Articles | Volume 18, issue 9
14 May 2018
Research article | 14 May 2018
Synoptic meteorological modes of variability for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air quality in major metropolitan regions of China
Danny M. Leung et al.
No articles found.
Zichong Chen, Daniel J. Jacob, Ritesh Gautam, Mark Omara, Robert N. Stavins, Robert C. Stowe, Hannah O. Nesser, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Alba Lorente, Daniel J. Varon, Xiao Lu, Lu Shen, Zhen Qu, Drew C. Pendergrass, and Sarah Hancock
This preprint is open for discussion and under review for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).Short summary
We quantify methane emissions from individual countries in the Middle East and North Africa by inverse analysis of 2019 TROPOMI satellite observations of atmospheric methane. We show that the ability to relate oil/gas emissions to simply activity metrics is compromised by stochastic nature of local infrastructure and management practices. We find that the industry target on oil/gas methane intensity is achievable through associated gas capture, modern infrastructure, and centralized operations.
Amy Christiansen, Loretta J. Mickley, Junhua Liu, Luke D. Oman, and Lu Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14751–14782,Short summary
Understanding tropospheric ozone trends is crucial for accurate predictions of future air quality and climate, but drivers of trends are not well understood. We analyze global tropospheric ozone trends since 1980 using ozonesonde and surface measurements, and we evaluate two models for their ability to reproduce trends. We find observational evidence of increasing tropospheric ozone, but models underestimate these increases. This hinders our ability to estimate ozone radiative forcing.
Daniel J. Varon, Daniel J. Jacob, Benjamin Hmiel, Ritesh Gautam, David R. Lyon, Mark Omara, Melissa Sulprizio, Lu Shen, Drew Pendergrass, Hannah Nesser, Zhen Qu, Zachary R. Barkley, Natasha L. Miles, Scott J. Richardson, Kenneth J. Davis, Sudhanshu Pandey, Xiao Lu, Alba Lorente, Tobias Borsdorff, Joannes D. Maasakkers, and Ilse Aben
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Over 100 countries plan to cut their methane emissions by 30 % this decade under the 2021 Global Methane Pledge. The oil and gas industry is a high priority for emission reductions, but the temporal variability of oil/gas methane emissions is poorly understood. We used satellite observations to quantify weekly oil/gas methane emissions from the U.S. Permian Basin. We find that Permian emissions are highly variable and stronger than previously known, with diverse economic and activity drivers.
Ruijun Dang, Daniel J. Jacob, Viral Shah, Sebastian D. Eastham, Thibaud M. Fritz, Loretta J. Mickley, Tianjia Liu, Yi Wang, and Jun Wang
Model underestimate of the background NO2 is largely corrected by considering aerosol nitrate photolysis. Increase in aircraft emissions not only increases the background NO2, but also affects the satellite retrieval by altering the NO2 vertical profile. Increase in wildfire emissions contributes to the flattening of post-2009 OMI NO2 trends in the western US. Our work shows the importance of properly accounting for the free tropospheric background in interpreting satellite NO2 observations.
Yuxuan Wang, Nan Lin, Wei Li, Alex Guenther, Joey C. Y. Lam, Amos P. K. Tai, Mark J. Potosnak, and Roger Seco
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14189–14208,Short summary
Drought can cause large changes in biogenic isoprene emissions. In situ field observations of isoprene emissions during droughts are confined by spatial coverage and, thus, provide limited constraints. We derived a drought stress factor based on satellite HCHO data for MEGAN2.1 in the GEOS-Chem model using water stress and temperature. This factor reduces the overestimation of isoprene emissions during severe droughts and improves the simulated O3 and organic aerosol responses to droughts.
Lu Shen, Ritesh Gautam, Mark Omara, Daniel Zavala-Araiza, Joannes D. Maasakkers, Tia R. Scarpelli, Alba Lorente, David Lyon, Jianxiong Sheng, Daniel J. Varon, Hannah Nesser, Zhen Qu, Xiao Lu, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Steven P. Hamburg, and Daniel J. Jacob
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11203–11215,Short summary
We use 22 months of TROPOMI satellite observations to quantity methane emissions from the oil (O) and natural gas (G) sector in the US and Canada at the scale of both individual basins as well as country-wide aggregates. We find that O/G-related methane emissions are underestimated in these inventories by 80 % for the US and 40 % for Canada, and 70 % of the underestimate in the US is from five O/G basins, including Permian, Haynesville, Anadarko, Eagle Ford, and Barnett.
Zichong Chen, Daniel J. Jacob, Hannah Nesser, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Alba Lorente, Daniel J. Varon, Xiao Lu, Lu Shen, Zhen Qu, Elise Penn, and Xueying Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10809–10826,Short summary
We quantify methane emissions in China and contributions from different sectors by inverse analysis of 2019 TROPOMI satellite observations of atmospheric methane. We find that anthropogenic methane emissions for China are underestimated in the national inventory. Our estimate of emissions indicates a small life-cycle loss rate, implying net climate benefits from the current
coal-to-gasenergy transition in China. However, this small loss rate can be misleading given China's high gas imports.
Joey C. Y. Lam, Amos P. K. Tai, Jason A. Ducker, and Christopher D. Holmes
We developed a new component within a widely use atmospheric chemistry model to better simulate plant ecophysiological processes that are relevant for ozone air quality. We showed that it reduces the simulated biases in plant uptake of ozone in prior models, and enables us to explore how future rising CO2 level may affect air quality via affecting plants. We also showed how such a modeling approach is preferred for any investigation of ozone-vegetation interactions involving shorter timescales.
Daniel J. Varon, Daniel J. Jacob, Melissa Sulprizio, Lucas A. Estrada, William B. Downs, Lu Shen, Sarah E. Hancock, Hannah Nesser, Zhen Qu, Elise Penn, Zichong Chen, Xiao Lu, Alba Lorente, Ashutosh Tewari, and Cynthia A. Randles
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5787–5805,Short summary
Reducing atmospheric methane emissions is critical to slow near-term climate change. Globally surveying satellite instruments like the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) have unique capabilities for monitoring atmospheric methane around the world. Here we present a user-friendly cloud-computing tool that enables researchers and stakeholders to quantify methane emissions across user-selected regions of interest using TROPOMI satellite observations.
Shihan Sun, Amos P. K. Tai, David H. Y. Yung, Anthony Y. H. Wong, Jason A. Ducker, and Christopher D. Holmes
Biogeosciences, 19, 1753–1776,Short summary
We developed and used a terrestrial biosphere model to compare and evaluate widely used empirical dry deposition schemes with different stomatal approaches and found that using photosynthesis-based stomatal approaches can reduce biases in modeled dry deposition velocities in current chemical transport models. Our study shows systematic errors in current dry deposition schemes and the importance of representing plant ecophysiological processes in models under a changing climate.
Ka Ming Fung, Maria Val Martin, and Amos P. K. Tai
Biogeosciences, 19, 1635–1655,Short summary
Fertilizer-induced ammonia detrimentally affects the environment by not only directly damaging ecosystems but also indirectly altering climate and soil fertility. To quantify these secondary impacts, we enabled CESM to simulate ammonia emission, chemical evolution, and deposition as a continuous cycle. If synthetic fertilizer use is to soar by 30 % from today's level, we showed that the counteracting impacts will increase the global ammonia emission by 3.3 Tg N per year.
Lu Shen, Daniel J. Jacob, Mauricio Santillana, Kelvin Bates, Jiawei Zhuang, and Wei Chen
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1677–1687,Short summary
The high computational cost of chemical integration is a long-standing limitation in global atmospheric chemistry models. Here we present an adaptive and efficient algorithm that can reduce the computational time of atmospheric chemistry by 50 % and maintain the error below 2 % for important species, inspired by machine learning clustering techniques and traditional asymptotic analysis ideas.
Jiachen Zhu, Amos P. K. Tai, and Steve Hung Lam Yim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 765–782,Short summary
This study assessed O3 damage to plant and the subsequent effects on meteorology and air quality in China, whereby O3, meteorology, and vegetation can co-evolve with each other. We provided comprehensive understanding about how O3–vegetation impacts adversely affect plant growth and crop production, and contribute to global warming and severe O3 air pollution in China. Our findings clearly pinpoint the need to consider the O3 damage effects in both air quality studies and climate change studies.
Xiao Lu, Daniel J. Jacob, Haolin Wang, Joannes D. Maasakkers, Yuzhong Zhang, Tia R. Scarpelli, Lu Shen, Zhen Qu, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Hannah Nesser, A. Anthony Bloom, Shuang Ma, John R. Worden, Shaojia Fan, Robert J. Parker, Hartmut Boesch, Ritesh Gautam, Deborah Gordon, Michael D. Moran, Frances Reuland, Claudia A. Octaviano Villasana, and Arlyn Andrews
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 395–418,Short summary
We evaluate methane emissions and trends for 2010–2017 in the gridded national emission inventories for the United States, Canada, and Mexico by inversion of in situ and satellite methane observations. We find that anthropogenic methane emissions for all three countries are underestimated in the national inventories, largely driven by oil emissions. Anthropogenic methane emissions in the US peak in 2014, in contrast to the report of a steadily decreasing trend over 2010–2017 from the US EPA.
Xueying Liu, Amos P. K. Tai, and Ka Ming Fung
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17743–17758,Short summary
With the rising food need, more intense agricultural activities will cause substantial perturbations to the nitrogen cycle, aggravating surface air pollution and imposing stress on terrestrial ecosystems. We studied how these ecosystem changes may modify biosphere–atmosphere exchanges, and further exert secondary effects on air quality, and demonstrated a link between agricultural activities and ozone air quality via the modulation of vegetation and soil biogeochemistry by nitrogen deposition.
Shixian Zhai, Daniel J. Jacob, Jared F. Brewer, Ke Li, Jonathan M. Moch, Jhoon Kim, Seoyoung Lee, Hyunkwang Lim, Hyun Chul Lee, Su Keun Kuk, Rokjin J. Park, Jaein I. Jeong, Xuan Wang, Pengfei Liu, Gan Luo, Fangqun Yu, Jun Meng, Randall V. Martin, Katherine R. Travis, Johnathan W. Hair, Bruce E. Anderson, Jack E. Dibb, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Jung-Hun Woo, Younha Kim, Qiang Zhang, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16775–16791,Short summary
Geostationary satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) has tremendous potential for monitoring surface fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Our study explored the physical relationship between AOD and PM2.5 by integrating data from surface networks, aircraft, and satellites with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. We quantitatively showed that accurate simulation of aerosol size distributions, boundary layer depths, relative humidity, coarse particles, and diurnal variations in PM2.5 are essential.
Yuqiang Zhang, Drew Shindell, Karl Seltzer, Lu Shen, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Qiang Zhang, Bo Zheng, Jia Xing, Zhe Jiang, and Lei Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16051–16065,Short summary
In this study, we use a global chemical transport model to simulate the effects on global air quality and human health due to emission changes in China from 2010 to 2017. By performing sensitivity analysis, we found that the air pollution control policies not only decrease the air pollutant concentration but also bring significant co-benefits in air quality to downwind regions. The benefits for the improved air pollution are dominated by PM2.5.
Zhen Qu, Daniel J. Jacob, Lu Shen, Xiao Lu, Yuzhong Zhang, Tia R. Scarpelli, Hannah Nesser, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Joannes D. Maasakkers, A. Anthony Bloom, John R. Worden, Robert J. Parker, and Alba L. Delgado
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14159–14175,Short summary
The recent launch of TROPOMI offers an unprecedented opportunity to quantify the methane budget from a top-down perspective. We use TROPOMI and the more mature GOSAT methane observations to estimate methane emissions and get consistent global budgets. However, TROPOMI shows biases over regions where surface albedo is small and provides less information for the coarse-resolution inversion due to the larger error correlations and spatial variations in the number of observations.
Lee T. Murray, Eric M. Leibensperger, Clara Orbe, Loretta J. Mickley, and Melissa Sulprizio
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5789–5823,Short summary
Chemical-transport models are tools used to study air pollution and inform public policy. However, they are limited by the availability of archived meteorology. Here, we describe how the GEOS-Chem chemical-transport model may now be driven by meteorology archived from a state-of-the-art general circulation model for past and future climates, allowing it to be used to explore the impact of climate change on air pollution and atmospheric composition.
Gongda Lu, Eloise A. Marais, Tuan V. Vu, Jingsha Xu, Zongbo Shi, James D. Lee, Qiang Zhang, Lu Shen, Gan Luo, and Fangqun Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Emission controls were imposed in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei in northern China in autumn-winter 2017. We find that regional PM2.5 targets (15 % decrease relative to previous year) were exceeded. Our analysis shows that decline in precursor emissions only leads to less than half (43 %) the improved air quality. Most of the change (57 %) is due to interannual variability in meteorology. Stricter emission controls may be necessary in years with unfavourable meteorology.
Jun Meng, Randall V. Martin, Paul Ginoux, Melanie Hammer, Melissa P. Sulprizio, David A. Ridley, and Aaron van Donkelaar
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4249–4260,Short summary
Dust emissions in models, for example, GEOS-Chem, have a strong nonlinear dependence on meteorology, which means dust emission strengths calculated from different resolution meteorological fields are different. Offline high-resolution dust emissions with an optimized global dust strength, presented in this work, can be implemented into GEOS-Chem as offline emission inventory so that it could promote model development by harmonizing dust emissions across simulations of different resolutions.
David R. Lyon, Benjamin Hmiel, Ritesh Gautam, Mark Omara, Katherine A. Roberts, Zachary R. Barkley, Kenneth J. Davis, Natasha L. Miles, Vanessa C. Monteiro, Scott J. Richardson, Stephen Conley, Mackenzie L. Smith, Daniel J. Jacob, Lu Shen, Daniel J. Varon, Aijun Deng, Xander Rudelis, Nikhil Sharma, Kyle T. Story, Adam R. Brandt, Mary Kang, Eric A. Kort, Anthony J. Marchese, and Steven P. Hamburg
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6605–6626,Short summary
The Permian Basin (USA) is the world’s largest oil field. We use tower- and aircraft-based approaches to measure how methane emissions in the Permian Basin changed throughout 2020. In early 2020, 3.3 % of the region’s gas was emitted; then in spring 2020, the loss rate temporarily dropped to 1.9 % as oil price crashed. We find this short-term reduction to be a result of reduced well development, less gas flaring, and fewer abnormal events despite minimal reductions in oil and gas production.
Xiao Lu, Daniel J. Jacob, Yuzhong Zhang, Joannes D. Maasakkers, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Lu Shen, Zhen Qu, Tia R. Scarpelli, Hannah Nesser, Robert M. Yantosca, Jianxiong Sheng, Arlyn Andrews, Robert J. Parker, Hartmut Boesch, A. Anthony Bloom, and Shuang Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4637–4657,Short summary
We use an analytical solution to the Bayesian inverse problem to quantitatively compare and combine the information from satellite and in situ observations, and to estimate global methane budget and their trends over the 2010–2017 period. We find that satellite and in situ observations are to a large extent complementary in the inversion for estimating global methane budget, and reveal consistent corrections of regional anthropogenic and wetland methane emissions relative to the prior inventory.
Yuzhong Zhang, Daniel J. Jacob, Xiao Lu, Joannes D. Maasakkers, Tia R. Scarpelli, Jian-Xiong Sheng, Lu Shen, Zhen Qu, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Jinfeng Chang, A. Anthony Bloom, Shuang Ma, John Worden, Robert J. Parker, and Hartmut Boesch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3643–3666,Short summary
We use 2010–2018 satellite observations of atmospheric methane to interpret the factors controlling atmospheric methane and its accelerating increase during the period. The 2010–2018 increase in global methane emissions is driven by tropical and boreal wetlands and tropical livestock (South Asia, Africa, Brazil), with an insignificant positive trend in emissions from the fossil fuel sector. The peak methane growth rates in 2014–2015 are also contributed by low OH and high fire emissions.
Shaojie Song, Tao Ma, Yuzhong Zhang, Lu Shen, Pengfei Liu, Ke Li, Shixian Zhai, Haotian Zheng, Meng Gao, Jonathan M. Moch, Fengkui Duan, Kebin He, and Michael B. McElroy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 457–481,Short summary
We simulate the atmospheric chemical processes of an important sulfur-containing organic aerosol species, which is produced by the reaction between sulfur dioxide and formaldehyde. We can predict its distribution on a global scale. We find it is particularly rich in East Asia. This aerosol species is more abundant in the colder season partly because of weaker sunlight.
Yang Li, Loretta J. Mickley, and Jed O. Kaplan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 57–68,Short summary
Climate models predict a shift toward warmer, drier environments in southwestern North America. Under future climate, the two main drivers of dust trends play opposing roles: (1) CO2 fertilization enhances vegetation and, in turn, decreases dust, and (2) increasing land use enhances dust emissions from northern Mexico. In the worst-case scenario, elevated dust concentrations spread widely over the domain by 2100 in spring, suggesting a large climate penalty on air quality and human health.
Felix Leung, Karina Williams, Stephen Sitch, Amos P. K. Tai, Andy Wiltshire, Jemma Gornall, Elizabeth A. Ainsworth, Timothy Arkebauer, and David Scoby
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 6201–6213,Short summary
Ground-level ozone (O3) is detrimental to plant productivity and crop yield. Currently, the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) includes a representation of crops (JULES-crop). The parameters for O3 damage in soybean in JULES-crop were calibrated against photosynthesis measurements from the Soybean Free Air Concentration Enrichment (SoyFACE). The result shows good performance for yield, and it helps contribute to understanding of the impacts of climate and air pollution on food security.
Viral Shah, Daniel J. Jacob, Jonathan M. Moch, Xuan Wang, and Shixian Zhai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12223–12245,Short summary
Cloud water pH affects atmospheric chemistry, and acid rain damages ecosystems. We use model simulations along with observations to present a global view of cloud water and precipitation pH. Sulfuric acid, nitric acid, and ammonia control the pH in the northern midlatitudes, but carboxylic acids and dust cations are important in the tropics and subtropics. The acid inputs to many nitrogen-saturated ecosystems are high enough to cause acidification, with ammonium as the main acidifying species.
Ke Li, Daniel J. Jacob, Lu Shen, Xiao Lu, Isabelle De Smedt, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11423–11433,Short summary
Surface summer ozone increased in China from 2013 to 2019 despite new governmental efforts targeting ozone pollution. We find that the ozone increase is mostly due to anthropogenic drivers, although meteorology also plays a role. Further analysis for the North China Plain shows that PM2.5 continued to decrease through 2019, while emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) stayed flat. This could explain the anthropogenic increase in ozone, as PM2.5 scavenges the radical precursors of ozone.
Lang Wang, Amos P. K. Tai, Chi-Yung Tam, Mehliyar Sadiq, Peng Wang, and Kevin K. W. Cheung
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11349–11369,Short summary
We investigate the effects of future land use and land cover change (LULCC) on surface ozone air quality worldwide and find that LULCC can significantly influence ozone in North America and Europe via modifying surface energy balance, boundary-layer meteorology, and regional circulation. The strength of such “biogeophysical effects” of LULCC is strongly dependent on forest type and generally greater than the “biogeochemical effects” via changing deposition and emission fluxes alone.
Yang Li, Loretta J. Mickley, Pengfei Liu, and Jed O. Kaplan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8827–8838,Short summary
Using a coupled vegetation–fire–climate modeling framework, we show a northward shift in forests and increased lightning fire activity in northern US states, including Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming. Our findings suggest a large climate penalty on ecosystem, air quality, visibility, and human health in a region valued for its national forests and parks. The fine-scale smoke PM predictions provided in this study should prove useful to human health and environmental assessments.
Haipeng Lin, Xu Feng, Tzung-May Fu, Heng Tian, Yaping Ma, Lijuan Zhang, Daniel J. Jacob, Robert M. Yantosca, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Elizabeth W. Lundgren, Jiawei Zhuang, Qiang Zhang, Xiao Lu, Lin Zhang, Lu Shen, Jianping Guo, Sebastian D. Eastham, and Christoph A. Keller
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3241–3265,Short summary
Online coupling of meteorology and chemistry models often presents maintenance issues with hard-wired coding. We present WRF-GC, an one-way online coupling of the WRF meteorological model and GEOS-Chem atmospheric chemistry model for regional atmospheric chemistry and air quality modeling. Our coupling structure allows future versions of either parent model to be immediately integrated into WRF-GC. The WRF-GC model was able to well reproduce regional PM2.5 with greater computational efficiency.
Gan Luo, Fangqun Yu, and Jonathan M. Moch
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 2879–2903,Short summary
This work improved pH calculation for cloud, rain, and wet surfaces, fraction of cloud available for aqueous-phase chemistry, rainout efficiencies for various types of cloud, empirical washout by rain and snow, and wet surface uptake in GEOS-Chem v12.6.0. We compared simulated mass concentrations of aerosol precursors and aerosols with surface monitoring networks, Arctic sites, and ATom observations, and showed that the model results with the updated wet processes agree better for most species.
Lu Shen, Daniel J. Jacob, Mauricio Santillana, Xuan Wang, and Wei Chen
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 2475–2486,Short summary
Chemical mechanisms in air quality models tend to get more complicated with time, reflecting both increasing knowledge and the need for greater scope. This objectively improves the models but increases the computational burden. In this work, we present an approach that can reduce the computational cost of chemical integration by 30–40 % while maintaining an accuracy better than 1 %. It retains the complexity of the full mechanism where it is needed and preserves full diagnostic information.
Anthony Y. H. Wong, Jeffrey A. Geddes, Amos P. K. Tai, and Sam J. Silva
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14365–14385,Short summary
Dry deposition is an important, but highly uncertain, sink for surface ozone. Several popular parameterizations exist to model this process, which vary with respect to how they depend on land cover and environmental variables. Here, we predict ozone dry deposition globally over 30 years, comparing four different approaches. We find that the choice of dry deposition parameterization affects the distribution, seasonal means, long-term trends, and interannual variability of surface ozone.
Shixian Zhai, Daniel J. Jacob, Xuan Wang, Lu Shen, Ke Li, Yuzhong Zhang, Ke Gui, Tianliang Zhao, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11031–11041,Short summary
Observed annual mean PM2.5 decreased by 30–50 % in China from 2013–2018. However, meteorologically PM2.5 variability complicates trend attribution. We used a stepwise multiple linear regression model to quantitatively separate contributions from anthropogenic emissions and meteorology. Results show that 88 % of the PM2.5 decrease across China is attributable to anthropogenic emission changes, and 12 % is attributable to meteorology.
Rachel F. Silvern, Daniel J. Jacob, Loretta J. Mickley, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Katherine R. Travis, Eloise A. Marais, Ronald C. Cohen, Joshua L. Laughner, Sungyeon Choi, Joanna Joiner, and Lok N. Lamsal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8863–8878,Short summary
The US EPA reports a steady decrease in nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from fuel combustion over the 2005–2017 period, while satellite observations show a leveling off after 2009, suggesting emission reductions and related air quality gains have halted. We show the sustained decrease in NOx emissions is in fact consistent with observed trends in surface NO2 and ozone concentrations and that the flattening of the satellite trend reflects a growing influence from the non-anthropogenic background.
Lu Shen, Daniel J. Jacob, Xiong Liu, Guanyu Huang, Ke Li, Hong Liao, and Tao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6551–6560,
Xiaomeng Jin, Arlene M. Fiore, Gabriele Curci, Alexei Lyapustin, Kevin Civerolo, Michael Ku, Aaron van Donkelaar, and Randall V. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 295–313,Short summary
We use a forward geophysical approach to derive surface PM2.5 distribution from satellite AOD over the northeastern US by applying relationships between surface PM2.5 and column AOD from a regional air quality model (CMAQ). We use multi-platform surface, aircraft, and radiosonde measurements to quantify different sources of uncertainties. We highlight model representation of aerosol vertical distribution and speciation as major sources of uncertainties for satellite-derived PM2.5.
Lu Shen, Daniel J. Jacob, Loretta J. Mickley, Yuxuan Wang, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17489–17496,
Shan S. Zhou, Amos P. K. Tai, Shihan Sun, Mehliyar Sadiq, Colette L. Heald, and Jeffrey A. Geddes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14133–14148,Short summary
Surface ozone pollution harms vegetation. As plants play key roles shaping air quality, the plant damage may further worsen air pollution. We use various computer models to examine such feedback effects, and find that ozone-induced decline in leaf density can lead to much higher ozone levels in forested regions, mostly due to the reduced ability of leaves to absorb pollutants. This study highlights the importance of considering the two-way interactions between plants and air pollution.
Sebastian D. Eastham, Michael S. Long, Christoph A. Keller, Elizabeth Lundgren, Robert M. Yantosca, Jiawei Zhuang, Chi Li, Colin J. Lee, Matthew Yannetti, Benjamin M. Auer, Thomas L. Clune, Jules Kouatchou, William M. Putman, Matthew A. Thompson, Atanas L. Trayanov, Andrea M. Molod, Randall V. Martin, and Daniel J. Jacob
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 2941–2953,Short summary
Global atmospheric chemical transport models are crucial tools in atmospheric science, used to address problems ranging from climate change to acid rain. GEOS-Chem High Performance (GCHP) is a new implementation of the widely used GEOS-Chem model, designed for massively parallel architectures. GCHP v11-02c is shown to be highly scalable from 6 to over 500 cores, enabling the routine simulation of global atmospheric chemistry from the surface to the stratopause at resolutions of ~50 km or finer.
Jingqiu Mao, Annmarie Carlton, Ronald C. Cohen, William H. Brune, Steven S. Brown, Glenn M. Wolfe, Jose L. Jimenez, Havala O. T. Pye, Nga Lee Ng, Lu Xu, V. Faye McNeill, Kostas Tsigaridis, Brian C. McDonald, Carsten Warneke, Alex Guenther, Matthew J. Alvarado, Joost de Gouw, Loretta J. Mickley, Eric M. Leibensperger, Rohit Mathur, Christopher G. Nolte, Robert W. Portmann, Nadine Unger, Mika Tosca, and Larry W. Horowitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2615–2651,Short summary
This paper is aimed at discussing progress in evaluating, diagnosing, and improving air quality and climate modeling using comparisons to SAS observations as a guide to thinking about improvements to mechanisms and parameterizations in models.
Daniel H. Cusworth, Loretta J. Mickley, Eric M. Leibensperger, and Michael J. Iacono
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13559–13572,Short summary
Since 1990, light-scattering pollution known as aerosols have declined as a result of tightening US air quality regulations. Our study finds that US surface solar radiation has increased simultaneously. We establish a link between aerosols and radiation through physical and statistical models. We find the strongest relationship between aerosols, radiation, and climate at a site in the Midwest. Our work underscores the importance of regional pollution on climate in the US and abroad.
Yuxuan Wang, Yuanyu Xie, Wenhao Dong, Yi Ming, Jun Wang, and Lu Shen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12827–12843,Short summary
Besides the well-known large impact on agriculture and water resources, drought is associated with significant adverse effects on air quality. Drought-induced degradation of air quality is largely due to natural processes, offsetting the effort of anthropogenic emission reduction during the past decades. Such adverse impacts should be included in modeling processes under current and future climate for mitigation policy.
Yuanhong Zhao, Lin Zhang, Amos P. K. Tai, Youfan Chen, and Yuepeng Pan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9781–9796,Short summary
Human activities have substantially enhanced atmospheric deposition of reactive nitrogen, inducing complex environmental consequences. This study presents a first quantitative investigation of how anthropogenic nitrogen deposition could impact surface ozone air quality through surface–atmosphere exchange processes. We find important surface ozone changes driven by nitrogen deposition, which can be comparable with those due to historical climate and land use changes.
Shailesh K. Kharol, Chris A. McLinden, Christopher E. Sioris, Mark W. Shephard, Vitali Fioletov, Aaron van Donkelaar, Sajeev Philip, and Randall V. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5921–5929,
Lu Shen, Loretta J. Mickley, and Lee T. Murray
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4355–4367,Short summary
We introduce a new method to characterize the influence of atmospheric circulation on surface PM2.5 concentrations. Applying our statistical model to climate projections, we find a strong influence of 2000–2050 climate change on PM2.5 air quality in the United States. We find that current atmospheric chemistry models may underestimate the strong positive sensitivity of PM2.5 to temperature in the eastern United States in summer, and so may underestimate PM2.5 changes in a warmer climate.
Mehliyar Sadiq, Amos P. K. Tai, Danica Lombardozzi, and Maria Val Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3055–3066,Short summary
Surface ozone harms vegetation, which can influence not only climate but also ozone air quality itself. We implement a scheme for ozone damage on vegetation into an Earth system model, so that for the first time simulated vegetation and ozone can coevolve in a fully coupled simulation. With ozone–vegetation coupling, simulated ozone is found to be significantly higher by up to 6 ppbv. Reduced dry deposition and enhanced isoprene emission contribute to most of these increases.
Tomás Sherwen, Mat J. Evans, Lucy J. Carpenter, Johan A. Schmidt, and Loretta J. Mickley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1557–1569,Short summary
We model pre-industrial to present day changes using the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model with halogens (Cl, Br, I). The model better captures pre-industrial O3 observations with halogens included. Halogens buffer the tropospheric forcing of O3 (RFTO3) from pre-industrial to present day, reducing RFTO3 by 0.087 Wm−2. This reduction is greater than that from halogens on stratospheric O3 (−0.05 Wm−2). This suggests that models that do not include halogens will overestimate RFTO3by ~ 25%.
Yuxuan Wang, Beixi Jia, Sing-Chun Wang, Mark Estes, Lu Shen, and Yuanyu Xie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15265–15276,Short summary
This paper provides empirical evidence that the year-to-year variability of summertime ozone over Houston is linked to the Bermuda High (BH) large-scale circulation patterns. It identifies two BH indices that can explain up to 70 % of the interannual variability of summertime ozone in Houston and illustrates the mechanism underlying the BH and ozone linkage. Such a mechanism is tested for applicability to other coastal urban regions along the US Gulf Coast.
Lei Zhu, Daniel J. Jacob, Patrick S. Kim, Jenny A. Fisher, Karen Yu, Katherine R. Travis, Loretta J. Mickley, Robert M. Yantosca, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Isabelle De Smedt, Gonzalo González Abad, Kelly Chance, Can Li, Richard Ferrare, Alan Fried, Johnathan W. Hair, Thomas F. Hanisco, Dirk Richter, Amy Jo Scarino, James Walega, Petter Weibring, and Glenn M. Wolfe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13477–13490,Short summary
HCHO column data are widely used as a proxy for VOCs emissions, but validation of the data has been extremely limited. We use accurate aircraft observations to validate and intercompare 6 HCHO retrievals with GEOS-Chem as the intercomparison platform. Retrievals are interconsistent in spatial variability over the SE US and in daily variability, but are biased low by 20–51 %. Our work supports the use of HCHO column as a quantitative proxy for isoprene emission after correction of the low bias.
Yu Fu, Amos P. K. Tai, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10369–10383,Short summary
The effects of climate change would partly counteract the emission-driven increase in PM2.5 in winter in most of eastern China, but exacerbate PM2.5 pollution in summer in North China Plain. Land cover and land use change might partially offset the increase in summertime PM2.5 but further enhance wintertime PM2.5 in the model by modifying the dry deposition of various PM2.5 precursors and biogenic volatile organic compound emissions, which also act as important factors in modulating air quality.
L. Shen, L. J. Mickley, and A. P. K. Tai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10925–10938,Short summary
In this study, we have examined the effect of polar jet and Bermuda High on ozone air quality in the eastern United States. In the Midwest and northeast, the poleward shift of jet wind leads to reduced polar jet frequency, resulting in increased ozone there. In the southeast, the influence of Bermuda High on ozone variability depends on the location of its west edge. Westward movement increases the ozone only when the JJA Bermuda High west edge is located west of 85.4°W.
Y. Fu and A. P. K. Tai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10093–10106,Short summary
Historical land cover and land use change alone between 1980 and 2010 could lead to reduced summertime surface ozone by up to 4ppbv in East Asia. Climate change alone could lead to an increase in summertime ozone by 2-10ppbv in most of East Asia. Land cover change could offset part of the climate effect and lead to a previously unknown public health benefit. The sensitivity of surface ozone to land cover change is more dependent on dry deposition than isoprene emission in most of East Asia.
X. Yue, L. J. Mickley, J. A. Logan, R. C. Hudman, M. V. Martin, and R. M. Yantosca
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10033–10055,Short summary
Based on simulated meteorology from 13 GCMs, we projected future wildfire activity in Alaskan and Canadian ecoregions by the mid-century. The most robust change is the increase of 150-390% in area burned over Alaska and western Canada. The models also predict an increase of 45-90% in the central and southern Canadian ecoregions, but a decrease of up to 50% in northern Canada. We further quantify how the changes in wildfire emissions may affect ozone concentrations in North America.
P. Achakulwisut, L. J. Mickley, L. T. Murray, A. P. K. Tai, J. O. Kaplan, and B. Alexander
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7977–7998,Short summary
The atmosphere’s oxidative capacity determines the lifetime of many trace gases important to climate, chemistry, and human health. Yet uncertainties remain about its past variations, its controlling factors, and the radiative forcing of short-lived species it influences. To reduce these uncertainties, we must better quantify the natural emissions and chemical reaction mechanisms of organic compounds in the atmosphere, which play a role in governing the oxidative capacity.
L. T. Murray, L. J. Mickley, J. O. Kaplan, E. D. Sofen, M. Pfeiffer, and B. Alexander
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3589–3622,
H. Jiang, H. Liao, H. O. T. Pye, S. Wu, L. J. Mickley, J. H. Seinfeld, and X. Y. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7937–7960,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Future changes in atmospheric rivers over East Asia under stratospheric aerosol interventionModeling the influence of chain length on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation via multiphase reactions of alkanesHow aerosol size matters in aerosol optical depth (AOD) assimilation and the optimization using the Ångström exponentMicrophysical, macrophysical, and radiative responses of subtropical marine clouds to aerosol injectionsHemispheric-wide climate response to regional COVID-19-related aerosol emission reductions: the prominent role of atmospheric circulation adjustmentsImpacts of an aerosol layer on a midlatitude continental system of cumulus clouds: how do these impacts depend on the vertical location of the aerosol layer?Impact of phase state and non-ideal mixing on equilibration timescales of secondary organic aerosol partitioningA global climatology of ice-nucleating particles under cirrus conditions derived from model simulations with MADE3 in EMACEnviro-HIRLAM model estimates of elevated black carbon pollution over Ukraine resulted from forest firesWhere does the dust deposited over the Sierra Nevada snow come from?Instant and delayed effects of March biomass burning aerosols over the Indochina PeninsulaAerosol–cloud interaction in the atmospheric chemistry model GRAPES_Meso5.1/CUACE and its impacts on mesoscale numerical weather prediction under haze pollution conditions in Jing–Jin–Ji in ChinaSurvival probabilities of atmospheric particles: comparison based on theory, cluster population simulations, and observations in BeijingThe simulation of mineral dust in the United Kingdom Earth System Model UKESM1Dust pollution in China affected by different spatial and temporal types of El NiñoAn improved representation of aerosol mixing state for air quality–weather interactionsCirculation-regulated impacts of aerosol pollution on urban heat island in BeijingSize-resolved dust direct radiative effect efficiency derived from satellite observationsModeling coarse and giant desert dust particlesFire–climate interactions through the aerosol radiative effect in a global chemistry–climate–vegetation modelMeteorological export and deposition fluxes of Black Carbon on glaciers of the central Chilean AndesContributions of meteorology and anthropogenic emissions to the trends in winter PM2.5 in eastern China 2013–2018Impacts of condensable particulate matter on atmospheric organic aerosols and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in ChinaMapping the dependence of black carbon radiative forcing on emission region and seasonRegional PM2.5 pollution confined by atmospheric internal boundaries in the North China Plain: boundary layer structures and numerical simulationToward targeted observations of the meteorological initial state for improving the PM2.5 forecast of a heavy haze event that occurred in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei regionBelow-cloud scavenging of aerosol by rain: a review of numerical modelling approaches and sensitivity simulations with mineral dust in the Met Office's Unified ModelAggravated Air Pollution and Health Burden due to Traffic Congestion in Urban ChinaPredicting gridded winter PM2.5 concentration in the east of ChinaSatellite-based evaluation of AeroCom model bias in biomass burning regionsImpacts of marine organic emissions on low-level stratiform clouds – a large eddy simulator studyAviation contrail climate effects in the North Atlantic from 2016 to 2021Source attribution of cloud condensation nuclei and their impact on stratocumulus clouds and radiation in the south-eastern AtlanticRole of K-feldspar and quartz in global ice nucleation by mineral dust in mixed-phase cloudsSimulating wildfire emissions and plume rise using geostationary satellite fire radiative power measurements: a case study of the 2019 Williams Flats fireAtomistic and coarse-grained simulations reveal increased ice nucleation activity on silver iodide surfaces in slit and wedge geometriesSecondary aerosol formation in marine Arctic environments: a model measurement comparison at Ny-ÅlesundEffective radiative forcing of anthropogenic aerosols in E3SM version 1: historical changes, causality, decomposition, and parameterization sensitivitiesExamination of aerosol impacts on convective clouds and precipitation in two metropolitan areas in East Asia; how varying depths of convective clouds between the areas diversify those aerosol effects?Influence of emission size distribution and nucleation on number concentrations over Greater ParisImpact of stratospheric aerosol intervention geoengineering on surface air temperature in China: a surface energy budget perspectiveRegional impacts of black carbon morphologies on shortwave aerosol–radiation interactions: a comparative study between the US and ChinaTropospheric warming over the northern Indian Ocean caused by South Asian anthropogenic aerosols: possible impact on the upper troposphere and lower stratosphereIntraseasonal variation of the northeast Asian anomalous anticyclone and its impacts on PM2.5 pollution in the North China Plain in early winterInverse modeling of the 2021 spring super dust storms in East AsiaProjected increases in wildfires may challenge regulatory curtailment of PM2.5 over the eastern US by 2050Causal influences of El Niño–Southern Oscillation on global dust activitiesFormation, radiative forcing, and climatic effects of severe regional hazeAdvances in air quality research – current and emerging challengesLarge-eddy-simulation study on turbulent particle deposition and its dependence on atmospheric-boundary-layer stability
Ju Liang and Jim Haywood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1687–1703,Short summary
The recent record-breaking flood events in China during the summer of 2021 highlight the importance of mitigating the risks from future changes in high-impact weather systems under global warming. Based on a state-of-the-art Earth system model, we demonstrate a pilot study on the responses of atmospheric rivers and extreme precipitation over East Asia to anthropogenically induced climate warming and an unconventional mitigation strategy – stratospheric aerosol injection.
Azad Madhu, Myoseon Jang, and David Deacon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1661–1675,Short summary
SOA formation is simulated using the UNIPAR model for series of linear alkanes. The inclusion of autoxidation reactions within the explicit gas mechanisms of C9–C12 was found to significantly improve predictions. Available product distributions were extrapolated with an incremental volatility coefficient (IVC) to predict SOA formation of alkanes without explicit mechanisms. These product distributions were used to simulate SOA formation from C13 and C15 and had good agreement with chamber data.
Jianbing Jin, Bas Henzing, and Arjo Segers
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1641–1660,Short summary
Aerosol models and satellite retrieval algorithms rely on different aerosol size assumptions. In practice, differences between simulations and observations do not always reflect the difference in aerosol amount. To avoid inconsistencies, we designed a hybrid assimilation approach. Different from a standard aerosol optical depth (AOD) assimilation that directly assimilates AODs, the hybrid one estimates aerosol size parameters by assimilating Ängström observations before assimilating the AODs.
Je-Yun Chun, Robert Wood, Peter Blossey, and Sarah J. Doherty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1345–1368,Short summary
We investigate the impact of injected aerosol on subtropical low marine clouds under a variety of meteorological conditions using high-resolution model simulations. This study illustrates processes perturbed by aerosol injections and their impact on cloud properties (e.g., cloud number concentration, thickness, and cover). We show that those responses are highly sensitive to background meteorological conditions, such as precipitation, and background cloud properties.
Nora L. S. Fahrenbach and Massimo A. Bollasina
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 877–894,Short summary
We studied the monthly-scale climate response to COVID-19 aerosol emission reductions during January–May 2020 using climate models. Our results show global temperature and rainfall anomalies driven by circulation changes. The climate patterns reverse polarity from JF to MAM due to a shift in the main SO2 reduction region from China to India. This real-life example of rapid climate adjustments to abrupt, regional aerosol emission reduction has large implications for future climate projections.
Seoung Soo Lee, Junshik Um, Won Jun Choi, Kyung-Ja Ha, Chang Hoon Jung, Jianping Guo, and Youtong Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 273–286,Short summary
This paper elaborates on process-level mechanisms regarding how the interception of radiation by aerosols interacts with the surface heat fluxes and atmospheric instability in warm cumulus clouds. This paper elucidates how these mechanisms vary with the location or altitude of an aerosol layer. This elucidation indicates that the location of aerosol layers should be taken into account for parameterizations of aerosol–cloud interactions.
Meredith Schervish and Manabu Shiraiwa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 221–233,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) can exhibit complex non-ideal behavior and adopt an amorphous semisolid state. We simulate condensation of semi-volatile compounds into a phase-separated particle to investigate the effect of non-ideality and particle phase state on the equilibration timescale of SOA partitioning. Our results provide useful insights into the interpretation of experimental observations and the description and treatment of SOA in aerosol models.
Christof G. Beer, Johannes Hendricks, and Mattia Righi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15887–15907,Short summary
Ice-nucleating particles (INPs) have important influences on cirrus clouds and the climate system; however, their global atmospheric distribution in the cirrus regime is still very uncertain. We present a global climatology of INPs under cirrus conditions derived from model simulations, considering the mineral dust, soot, crystalline ammonium sulfate, and glassy organics INP types. The comparison of respective INP concentrations indicates the large importance of ammonium sulfate particles.
Mykhailo Savenets, Larysa Pysarenko, Svitlana Krakovska, Alexander Mahura, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15777–15791,Short summary
The paper explores the spatio-temporal variability of black carbon during a wildfire in August 2010, with a focus on Ukraine. As a research tool, the seamless Enviro-HIRLAM modelling system is used for investigating the atmospheric transport of aerosol particles emitted by wildfires from remote and local sources. The results of this study improve our understanding of the physical and chemical processes and the interactions of aerosols in the atmosphere.
Huilin Huang, Yun Qian, Ye Liu, Cenlin He, Jianyu Zheng, Zhibo Zhang, and Antonis Gkikas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15469–15488,Short summary
Using a clustering method developed in the field of artificial neural networks, we identify four typical dust transport patterns across the Sierra Nevada, associated with the mesoscale and regional-scale wind circulations. Our results highlight the connection between dust transport and dominant weather patterns, which can be used to understand dust transport in a changing climate.
Anbao Zhu, Haiming Xu, Jiechun Deng, Jing Ma, and Shaofeng Hua
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15425–15447,Short summary
This study demonstrates the instant and delayed effects of biomass burning (BB) aerosols on precipitation over the Indochina Peninsula (ICP). The convection suppression due to the BB aerosol-induced stabilized atmosphere dominates over the favorable water-vapor condition induced by large-scale circulation responses, leading to an overall reduced precipitation in March, while the delayed effect promotes precipitation from early April to mid April due to the anomalous atmospheric circulations.
Wenjie Zhang, Hong Wang, Xiaoye Zhang, Liping Huang, Yue Peng, Zhaodong Liu, Xiao Zhang, and Huizheng Che
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15207–15221,Short summary
Aerosol–cloud interaction (ACI) is first implemented in the atmospheric chemistry system GRAPES_Meso5.1/CUACE. ACI can improve the simulated cloud, temperature, and precipitation under haze pollution conditions in Jing-Jin-Ji in China. This paper demonstrates the critical role of ACI in current numerical weather prediction over the severely polluted region.
Santeri Tuovinen, Runlong Cai, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Jingkun Jiang, Chao Yan, Markku Kulmala, and Jenni Kontkanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15071–15091,Short summary
We compare observed survival probabilities of atmospheric particles from Beijing, China, with survival probabilities based on analytical formulae and model simulations. We find observed survival probabilities under polluted conditions at smaller sizes to be higher, while at larger sizes they are lower than or similar to theoretical survival probabilities. Uncertainties in condensation sink and growth rate are unlikely to explain higher-than-predicted survival probabilities at smaller sizes.
Stephanie Woodward, Alistair A. Sellar, Yongming Tang, Marc Stringer, Andrew Yool, Eddy Robertson, and Andy Wiltshire
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14503–14528,Short summary
We describe the dust scheme in the UKESM1 Earth system model and show generally good agreement with observations. Comparing with the closely related HadGEM3-GC3.1 model, we show that dust differences are not only due to inter-model differences but also to the dust size distribution. Under climate change, HadGEM3-GC3.1 dust hardly changes, but UKESM1 dust decreases because that model includes the vegetation response which, in our models, has a bigger impact on dust than climate change itself.
Yang Yang, Liangying Zeng, Hailong Wang, Pinya Wang, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14489–14502,Short summary
Using an aerosol–climate model, dust pollution in China affected by different spatial and temporal types of El Niño are examined. Both eastern and central Pacific El Niño and short-duration El Niño increase winter dust concentrations over northern China, while long-duration El Niño decreases concentrations. Only long-duration El Niño events can significantly affect dust over China in the following spring. This study has profound implications for air pollution control and dust storm prediction.
Robin Stevens, Andrei Ryjkov, Mahtab Majdzadeh, and Ashu Dastoor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13527–13549,Short summary
Absorbing particles like black carbon can be coated with other matter. How much radiation these particles absorb depends on the coating thickness. The removal of these particles by clouds and rain depends on the coating composition. These effects are important for both climate and air quality. We implement a more detailed representation of these particles in an air quality model which accounts for both coating thickness and composition. We find a significant effect on particle concentrations.
Fan Wang, Gregory R. Carmichael, Jing Wang, Bin Chen, Bo Huang, Yuguo Li, Yuanjian Yang, and Meng Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13341–13353,Short summary
Unprecedented urbanization in China has led to serious urban heat island (UHI) issues, exerting intense heat stress on urban residents. We find diverse influences of aerosol pollution on urban heat island intensity (UHII) under different circulations. Our results also highlight the role of black carbon in aggravating UHI, especially during nighttime. It could thus be targeted for cooperative management of heat islands and aerosol pollution.
Qianqian Song, Zhibo Zhang, Hongbin Yu, Jasper F. Kok, Claudia Di Biagio, Samuel Albani, Jianyu Zheng, and Jiachen Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13115–13135,Short summary
This study developed a dataset that enables us to efficiently calculate dust direct radiative effect (DRE, i.e., cooling or warming our planet) for any given dust size distribution in addition to three sets of dust mineral components and two dust shapes. We demonstrate and validate the method of using this dataset to calculate dust DRE. Moreover, using this dataset we found that dust mineral composition is a more important factor in determining dust DRE than dust size and shape.
Eleni Drakaki, Vassilis Amiridis, Alexandra Tsekeri, Antonis Gkikas, Emmanouil Proestakis, Sotirios Mallios, Stavros Solomos, Christos Spyrou, Eleni Marinou, Claire L. Ryder, Demetri Bouris, and Petros Katsafados
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12727–12748,Short summary
State-of-the-art atmospheric dust models have limitations in accounting for a realistic dust size distribution (emission, transport). We modify the parameterization of the mineral dust cycle by including particles with diameter >20 μm, as indicated by observations over deserts. Moreover, we investigate the effects of reduced settling velocities of dust particles. Model results are evaluated using airborne and spaceborne dust measurements above Cabo Verde.
Chenguang Tian, Xu Yue, Jun Zhu, Hong Liao, Yang Yang, Yadong Lei, Xinyi Zhou, Hao Zhou, Yimian Ma, and Yang Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12353–12366,Short summary
We quantify the impacts of fire aerosols on climate through direct, indirect, and albedo effects. In atmosphere-only simulations, we find global fire aerosols cause surface cooling and rainfall inhibition over many land regions. These fast atmospheric perturbations further lead to a reduction in regional leaf area index and lightning activities. By considering the feedback of fire aerosols on humidity, lightning, and leaf area index, we predict a slight reduction in fire emissions.
Rémy Lapere, Nicolás Huneeus, Sylvain Mailler, Laurent Menut, and Florian Couvidat
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Glaciers in the Andes of central Chile are shrinking rapidly in response to global warming. This melting is accelerated by the deposition of opaque particles onto snow and ice. In this work, model simulations quantify typical deposition rates of soot on glaciers in summer and winter months, and show that the contribution of emissions from Santiago is not as high as anticipated. Additionally, the combination of regional and local scale meteorology explain the seasonality in deposition.
Yanxing Wu, Run Liu, Yanzi Li, Junjie Dong, Zhijiong Huang, Junyu Zheng, and Shaw Chen Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11945–11955,Short summary
Multiple linear regression (MLR) analyses often interpret the correlation coefficient (r2) as the contribution of an independent variable to the dependent variable. Since a good correlation does not imply a causal relationship, we propose that r2 should be interpreted as the maximum possible contribution. Moreover, MLR results are sensitive to the length of time analyzed; long-term analysis gives a more accurate assessment because of its additional constraints.
Mengying Li, Shaocai Yu, Xue Chen, Zhen Li, Yibo Zhang, Zhe Song, Weiping Liu, Pengfei Li, Xiaoye Zhang, Meigen Zhang, Yele Sun, Zirui Liu, Caiping Sun, Jingkun Jiang, Shuxiao Wang, Benjamin N. Murphy, Kiran Alapaty, Rohit Mathur, Daniel Rosenfeld, and John H. Seinfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11845–11866,Short summary
This study constructed an emission inventory of condensable particulate matter (CPM) in China with a focus on organic aerosols (OAs), based on collected CPM emission information. The results show that OA emissions are enhanced twofold for the years 2014 and 2017 after the inclusion of CPM in the new inventory. Sensitivity cases demonstrated the significant contributions of CPM emissions from stationary combustion and mobile sources to primary, secondary, and total OA concentrations.
Petri Räisänen, Joonas Merikanto, Risto Makkonen, Mikko Savolahti, Alf Kirkevåg, Maria Sand, Øyvind Seland, and Antti-Ilari Partanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11579–11602,Short summary
A climate model is used to evaluate how the radiative forcing (RF) associated with black carbon (BC) emissions depends on the latitude, longitude, and seasonality of emissions. It is found that both the direct RF (BC absorption of solar radiation in air) and snow RF (BC absorption in snow/ice) depend strongly on the emission region and season. The results suggest that, for a given mass of BC emitted, climatic impacts are likely to be largest for high-latitude emissions due to the large snow RF.
Xipeng Jin, Xuhui Cai, Mingyuan Yu, Yu Song, Xuesong Wang, Hongsheng Zhang, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11409–11427,Short summary
Meteorological discontinuities in the vertical direction define the lowest atmosphere as the boundary layer, while in the horizontal direction it identifies the contrast zone as the internal boundary. Both of them determine the polluted air mass dimension over the North China Plain. This study reveals the boundary layer structures under three categories of internal boundaries, modified by thermal, dynamical, and blending effects. It provides a new insight to understand regional pollution.
Lichao Yang, Wansuo Duan, Zifa Wang, and Wenyi Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11429–11453,Short summary
The initial meteorological state has a great impact on PM2.5 forecasts. Assimilating additional observations is an effective way to improve the accuracy of the initial meteorological state. Here we used an advanced optimization approach to identify where we should preferentially place the meteorological observations associated with PM2.5 forecasts in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region of China. We provide evidence that the target observation strategy is effective for improving PM2.5 forecasts.
Anthony C. Jones, Adrian Hill, John Hemmings, Pascal Lemaitre, Arnaud Quérel, Claire L. Ryder, and Stephanie Woodward
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11381–11407,Short summary
As raindrops fall to the ground, they capture aerosol (i.e. below-cloud scavenging or BCS). Many different BCS schemes are available to climate models, and it is unclear what the impact of selecting one scheme over another is. Here, various BCS models are outlined and then applied to mineral dust in climate model simulations. We find that dust concentrations are highly sensitive to the BCS scheme, with dust atmospheric lifetimes ranging from 5 to 44 d.
Peng Wang, Ruhan Zhang, Shida Sun, Meng Gao, Bo Zheng, Dan Zhang, Yangli Zhang, Gregory R. Carmichael, and Hongliang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
In China, vehicles have jumped significantly in the recent decade. This caused severe traffic congestion and aggravated air pollution. In this study, we developed a new temporal-allocation approach to quantify the impacts of traffic congestion. We found that traffic congestion worsens air quality and health burden across China, especially in the urban clusters. More effective and comprehensive vehicle emission control policies should be implemented to improve air quality in China.
Zhicong Yin, Mingkeng Duan, Yuyan Li, Tianbao Xu, and Huijun Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11173–11185,Short summary
The PM2.5 concentration has been greatly reduced in recent years in China and has entered a crucial stage that required fine seasonal prediction. However, there is still no study aimed at predicting gridded PM2.5 concentration. A model for seasonal prediction of gridded winter PM2.5 concentration in the east of China was developed by analyzing the contributions of emissions and climate variability, which could provide scientific support for air pollution control at the regional and city levels.
Qirui Zhong, Nick Schutgens, Guido van der Werf, Twan van Noije, Kostas Tsigaridis, Susanne E. Bauer, Tero Mielonen, Alf Kirkevåg, Øyvind Seland, Harri Kokkola, Ramiro Checa-Garcia, David Neubauer, Zak Kipling, Hitoshi Matsui, Paul Ginoux, Toshihiko Takemura, Philippe Le Sager, Samuel Rémy, Huisheng Bian, Mian Chin, Kai Zhang, Jialei Zhu, Svetlana G. Tsyro, Gabriele Curci, Anna Protonotariou, Ben Johnson, Joyce E. Penner, Nicolas Bellouin, Ragnhild B. Skeie, and Gunnar Myhre
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11009–11032,Short summary
Aerosol optical depth (AOD) errors for biomass burning aerosol (BBA) are evaluated in 18 global models against satellite datasets. Notwithstanding biases in satellite products, they allow model evaluations. We observe large and diverse model biases due to errors in BBA. Further interpretations of AOD diversities suggest large biases exist in key processes for BBA which require better constraining. These results can contribute to further model improvement and development.
Marje Prank, Juha Tonttila, Jaakko Ahola, Harri Kokkola, Thomas Kühn, Sami Romakkaniemi, and Tomi Raatikainen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10971–10992,Short summary
Aerosols and clouds persist as the dominant sources of uncertainty in climate projections. In this modelling study, we investigate the role of marine aerosols in influencing the lifetime of low-level clouds. Our high resolution simulations show that sea spray can both extend and shorten the lifetime of the cloud layer depending on the model setup. The impact of the primary marine organics is relatively limited while secondary aerosol from monoterpenes can have larger impact.
Roger Teoh, Ulrich Schumann, Edward Gryspeerdt, Marc Shapiro, Jarlath Molloy, George Koudis, Christiane Voigt, and Marc E. J. Stettler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10919–10935,Short summary
Aircraft condensation trails (contrails) contribute to over half of the climate forcing attributable to aviation. This study uses historical air traffic and weather data to simulate contrails in the North Atlantic over 5 years, from 2016 to 2021. We found large intra- and inter-year variability in contrail radiative forcing and observed a 66 % reduction due to COVID-19. Most warming contrails predominantly result from night-time flights in winter.
Haochi Che, Philip Stier, Duncan Watson-Parris, Hamish Gordon, and Lucia Deaconu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10789–10807,Short summary
Extensive stratocumulus clouds over the south-eastern Atlantic (SEA) can lead to a cooling effect on the climate. A key pathway by which aerosols affect cloud properties is by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Here, we investigated the source attribution of CCN in the SEA as well as the cloud responses. Our results show that aerosol nucleation contributes most to CCN in the marine boundary layer. In terms of emissions, anthropogenic sources contribute most to the CCN and cloud droplets.
Marios Chatziparaschos, Nikos Daskalakis, Stelios Myriokefalitakis, Nikos Kalivitis, Athanasios Nenes, Maria Gonçalves Ageitos, Montserrat Costa-Surós, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Medea Zanoli, Mihalis Vrekoussis, and Maria Kanakidou
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Ice formation is enabled by Ice Nucleating Particles (INP) at higher temperatures than homogeneous formation and can profoundly affect the properties of clouds. Our global model results show that additionally to k-feldspar dust mineral that is globally the most important INP precursor, quartz, which is abundant in mineral dust, can be regionally significant, affecting different cloud level regimes (low-level clouds) than K-feldspar (mid-level clouds).
Aditya Kumar, R. Bradley Pierce, Ravan Ahmadov, Gabriel Pereira, Saulo Freitas, Georg Grell, Chris Schmidt, Allen Lenzen, Joshua P. Schwarz, Anne E. Perring, Joseph M. Katich, John Hair, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, and Hongyu Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10195–10219,Short summary
We use the WRF-Chem model with new implementations of GOES-16 wildfire emissions and plume rise based on fire radiative power (FRP) to interpret aerosol observations during the 2019 NASA–NOAA FIREX-AQ field campaign and perform model evaluations. The model shows significant improvements in simulating the variety of aerosol loading environments sampled during FIREX-AQ. Our results also highlight the importance of accurate wildfire diurnal cycle and aerosol chemical mechanisms in models.
Golnaz Roudsari, Olli H. Pakarinen, Bernhard Reischl, and Hanna Vehkamäki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10099–10114,Short summary
We use atomistic simulations to study heterogeneous ice nucleation on silver iodide surfaces in slit and wedge geometries at low supercooling which serve as a model of irregularities on real atmospheric aerosol particle surfaces. The revealed microscopic ice nucleation mechanisms in confined geometries strongly support the experimental evidence for the importance of surface features such as cracks or pits functioning as active sites for ice nucleation in the atmosphere.
Carlton Xavier, Metin Baykara, Robin Wollesen de Jonge, Barbara Altstädter, Petri Clusius, Ville Vakkari, Roseline Thakur, Lisa Beck, Silvia Becagli, Mirko Severi, Rita Traversi, Radovan Krejci, Peter Tunved, Mauro Mazzola, Birgit Wehner, Mikko Sipilä, Markku Kulmala, Michael Boy, and Pontus Roldin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10023–10043,Short summary
The focus of this work is to study and improve our understanding of processes involved in the formation and growth of new particles in a remote Arctic marine environment. We run the 1D model ADCHEM along air mass trajectories arriving at Ny-Ålesund in May 2018. The model finds that ion-mediated H2SO4–NH3 nucleation can explain the observed new particle formation at Ny-Ålesund. The growth of particles is driven via H2SO4 condensation and formation of methane sulfonic acid in the aqueous phase.
Kai Zhang, Wentao Zhang, Hui Wan, Philip J. Rasch, Steven J. Ghan, Richard C. Easter, Xiangjun Shi, Yong Wang, Hailong Wang, Po-Lun Ma, Shixuan Zhang, Jian Sun, Susannah M. Burrows, Manish Shrivastava, Balwinder Singh, Yun Qian, Xiaohong Liu, Jean-Christophe Golaz, Qi Tang, Xue Zheng, Shaocheng Xie, Wuyin Lin, Yan Feng, Minghuai Wang, Jin-Ho Yoon, and L. Ruby Leung
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9129–9160,Short summary
Here we analyze the effective aerosol forcing simulated by E3SM version 1 using both century-long free-running and short nudged simulations. The aerosol forcing in E3SMv1 is relatively large compared to other models, mainly due to the large indirect aerosol effect. Aerosol-induced changes in liquid and ice cloud properties in E3SMv1 have a strong correlation. The aerosol forcing estimates in E3SMv1 are sensitive to the parameterization changes in both liquid and ice cloud processes.
Seoung Soo Lee, Jinho Choi, Goun Kim, Kyung-Ja Ha, Kyong-Hwan Seo, Chang Hoon Jung, Junshik Um, Youtong Zheng, Jianping Guo, Sang-Keun Song, Yun Gon Lee, and Nobuyuki Utsumi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9059–9081,Short summary
This study investigates how aerosols affect clouds and precipitation and how the aerosol effects vary with varying types of clouds that are characterized by cloud depth in two metropolitan areas in East Asia. As cloud depth increases, the enhancement of precipitation amount transitions to no changes in precipitation amount with increasing aerosol concentrations. This indicates that cloud depth needs to be considered for a comprehensive understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions.
Karine Sartelet, Youngseob Kim, Florian Couvidat, Maik Merkel, Tuukka Petäjä, Jean Sciare, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8579–8596,Short summary
A methodology is defined to estimate number emissions from an inventory providing mass emissions. Number concentrations are simulated over Greater Paris using different nucleation parameterisations (binary, ternary involving sulfuric acid and ammonia, and heteromolecular involving sulfuric acid and extremely low-volatility organics, ELVOCs). The comparisons show that ternary nucleation may not be a dominant process for new particle formation in cities, but they stress the role of ELVOCs.
Zhaochen Liu, Xianmei Lang, and Dabang Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7667–7680,Short summary
Stratospheric aerosol intervention geoengineering is considered a potential means to counteract global warming. Here the impact of stratospheric aerosol intervention geoengineering on surface air temperature over China and related physical processes are investigated. Results show that the increased stratospheric aerosols cause surface cooling over China. The temperature responses vary with models, regions, and seasons and are largely related to net surface shortwave radiation changes.
Jie Luo, Zhengqiang Li, Chenchong Zhang, Qixing Zhang, Yongming Zhang, Ying Zhang, Gabriele Curci, and Rajan K. Chakrabarty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7647–7666,Short summary
The fractal black carbon was applied to re-evaluate the regional impacts of morphologies on aerosol–radiation interactions (ARIs), and the effects were compared between the US and China. The regional-mean clear-sky ARI is significantly affected by the BC morphology, and relative differences of 17.1 % and 38.7 % between the fractal model with a Df of 1.8 and the spherical model were observed in eastern China and the northwest US, respectively.
Suvarna Fadnavis, Prashant Chavan, Akash Joshi, Sunil M. Sonbawne, Asutosh Acharya, Panuganti C. S. Devara, Alexandru Rap, Felix Ploeger, and Rolf Müller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7179–7191,Short summary
We show that large amounts of anthropogenic aerosols are transported from South Asia to the northern Indian Ocean. These aerosols are then lifted into the UTLS by the ascending branch of the Hadley circulation. They are further transported to the Southern Hemisphere and downward via westerly ducts over the tropical Atlantic and Pacific. These aerosols increase tropospheric heating, resulting in an increase in water vapor, which is then transported to the UTLS.
Xiadong An, Wen Chen, Peng Hu, Shangfeng Chen, and Lifang Sheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6507–6521,Short summary
The intraseasonal NAAA usually establishes quickly on day −3 with a life span of 8 days. Further results revealed that the probability of regional PM2.5 pollution related to the NAAA for at least 2 days in the NCP is 80% in NDJ period 2000–2021. Particularly, air quality in the NCP tends to deteriorate on day 2 prior to the peak day of the NAAA and reaches a peak on day −1 with a life cycle of 4 days. The corresponding meteorological conditions support these conclusions.
Jianbing Jin, Mijie Pang, Arjo Segers, Wei Han, Li Fang, Baojie Li, Haochuan Feng, Hai Xiang Lin, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6393–6410,Short summary
Super dust storms reappeared in East Asia last spring after being absent for one and a half decades. Accurate simulation of such super sandstorms is valuable, but challenging due to imperfect emissions. In this study, the emissions of these dust storms are estimated by assimilating multiple observations. The results reveal that emissions originated from both China and Mongolia. However, for northern China, long-distance transport from Mongolia contributes much more dust than Chinese deserts.
Chandan Sarangi, Yun Qian, Ruby Leung, Yang Zhang, Yufei Zou, and Yuhang Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We show that for air quality, the densely-populated eastern US may see even larger impacts of wildfires due to long-distance smoke transport and associated positive climatic impacts, partially compensating the improvements from regulations in anthropogenic emissions. This study highlights the tension between natural and anthropogenic contributions and the non-local nature of air pollution that complicate regulatory strategies for improving future regional air quality for human health.
Thanh Le and Deg-Hyo Bae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5253–5263,Short summary
Here we assess the response of dust activities to El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) over the 1850–2014 period using climate model outputs. Our results show that ENSO is an important driver of dust deposition and dust transportation with high consensus across models. However, the results indicate that ENSO is unlikely to show causal impacts on dust emissions of major dust sources. This study allows us to obtain further understanding of the linkages between ENSO and dust cycle at a global scale.
Yun Lin, Yuan Wang, Bowen Pan, Jiaxi Hu, Song Guo, Misti Levy Zamora, Pengfei Tian, Qiong Su, Yuemeng Ji, Jiayun Zhao, Mario Gomez-Hernandez, Min Hu, and Renyi Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4951–4967,Short summary
Severe regional haze events, which are characterized by exceedingly high levels of fine particulate matter (PM), occur frequently in many developing countries (such as China and India), with profound implications for human health, weather, and climate. Our work establishes a synthetic view for the dominant regional features during severe haze events, unraveling rapid in situ PM production and inefficient transport, both of which are amplified by atmospheric stagnation.
Ranjeet S. Sokhi, Nicolas Moussiopoulos, Alexander Baklanov, John Bartzis, Isabelle Coll, Sandro Finardi, Rainer Friedrich, Camilla Geels, Tiia Grönholm, Tomas Halenka, Matthias Ketzel, Androniki Maragkidou, Volker Matthias, Jana Moldanova, Leonidas Ntziachristos, Klaus Schäfer, Peter Suppan, George Tsegas, Greg Carmichael, Vicente Franco, Steve Hanna, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, Guus J. M. Velders, and Jaakko Kukkonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4615–4703,Short summary
This review of air quality research focuses on developments over the past decade. The article considers current and future challenges that are important from air quality research and policy perspectives and highlights emerging prominent gaps of knowledge. The review also examines how air pollution management needs to adapt to new challenges and makes recommendations to guide the direction for future air quality research within the wider community and to provide support for policy.
Xin Yin, Cong Jiang, Yaping Shao, Ning Huang, and Jie Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4509–4522,Short summary
Through a series of numerical experiments using the large-eddy-simulation model, we have developed an improved particle deposition scheme that takes into account transient wind shear fluctuations. Statistical analysis of the simulation results shows that the shear stress can be well approximated by a Weibull distribution and that the new scheme provides more accurate predictions than the conventional scheme, particularly under weak wind conditions and strong convective atmospheric conditions.
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This paper investigates how large-scale weather systems control fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air quality in China. We show that winter monsoons, onshore winds and frontal rains can drive daily PM2.5 variability in different regions of China. We further project future PM2.5 concentration change by 2050s due to climate change, and verify that climate change has little benefit on future PM2.5 in Beijing, implying cutting down emissions is necessary to mitigate pollutions in megacities of China.
This paper investigates how large-scale weather systems control fine particulate matter (PM2.5)...