Articles | Volume 21, issue 22
Research article 16 Nov 2021
Research article | 16 Nov 2021
Tracking the influence of cloud condensation nuclei on summer diurnal precipitating systems over complex topography in Taiwan
Yu-Hung Chang et al.
No articles found.
Hsi-Yen Ma, Chen Zhou, Yunyan Zhang, Stephen A. Klein, Mark D. Zelinka, Xue Zheng, Shaocheng Xie, Wei-Ting Chen, and Chien-Ming Wu
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 73–90,Short summary
We propose an experimental design of a suite of multi-year, short-term hindcasts and compare them with corresponding observations or measurements for periods based on different weather and climate phenomena. This atypical way of evaluating model performance is particularly useful and beneficial, as these hindcasts can give scientists a robust picture of modeled precipitation, and cloud and radiation processes from their diurnal variation to year-to-year variability.
Related subject area
Subject: Clouds and Precipitation | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Revisiting adiabatic fraction estimations in cumulus clouds: high-resolution simulations with a passive tracerImpact of hygroscopic seeding on the initiation of precipitation formation: results of a hybrid bin microphysics parcel modelAerosol–cloud interactions: the representation of heterogeneous ice activation in cloud modelsSensitivity of precipitation formation to secondary ice production in winter orographic mixed-phase cloudsEnvironmental sensitivities of shallow-cumulus dilution – Part 2: Vertical wind profileSupersaturation, buoyancy, and deep convection dynamicsStatistical properties of a stochastic model of eddy hoppingUnderstanding the model representation of clouds based on visible and infrared satellite observationsImpact of high- and low-vorticity turbulence on cloud–environment mixing and cloud microphysics processesPreconditioning of overcast-to-broken cloud transitions by riming in marine cold air outbreaksAitken mode particles as CCN in aerosol- and updraft-sensitive regimes of cloud droplet formationCase study of a moisture intrusion over the Arctic with the ICON model: resolution dependence of its representationModel emulation to understand the joint effects of ice-nucleating particles and secondary ice production on deep convective anvil cirrusImproving the Representation of Aggregation in a Two-moment Microphysical Scheme with Statistics of Multi-frequency Doppler Radar ObservationsIce multiplication from ice–ice collisions in the high Arctic: sensitivity to ice habit, rimed fraction, ice type and uncertainties in the numerical description of the processThe climate impact of COVID-19-induced contrail changesA large-eddy simulation study of deep-convection initiation through the collision of two sea-breeze frontsImpacts of long-range transported mineral dust on summertime convective cloud and precipitation: a case study over the Taiwan regionSoot PCF: pore condensation and freezing framework for soot aggregatesAir traffic and contrail changes over Europe during COVID-19: a model studyIs a more physical representation of aerosol activation needed for simulations of fog?Microphysical processes producing high ice water contents (HIWCs) in tropical convective clouds during the HAIC-HIWC field campaign: evaluation of simulations using bulk microphysical schemesOverview towards improved understanding of the mechanisms leading to heavy precipitation in the Western Mediterranean: lessons learned from HyMeXImpacts of secondary ice production on Arctic mixed-phase clouds based on ARM observations and CAM6 single-column model simulationsThe temperature dependence of ice-nucleating particle concentrations affects the radiative properties of tropical convective cloud systemsThe behavior of high-CAPE (convective available potential energy) summer convection in large-domain large-eddy simulations with ICONCloud droplet diffusional growth in homogeneous isotropic turbulence: bin microphysics versus Lagrangian super-droplet simulationsCloud droplet number closure for tropical convective clouds during the ACRIDICON–CHUVA campaignThe importance of Aitken mode aerosol particles for cloud sustenance in the summertime high Arctic – a simulation study supported by observational dataMid-latitude mixed-phase stratocumulus clouds and their interactions with aerosols: how ice processes affect microphysical, dynamic and thermodynamic development in those clouds and interactions?Sensitivity of mixed-phase moderately deep convective clouds to parameterizations of ice formation – an ensemble perspectiveShallow cumulus cloud feedback in large eddy simulations – bridging the gap to storm-resolving modelsImpacts of cloud microphysics parameterizations on simulated aerosol–cloud interactions for deep convective clouds over HoustonCold cloud microphysical process rates in a global chemistry–climate modelPrecipitation enhancement in stratocumulus clouds through airborne seeding: sensitivity analysis by UCLALES-SALSASecondary ice production in summer clouds over the Antarctic coast: an underappreciated process in atmospheric modelsOpinion: Cloud-phase climate feedback and the importance of ice-nucleating particlesOn the ice-nucleating potential of warm hydrometeors in mixed-phase cloudsThe enhancement of droplet collision by electric charges and atmospheric electric fieldsCloud adjustments dominate the overall negative aerosol radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols in UKESM1 climate model simulations over the south-eastern AtlanticDependence of predictability of precipitation in the northwestern Mediterranean coastal region on the strength of synoptic controlThe decomposition of cloud–aerosol forcing in the UK Earth System Model (UKESM1)Sensitivity of warm clouds to large particles in measured marine aerosol size distributions – a theoretical studyHectometric-scale simulations of a Mediterranean heavy-precipitation event during the Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment (HyMeX) first Special Observation Period (SOP1)Urbanization-induced land and aerosol impacts on sea-breeze circulation and convective precipitationSnow-induced buffering in aerosol–cloud interactionsEnvironmental sensitivities of shallow-cumulus dilution – Part 1: Selected thermodynamic conditionsEmploying airborne radiation and cloud microphysics observations to improve cloud representation in ICON at kilometer-scale resolution in the ArcticAn idealized model sensitivity study on Dead Sea desertification with a focus on the impact on convectionModelling mixed-phase clouds with the large-eddy model UCLALES–SALSA
Eshkol Eytan, Ilan Koren, Orit Altaratz, Mark Pinsky, and Alexander Khain
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16203–16217,Short summary
Describing cloud mixing processes is among the most challenging fronts in cloud physics. Therefore, the adiabatic fraction (AF) that serves as a mixing measure is a valuable metric. We use high-resolution (10 m) simulations of single clouds with a passive tracer to test the skill of different methods used to derive AF. We highlight a method that is insensitive to the available cloud samples and allows considering microphysical effects on AF estimations in different environmental conditions.
Istvan Geresdi, Lulin Xue, Sisi Chen, Youssef Wehbe, Roelof Bruintjes, Jared A. Lee, Roy M. Rasmussen, Wojciech W. Grabowski, Noemi Sarkadi, and Sarah A. Tessendorf
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16143–16159,Short summary
By releasing soluble aerosols into the convective clouds, cloud seeding potentially enhances rainfall. The seeding impacts are hard to quantify with observations only. Numerical models that represent the detailed physics of aerosols, cloud and rain formation are used to investigate the seeding impacts on rain enhancement under different natural aerosol backgrounds and using different seeding materials. Our results indicate that seeding may enhance rainfall under certain conditions.
Bernd Kärcher and Claudia Marcolli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15213–15220,Short summary
Aerosol–cloud interactions play an important role in climate change. Simulations of the competition between homogeneous solution droplet freezing and heterogeneous ice nucleation can be compromised by the misapplication of ice-active particle fractions frequently derived from laboratory measurements or parametrizations. Our study frames the problem and establishes a solution that is easy to implement in cloud models.
Zane Dedekind, Annika Lauber, Sylvaine Ferrachat, and Ulrike Lohmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15115–15134,Short summary
The RACLETS campaign combined cloud and snow research to improve the understanding of precipitation formation in clouds. A numerical weather prediction model, COSMO, was used to assess the importance of ice crystal enhancement by ice–ice collisions for cloud properties. We found that the number of ice crystals increased by 1 to 3 orders of magnitude when ice–ice collisions were permitted to occur, reducing localized regions of high precipitation and, thereby, improving the model performance.
Sonja Drueke, Daniel J. Kirshbaum, and Pavlos Kollias
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14039–14058,Short summary
This numerical study provides insights into the sensitivity of shallow-cumulus dilution to geostrophic vertical wind profile. The cumulus dilution is strongly sensitive to vertical wind shear in the cloud layer, with shallow cumuli being more diluted in sheared environments. On the other hand, wind shear in the subcloud layer leads to less diluted cumuli. The sensitivities are explained by jointly considering the impacts of vertical velocity and the properties of the entrained air.
Wojciech W. Grabowski and Hugh Morrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13997–14018,Short summary
The paper provides a discussion of key elements of moist convective dynamics: cloud buoyancy, latent heating, precipitation, and entrainment. The motivation comes from recent discussions concerning differences in convective dynamics in polluted and pristine environments.
Izumi Saito, Takeshi Watanabe, and Toshiyuki Gotoh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13119–13130,Short summary
We provide various statistical properties for the stochastic model of eddy hopping, which is a novel cloud microphysical model that accounts for the effect of the supersaturation fluctuation at unresolved scales on the growth of cloud droplets and on spectral broadening in a turbulent cloud. Our results indicate that the model can be improved to have better fidelity to the reference data and to require less computational cost.
Stefan Geiss, Leonhard Scheck, Alberto de Lozar, and Martin Weissmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12273–12290,Short summary
This study demonstrates the benefits of using both visible and infrared satellite channels to evaluate clouds in numerical weather prediction models. Combining these highly resolved observations provides significantly more and complementary information than using only infrared observations. The visible observations are particularly sensitive to subgrid water clouds, which are not well constrained by other observations.
Bipin Kumar, Rahul Ranjan, Man-Kong Yau, Sudarsan Bera, and Suryachandra A. Rao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12317–12329,Short summary
The characteristics of turbulent clouds are affected by the entrainment of ambient dry air and its subsequent mixing. A turbulent flow generates vorticities of different intensities, and regions with high vorticity (HV) and low vorticity (LV) exist. This study provides a detailed analysis of different properties of turbulent flows and cloud droplets in the HV and LV regions in order to understand the impact of vorticity production on cloud microphysical and mixing processes.
Florian Tornow, Andrew S. Ackerman, and Ann M. Fridlind
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12049–12067,Short summary
Cold air outbreaks affect the local energy budget by forming bright boundary layer clouds that, once it rains, evolve into dimmer, broken cloud fields that are depleted of condensation nuclei – an evolution consistent with closed-to-open cell transitions. We find that cloud ice accelerates this evolution, primarily via riming prior to rain onset, which (1) reduces liquid water, (2) reduces condensation nuclei, and (3) leads to early precipitation cooling and moistening below cloud.
Mira L. Pöhlker, Minghui Zhang, Ramon Campos Braga, Ovid O. Krüger, Ulrich Pöschl, and Barbara Ervens
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11723–11740,Short summary
Clouds cool our atmosphere. The role of small aerosol particles in affecting them represents one of the largest uncertainties in current estimates of climate change. Traditionally it is assumed that cloud droplets only form particles of diameters ~ 100 nm (
accumulation mode). Previous studies suggest that this can also occur in smaller particles (
Aitken mode). Our study provides a general framework to estimate under which aerosol and cloud conditions Aitken mode particles affect clouds.
Hélène Bresson, Annette Rinke, Mario Mech, Daniel Reinert, Vera Schemann, Kerstin Ebell, Marion Maturilli, Carolina Viceto, Irina Gorodetskaya, and Susane Crewell
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This study assesses the spatio-temporal structure of a moisture intrusion event, which occurred in June 2017 over the Arctic. This analysis focuses on high-spatial resolution simulations with the ICON model and compares results with global model, reanalysis, and observational datasets. Results show the skillfull capacity of the high-resolution model to represent the 4D structure of the moisture intrusion and the impact of the moisture intrusion on the surface radiative and turbulent fluxes.
Rachel E. Hawker, Annette K. Miltenberger, Jill S. Johnson, Jonathan M. Wilkinson, Adrian A. Hill, Ben J. Shipway, Paul R. Field, Benjamin J. Murray, and Ken S. Carslaw
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Convectively generated anvil cirrus can have large effects on the global radiation budget. We find that ice-nucleating particles (INP), aerosols that can initiate the freezing of cloud droplets, can cause substantial changes to the properties of convective anvils. The number and source of INP were important for the anvil properties indicating that we need INP measurements covering a large temperature range, and that climate models should represent the interaction of INP with cloud glaciation.
Markus Karrer, Axel Seifert, Davide Ori, and Stefan Kneifel
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Modeling of precipitation is of great relevance e.g. for damage mitigating caused by extreme weather. A key component in accurate modeling precipitation is aggregation, i.e., sticking together of snowflakes. Simulating aggregation is difficult due to multiple, not-well known parameters. Knowing how these parameters affect aggregation can help its simulation. Therefore, we put new parameters in the model and select a combination of parameters with which the model can simulate observations better.
Georgia Sotiropoulou, Luisa Ickes, Athanasios Nenes, and Annica M. L. Ekman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9741–9760,Short summary
Mixed-phase clouds are a large source of uncertainty in projections of the Arctic climate. This is partly due to the poor representation of the cloud ice formation processes. Implementing a parameterization for ice multiplication due to mechanical breakup upon collision of two ice particles in a high-resolution model improves cloud ice phase representation; however, cloud liquid remains overestimated.
Andrew Gettelman, Chieh-Chieh Chen, and Charles G. Bardeen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9405–9416,Short summary
The COVID-19 pandemic caused significant economic disruption in 2020 and severely impacted air traffic. We use a climate model to evaluate the effect of the reductions in aviation on climate in 2020. Contrails, in general, warm the planet, and COVID-19-related reductions in contrails cooled the land surface in 2020. The timing of reductions in aviation was important, and this may change how we think about the future effects of contrails.
Shizuo Fu, Richard Rotunno, Jinghua Chen, Xin Deng, and Huiwen Xue
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9289–9308,Short summary
Deep-convection initiation (DCI) determines when and where deep convection develops and hence affects both weather and climate. However, our understanding of DCI is still limited. Here, we simulate DCI over a peninsula using large-eddy simulation and high-output frequency. We find that DCI is accomplished through the development of multiple generations of convection, and the earlier generation affects the later generation by producing downdrafts and cold pools.
Yanda Zhang, Fangqun Yu, Gan Luo, Jiwen Fan, and Shuai Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This paper explores the impacts of dust on the summertime convective cloud and precipitation through a numerical experiment. The result indicates that the long-range transported dust can notably affect the properties of convective cloud and precipitation by enhancing immersion freezing and invigorating convection. We also analyze the different dust effects predicted by the Morrison and SBM schemes, which are partially attributed to the saturation adjustment approach utilized in the bulk schemes.
Claudia Marcolli, Fabian Mahrt, and Bernd Kärcher
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7791–7843,Short summary
Pores are aerosol particle features that trigger ice nucleation, as they take up water by capillary condensation below water saturation that freezes at low temperatures. The pore ice can then grow into macroscopic ice crystals making up cirrus clouds. Here, we investigate the pores in soot aggregates responsible for pore condensation and freezing (PCF). Moreover, we present a framework to parameterize soot PCF that is able to predict the ice nucleation activity based on soot properties.
Ulrich Schumann, Ian Poll, Roger Teoh, Rainer Koelle, Enrico Spinielli, Jarlath Molloy, George S. Koudis, Robert Baumann, Luca Bugliaro, Marc Stettler, and Christiane Voigt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7429–7450,Short summary
The roughly 70 % reduction of air traffic during the COVID-19 pandemic from March–August 2020 compared to 2019 provides a test case for the relationship between air traffic density, contrails, and their radiative forcing of climate change. This paper investigates the induced traffic and contrail changes in a model study. Besides strong weather changes, the model results indicate aviation-induced cirrus and top-of-the-atmosphere irradiance changes, which can be tested with observations.
Craig Poku, Andrew N. Ross, Adrian A. Hill, Alan M. Blyth, and Ben Shipway
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7271–7292,Short summary
We present a new aerosol activation scheme suitable for modelling both fog and convective clouds. Most current activation schemes are designed for convective clouds, and we demonstrate that using them to model fog can negatively impact its life cycle. Our scheme has been used to model an observed fog case in the UK, where we demonstrate that a more physically based representation of aerosol activation is required to capture the transition to a deeper layer – more in line with observations.
Yongjie Huang, Wei Wu, Greg M. McFarquhar, Xuguang Wang, Hugh Morrison, Alexander Ryzhkov, Yachao Hu, Mengistu Wolde, Cuong Nguyen, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, Jason Milbrandt, Alexei V. Korolev, and Ivan Heckman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6919–6944,Short summary
Numerous small ice crystals in the tropical convective storms are difficult to detect and could be potentially hazardous for commercial aircraft. This study evaluated the numerical models against the airborne observations and investigated the potential cloud processes that could lead to the production of these large numbers of small ice crystals. It is found that key microphysical processes are still lacking or misrepresented in current numerical models to realistically simulate the phenomenon.
Samira Khodayar, Silvio Davolio, Paolo Di Girolamo, Cindy Lebeaupin Brossier, Emmanouil Flaounas, Nadia Fourrie, Keun-Ok Lee, Didier Ricard, Benoit Vie, Francois Bouttier, Alberto Caldas-Alvarez, and Veronique Ducrocq
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Heavy precipitation (HP) constitutes a major meteorological threat in the western Mediterranean. Every year, recurrent events affect the area with fatal consequences. Despite this being a well-known issue, still open questions remain. The understanding of the underlying mechanisms and the modelling representation of the events must be improved. In this article we present the most recent lessons learned from the Hydrological cYcle in the Mediterranean eXperiment (HyMeX).
Xi Zhao, Xiaohong Liu, Vaughan T. J. Phillips, and Sachin Patade
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5685–5703,Short summary
Arctic mixed-phase clouds significantly influence the energy budget of the Arctic. We show that a climate model considering secondary ice production (SIP) can explain the observed cloud ice number concentrations, vertical distribution pattern, and probability density distribution of ice crystal number concentrations. The mixed-phase cloud occurrence and phase partitioning are also improved.
Rachel E. Hawker, Annette K. Miltenberger, Jonathan M. Wilkinson, Adrian A. Hill, Ben J. Shipway, Zhiqiang Cui, Richard J. Cotton, Ken S. Carslaw, Paul R. Field, and Benjamin J. Murray
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5439–5461,Short summary
The impact of aerosols on clouds is a large source of uncertainty for future climate projections. Our results show that the radiative properties of a complex convective cloud field in the Saharan outflow region are sensitive to the temperature dependence of ice-nucleating particle concentrations. This means that differences in the aerosol source or composition, for the same aerosol size distribution, can cause differences in the outgoing radiation from regions dominated by tropical convection.
Harald Rybka, Ulrike Burkhardt, Martin Köhler, Ioanna Arka, Luca Bugliaro, Ulrich Görsdorf, Ákos Horváth, Catrin I. Meyer, Jens Reichardt, Axel Seifert, and Johan Strandgren
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4285–4318,Short summary
Estimating the impact of convection on the upper-tropospheric water budget remains a problem for models employing resolutions of several kilometers or more. A sub-kilometer high-resolution model is used to study summertime convection. The results suggest mostly close agreement with ground- and satellite-based observational data while slightly overestimating total frozen water path and anvil lifetime. The simulations are well suited to supplying information for parameterization development.
Wojciech W. Grabowski and Lois Thomas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4059–4077,Short summary
This paper presents a modeling study that investigates the impact of cloud turbulence on the diffusional growth of cloud droplets and compares modeling results to analytic solutions published in the past. The focus is on comparing the two microphysics modeling methodologies – the Eulerian bin microphysics and Lagrangian particle-based microphysics – and exposing their limitations.
Ramon Campos Braga, Barbara Ervens, Daniel Rosenfeld, Meinrat O. Andreae, Jan-David Förster, Daniel Fütterer, Lianet Hernández Pardo, Bruna A. Holanda, Tina Jurkat, Ovid O. Krüger, Oliver Lauer, Luiz A. T. Machado, Christopher Pöhlker, Daniel Sauer, Christiane Voigt, Adrian Walser, Manfred Wendisch, Ulrich Pöschl, and Mira L. Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Interactions of aerosol particles with clouds represent a large uncertainty in estimates of climate change. Properties of aerosol particles control their ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei. Using aerosol measurements in the Amazon, we performed model studies to compare predicted and measured cloud droplet number concentrations at cloud bases. Our results confirm previous estimates of particle hygroscopicity in this region.
Ines Bulatovic, Adele L. Igel, Caroline Leck, Jost Heintzenberg, Ilona Riipinen, and Annica M. L. Ekman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3871–3897,Short summary
We use detailed numerical modelling to show that small aerosol particles (diameters ~25–80 nm; so-called Aitken mode particles) significantly influence low-level cloud properties in the clean summertime high Arctic. The small particles can help sustain clouds when the concentration of larger particles is low (<10–20 cm-3). Measurements from four different observational campaigns in the high Arctic support the modelling results as they indicate that Aitken mode aerosols are frequently activated.
Seoung Soo Lee, Kyung-Ja Ha, Manguttathil Gopalakrishnan Manoj, Mohammad Kamruzzaman, Hyungjun Kim, Nobuyuki Utsumi, and Jianping Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Using a modeling framework, a mid-latitude stratocumulus-cloud system is simulated. It is found that cloud mass in the system becomes very low due to interactions between ice and liquid particles as compared to that in the absence of ice particles. It is also found that interactions between cloud mass and aerosols lead to a reduction in cloud mass in the system and this is contrary to an aerosol-induced increase in cloud mass in the absence of ice particles.
Annette K. Miltenberger and Paul R. Field
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3627–3642,Short summary
The formation of ice in clouds is an important processes in mixed-phase and ice-phase clouds. However, the representation of ice formation in numerical models is highly uncertain. In the last decade, several new parameterizations for heterogeneous freezing have been proposed. Here, we investigate the impact of the parameterization choice on the representation of the convective cloud field and compare the impact to that of initial condition uncertainty.
Jule Radtke, Thorsten Mauritsen, and Cathy Hohenegger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3275–3288,Short summary
Shallow trade wind clouds are a key source of uncertainty to projections of the Earth's changing climate. We perform high-resolution simulations of trade cumulus and investigate how the representation and climate feedback of these clouds depend on the specific grid spacing. We find that the cloud feedback is positive when simulated with kilometre but near zero when simulated with hectometre grid spacing. These findings suggest that storm-resolving models may exaggerate the trade cloud feedback.
Yuwei Zhang, Jiwen Fan, Zhanqing Li, and Daniel Rosenfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2363–2381,Short summary
Impacts of anthropogenic aerosols on deep convective clouds (DCCs) and precipitation are examined using both the Morrison bulk and spectral bin microphysics (SBM) schemes. With the SBM scheme, anthropogenic aerosols notably invigorate convective intensity and precipitation, causing better agreement between the simulated DCCs and observations; this effect is absent with the Morrison scheme, mainly due to limitations of the saturation adjustment approach for droplet condensation and evaporation.
Sara Bacer, Sylvia C. Sullivan, Odran Sourdeval, Holger Tost, Jos Lelieveld, and Andrea Pozzer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1485–1505,Short summary
We investigate the relative importance of the rates of both microphysical processes and unphysical correction terms that act as sources or sinks of ice crystals in cold clouds. By means of numerical simulations performed with a global chemistry–climate model, we assess the relevance of these rates at global and regional scales. This estimation is of fundamental importance to assign priority to the development of microphysics parameterizations and compare model output with observations.
Juha Tonttila, Ali Afzalifar, Harri Kokkola, Tomi Raatikainen, Hannele Korhonen, and Sami Romakkaniemi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1035–1048,Short summary
The focus of this study is on rain enhancement by deliberate injection of small particles into clouds (
cloud seeding). The particles, usually released from an aircraft, are expected to enhance cloud droplet growth, but its practical feasibility is somewhat uncertain. To improve upon this, we simulate the seeding effects with a numerical model. The model reproduces the main features seen in field observations, with a strong sensitivity to the total mass of the injected particle material.
Georgia Sotiropoulou, Étienne Vignon, Gillian Young, Hugh Morrison, Sebastian J. O'Shea, Thomas Lachlan-Cope, Alexis Berne, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 755–771,Short summary
Summer clouds have a significant impact on the radiation budget of the Antarctic surface and thus on ice-shelf melting. However, these are poorly represented in climate models due to errors in their microphysical structure, including the number of ice crystals that they contain. We show that breakup from ice particle collisions can substantially magnify the ice crystal number concentration with significant implications for surface radiation. This process is currently missing in climate models.
Benjamin J. Murray, Kenneth S. Carslaw, and Paul R. Field
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 665–679,Short summary
The balance between the amounts of ice and supercooled water in clouds over the world's oceans strongly influences how much these clouds can dampen or amplify global warming. Aerosol particles which catalyse ice formation can dramatically reduce the amount of supercooled water in clouds; hence we argue that we need a concerted effort to improve our understanding of these ice-nucleating particles if we are to improve our predictions of climate change.
Michael Krayer, Agathe Chouippe, Markus Uhlmann, Jan Dušek, and Thomas Leisner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 561–575,Short summary
We address the phenomenon of ice enhancement in the vicinity of warm hydrometeors using highly accurate flow simulation techniques. It is found that the transiently supersaturated zones induced by the hydrometeor's wake are by far larger than what has been previously estimated. The ice enhancement is quantified on the micro- and macroscale, and its relevance is discussed. The results provided may contribute to a (currently unavailable) parametrization of the phenomenon.
Shian Guo and Huiwen Xue
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 69–85,Short summary
Observations in previous studies show that cloud droplets carry electric charges. We are curious about whether the electric interaction enhances the collision of cloud droplets. The effect of the electric charge and atmospheric electric field on the raindrop-formation process is studied numerically. Results indicate that a cloud with a small droplet size is more sensitive to an electric charge and field, which could significantly trigger droplet collision and accelerate raindrop formation.
Haochi Che, Philip Stier, Hamish Gordon, Duncan Watson-Parris, and Lucia Deaconu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17–33,Short summary
The south-eastern Atlantic is semi-permanently covered by some of the largest stratocumulus clouds and is influenced by one-third of the biomass burning emissions from African fires. A UKEMS1 model simulation shows that the absorption effect of biomass burning aerosols is the most significant on clouds and radiation. The dominate cooling and rapid adjustments induced by the radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols result in an overall cooling in the south-eastern Atlantic.
Christian Keil, Lucie Chabert, Olivier Nuissier, and Laure Raynaud
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15851–15865,Short summary
During strong synoptic control, which dominates the weather on 80 % of the days in the 2-month HyMeX-SOP1 period, the domain-integrated precipitation predictability assessed with the normalized ensemble standard deviation is above average, the wet bias is smaller and the forecast quality is generally better. In contrast, the spatial forecast quality of the most intense precipitation in the afternoon, as quantified with its 95th percentile, is superior during weakly forced synoptic regimes.
Daniel P. Grosvenor and Kenneth S. Carslaw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15681–15724,Short summary
Particles arising from human activity interact with clouds and affect how much of the Sun's energy is reflected away. Lack of understanding about how to represent this in models leads to large uncertainties in climate predictions. We quantify cloud responses to particles in the latest UK Met Office climate model over the North Atlantic Ocean, showing that, in contrast to suggestions elsewhere, increases in cloud coverage and thickness are important over large areas.
Tom Dror, J. Michel Flores, Orit Altaratz, Guy Dagan, Zev Levin, Assaf Vardi, and Ilan Koren
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15297–15306,Short summary
We used in situ aerosol measurements over the Atlantic, Caribbean, and Pacific to initialize a cloud model and study the impact of aerosol concentration and sizes on warm clouds. We show that high aerosol concentration increases cloud mass and reduces surface rain when giant particles (diameter > 9 µm) are present. The large aerosols changed the timing and magnitude of internal cloud processes and resulted in an enhanced evaporation below cloud base and dramatically reduced surface rain.
Olivier Nuissier, Fanny Duffourg, Maxime Martinet, Véronique Ducrocq, and Christine Lac
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14649–14667,Short summary
This present article demonstrates how numerical simulations with very high horizontal resolution (150 m) can contribute to better understanding the key physical processes (turbulence and microphysics) that lead to Mediterranean heavy precipitation.
Jiwen Fan, Yuwei Zhang, Zhanqing Li, Jiaxi Hu, and Daniel Rosenfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14163–14182,Short summary
We investigate the urbanization-induced land and aerosol impacts on convective clouds and precipitation over Houston. We find that Houston urbanization notably enhances storm intensity and precipitation, with the anthropogenic aerosol effect more significant. Urban land effect strengthens sea-breeze circulation, leading to a faster development of warm cloud into mixed-phase cloud and earlier rain. The anthropogenic aerosol effect accelerates the development of storms into deep convection.
Takuro Michibata, Kentaroh Suzuki, and Toshihiko Takemura
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13771–13780,Short summary
This work reveals that prognostic precipitation significantly reduces the magnitude of aerosol–cloud interactions (ERFaci), mainly due to the collection process associated with snowflakes and underlying cloud droplets. This precipitation-driven buffering effect, which is missing in traditional GCMs, can explain the model–observation discrepancy in ERFaci. These results underscore the necessity for a prognostic precipitation framework in GCMs for more reliable climate simulations.
Sonja Drueke, Daniel J. Kirshbaum, and Pavlos Kollias
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13217–13239,Short summary
This numerical study provides insights into selected environmental sensitivities of shallow-cumulus dilution. Among the parameters under consideration, the dilution of the cloud cores is strongly sensitive to continentality and cloud-layer relative humidity and weakly sensitive to subcloud- and cloud-layer depths. The impacts of all four parameters are interpreted using a similarity theory of shallow cumulus and buoyancy-sorting arguments.
Jan Kretzschmar, Johannes Stapf, Daniel Klocke, Manfred Wendisch, and Johannes Quaas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13145–13165,Short summary
This study compares simulations with the ICON model at the kilometer scale to airborne radiation and cloud microphysics observations that have been derived during the ACLOUD aircraft campaign around Svalbard, Norway, in May/June 2017. We find an overestimated surface warming effect of clouds compared to the observations in our setup. This bias was reduced by considering subgrid-scale vertical motion in the activation of cloud condensation nuclei in the two-moment microphysical scheme used.
Samiro Khodayar and Johannes Hoerner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12011–12031,
Jaakko Ahola, Hannele Korhonen, Juha Tonttila, Sami Romakkaniemi, Harri Kokkola, and Tomi Raatikainen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11639–11654,Short summary
In this study, we present an improved cloud model that reproduces the behaviour of mixed-phase clouds containing liquid droplets and ice crystals in more detail than before. This model is a convenient computational tool that enables the study of phenomena that cannot fit into a laboratory. These clouds have a significant role in climate, but they are not yet properly understood. Here, we show the advantages of the new model in a case study focusing on Arctic mixed-phase clouds.
Albrecht, B. A.: Aerosols, Cloud Microphysics, and Fractional Cloudiness, Science, 245, 1227–1230, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.245.4923.1227, 1989.
Altaratz, O., Koren, I., Remer, L. A., and Hirsch, E.: Review: Cloud invigoration by aerosols – Coupling between microphysics and dynamics, Atmos. Res., 140–141, 38–60, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2014.01.009, 2014.
Andreae, M. O.: Correlation between cloud condensation nuclei concentration and aerosol optical thickness in remote and polluted regions, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 543–556, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-543-2009, 2009.
Beaudoing, H. and Rodell, M. (NASA/GSFC/HSL): GLDAS Noah Land Surface Model L4 3 hourly 0.25 × 0.25 degree V2.0, Greenbelt, Maryland, USA, Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) [data set], https://doi.org/10.5067/342OHQM9AK6Q, 2019.
Chen, F. and Dudhia, J.: Coupling an Advanced Land Surface–Hydrology Model with the Penn State–NCAR MM5 Modeling System. Part I: Model Implementation and Sensitivity, Mon. Weather Rev., 129, 569–585, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(2001)129<0569:Caalsh>2.0.Co;2, 2001.
Chen, F., Mitchell, K., Schaake, J., Xue, Y., Pan, H.-L., Koren, V., Duan, Q. Y., Ek, M., and Betts, A.: Modeling of land surface evaporation by four schemes and comparison with FIFE observations, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 101, 7251–7268, https://doi.org/10.1029/95jd02165, 1996.
Chen, C.-S., Liu, C.-L., Yen, M.-C., Chen, C.-Y., Lin, P.-L., Huang, C.-Y., and Teng, J.-H.: Terrain Effects on an Afternoon Heavy Rainfall Event, Observed over Northern Taiwan on 20 June 2000 during Monsoon Break, J. Meteorol. Soc. JPN, 88, 649–671, https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2010-403, 2010.
Cheng, C.-T., Wang, W.-C., and Chen, J.-P.: Simulation of the effects of increasing cloud condensation nuclei on mixed-phase clouds and precipitation of a front system, Atmos. Res., 96, 461–476, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2010.02.005, 2010.
Chien, M.-H. and Wu, C.-M.: Representation of topography by partial steps using the immersed boundary method in a vector vorticity equation model (VVM), J. Adv. Model. Earth Sy., 8, 212–223, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015ms000514, 2016.
Clavner, M., Cotton, W. R., van den Heever, S. C., Saleeby, S. M., and Pierce, J. R.: The response of a simulated mesoscale convective system to increased aerosol pollution: Part I: Precipitation intensity, distribution, and efficiency, Atmos. Res., 199, 193–208, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2017.08.010, 2018.
Clyne, J., Mininni, P., Norton, A., and Rast, M.: Interactive desktop analysis of high resolution simulations: application to turbulent plume dynamics and current sheet formation, New J. Phys., 9, 301–301, https://doi.org/10.1088/1367-2630/9/8/301, 2007.
Deardorff, J. W.: Parameterization of the Planetary Boundary layer for Use in General Circulation Models, Mon. Weather Rev., 100, 93–106, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1972)100<0093:Potpbl>2.3.Co;2, 1972.
Fan, J., Leung, L. R., Rosenfeld, D., Chen, Q., Li, Z., Zhang, J., and Yan, H.: Microphysical effects determine macrophysical response for aerosol impacts on deep convective clouds, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 110, E4581–E4590, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1316830110, 2013.
Fan, J., Wang, Y., Rosenfeld, D., and Liu, X.: Review of Aerosol–Cloud Interactions: Mechanisms, Significance, and Challenges, J. Atmos. Sci., 73, 4221–4252, https://doi.org/10.1175/jas-d-16-0037.1, 2016.
Givati, A. and Rosenfeld, D.: Quantifying Precipitation Suppression Due to Air Pollution, J. Appl. Meteorol., 43, 1038–1056, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(2004)043<1038:Qpsdta>2.0.Co;2, 2004.
Grabowski, W. W.: Can the Impact of Aerosols on Deep Convection be Isolated from Meteorological Effects in Atmospheric Observations?, J. Atmos. Sci., 75, 3347–3363, https://doi.org/10.1175/jas-d-18-0105.1, 2018.
Grabowski, W. W., Bechtold, P., Cheng, A., Forbes, R., Halliwell, C., Khairoutdinov, M., Lang, S., Nasuno, T., Petch, J., Tao, W.-K., Wong, R., Wu, X., and Xu, K.-M.: Daytime convective development over land: A model intercomparison based on LBA observations, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 132, 317–344, https://doi.org/10.1256/qj.04.147, 2006.
Grabowski, W. W. and Morrison, H.: Untangling Microphysical Impacts on Deep Convection Applying a Novel Modeling Methodology. Part II: Double-Moment Microphysics, J. Atmos. Sci., 73, 3749–3770, https://doi.org/10.1175/jas-d-15-0367.1, 2016.
Hsieh, M.-K.: Effects of orographically induced low-level moisture convergence and inversion strength on upslope fog: a case study at Xitou, Master's thesis, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taiwan, 43 pp., https://doi.org/10.6342/ntu201900872, 2019.
Huang, J.-D. and Wu, C.-M.: Effects of Microphysical Processes on the Precipitation Spectrum in a Strongly Forced Environment, Earth and Space Science, 7, e2020EA001190, https://doi.org/10.1029/2020ea001190, 2020.
Iacono, M. J., Delamere, J. S., Mlawer, E. J., Shephard, M. W., Clough, S. A., and Collins, W. D.: Radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases: Calculations with the AER radiative transfer models, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 113, D13103, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008jd009944, 2008.
Iguchi, T., Nakajima, T., Khain, A. P., Saito, K., Takemura, T., and Suzuki, K.: Modeling the influence of aerosols on cloud microphysical properties in the east Asia region using a mesoscale model coupled with a bin-based cloud microphysics scheme, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 113, D14215, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007jd009774, 2008.
Jirak, I. L. and Cotton, W. R.: Effect of Air Pollution on Precipitation along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains, J. Appl. Meteorol. Clim., 45, 236–245, https://doi.org/10.1175/jam2328.1, 2006.
Jung, J.-H. and Arakawa, A.: A Three-Dimensional Anelastic Model Based on the Vorticity Equation, Mon. Weather Rev., 136, 276–294, https://doi.org/10.1175/2007mwr2095.1, 2008.
Kawecki, S., Henebry, G. M., and Steiner, A. L.: Effects of Urban Plume Aerosols on a Mesoscale Convective System, J. Atmos. Sci., 73, 4641–4660, https://doi.org/10.1175/jas-d-16-0084.1, 2016.
Khain, A., Pokrovsky, A., Pinsky, M., Seifert, A., and Phillips, V.: Simulation of Effects of Atmospheric Aerosols on Deep Turbulent Convective Clouds Using a Spectral Microphysics Mixed-Phase Cumulus Cloud Model. Part I: Model Description and Possible Applications, J. Atmos. Sci., 61, 2963–2982, https://doi.org/10.1175/jas-3350.1, 2004.
Khain, A., Rosenfeld, D., and Pokrovsky, A.: Aerosol impact on the dynamics and microphysics of deep convective clouds, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 131, 2639–2663, https://doi.org/10.1256/qj.04.62, 2005.
Khain, A. P.: Notes on state-of-the-art investigations of aerosol effects on precipitation: a critical review, Environ. Res. Lett., 4, 015004, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/4/1/015004, 2009.
Khvorostyanov, V. I. and Curry, J. A.: Aerosol size spectra and CCN activity spectra: Reconciling the lognormal, algebraic, and power laws, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 111, D12202, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005jd006532, 2006.
Krueger, S. K.: Numerical Simulation of Tropical Cumulus Clouds and Their Interaction with the Subcloud Layer, J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 2221–2250, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1988)045<2221:Nsotcc>2.0.Co;2, 1988.
Kuo, K.-T. and Wu, C.-M.: The Precipitation Hotspots of Afternoon Thunderstorms over the Taipei Basin: Idealized Numerical Simulations, J. Meteorol. Soc. JPN Ser. II, 97, 501–517, https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2019-031, 2019.
Lebo, Z. J.: The Sensitivity of a Numerically Simulated Idealized Squall Line to the Vertical Distribution of Aerosols, J. Atmos. Sci., 71, 4581–4596, https://doi.org/10.1175/jas-d-14-0068.1, 2014.
Lebo, Z. J. and Morrison, H.: Dynamical Effects of Aerosol Perturbations on Simulated Idealized Squall Lines, Mon. Weather Rev., 142, 991–1009, https://doi.org/10.1175/mwr-d-13-00156.1, 2014.
Li, G., Wang, Y., Lee, K.-H., Diao, Y., and Zhang, R.: Impacts of aerosols on the development and precipitation of a mesoscale squall line, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 114, D17205, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008jd011581, 2009.
Lin, W.-T.: A study of the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity for urban ambient aerosols, Master's thesis, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taiwan, 57 pp., https://doi.org/10.6342/ntu.2012.01002, 2012.
Liu, L., Cui, C., Deng, Y., Zhou, Z., Hu, Y., Wang, B., Ren, J., Cai, Z., Bai, Y., Yang, J., and Dong, X.: Localization and Invigoration of Mei-yu Front Rainfall due to Aerosol-Cloud Interactions: A Preliminary Assessment Based on WRF Simulations and IMFRE 2018 Field Observations, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 125, e2019JD031952, https://doi.org/10.1029/2019jd031952, 2020.
Lynn, B. H., Khain, A. P., Dudhia, J., Rosenfeld, D., Pokrovsky, A., and Seifert, A.: Spectral (Bin) Microphysics Coupled with a Mesoscale Model (MM5). Part II: Simulation of a CaPE Rain Event with a Squall Line, Mon. Weather Rev., 133, 59–71, https://doi.org/10.1175/mwr-2841.1, 2005.
Lynn, B., Khain, A., Rosenfeld, D., and Woodley, W. L.: Effects of aerosols on precipitation from orographic clouds, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 112, D10225, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006jd007537, 2007.
McCoy, D. T., Field, P. R., Schmidt, A., Grosvenor, D. P., Bender, F. A.-M., Shipway, B. J., Hill, A. A., Wilkinson, J. M., and Elsaesser, G. S.: Aerosol midlatitude cyclone indirect effects in observations and high-resolution simulations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5821–5846, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-5821-2018, 2018.
Miao, J.-E. and Yang, M.-J.: A Modeling Study of the Severe Afternoon Thunderstorm Event at Taipei on 14 June 2015: The Roles of Sea Breeze, Microphysics, and Terrain, J. Meteorol. Soc. JPN Ser. II, 98, 129–152, https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2020-008, 2020.
Ministry of Science and Technology and Chinese Culture University: Central Weather Bureau Weather Station Observation Data, Data Bank for Atmospheric and Hydrologic Research (DBAR) [data set], available at: https://dbar.pccu.edu.tw/ (last access: 28 January 2021), 2018.
Morrison, H. and Grabowski, W. W.: Comparison of Bulk and Bin Warm-Rain Microphysics Models Using a Kinematic Framework, J. Atmos. Sci., 64, 2839–2861, https://doi.org/10.1175/jas3980, 2007.
Morrison, H. and Grabowski, W. W.: Modeling Supersaturation and Subgrid-Scale Mixing with Two-Moment Bulk Warm Microphysics, J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 792–812, https://doi.org/10.1175/2007jas2374.1, 2008.
Morrison, H. and Milbrandt, J. A.: Parameterization of Cloud Microphysics Based on the Prediction of Bulk Ice Particle Properties. Part I: Scheme Description and Idealized Tests, J. Atmos. Sci., 72, 287–311, https://doi.org/10.1175/jas-d-14-0065.1, 2015.
Moseley, C., Berg, P., and Haerter, J. O.: Probing the precipitation life cycle by iterative rain cell tracking, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 118, 13361–13370, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013jd020868, 2013.
Moseley, C., Henneberg, O., and Haerter, J. O.: A Statistical Model for Isolated Convective Precipitation Events, J. Adv. Model. Earth Sy., 11, 360–375, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018ms001383, 2019.
Mülmenstädt, J. and Feingold, G.: The Radiative Forcing of Aerosol–Cloud Interactions in Liquid Clouds: Wrestling and Embracing Uncertainty, Curr. Clim. Change Rep., 4, 23–40, https://doi.org/10.1007/s40641-018-0089-y, 2018.
Nugent, A. D., Watson, C. D., Thompson, G., and Smith, R. B.: Aerosol Impacts on Thermally Driven Orographic Convection, J. Atmos. Sci., 73, 3115–3132, https://doi.org/10.1175/jas-d-15-0320.1, 2016.
Rodell, M., Houser, P. R., Jambor, U., Gottschalck, J., Mitchell, K., Meng, C.-J., Arsenault, K., Cosgrove, B., Radakovich, J., Bosilovich, M., Entin, J. K., Walker, J. P., Lohmann, D., and Toll, D.: The Global Land Data Assimilation System, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 85, 381–394, https://doi.org/10.1175/bams-85-3-381, 2004.
Rosenfeld, D., Lohmann, U., Raga, G. B., Dowd, C. D., Kulmala, M., Fuzzi, S., Reissell, A., and Andreae, M. O.: Flood or Drought: How Do Aerosols Affect Precipitation?, Science, 321, 1309–1313, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1160606, 2008.
Seo, J. M., Lee, H., Moon, S., and Baik, J.-J.: How Mountain Geometry Affects Aerosol-Cloud-Precipitation Interactions: Part I. Shallow Convective Clouds, J. Meteorol. Soc. JPN Ser. II, 98, 43–60, https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2020-003, 2020.
Shutts, G. J. and Gray, M. E. B.: A numerical modelling study of the geostrophic adjustment process following deep convection, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 120, 1145–1178, https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.49712051903, 1994.
Stevens, B. and Feingold, G.: Untangling aerosol effects on clouds and precipitation in a buffered system, Nature, 461, 607–613, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08281, 2009.
Su, C.-Y., Chen, W.-T., Chen, J.-P., Chang, W.-Y., and Jou, B. J.-D.: The Impacts of cloud condensation nuclei on the extreme precipitation of a monsoon coastal mesoscale convection system, Terr. Atmos. Ocean. Sci., 31, 131–139, https://doi.org/10.3319/tao.2019.11.29.01, 2020.
Su, S.-H., Chu, J.-L., Yo, T.-S., and Lin, L.-Y.: Identification of synoptic weather types over Taiwan area with multiple classifiers, Atmos. Sci. Lett., 19, e861, https://doi.org/10.1002/asl.861, 2018.
Tao, W.-K., Li, X., Khain, A., Matsui, T., Lang, S., and Simpson, J.: Role of atmospheric aerosol concentration on deep convective precipitation: Cloud-resolving model simulations, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 112, D24S18, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007jd008728, 2007.
Tao, W.-K., Chen, J.-P., Li, Z., Wang, C., and Zhang, C.: Impact of aerosols on convective clouds and precipitation, Rev. Geophys., 50, RG2001, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011RG000369, 2012.
Thompson, G. and Eidhammer, T.: A Study of Aerosol Impacts on Clouds and Precipitation Development in a Large Winter Cyclone, J. Atmos. Sci., 71, 3636–3658, https://doi.org/10.1175/jas-d-13-0305.1, 2014.
Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM): TRMM (TMPA) Rainfall Estimate L3 3 hour 0.25 degree × 0.25 degree V7, Greenbelt, MD, Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) [data set], https://doi.org/10.5067/TRMM/TMPA/3H/7, 2011.
Tsai, W.-M. and Wu, C.-M.: The environment of aggregated deep convection, J. Adv. Model. Earth Sys., 9, 2061–2078, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017ms000967, 2017.
Wang, C.: A modeling study of the response of tropical deep convection to the increase of cloud condensation nuclei concentration: 1. Dynamics and microphysics, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 110, D21211, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004jd005720, 2005.
White, B., Gryspeerdt, E., Stier, P., Morrison, H., Thompson, G., and Kipling, Z.: Uncertainty from the choice of microphysics scheme in convection-permitting models significantly exceeds aerosol effects, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12145–12175, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-12145-2017, 2017.
Wu, C.-M. and Arakawa, A.: Inclusion of Surface Topography into the Vector Vorticity Equation Model (VVM), J. Adv. Model. Earth Sy., 3, M04002, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011ms000061, 2011.
Wu, C.-M., Lin, H.-C., Cheng, F.-Y., and Chien, M.-H.: Implementation of the Land Surface Processes into a Vector Vorticity Equation Model (VVM) to Study its Impact on Afternoon Thunderstorms over Complex Topography in Taiwan, Asia-Pac, J. Atmos. Sci., 55, 701–717, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13143-019-00116-x, 2019.
Wu, C.-M. and Chen, P.-Y.: Idealized cloud-resolving simulations of land–atmosphere coupling over tropical islands, Terr. Atmos. Ocean. Sci., 32, 191–202, https://doi.org/10.3319/TAO.2020.12.16.01, 2021.
Zhang, L., Fu, T.-M., Tian, H., Ma, Y., Chen, J.-P., Tsai, T.-C., Tsai, I.-C., Meng, Z., and Yang, X.: Anthropogenic Aerosols Significantly Reduce Mesoscale Convective System Occurrences and Precipitation Over Southern China in April, Geophys. Res. Lett., 47, e2019GL086204, https://doi.org/10.1029/2019gl086204, 2020.
The impacts of increasing cloud condensation nuclei on summertime diurnal precipitation in weak synoptic weather over complex topography in Taiwan were investigated by applying object-based tracking analyses to semi-realistic large-eddy simulations. In hotspots of orographic locking processes, rain initiation is delayed, which prolongs the development of local circulation and convection. For this organized regime, the occurrence of extreme diurnal precipitating systems is notably enhanced.
The impacts of increasing cloud condensation nuclei on summertime diurnal precipitation in weak...