailing trade winds.
Pablo E. S. Oliveira, Otávio C. Acevedo, Matthias Sörgel, Anywhere Tsokankunku, Stefan Wolff, Alessandro C. Araújo, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Marta O. Sá, Antônio O. Manzi, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3083–3099,Short summary
Carbon dioxide and latent heat fluxes within the canopy are dominated by low-frequency (nonturbulent) processes. There is a striking contrast between fully turbulent and intermittent nights, such that turbulent processes dominate the total nighttime exchange during the former, while nonturbulent processes are more relevant in the latter. In very stable nights, during which intermittent exchange prevails, the stable boundary layer may be shallower than the highest observational level at 80 m.
Jingqiu Mao, Annmarie Carlton, Ronald C. Cohen, William H. Brune, Steven S. Brown, Glenn M. Wolfe, Jose L. Jimenez, Havala O. T. Pye, Nga Lee Ng, Lu Xu, V. Faye McNeill, Kostas Tsigaridis, Brian C. McDonald, Carsten Warneke, Alex Guenther, Matthew J. Alvarado, Joost de Gouw, Loretta J. Mickley, Eric M. Leibensperger, Rohit Mathur, Christopher G. Nolte, Robert W. Portmann, Nadine Unger, Mika Tosca, and Larry W. Horowitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2615–2651,Short summary
This paper is aimed at discussing progress in evaluating, diagnosing, and improving air quality and climate modeling using comparisons to SAS observations as a guide to thinking about improvements to mechanisms and parameterizations in models.
Nina Sarnela, Tuija Jokinen, Jonathan Duplissy, Chao Yan, Tuomo Nieminen, Mikael Ehn, Siegfried Schobesberger, Martin Heinritzi, Sebastian Ehrhart, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Jasmin Tröstl, Mario Simon, Andreas Kürten, Markus Leiminger, Michael J. Lawler, Matti P. Rissanen, Federico Bianchi, Arnaud P. Praplan, Jani Hakala, Antonio Amorim, Marc Gonin, Armin Hansel, Jasper Kirkby, Josef Dommen, Joachim Curtius, James N. Smith, Tuukka Petäjä, Douglas R. Worsnop, Markku Kulmala, Neil M. Donahue, and Mikko Sipilä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2363–2380,Short summary
Atmospheric trace gases can form small molecular clusters, which can grow to larger sizes through the condensation of vapours. This process is called new particle formation. In this paper we studied the formation of sulfuric acid and highly oxygenated molecules, the key compounds in atmospheric new particle formation, in chamber experiments and introduced a way to simulate these ozonolysis products of α-pinene in a simple manner.
Lukas Pichelstorfer, Dominik Stolzenburg, John Ortega, Thomas Karl, Harri Kokkola, Anton Laakso, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, James N. Smith, Peter H. McMurry, and Paul M. Winkler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1307–1323,Short summary
Quantification of new particle formation as a source of atmospheric aerosol is clearly of importance for climate and health aspects. In our new study we developed two analysis methods that allow retrieval of nanoparticle growth dynamics at much higher precision than it was possible so far. Our results clearly demonstrate that growth rates show much more variation than is currently known and suggest that the Kelvin effect governs growth in the sub-10 nm size range.
Brett B. Palm, Suzane S. de Sá, Douglas A. Day, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Weiwei Hu, Roger Seco, Steven J. Sjostedt, Jeong-Hoo Park, Alex B. Guenther, Saewung Kim, Joel Brito, Florian Wurm, Paulo Artaxo, Ryan Thalman, Jian Wang, Lindsay D. Yee, Rebecca Wernis, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Allen H. Goldstein, Yingjun Liu, Stephen R. Springston, Rodrigo Souza, Matt K. Newburn, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Scot T. Martin, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 467–493,Short summary
Ambient air was oxidized by OH or O3 in an oxidation flow reactor during both wet and dry seasons in the GoAmazon2014/5 campaign to study secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. We investigated how much biogenic, urban, and biomass burning sources contributed to the ambient concentrations of SOA precursor gases and how their contributions changed diurnally and seasonally. SOA yields and hygroscopicity of organic aerosol in the oxidation flow reactor were also studied.
Haihan Chen, Anna L. Hodshire, John Ortega, James Greenberg, Peter H. McMurry, Annmarie G. Carlton, Jeffrey R. Pierce, Dave R. Hanson, and James N. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 311–326,Short summary
Much of what we know about atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) is based on ground-level measurements. We used tethered balloon measurements and remote sensing to study the location in the boundary layer in which NPF events are initiated, the degree to which the boundary layer is well-mixed during NPF, and the potential role that water may play in aerosol particle chemical evolution. This information will improve the representativeness of process level models and laboratory experiments.
Robert Wagner, Chao Yan, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Jonathan Duplissy, Tuomo Nieminen, Juha Kangasluoma, Lauri R. Ahonen, Lubna Dada, Jenni Kontkanen, Hanna E. Manninen, Antonio Dias, Antonio Amorim, Paulus S. Bauer, Anton Bergen, Anne-Kathrin Bernhammer, Federico Bianchi, Sophia Brilke, Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Xuemeng Chen, Danielle C. Draper, Lukas Fischer, Carla Frege, Claudia Fuchs, Olga Garmash, Hamish Gordon, Jani Hakala, Liine Heikkinen, Martin Heinritzi, Victoria Hofbauer, Christopher R. Hoyle, Jasper Kirkby, Andreas Kürten, Alexander N. Kvashnin, Tiia Laurila, Michael J. Lawler, Huajun Mai, Vladimir Makhmutov, Roy L. Mauldin III, Ugo Molteni, Leonid Nichman, Wei Nie, Andrea Ojdanic, Antti Onnela, Felix Piel, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Matti P. Rissanen, Nina Sarnela, Simon Schallhart, Kamalika Sengupta, Mario Simon, Dominik Stolzenburg, Yuri Stozhkov, Jasmin Tröstl, Yrjö Viisanen, Alexander L. Vogel, Andrea C. Wagner, Mao Xiao, Penglin Ye, Urs Baltensperger, Joachim Curtius, Neil M. Donahue, Richard C. Flagan, Martin Gallagher, Armin Hansel, James N. Smith, António Tomé, Paul M. Winkler, Douglas Worsnop, Mikael Ehn, Mikko Sipilä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15181–15197,
Robert C. Rhew, Malte Julian Deventer, Andrew A. Turnipseed, Carsten Warneke, John Ortega, Steve Shen, Luis Martinez, Abigail Koss, Brian M. Lerner, Jessica B. Gilman, James N. Smith, Alex B. Guenther, and Joost A. de Gouw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13417–13438,Short summary
Alkenes emanate from both natural and anthropogenic sources and can contribute to atmospheric ozone production. This study measured
lightalkene (ethene, propene and butene) fluxes from a ponderosa pine forest using a novel relaxed eddy accumulation method, revealing much larger emissions than previously estimated and accounting for a significant fraction of OH reactivity. Emissions have a diurnal cycle related to sunlight and temperature, and the forest canopy appears to be the source.
Ryan Thalman, Suzane S. de Sá, Brett B. Palm, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Mira L. Pöhlker, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Paulo Castillo, Douglas A. Day, Chongai Kuang, Antonio Manzi, Nga Lee Ng, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, Rodrigo Souza, Stephen Springston, Thomas Watson, Christopher Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Jose L. Jimenez, Scot T. Martin, and Jian Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11779–11801,Short summary
Particle hygroscopicity, mixing state, and the hygroscopicity of organic components were characterized in central Amazonia for 1 year; their seasonal and diel variations were driven by a combination of primary emissions, photochemical oxidation, and boundary layer development. The relationship between the hygroscopicity of organic components and their oxidation level was examined, and the results help to reconcile the differences among the relationships observed in previous studies.
Min Huang, Gregory R. Carmichael, James H. Crawford, Armin Wisthaler, Xiwu Zhan, Christopher R. Hain, Pius Lee, and Alex B. Guenther
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 3085–3104,Short summary
Various sensitivity simulations during two airborne campaigns were performed to assess the impact of different initialization methods and model resolutions on NUWRF-modeled weather states, heat fluxes, and the follow-on MEGAN isoprene emission calculations. Proper land initialization is shown to be important to the coupled weather modeling and the follow-on emission modeling, which is also critical to accurately representing other processes in air quality modeling and data assimilation.
Adan S. S. Medeiros, Gisele Calderaro, Patricia C. Guimarães, Mateus R. Magalhaes, Marcos V. B. Morais, Sameh A. A. Rafee, Igor O. Ribeiro, Rita V. Andreoli, Jorge A. Martins, Leila D. Martins, Scot T. Martin, and Rodrigo A. F. Souza
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8987–8998,Short summary
How a changing energy matrix for power production affects air quality is considered for an urban region in a tropical, forested environment. The atmospheric chemistry modeling study shows that the burning of fuel oil and diesel have enormous potential for regional ozone production (an important pollutant and air quality indicator). Conversely, substitution with natural gas has an excellent effect on comparative air quality and human health.
Sameh A. Abou Rafee, Leila D. Martins, Ana B. Kawashima, Daniela S. Almeida, Marcos V. B. Morais, Rita V. A. Souza, Maria B. L. Oliveira, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Adan S. S. Medeiros, Viviana Urbina, Edmilson D. Freitas, Scot T. Martin, and Jorge A. Martins
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7977–7995,Short summary
This paper evaluates the impact of the emissions from mobile and stationary sources in the Amazon rainforest by using the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model. Results show that stationary sources have an important role in the contribution of human activity in Manaus; a future scenario of the expansion in the urban area demonstrates that it could increase air pollution; and the pollutant urban plume of Manaus has an impact over hundreds of kilometers in length.
Suzane S. de Sá, Brett B. Palm, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Matthew K. Newburn, Weiwei Hu, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Lindsay D. Yee, Ryan Thalman, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Paulo Artaxo, Allen H. Goldstein, Antonio O. Manzi, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Fan Mei, John E. Shilling, Stephen R. Springston, Jian Wang, Jason D. Surratt, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Jose L. Jimenez, and Scot T. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6611–6629,
Joana A. Rizzolo, Cybelli G. G. Barbosa, Guilherme C. Borillo, Ana F. L. Godoi, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Rita V. Andreoli, Antônio O. Manzi, Marta O. Sá, Eliane G. Alves, Christopher Pöhlker, Isabella H. Angelis, Florian Ditas, Jorge Saturno, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Luciana V. Rizzo, Nilton E. Rosário, Theotonio Pauliquevis, Rosa M. N. Santos, Carlos I. Yamamoto, Meinrat O. Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Philip E. Taylor, and Ricardo H. M. Godoi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2673–2687,Short summary
Particles collected from the air above the Amazon Basin during the wet season were identified as Saharan dust. Soluble minerals were analysed to assess the bioavailability of iron. Dust deposited onto the canopy and topsoil can likely benefit organisms such as fungi and lichens. The ongoing deposition of Saharan dust across the Amazon rainforest provides an iron-rich source of essential macronutrients and micronutrients to plant roots, and also directly to plant leaves during the wet season.
Adam P. Bateman, Zhaoheng Gong, Tristan H. Harder, Suzane S. de Sá, Bingbing Wang, Paulo Castillo, Swarup China, Yingjun Liu, Rachel E. O'Brien, Brett B. Palm, Hung-Wei Shiu, Glauber G. Cirino, Ryan Thalman, Kouji Adachi, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Paulo Artaxo, Allan K. Bertram, Peter R. Buseck, Mary K. Gilles, Jose L. Jimenez, Alexander Laskin, Antonio O. Manzi, Arthur Sedlacek, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Jian Wang, Rahul Zaveri, and Scot T. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1759–1773,Short summary
The occurrence of nonliquid and liquid physical states of submicron atmospheric particulate matter (PM) downwind of an urban region in central Amazonia was investigated. Air masses representing background conditions, urban pollution, and regional- and continental-scale biomass were measured. Anthropogenic influences contributed to the presence of nonliquid PM in the atmospheric particle population, while liquid PM dominated during periods of biogenic influence.
Kerneels Jaars, Pieter G. van Zyl, Johan P. Beukes, Heidi Hellén, Ville Vakkari, Micky Josipovic, Andrew D. Venter, Matti Räsänen, Leandra Knoetze, Dirk P. Cilliers, Stefan J. Siebert, Markku Kulmala, Janne Rinne, Alex Guenther, Lauri Laakso, and Hannele Hakola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15665–15688,Short summary
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) – important in tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol formation – were measured at a savannah grassland in South Africa. Results presented are the most extensive for this type of landscape. Compared to other parts of the world, monoterpene levels were similar, while very low isoprene levels led to significantly lower total BVOC levels. BVOC levels were an order of magnitude lower compared to anthropogenic VOC levels measured at Welgegund.
Michael J. Lawler, Paul M. Winkler, Jaeseok Kim, Lars Ahlm, Jasmin Tröstl, Arnaud P. Praplan, Siegfried Schobesberger, Andreas Kürten, Jasper Kirkby, Federico Bianchi, Jonathan Duplissy, Armin Hansel, Tuija Jokinen, Helmi Keskinen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Markus Leiminger, Tuukka Petäjä, Matti Rissanen, Linda Rondo, Mario Simon, Mikko Sipilä, Christina Williamson, Daniela Wimmer, Ilona Riipinen, Annele Virtanen, and James N. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13601–13618,Short summary
We present chemical observations of newly formed particles as small as ~ 10 nm from new particle formation experiments using sulfuric acid, dimethylamine, ammonia, and water vapor as gas phase reactants. The nanoparticles were more acidic than expected based on thermodynamic expectations, particularly at the smallest measured sizes. The results suggest rapid surface conversion of SO2 to sulfate and show a marked composition change between 10 and 15 nm, possibly indicating a phase change.
Ivan Kourtchev, Ricardo H. M. Godoi, Sarah Connors, James G. Levine, Alex T. Archibald, Ana F. L. Godoi, Sarah L. Paralovo, Cybelli G. G. Barbosa, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Antonio O. Manzi, Roger Seco, Steve Sjostedt, Jeong-Hoo Park, Alex Guenther, Saewung Kim, James Smith, Scot T. Martin, and Markus Kalberer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11899–11913,
Weiwei Hu, Brett B. Palm, Douglas A. Day, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jordan E. Krechmer, Zhe Peng, Suzane S. de Sá, Scot T. Martin, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Karsten Baumann, Lina Hacker, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Abigail R. Koss, Joost A. de Gouw, Allen H. Goldstein, Roger Seco, Steven J. Sjostedt, Jeong-Hoo Park, Alex B. Guenther, Saewung Kim, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, William H. Brune, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11563–11580,Short summary
IEPOX-SOA is biogenically derived secondary organic aerosol under anthropogenic influence, which has been shown to comprise a substantial fraction of OA globally. We investigated the lifetime of ambient IEPOX-SOA in the SE US and Amazonia, with an oxidation flow reactor and thermodenuder coupled with MS-based instrumentation. The low volatility and long lifetime of IEPOX-SOA against OH radicals' oxidation (> 2 weeks) was observed, which can help to constrain OA impact on air quality and climate.
Maite Bauwens, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, Jean-François Müller, Isabelle De Smedt, Michel Van Roozendael, Guido R. van der Werf, Christine Wiedinmyer, Johannes W. Kaiser, Katerina Sindelarova, and Alex Guenther
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10133–10158,Short summary
Relying on a 9-year record of satellite observations of formaldehyde, we use inverse techniques to derive global top–down hydrocarbon fluxes over 2005–2013, infer seasonal and interannual variability, and detect emission trends. Our results suggest changes in fire seasonal patterns, a stronger contribution of agricultural burning, overestimated isoprene flux rates in the tropics, overly decreased isoprene emissions due to soil moisture stress in arid areas, and enhanced isoprene trends.
Pawel K. Misztal, Jeremy C. Avise, Thomas Karl, Klaus Scott, Haflidi H. Jonsson, Alex B. Guenther, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9611–9628,Short summary
In this study, for the first time regional BVOC models are compared with direct regional measurements of fluxes from aircraft, allowing assessment of model accuracy at scales relevant to air quality modeling. We directly assess modeled isoprene emission inventories which are important for regional air quality simulations of ozone and secondary particle concentrations.
Anna L. Hodshire, Michael J. Lawler, Jun Zhao, John Ortega, Coty Jen, Taina Yli-Juuti, Jared F. Brewer, Jack K. Kodros, Kelley C. Barsanti, Dave R. Hanson, Peter H. McMurry, James N. Smith, and Jeffery R. Pierce
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9321–9348,Short summary
Processes that control the growth of newly formed particles are not well understood and limit predictions of aerosol climate impacts. We combine state-of-the-art measurements at a central-US site with a particle-growth model to investigate the species and processes contributing to growth. Observed growth was dominated by organics, sulfate salts, or a mixture of these two. The model qualitatively captures the variability between different days.
Albert Rivas-Ubach, Yina Liu, Jordi Sardans, Malak M. Tfaily, Young-Mo Kim, Eric Bourrianne, Ljiljana Paša-Tolić, Josep Peñuelas, and Alex Guenther
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Kathryn M. Emmerson, Ian E. Galbally, Alex B. Guenther, Clare Paton-Walsh, Elise-Andree Guerette, Martin E. Cope, Melita D. Keywood, Sarah J. Lawson, Suzie B. Molloy, Erin Dunne, Marcus Thatcher, Thomas Karl, and Simin D. Maleknia
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6997–7011,Short summary
We have tested how a model using a global inventory of plant-based emissions compares with four sets of measurements made in southeast Australia. This region is known for its eucalypt species, which dominate the summertime global inventory. The Australian part of the inventory has been produced using measurements made on eucalypt saplings. The model could not match the measurements, and the inventory needs to be improved by taking measurements of a wider range of Australian plant types and ages.
Chun Zhao, Maoyi Huang, Jerome D. Fast, Larry K. Berg, Yun Qian, Alex Guenther, Dasa Gu, Manish Shrivastava, Ying Liu, Stacy Walters, Gabriele Pfister, Jiming Jin, John E. Shilling, and Carsten Warneke
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 1959–1976,Short summary
In this study, the latest version of MEGAN is coupled within CLM4 in WRF-Chem. In this implementation, MEGAN shares a consistent vegetation map with CLM4. This improved modeling framework is used to investigate the impact of two land surface schemes on BVOCs and examine the sensitivity of BVOCs to vegetation distributions in California. This study indicates that more effort is needed to obtain the most appropriate and accurate land cover data sets for climate and air quality models.
Dominique E. Young, Hwajin Kim, Caroline Parworth, Shan Zhou, Xiaolu Zhang, Christopher D. Cappa, Roger Seco, Saewung Kim, and Qi Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5427–5451,Short summary
Aerosol chemistry and the sources and processes driving the observed temporal and diurnal variations of PM were studied in a polluted urban environment during winter 2013. These results were compared to a similar campaign from winter 2010. Meteorology strongly influenced PM composition, both directly and indirectly. Nighttime reactions played a more important role in 2013 and the influence from a nighttime formed residual layer that mixed down in the morning was also much more intense in 2013.
S. T. Martin, P. Artaxo, L. A. T. Machado, A. O. Manzi, R. A. F. Souza, C. Schumacher, J. Wang, M. O. Andreae, H. M. J. Barbosa, J. Fan, G. Fisch, A. H. Goldstein, A. Guenther, J. L. Jimenez, U. Pöschl, M. A. Silva Dias, J. N. Smith, and M. Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4785–4797,Short summary
The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) Experiment took place in central Amazonia throughout 2014 and 2015. The experiment focused on the complex links among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other, especially when altered by urban pollution. This article serves as an introduction to the special issue of publications presenting findings of this experiment.
Eliane G. Alves, Kolby Jardine, Julio Tota, Angela Jardine, Ana Maria Yãnez-Serrano, Thomas Karl, Julia Tavares, Bruce Nelson, Dasa Gu, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, Scot Martin, Paulo Artaxo, Antonio Manzi, and Alex Guenther
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3903–3925,Short summary
For a long time, it was thought that tropical rainforests are evergreen forests and the processes involved in these ecosystems do not change all year long. However, some satellite retrievals have suggested that ecophysiological processes may present seasonal variations mainly due to variation in light and leaf phenology in Amazonia. These in situ measurements are the first showing of a seasonal trend of volatile organic compound emissions, correlating with light and leaf phenology in Amazonia.
J. Kim, L. Ahlm, T. Yli-Juuti, M. Lawler, H. Keskinen, J. Tröstl, S. Schobesberger, J. Duplissy, A. Amorim, F. Bianchi, N. M. Donahue, R. C. Flagan, J. Hakala, M. Heinritzi, T. Jokinen, A. Kürten, A. Laaksonen, K. Lehtipalo, P. Miettinen, T. Petäjä, M. P. Rissanen, L. Rondo, K. Sengupta, M. Simon, A. Tomé, C. Williamson, D. Wimmer, P. M. Winkler, S. Ehrhart, P. Ye, J. Kirkby, J. Curtius, U. Baltensperger, M. Kulmala, K. E. J. Lehtinen, J. N. Smith, I. Riipinen, and A. Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 293–304,Short summary
The hygroscopicity of nucleated nanoparticles was measured in the presence of sulfuric acid, sulfuric acid-dimethylamine, and sulfuric acid-organics derived from α-pinene oxidation during CLOUD7 at CERN in 2012. The hygroscopicity parameter κ decreased with increasing particle size, indicating decreasing acidity of particles.
F. Yu, G. Luo, S. C. Pryor, P. R. Pillai, S. H. Lee, J. Ortega, J. J. Schwab, A. G. Hallar, W. R. Leaitch, V. P. Aneja, J. N. Smith, J. T. Walker, O. Hogrefe, and K. L. Demerjian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13993–14003,Short summary
The role of low-volatility organics in new particle formation (NPF) in the atmosphere is assessed. An empirical formulation in which formation rate is a function of the concentrations of sulfuric acid and low-volatility organics significantly overpredicts NPF in the summer. Two different schemes predict quite different nucleation rates (including their spatial patterns), concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei, and aerosol first indirect radiative forcing in North America.
R. Gonzalez-Abraham, S. H. Chung, J. Avise, B. Lamb, E. P. Salathé Jr., C. G. Nolte, D. Loughlin, A. Guenther, C. Wiedinmyer, T. Duhl, Y. Zhang, and D. G. Streets
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12645–12665,
T. Stavrakou, J.-F. Müller, M. Bauwens, I. De Smedt, M. Van Roozendael, M. De Mazière, C. Vigouroux, F. Hendrick, M. George, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, and A. Guenther
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11861–11884,Short summary
Formaldehyde columns from two space sensors, GOME-2 and OMI, constrain by inverse modeling the global emissions of HCHO precursors in 2010. The resulting biogenic and pyrogenic fluxes from both optimizations show a very good degree of consistency. The isoprene fluxes are reduced globally by ca. 10%, and emissions from fires decrease by ca. 35%, compared to the prior. Anthropogenic emissions are weakly constrained except over China. Sensitivity inversions show robustness of the inferred fluxes.
F. Xiong, K. M. McAvey, K. A. Pratt, C. J. Groff, M. A. Hostetler, M. A. Lipton, T. K. Starn, J. V. Seeley, S. B. Bertman, A. P. Teng, J. D. Crounse, T. B. Nguyen, P. O. Wennberg, P. K. Misztal, A. H. Goldstein, A. B. Guenther, A. R. Koss, K. F. Olson, J. A. de Gouw, K. Baumann, E. S. Edgerton, P. A. Feiner, L. Zhang, D. O. Miller, W. H. Brune, and P. B. Shepson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11257–11272,Short summary
Hydroxynitrates from isoprene oxidation were quantified both in the laboratory and through field studies. The yield of hydroxynitrates 9(+4/-3)% derived from chamber experiments was applied in a zero-dimensional model to simulate the production and loss of isoprene hydroxynitrates in an ambient environment during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS). NOx was determined to be the limiting factor for the formation of isoprene hydroxynitrates during SOAS.
M. O. Andreae, O. C. Acevedo, A. Araùjo, P. Artaxo, C. G. G. Barbosa, H. M. J. Barbosa, J. Brito, S. Carbone, X. Chi, B. B. L. Cintra, N. F. da Silva, N. L. Dias, C. Q. Dias-Júnior, F. Ditas, R. Ditz, A. F. L. Godoi, R. H. M. Godoi, M. Heimann, T. Hoffmann, J. Kesselmeier, T. Könemann, M. L. Krüger, J. V. Lavric, A. O. Manzi, A. P. Lopes, D. L. Martins, E. F. Mikhailov, D. Moran-Zuloaga, B. W. Nelson, A. C. Nölscher, D. Santos Nogueira, M. T. F. Piedade, C. Pöhlker, U. Pöschl, C. A. Quesada, L. V. Rizzo, C.-U. Ro, N. Ruckteschler, L. D. A. Sá, M. de Oliveira Sá, C. B. Sales, R. M. N. dos Santos, J. Saturno, J. Schöngart, M. Sörgel, C. M. de Souza, R. A. F. de Souza, H. Su, N. Targhetta, J. Tóta, I. Trebs, S. Trumbore, A. van Eijck, D. Walter, Z. Wang, B. Weber, J. Williams, J. Winderlich, F. Wittmann, S. Wolff, and A. M. Yáñez-Serrano
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10723–10776,Short summary
This paper describes the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO), a new atmosphere-biosphere observatory located in the remote Amazon Basin. It presents results from ecosystem ecology, meteorology, trace gas, and aerosol measurements collected at the ATTO site during the first 3 years of operation.
L. Zhou, R. Gierens, A. Sogachev, D. Mogensen, J. Ortega, J. N. Smith, P. C. Harley, A. J. Prenni, E. J. T. Levin, A. Turnipseed, A. Rusanen, S. Smolander, A. B. Guenther, M. Kulmala, T. Karl, and M. Boy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8643–8656,
G. Wohlfahrt, C. Amelynck, C. Ammann, A. Arneth, I. Bamberger, A. H. Goldstein, L. Gu, A. Guenther, A. Hansel, B. Heinesch, T. Holst, L. Hörtnagl, T. Karl, Q. Laffineur, A. Neftel, K. McKinney, J. W. Munger, S. G. Pallardy, G. W. Schade, R. Seco, and N. Schoon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7413–7427,Short summary
Methanol is the second most abundant volatile organic compound in the troposphere and plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. While there is consensus about the dominant role of plants as the major source and the reaction with OH as the major sink, global methanol budgets diverge considerably in terms of source/sink estimates. Here we present micrometeorological methanol flux data from eight sites in order to provide a first cross-site synthesis of the terrestrial methanol exchange.
S. Kim, S.-Y. Kim, M. Lee, H. Shim, G. M. Wolfe, A. B. Guenther, A. He, Y. Hong, and J. Han
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4357–4371,
R. Thalman, M. T. Baeza-Romero, S. M. Ball, E. Borrás, M. J. S. Daniels, I. C. A. Goodall, S. B. Henry, T. Karl, F. N. Keutsch, S. Kim, J. Mak, P. S. Monks, A. Muñoz, J. Orlando, S. Peppe, A. R. Rickard, M. Ródenas, P. Sánchez, R. Seco, L. Su, G. Tyndall, M. Vázquez, T. Vera, E. Waxman, and R. Volkamer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1835–1862,Short summary
Measurements of α-dicarbonyl compounds, like glyoxal (CHOCHO) and methyl glyoxal (CH3C(O)CHO), are informative about the rate of hydrocarbon oxidation, oxidative capacity, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in the atmosphere. We have compared nine instruments and seven techniques to measure α-dicarbonyl, using simulation chamber facilities in the US and Europe. We assess our understanding of calibration, precision, accuracy and detection limits, as well as possible sampling biases.
L. Q. Hao, A. Kortelainen, S. Romakkaniemi, H. Portin, A. Jaatinen, A. Leskinen, M. Komppula, P. Miettinen, D. Sueper, A. Pajunoja, J. N. Smith, K. E. J. Lehtinen, D. R. Worsnop, A. Laaksonen, and A. Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13483–13495,Short summary
Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to the unified high-resolution mass spectra organic species with NO+ and NO2+ ions from the measurement in a mixed region between the boreal forestland and the urban area. The PMF analysis succeeded in separating the mixed spectra into three distinct organic factors and one inorganic factor. The particulate organic nitrate was distinguished by PMF for the first time, with a contribution of one-third of the total nitrate mass.
C. S. Brauer, T. A. Blake, A. B. Guenther, S. W. Sharpe, R. L. Sams, and T. J. Johnson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3839–3847,
Y. You, V. P. Kanawade, J. A. de Gouw, A. B. Guenther, S. Madronich, M. R. Sierra-Hernández, M. Lawler, J. N. Smith, S. Takahama, G. Ruggeri, A. Koss, K. Olson, K. Baumann, R. J. Weber, A. Nenes, H. Guo, E. S. Edgerton, L. Porcelli, W. H. Brune, A. H. Goldstein, and S.-H. Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12181–12194,Short summary
Amiens play important roles in atmospheric secondary aerosol formation and human health, but the fast response measurements of amines are lacking. Here we show measurements in a southeastern US forest and a moderately polluted midwestern site. Our results show that gas to particle conversion is an important process that controls ambient amine concentrations and that biomass burning is an important source of amines.
M. J. Lawler, J. Whitehead, C. O'Dowd, C. Monahan, G. McFiggans, and J. N. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11557–11569,Short summary
This work describes the chemical and physical characterization of very small (< 100 nm diameter) particles in the marine atmosphere. We show that sea salt is present even at very small sizes and present evidence that organic species are important contributors to apparent new particle formation events over the ocean.
Y. Y. Cui, A. Hodzic, J. N. Smith, J. Ortega, J. Brioude, H. Matsui, E. J. T. Levin, A. Turnipseed, P. Winkler, and B. de Foy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11011–11029,
P. K. Misztal, T. Karl, R. Weber, H. H. Jonsson, A. B. Guenther, and A. H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10631–10647,
S. Smolander, Q. He, D. Mogensen, L. Zhou, J. Bäck, T. Ruuskanen, S. Noe, A. Guenther, H. Aaltonen, M. Kulmala, and M. Boy
Biogeosciences, 11, 5425–5443,
K. Sindelarova, C. Granier, I. Bouarar, A. Guenther, S. Tilmes, T. Stavrakou, J.-F. Müller, U. Kuhn, P. Stefani, and W. Knorr
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9317–9341,
R. J. Park, S. K. Hong, H.-A. Kwon, S. Kim, A. Guenther, J.-H. Woo, and C. P. Loughner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7929–7940,
E. A. Marais, D. J. Jacob, A. Guenther, K. Chance, T. P. Kurosu, J. G. Murphy, C. E. Reeves, and H. O. T. Pye
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7693–7703,
J. P. Greenberg, J. Peñuelas, A. Guenther, R. Seco, A. Turnipseed, X. Jiang, I. Filella, M. Estiarte, J. Sardans, R. Ogaya, J. Llusia, and F. Rapparini
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2263–2271,
K. Jaars, J. P. Beukes, P. G. van Zyl, A. D. Venter, M. Josipovic, J. J. Pienaar, V. Vakkari, H. Aaltonen, H. Laakso, M. Kulmala, P. Tiitta, A. Guenther, H. Hellén, L. Laakso, and H. Hakola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7075–7089,
J. Ortega, A. Turnipseed, A. B. Guenther, T. G. Karl, D. A. Day, D. Gochis, J. A. Huffman, A. J. Prenni, E. J. T. Levin, S. M. Kreidenweis, P. J. DeMott, Y. Tobo, E. G. Patton, A. Hodzic, Y. Y. Cui, P. C. Harley, R. S. Hornbrook, E. C. Apel, R. K. Monson, A. S. D. Eller, J. P. Greenberg, M. C. Barth, P. Campuzano-Jost, B. B. Palm, J. L. Jimenez, A. C. Aiken, M. K. Dubey, C. Geron, J. Offenberg, M. G. Ryan, P. J. Fornwalt, S. C. Pryor, F. N. Keutsch, J. P. DiGangi, A. W. H. Chan, A. H. Goldstein, G. M. Wolfe, S. Kim, L. Kaser, R. Schnitzhofer, A. Hansel, C. A. Cantrell, R. L. Mauldin, and J. N. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6345–6367,
M. Liu, K. Rajagopalan, S. H. Chung, X. Jiang, J. Harrison, T. Nergui, A. Guenther, C. Miller, J. Reyes, C. Tague, J. Choate, E. P. Salathé, C. O. Stöckle, and J. C. Adam
Biogeosciences, 11, 2601–2622,
G. M. Wolfe, C. Cantrell, S. Kim, R. L. Mauldin III, T. Karl, P. Harley, A. Turnipseed, W. Zheng, F. Flocke, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, S. R. Hall, K. Ullmann, S. B. Henry, J. P. DiGangi, E. S. Boyle, L. Kaser, R. Schnitzhofer, A. Hansel, M. Graus, Y. Nakashima, Y. Kajii, A. Guenther, and F. N. Keutsch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4715–4732,
R. Zhang, T. Duhl, M. T. Salam, J. M. House, R. C. Flagan, E. L. Avol, F. D. Gilliland, A. Guenther, S. H. Chung, B. K. Lamb, and T. M. VanReken
Biogeosciences, 11, 1461–1478,
E. J. T. Levin, A. J. Prenni, B. B. Palm, D. A. Day, P. Campuzano-Jost, P. M. Winkler, S. M. Kreidenweis, P. J. DeMott, J. L. Jimenez, and J. N. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2657–2667,
L. Kaser, T. Karl, A. Guenther, M. Graus, R. Schnitzhofer, A. Turnipseed, L. Fischer, P. Harley, M. Madronich, D. Gochis, F. N. Keutsch, and A. Hansel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11935–11947,
S. Situ, A. Guenther, X. Wang, X. Jiang, A. Turnipseed, Z. Wu, J. Bai, and X. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11803–11817,
N. Unger, K. Harper, Y. Zheng, N. Y. Kiang, I. Aleinov, A. Arneth, G. Schurgers, C. Amelynck, A. Goldstein, A. Guenther, B. Heinesch, C. N. Hewitt, T. Karl, Q. Laffineur, B. Langford, K. A. McKinney, P. Misztal, M. Potosnak, J. Rinne, S. Pressley, N. Schoon, and D. Serça
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10243–10269,
M. R. Pennington, B. R. Bzdek, J. W. DePalma, J. N. Smith, A.-M. Kortelainen, L. Hildebrandt Ruiz, T. Petäjä, M. Kulmala, D. R. Worsnop, and M. V. Johnston
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10215–10225,
J. E. Mak, L. Su, A. Guenther, and T. Karl
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2703–2712,
J. Zhao, J. Ortega, M. Chen, P. H. McMurry, and J. N. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7631–7644,
X. Tie, F. Geng, A. Guenther, J. Cao, J. Greenberg, R. Zhang, E. Apel, G. Li, A. Weinheimer, J. Chen, and C. Cai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5655–5669,
S. Lance, T. Raatikainen, T. B. Onasch, D. R. Worsnop, X.-Y. Yu, M. L. Alexander, M. R. Stolzenburg, P. H. McMurry, J. N. Smith, and A. Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5049–5062,
R. Seco, J. Peñuelas, I. Filella, J. Llusia, S. Schallhart, A. Metzger, M. Müller, and A. Hansel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4291–4306,
T. R. Duhl, R. Zhang, A. Guenther, S. H. Chung, M. T. Salam, J. M. House, R. C. Flagan, E. L. Avol, F. D. Gilliland, B. K. Lamb, T. M. VanReken, Y. Zhang, and E. Salathé
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
L. Kaser, T. Karl, R. Schnitzhofer, M. Graus, I. S. Herdlinger-Blatt, J. P. DiGangi, B. Sive, A. Turnipseed, R. S. Hornbrook, W. Zheng, F. M. Flocke, A. Guenther, F. N. Keutsch, E. Apel, and A. Hansel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2893–2906,
T. R. Duhl, D. Gochis, A. Guenther, S. Ferrenberg, and E. Pendall
Biogeosciences, 10, 483–499,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Measurement report: Hydrogen peroxide in the upper tropical troposphere over the Atlantic Ocean and western Africa during the CAFE-Africa aircraft campaignA new insight into the vertical differences in NO2 heterogeneous reaction to produce HONO over inland and marginal seasChemical identification of new particle formation and growth precursors through positive matrix factorization of ambient ion measurementsSnowpack nitrate photolysis drives the summertime atmospheric nitrous acid (HONO) budget in coastal AntarcticaRevealing the sources and sinks of negative cluster ions in an urban environment through quantitative analysisMeasurement report: Molecular-level investigation of atmospheric cluster ions at the tropical high-altitude research station Chacaltaya (5240 m a.s.l.) in the Bolivian AndesObservations of biogenic volatile organic compounds over a mixed temperate forest during the summer to autumn transitionUnexpectedly high concentrations of atmospheric mercury species in Lhasa, the largest city in the Tibetan PlateauO3 and PAN in southern Tibetan Plateau determined by distinct physical and chemical processesReal-time measurements of non-methane volatile organic compounds in the central Indo-Gangetic basin, Lucknow, India: source characterisation and their role in O3 and secondary organic aerosol formationMeasurement report: Production and loss of atmospheric formaldehyde at a suburban site of Shanghai in summertimeMeasurement report: Volatile organic compound characteristics of the different land-use types in Shanghai: spatiotemporal variation, source apportionment and impact on secondary formations of ozone and aerosolO3–precursor relationship over multiple patterns of timescale: a case study in Zibo, Shandong Province, ChinaHigh emission rates and strong temperature response make boreal wetlands a large source of isoprene and terpenesElucidate the formation mechanism of particulate nitrate based on direct radical observations in the Yangtze River Delta summer 2019Pandemic restrictions in 2020 highlight the significance of non-road NOx sources in central LondonMeasurement report: Emission factors of NH3 and NHx for wildfires and agricultural fires in the United StatesMeasurement Report: MAX-DOAS measurements characterise Central London ozone pollution episodes during 2022 heatwavesExperimental chemical budgets of OH, HO2, and RO2 radicals in rural air in western Germany during the JULIAC campaign 2019Chemical and dynamical identification of emission outflows during the HALO campaign EMeRGe in Europe and AsiaLevels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Antarctic atmosphere over time (1980 to 2021) and estimation of their atmospheric half-lives.Flaring efficiencies and NOx emission ratios measured for offshore oil and gas facilities in the North SeaMeasurement report: Long-range transport and the fate of dimethyl sulfide oxidation products in the free troposphere derived from observations at the high-altitude research station Chacaltaya (5240 m a.s.l.) in the Bolivian AndesFormaldehyde and hydroperoxide distribution around the Arabian Peninsula – evaluation of EMAC model results with ship-based measurementsHeterogeneity and chemical reactivity of the remote troposphere defined by aircraft measurements – correctedFundamental oxidation processes in the remote marine atmosphere investigated using the NO–NO2–O3 photostationary stateEmission factors and evolution of SO2 measured from biomass burning in wildfires and agricultural firesThe unexpected high frequency of nocturnal surface ozone enhancement events over China: characteristics and mechanismsSource apportionment of VOCs, IVOCs and SVOCs by positive matrix factorization in suburban Livermore, CaliforniaMeasurement report: Intra- and interannual variability and source apportionment of volatile organic compounds during 2018–2020 in Zhengzhou, central ChinaFormation and impacts of nitryl chloride in Pearl River DeltaMultidecadal increases in global tropospheric ozone derived from ozonesonde and surface site observations: can models reproduce ozone trends?Vertical distribution of sources and sinks of VOCs within a boreal forest canopyWhat caused ozone pollution during the 2022 Shanghai lockdown? Insights from ground and satellite observationsTechnical note: Isolating methane emissions from animal feeding operations in an interfering locationAmmonium adduct chemical ionization to investigate anthropogenic oxygenated gas-phase organic compounds in urban airAtmospheric biogenic volatile organic compounds in the Alaskan Arctic tundra: constraints from measurements at Toolik Field StationMeasurement report: Underestimated reactive organic gases from residential combustion: insights from a near-complete speciationAre dense networks of low-cost nodes really useful for monitoring air pollution? A case study in StaffordshireTechnical note: Northern midlatitude baseline ozone – long-term changes and the COVID-19 impactQuantifying the importance of vehicle ammonia emissions in an urban area of northeastern USA utilizing nitrogen isotopesSeasonal variation in nitryl chloride and its relation to gas-phase precursors during the JULIAC campaign in GermanyMeasurement Report: Atmospheric CH4 at regional stations of the Korea Meteorological Administration/Global Atmosphere Watch Programme: measurement, characteristics and long-term changes of its driversOH measurements in the coastal atmosphere of South China: missing OH sinks in aged air massesRadical chemistry in the Pearl River Delta: observations and modeling of OH and HO2 radicals in Shenzhen in 2018Reconciling the total carbon budget for boreal forest wildfire emissions using airborne observationsSummer variability of the atmospheric NO2 : NO ratio at Dome C on the East Antarctic PlateauMeasurement report: Ambient volatile organic compound (VOC) pollution in urban Beijing: characteristics, sources, and implications for pollution controlMass spectrometric measurements of ambient ions and estimation of gaseous sulfuric acid in the free troposphere and lowermost stratosphere during the CAFE-EU/BLUESKY campaignSpringtime nitrogen oxides and tropospheric ozone in Svalbard: results from the measurement station network
Zaneta Hamryszczak, Dirk Dienhart, Bettina Brendel, Roland Rohloff, Daniel Marno, Monica Martinez, Hartwig Harder, Andrea Pozzer, Birger Bohn, Martin Zöger, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5929–5943,Short summary
Hydrogen peroxide is a key contributor to the oxidative chemistry of the atmosphere through its link to the most prominent oxidants controlling its self-cleansing capacity, HOx. During the CAFE-Africa campaign, H2O2 was measured over the Atlantic Ocean and western Africa in August/September 2018. The study gives an overview of the distribution of H2O2 in the upper tropical troposphere and investigates the impact of convective processes in the Intertropical Convergence Zone on the budget of H2O2.
Chengzhi Xing, Shiqi Xu, Yuhang Song, Cheng Liu, Yuhan Liu, Keding Lu, Wei Tan, Chengxin Zhang, Qihou Hu, Shanshan Wang, Hongyu Wu, and Hua Lin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5815–5834,Short summary
High RH could contribute to the secondary formation of HONO in the sea atmosphere. High temperature could promote the formation of HONO from NO2 heterogeneous reactions in the sea and coastal atmosphere. The aerosol surface plays a more important role during the above process in coastal and sea cases. The generation rate of HONO from the NO2 heterogeneous reaction in the sea cases is larger than that in inland cases in higher atmospheric layers above 600 m.
Daniel John Katz, Aroob Abdelhamid, Harald Stark, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Eleanor C. Browne
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5567–5585,Short summary
Ambient ion chemical composition measurements provide insight into trace gases that are precursors for the formation and growth of new aerosol particles. We use a new data analysis approach to increase the chemical information from these measurements. We analyze results from an agricultural region, a little studied land use type that is ~41 % of global land use, and find that the composition of gases important for aerosol formation and growth differs significantly from that in other ecosystems.
Amelia M. H. Bond, Markus M. Frey, Jan Kaiser, Jörg Kleffmann, Anna E. Jones, and Freya A. Squires
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5533–5550,Short summary
Atmospheric nitrous acid (HONO) amount fractions measured at Halley Research Station, Antarctica, were found to be low. Vertical fluxes of HONO from the snow were also measured and agree with the estimated HONO production rate from photolysis of snow nitrate. In a simple box model of HONO sources and sinks, there was good agreement between the measured flux and amount fraction. HONO was found to be an important OH radical source at Halley.
Rujing Yin, Xiaoxiao Li, Chao Yan, Runlong Cai, Ying Zhou, Juha Kangasluoma, Nina Sarnela, Janne Lampilahti, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Federico Bianchi, Markku Kulmala, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5279–5296,Short summary
Atmospheric cluster ions are important constituents in the atmosphere. However, the quantitative research on their compositions is still limited, especially in urban environments. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of an in situ quantification method of cluster ions measured by a high-resolution mass spectrometer and reveal their governing factors, sources, and sinks in urban Beijing through quantitative analysis of cluster ions, reagent ions, neutral molecules, and condensation sink.
Qiaozhi Zha, Wei Huang, Diego Aliaga, Otso Peräkylä, Liine Heikkinen, Alkuin Maximilian Koenig, Cheng Wu, Joonas Enroth, Yvette Gramlich, Jing Cai, Samara Carbone, Armin Hansel, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Douglas Worsnop, Victoria Sinclair, Radovan Krejci, Marcos Andrade, Claudia Mohr, and Federico Bianchi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4559–4576,Short summary
We investigate the chemical composition of atmospheric cluster ions from January to May 2018 at the high-altitude research station Chacaltaya (5240 m a.s.l.) in the Bolivian Andes. With state-of-the-art mass spectrometers and air mass history analysis, the measured cluster ions exhibited distinct diurnal and seasonal patterns, some of which contributed to new particle formation. Our study will improve the understanding of atmospheric ions and their role in high-altitude new particle formation.
Michael P. Vermeuel, Gordon A. Novak, Delaney B. Kilgour, Megan S. Claflin, Brian M. Lerner, Amy M. Trowbridge, Jonathan Thom, Patricia A. Cleary, Ankur R. Desai, and Timothy H. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4123–4148,Short summary
Reactive carbon species emitted from natural sources such as forests play an important role in the chemistry of the atmosphere. Predictions of these emissions are based on plant responses during the growing season and do not consider potential effects from seasonal changes. To address this, we made measurements of reactive carbon over a forest during the summer to autumn transition. We learned that observed concentrations and emissions for some key species are larger than model predictions.
Huiming Lin, Yindong Tong, Long Chen, Chenghao Yu, Zhaohan Chu, Qianru Zhang, Xiufeng Yin, Qianggong Zhang, Shichang Kang, Junfeng Liu, James Schauer, Benjamin de Foy, and Xuejun Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3937–3953,Short summary
Lhasa is the largest city in the Tibetan Plateau, and its atmospheric mercury concentrations represent the highest level of pollution in this region. Unexpectedly high concentrations of atmospheric mercury species were found. Combined with the trajectory analysis, the high atmospheric mercury concentrations may have originated from external long-range transport. Local sources, especially special mercury-related sources, are important factors influencing the variability of atmospheric mercury.
Wanyun Xu, Yuxuan Bian, Weili Lin, Yingjie Zhang, Yaru Wang, Gen Zhang, Chunxiang Ye, and Xiaobin Xu
Tropospheric ozone (O3) and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) are both photochemical pollutants harmful to the ecological environment and human health, especially in the Tibetan Plateau (TP). However, the factors determining their variations in the TP have not been comprehensively investigated. Results from field measurements and observation-based model revealed that day to day variations in O3 and PAN were in fact controlled by distinct physiochemical processes.
Vaishali Jain, Nidhi Tripathi, Sachchida N. Tripathi, Mansi Gupta, Lokesh K. Sahu, Vishnu Murari, Sreenivas Gaddamidi, Ashutosh K. Shukla, and Andre S. H. Prevot
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3383–3408,Short summary
This research chemically characterises 173 different NMVOCs (non-methane volatile organic compounds) measured in real time for three seasons in the city of the central Indo-Gangetic basin of India, Lucknow. Receptor modelling is used to analyse probable sources of NMVOCs and their crucial role in forming ozone and secondary organic aerosols. It is observed that vehicular emissions and solid fuel combustion are the highest contributors to the emission of primary and secondary NMVOCs.
Yizhen Wu, Juntao Huo, Gan Yang, Yuwei Wang, Lihong Wang, Shijian Wu, Lei Yao, Qingyan Fu, and Lin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2997–3014,Short summary
Based on a field campaign in a suburban area of Shanghai during summer 2021, we calculated formaldehyde (HCHO) production rates from 24 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In addition, HCHO photolysis, reactions with OH radicals, and dry deposition were considered for the estimation of HCHO loss rates. Our results reveal the key precursors of HCHO and suggest that HCHO wet deposition may be an important loss term on cloudy and rainy days, which needs to be further investigated.
Yu Han, Tao Wang, Rui Li, Hongbo Fu, Yusen Duan, Song Gao, Liwu Zhang, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2877–2900,Short summary
Limited knowledge is available on volatile organic compound (VOC) multi-site research of different land-use types at city level. This study performed a concurrent multi-site observation campaign on the three typical land-use types of Shanghai, East China. The results showed that concentrations, sources and ozone and secondary organic aerosol formation potentials of VOCs varied with the land-use types.
Zhensen Zheng, Kangwei Li, Bo Xu, Jianping Dou, Liming Li, Guotao Zhang, Shijie Li, Chunmei Geng, Wen Yang, Merched Azzi, and Zhipeng Bai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2649–2665,Short summary
Previous box model studies applied different timescales of observational datasets to identify the O3–precursor relationship, but there is a lack of comparison among these different timescales regarding the impact of O3 formation chemistry. Through a case study at Zibo in China, we find that the O3 formation regime showed overall consistency but non-negligible variability among various patterns of timescale. This would be complementary in developing more accurate O3 pollution control strategies.
Lejish Vettikkat, Pasi Miettinen, Angela Buchholz, Pekka Rantala, Hao Yu, Simon Schallhart, Tuukka Petäjä, Roger Seco, Elisa Männistö, Markku Kulmala, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Alex B. Guenther, and Siegfried Schobesberger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2683–2698,Short summary
Wetlands cover a substantial fraction of the land mass in the northern latitudes, from northern Europe to Siberia and Canada. Yet, their isoprene and terpene emissions remain understudied. Here, we used a state-of-the-art measurement technique to quantify ecosystem-scale emissions from a boreal wetland during an unusually warm spring/summer. We found that the emissions from this wetland were (a) higher and (b) even more strongly dependent on temperature than commonly thought.
Tianyu Zhai, Keding Lu, Haichao Wang, Shengrong Lou, Xiaorui Chen, Renzhi Hu, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2379–2391,Short summary
Particulate nitrate is a growing issue in air pollution. Based on comprehensive field measurement, we show heavy nitrate pollution in eastern China in summer. OH reacting with NO2 at daytime dominates nitrate formation on clean days, while N2O5 hydrolysis largely enhances and become comparable with that of OH reacting with O2 on polluted days (67.2 % and 30.2 %). Model simulation indicates that VOC : NOx = 2 : 1 is effective in mitigating the O3 and nitrate pollution coordinately.
Samuel J. Cliff, Will Drysdale, James D. Lee, Carole Helfter, Eiko Nemitz, Stefan Metzger, and Janet F. Barlow
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2315–2330,Short summary
Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) to the atmosphere are an ongoing air quality issue. This study directly measures emissions of NOx and carbon dioxide from a tall tower in central London during the coronavirus pandemic. It was found that transport NOx emissions had reduced by >73 % since 2017 as a result of air quality policy and reduced congestion during coronavirus restrictions. During this period, central London was thought to be dominated by point-source heat and power generation emissions.
Laura Tomsche, Felix Piel, Tomas Mikoviny, Claus J. Nielsen, Hongyu Guo, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Melinda K. Schueneman, Jose L. Jimenez, Hannah Halliday, Glenn Diskin, Joshua P. DiGangi, John B. Nowak, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, Emily Gargulinski, Amber J. Soja, and Armin Wisthaler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2331–2343,Short summary
Ammonia (NH3) is an important trace gas in the atmosphere and fires are among the poorly investigated sources. During the 2019 Fire Influence on Regional to Global Environments and Air Quality (FIREX-AQ) aircraft campaign, we measured gaseous NH3 and particulate ammonium (NH4+) in smoke plumes emitted from 6 wildfires in the Western US and 66 small agricultural fires in the Southeastern US. We herein present a comprehensive set of emission factors of NH3 and NHx, where NHx = NH3 + NH4+.
Robert G. Ryan, Eloise Ann Marais, Eleanor Gershenson-Smith, Robbie Ramsay, Jan-Peter Muller, Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, and Udo Frieß
We describe first data retrieval from a newly installed instrument for long-term measurement of vertical profiles of air pollution over Central London during heatwaves in summer 2022. We combine these observations with surface air quality network measurements to support interpretation that exponential increase in biogenic emissions of isoprene during heatwaves provides the limiting ingredient for severe ozone pollution leading to non-compliance with the national ozone air quality standard.
Changmin Cho, Hendrik Fuchs, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Frank Holland, William J. Bloss, Birger Bohn, Hans-Peter Dorn, Marvin Glowania, Thorsten Hohaus, Lu Liu, Paul S. Monks, Doreen Niether, Franz Rohrer, Roberto Sommariva, Zhaofeng Tan, Ralf Tillmann, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Anna Novelli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2003–2033,Short summary
With this study, we investigated the processes leading to the formation, destruction, and recycling of radicals for four seasons in a rural environment. Complete knowledge of their chemistry is needed if we are to predict the formation of secondary pollutants from primary emissions. The results highlight a still incomplete understanding of the paths leading to the formation of the OH radical, which has been observed in several other environments as well and needs to be further investigated.
Eric Förster, Harald Bönisch, Marco Neumaier, Florian Obersteiner, Andreas Zahn, Andreas Hilboll, Anna B. Kalisz Hedegaard, Nikos Daskalakis, Alexandros Panagiotis Poulidis, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Michael Lichtenstern, and Peter Braesicke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1893–1918,Short summary
The airborne megacity campaign EMeRGe provided an unprecedented amount of trace gas measurements. We combine measured volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with trajectory-modelled emission uptakes to identify potential source regions of pollution. We also characterise the chemical fingerprints (e.g. biomass burning and anthropogenic signatures) of the probed air masses to corroborate the contributing source regions. Our approach is the first large-scale study of VOCs originating from megacities.
Thais Luarte, Victoria Antonieta Gómez-Aburto, Ignacio Poblete-Castro, Eduardo Castro-Nallar, Nicolás Hunneus, Marco Molina-Montenegro, Claudia Egas, Germán Azcune, Andrés Pérez-Parada, Rainier Lohmann, Pernilla Bohlin-Nizzetto, Jordi Dachs, Susan Bengtson-Nash, Gustavo Chiang, Karla Pozo, and Cristóbal Galbán-Malagón
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
In the last 40 years different research groups have reported on the atmospheric concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in Antarctica. In the present work we make a compilation to understand the historical trends. We estimate the atmospheric half-life of each compound. Of all the compounds studied HCB was the only one that showed no clear trend, while the rest of the studied compounds showed a significant decrease over time. This is consistent with results for polar and sub-polar zones.
Jacob T. Shaw, Amy Foulds, Shona Wilde, Patrick Barker, Freya A. Squires, James Lee, Ruth Purvis, Ralph Burton, Ioana Colfescu, Stephen Mobbs, Samuel Cliff, Stéphane J.-B. Bauguitte, Stuart Young, Stefan Schwietzke, and Grant Allen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1491–1509,Short summary
Flaring is used by the oil and gas sector to dispose of unwanted natural gas or for safety. However, few studies have assessed the efficiency with which the gas is combusted. We sampled flaring emissions from offshore facilities in the North Sea. Average measured flaring efficiencies were ~ 98 % but with a skewed distribution, including many flares of lower efficiency. NOx and ethane emissions were also measured. Inefficient flaring practices could be a target for mitigating carbon emissions.
Wiebke Scholz, Jiali Shen, Diego Aliaga, Cheng Wu, Samara Carbone, Isabel Moreno, Qiaozhi Zha, Wei Huang, Liine Heikkinen, Jean Luc Jaffrezo, Gaelle Uzu, Eva Partoll, Markus Leiminger, Fernando Velarde, Paolo Laj, Patrick Ginot, Paolo Artaxo, Alfred Wiedensohler, Markku Kulmala, Claudia Mohr, Marcos Andrade, Victoria Sinclair, Federico Bianchi, and Armin Hansel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 895–920,Short summary
Dimethyl sulfide (DMS), emitted from the ocean, is the most abundant biogenic sulfur emission into the atmosphere. OH radicals, among others, can oxidize DMS to sulfuric and methanesulfonic acid, which are relevant for aerosol formation. We quantified DMS and nearly all DMS oxidation products with novel mass spectrometric instruments for gas and particle phase at the high mountain station Chacaltaya (5240 m a.s.l.) in the Bolivian Andes in free tropospheric air after long-range transport.
Dirk Dienhart, Bettina Brendel, John N. Crowley, Philipp G. Eger, Hartwig Harder, Monica Martinez, Andrea Pozzer, Roland Rohloff, Jan Schuladen, Sebastian Tauer, David Walter, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 119–142,Short summary
Formaldehyde and hydroperoxide measurements were performed in the marine boundary layer around the Arabian Peninsula and highlight the Suez Canal and Arabian (Persian) Gulf as a hotspot of photochemical air pollution. A comparison with the EMAC model shows that the formaldehyde results match within a factor of 2, while hydrogen peroxide was overestimated by more than a factor of 5, which revealed enhanced HOx (OH+HO2) radicals in the simulation and an underestimation of dry deposition velocites.
Hao Guo, Clare M. Flynn, Michael J. Prather, Sarah A. Strode, Stephen D. Steenrod, Louisa Emmons, Forrest Lacey, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Arlene M. Fiore, Gus Correa, Lee T. Murray, Glenn M. Wolfe, Jason M. St. Clair, Michelle Kim, John Crounse, Glenn Diskin, Joshua DiGangi, Bruce C. Daube, Roisin Commane, Kathryn McKain, Jeff Peischl, Thomas B. Ryerson, Chelsea Thompson, Thomas F. Hanisco, Donald Blake, Nicola J. Blake, Eric C. Apel, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, James W. Elkins, Eric J. Hintsa, Fred L. Moore, and Steven C. Wofsy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 99–117,Short summary
We have prepared a unique and unusual result from the recent ATom aircraft mission: a measurement-based derivation of the production and loss rates of ozone and methane over the ocean basins. These are the key products of chemistry models used in assessments but have thus far lacked observational metrics. It also shows the scales of variability of atmospheric chemical rates and provides a major challenge to the atmospheric models.
Simone T. Andersen, Beth S. Nelson, Katie A. Read, Shalini Punjabi, Luis Neves, Matthew J. Rowlinson, James Hopkins, Tomás Sherwen, Lisa K. Whalley, James D. Lee, and Lucy J. Carpenter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15747–15765,Short summary
The cycling of NO and NO2 is important to understand to be able to predict O3 concentrations in the atmosphere. We have used long-term measurements from the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory together with model outputs to investigate the cycling of nitrogen oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in very clean marine air. This study shows that we understand the processes occurring in very clean air, but with small amounts of pollution in the air, known chemistry cannot explain what is observed.
Pamela S. Rickly, Hongyu Guo, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jose L. Jimenez, Glenn M. Wolfe, Ryan Bennett, Ilann Bourgeois, John D. Crounse, Jack E. Dibb, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Maximilian Dollner, Emily M. Gargulinski, Samuel R. Hall, Hannah S. Halliday, Thomas F. Hanisco, Reem A. Hannun, Jin Liao, Richard Moore, Benjamin A. Nault, John B. Nowak, Jeff Peischl, Claire E. Robinson, Thomas Ryerson, Kevin J. Sanchez, Manuel Schöberl, Amber J. Soja, Jason M. St. Clair, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Kirk Ullmann, Paul O. Wennberg, Bernadett Weinzierl, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, Edward L. Winstead, and Andrew W. Rollins
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15603–15620,Short summary
Biomass burning sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission factors range from 0.27–1.1 g kg-1 C. Biomass burning SO2 can quickly form sulfate and organosulfur, but these pathways are dependent on liquid water content and pH. Hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMS) appears to be directly emitted from some fire sources but is not the sole contributor to the organosulfur signal. It is shown that HMS and organosulfur chemistry may be an important S(IV) reservoir with the fate dependent on the surrounding conditions.
Cheng He, Xiao Lu, Haolin Wang, Haichao Wang, Yan Li, Guowen He, Yuanping He, Yurun Wang, Youlang Zhang, Yiming Liu, Qi Fan, and Shaojia Fan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15243–15261,Short summary
We report that nocturnal ozone enhancement (NOE) events are observed at a high annual frequency of 41 % over 800 sites in China in 2014–2019 (about 50 % higher than that over Europe or the US). High daytime ozone provides a rich ozone source in the nighttime residual layer, determining the overall high frequency of NOE events in China, and enhanced atmospheric mixing then triggers NOE events by allowing the ozone-rich air in the residual layer to be mixed into the nighttime boundary layer.
Rebecca A. Wernis, Nathan M. Kreisberg, Robert J. Weber, Greg T. Drozd, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14987–15019,Short summary
We measured volatile and intermediate-volatility gases and semivolatile gas- and particle-phase compounds in the atmosphere during an 11 d period in a Bay Area suburb. We separated compounds based on variability in time to arrive at 13 distinct sources. Some compounds emitted from plants are found in greater quantities as fragrance compounds in consumer products. The wide volatility range of these measurements enables the construction of more complete source profiles.
Shijie Yu, Shenbo Wang, Ruixin Xu, Dong Zhang, Meng Zhang, Fangcheng Su, Xuan Lu, Xiao Li, Ruiqin Zhang, and Lingling Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14859–14878,Short summary
In this study, the hourly data of 57 VOC species were collected during 2018–2020 at an urban site in Zhengzhou, China. The research of concentrations, source apportionment, and atmospheric environmental implications clearly elucidated the differences in major reactants observed in different seasons and years. Therefore, the control strategy should focus on key species and sources among interannual and seasonal variations. The results can provide references to develop control strategies.
Haichao Wang, Bin Yuan, E Zheng, Xiaoxiao Zhang, Jie Wang, Keding Lu, Chenshuo Ye, Lei Yang, Shan Huang, Weiwei Hu, Suxia Yang, Yuwen Peng, Jipeng Qi, Sihang Wang, Xianjun He, Yubin Chen, Tiange Li, Wenjie Wang, Yibo Huangfu, Xiaobing Li, Mingfu Cai, Xuemei Wang, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14837–14858,Short summary
We present intensive field measurement of ClNO2 in the Pearl River Delta in 2019. Large variation in the level, formation, and atmospheric impacts of ClNO2 was found in different air masses. ClNO2 formation was limited by the particulate chloride (Cl−) and aerosol surface area. Our results reveal that Cl− originated from various anthropogenic emissions rather than sea sources and show minor contribution to the O3 pollution and photochemistry.
Amy Christiansen, Loretta J. Mickley, Junhua Liu, Luke D. Oman, and Lu Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14751–14782,Short summary
Understanding tropospheric ozone trends is crucial for accurate predictions of future air quality and climate, but drivers of trends are not well understood. We analyze global tropospheric ozone trends since 1980 using ozonesonde and surface measurements, and we evaluate two models for their ability to reproduce trends. We find observational evidence of increasing tropospheric ozone, but models underestimate these increases. This hinders our ability to estimate ozone radiative forcing.
Ross Charles Petersen, Thomas Holst, Meelis Mölder, Natascha Kljun, and Janne Rinne
We investigate variability in the vertical distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in boreal forest, determined through multi-year measurements at several heights at a boreal forest in Sweden. VOC source/sink seasonality in canopy was explored using these vertical profiles and with measurements from a collection of sonic anemometers on the station flux tower. Our results show seasonality in the source/sink distribution for several VOCs, such as monoterpenes and water-soluble compounds.
Yue Tan and Tao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14455–14466,Short summary
We present a timely analysis of the effects of the recent lockdown in Shanghai on ground-level ozone (O3). Despite a huge reduction in human activity, O3 concentrations frequently exceeded the O3 air quality standard during the 2-month lockdown, implying that future emission reductions similar to those that occurred during the lockdown will not be sufficient to eliminate O3 pollution in many urban areas without the imposition of additional VOC controls or substantial decreases in NOx emissions.
Megan E. McCabe, Ilana B. Pollack, Emily V. Fischer, and Dana R. Caulton
Agriculture emissions, including those from cattle and dairy feeding operations, make up a large portion of the United States’ total greenhouse gas emissions, but many of these operations reside in areas where methane from oil and natural gas is prevalent, making it difficult to attribute methane in these areas. This work investigates two approaches to emission attribution for a cattle feeding operation and provides guidance for emission attribution in other complicated regions.
Peeyush Khare, Jordan E. Krechmer, Jo E. Machesky, Tori Hass-Mitchell, Cong Cao, Junqi Wang, Francesca Majluf, Felipe Lopez-Hilfiker, Sonja Malek, Will Wang, Karl Seltzer, Havala O. T. Pye, Roisin Commane, Brian C. McDonald, Ricardo Toledo-Crow, John E. Mak, and Drew R. Gentner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14377–14399,Short summary
Ammonium adduct chemical ionization is used to examine the atmospheric abundances of oxygenated volatile organic compounds associated with emissions from volatile chemical products, which are now key contributors of reactive precursors to ozone and secondary organic aerosols in urban areas. The application of this valuable measurement approach in densely populated New York City enables the evaluation of emissions inventories and thus the role these oxygenated compounds play in urban air quality.
Vanessa Selimovic, Damien Ketcherside, Sreelekha Chaliyakunnel, Catherine Wielgasz, Wade Permar, Hélène Angot, Dylan B. Millet, Alan Fried, Detlev Helmig, and Lu Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14037–14058,Short summary
Arctic warming has led to an increase in plants that emit gases in response to stress, but how these gases affect regional chemistry is largely unknown due to lack of observational data. Here we present the most comprehensive gas-phase measurements for this area to date and compare them to predictions from a global transport model. We report 78 gas-phase species and investigate their importance to atmospheric chemistry in the area, with broader implications for similar plant types.
Yaqin Gao, Hongli Wang, Lingling Yuan, Shengao Jing, Bin Yuan, Guofeng Shen, Liang Zhu, Abigail Koss, Yingjie Li, Qian Wang, Dan Dan Huang, Shuhui Zhu, Shikang Tao, Shengrong Lou, and Cheng Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
A near-complete speciation of Reactive organic gases (ROGs) emitted from residential combustion was developed to get more insights into their atmospheric effects. Oxygenated species, higher hydrocarbons and nitrogen-containing ones played larger roles in the emissions of residential combustion comparing with the common hydrocarbons. Based on the near-complete speciation, ROG emissions from residential combustion were largely underestimated, leading to more underestimation of their OHR and SOAP.
Louise Bøge Frederickson, Ruta Sidaraviciute, Johan Albrecht Schmidt, Ole Hertel, and Matthew Stanley Johnson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13949–13965,Short summary
Low-cost sensors see additional pollution that is not seen with traditional regional air quality monitoring stations. This additional local pollution is sufficient to cause exceedance of the World Health Organization exposure thresholds. Analysis shows that a significant amount of the NO2 pollution we observe is local, mainly due to road traffic. This article demonstrates how networks of nodes containing low-cost pollution sensors can powerfully extend existing monitoring programmes.
David D. Parrish, Richard G. Derwent, Ian C. Faloona, and Charles A. Mims
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13423–13430,Short summary
Accounting for the continuing long-term decrease of pollution ozone and the large 2020 Arctic stratospheric ozone depletion event improves estimates of background ozone changes caused by COVID-19-related emission reductions; they are smaller than reported earlier. Cooperative, international emission control efforts aimed at maximizing the ongoing decrease in hemisphere-wide background ozone may be the most effective approach to improving ozone pollution in northern midlatitude countries.
Wendell W. Walters, Madeline Karod, Emma Willcocks, Bok H. Baek, Danielle E. Blum, and Meredith G. Hastings
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13431–13448,Short summary
Atmospheric ammonia and its products are a significant source of urban haze and nitrogen deposition. We have investigated the seasonal source contributions to a mid-sized city in the northeastern US megalopolis utilizing geospatial statistical analysis and novel isotopic constraints, which indicate that vehicle emissions were significant components of the urban-reduced nitrogen budget. Reducing vehicle ammonia emissions should be considered to improve ecosystems and human health.
Zhaofeng Tan, Hendrik Fuchs, Andreas Hofzumahaus, William J. Bloss, Birger Bohn, Changmin Cho, Thorsten Hohaus, Frank Holland, Chandrakiran Lakshmisha, Lu Liu, Paul S. Monks, Anna Novelli, Doreen Niether, Franz Rohrer, Ralf Tillmann, Thalassa S. E. Valkenburg, Vaishali Vardhan, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Roberto Sommariva
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13137–13152,Short summary
During the 2019 JULIAC campaign, ClNO2 was measured at a rural site in Germany in different seasons. The highest ClNO2 level was 1.6 ppbv in September. ClNO2 production was more sensitive to the availability of NO2 than O3. The average ClNO2 production efficiency was up to 18 % in February and September and down to 3 % in December. These numbers are at the high end of the values reported in the literature, indicating the importance of ClNO2 chemistry in rural environments in midwestern Europe.
Haeyoung Lee, Won-Ick Seo, Shanlan Li, Soojeong Lee, Samuel Kenea, and Sangwon Joo
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We introduce 3 monitoring Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) stations with monitoring system and measurement uncertainty. We also analyzed the regional characteristics of CH4 at each KMA station. We also compared the CH4 levels measured at KMA stations with those measured at other Asia stations. From the long-term records of CH4 and δ13CH4 at AMY, we confirmed that the source of CH4xs changed from the past (2006 to 2010) to recent (2016 to 2020) years in East Asia.
Zhouxing Zou, Qianjie Chen, Men Xia, Qi Yuan, Yi Chen, Yanan Wang, Enyu Xiong, Zhe Wang, and Tao Wang
We present the OH observation and model simulation results at a coastal site in Hong Kong. The model well predicted the OH concentration in high NOx conditions and overpredicted in low NOx conditions. This implies the insufficient understanding of OH chemistry in low NOx conditions. We show evidence of missing OH sinks as a possible cause of the overprediction.
Xinping Yang, Keding Lu, Xuefei Ma, Yue Gao, Zhaofeng Tan, Haichao Wang, Xiaorui Chen, Xin Li, Xiaofeng Huang, Lingyan He, Mengxue Tang, Bo Zhu, Shiyi Chen, Huabin Dong, Limin Zeng, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12525–12542,Short summary
We present the OH and HO2 radical observations at the Shenzhen site (Pearl River Delta, China) in the autumn of 2018. The diurnal maxima were 4.5 × 106 cm−3 for OH and 4.2 × 108 cm−3 for HO2 (including an estimated interference of 23 %–28 % from RO2 radicals during the daytime). The OH underestimation was identified again, and it was attributable to the missing OH sources. HO2 heterogeneous uptake, ROx sources and sinks, and the atmospheric oxidation capacity were evaluated as well.
Katherine L. Hayden, Shao-Meng Li, John Liggio, Michael J. Wheeler, Jeremy J. B. Wentzell, Amy Leithead, Peter Brickell, Richard L. Mittermeier, Zachary Oldham, Cristian M. Mihele, Ralf M. Staebler, Samar G. Moussa, Andrea Darlington, Mengistu Wolde, Daniel Thompson, Jack Chen, Debora Griffin, Ellen Eckert, Jenna C. Ditto, Megan He, and Drew R. Gentner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12493–12523,Short summary
In this study, airborne measurements provided the most detailed characterization, to date, of boreal forest wildfire emissions. Measurements showed a large diversity of air pollutants expanding the volatility range typically reported. A large portion of organic species was unidentified, likely comprised of complex organic compounds. Aircraft-derived emissions improve wildfire chemical speciation and can support reliable model predictions of pollution from boreal forest wildfires.
Albane Barbero, Roberto Grilli, Markus M. Frey, Camille Blouzon, Detlev Helmig, Nicolas Caillon, and Joël Savarino
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12025–12054,Short summary
The high reactivity of the summer Antarctic boundary layer results in part from the emissions of nitrogen oxides produced during photo-denitrification of the snowpack, but its underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. The results of this study suggest that more NO2 is produced from the snowpack early in the photolytic season, possibly due to stronger UV irradiance caused by a smaller solar zenith angle near the solstice.
Lulu Cui, Di Wu, Shuxiao Wang, Qingcheng Xu, Ruolan Hu, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11931–11944,Short summary
A 1-year campaign was conducted to characterize VOCs at a Beijing urban site during different episodes. VOCs from fuel evaporation and diesel exhaust, particularly toluene, xylenes, trans-2-butene, acrolein, methyl methacrylate, vinyl acetate, 1-butene, and 1-hexene, were the main contributors. VOCs from diesel exhaust as well as coal and biomass combustion were found to be the dominant contributors for SOAFP, particularly the VOC species toluene, 1-hexene, xylenes, ethylbenzene, and styrene.
Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Martin Heinritzi, Manuel Granzin, Timo Keber, Andreas Kürten, Katharina Kaiser, Johannes Schneider, and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11781–11794,Short summary
We present measurements of ambient ions in the free troposphere and lower stratosphere over Europe in spring 2020. We observed nitrate and hydrogen sulfate, amongst others. From their ratio, the number concentrations of gaseous sulfuric acid were inferred. Nitrate increased towards the stratosphere, whilst sulfuric acid was slightly decreased there. The average values for sulfuric acid were 1.9 to 7.8 × 105 cm-3. Protonated pyridine was identified in an altitude range of 4.6 to 8.5 km.
Alena Dekhtyareva, Mark Hermanson, Anna Nikulina, Ove Hermansen, Tove Svendby, Kim Holmén, and Rune Grand Graversen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11631–11656,Short summary
Despite decades of industrial activity in Svalbard, there is no continuous air pollution monitoring in the region’s settlements except Ny-Ålesund. The NOx and O3 observations from the three-station network have been compared for the first time in this study. It has been shown how the large-scale weather regimes control the synoptic meteorological conditions and determine the atmospheric long-range transport pathways and efficiency of local air pollution dispersion.
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We present the first measurements of gas-phase sulfuric acid from the Amazon basin and evaluate the efficacy of existing sulfuric acid parameterizations in this understudied region. Sulfuric acid is produced during the daytime and nighttime, though current proxies underestimate nighttime production. These results illustrate the need for better parameterizations of sulfuric acid and its precursors that are informed by measurements across a broad range of locations.
We present the first measurements of gas-phase sulfuric acid from the Amazon basin and evaluate...