Articles | Volume 18, issue 9
Research article 09 May 2018
Research article | 09 May 2018
NO2-initiated multiphase oxidation of SO2 by O2 on CaCO3 particles
Ting Yu et al.
No articles found.
Weili Lin, Feng Wang, Chunxiang Ye, and Tong Zhu
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
Field observations found that released NOx on the glacier surface of the Tibetan Plateau, an important snow-covered region in the northern mid-latitudes, had a higher concentration than in Antarctic and Arctic regions. Such evidence, and such high fluxes as observed here on the Tibetan plateau is novel. That such high concentrations of nitrogen oxides can be found in remote areas is interesting and important for the oxidative budget of the boundary layer.
Yiqun Han, Wu Chen, Lia Chatzidiakou, Anika Krause, Li Yan, Hanbin Zhang, Queenie Chan, Ben Barratt, Rod Jones, Jing Liu, Yangfeng Wu, Meiping Zhao, Junfeng Zhang, Frank J. Kelly, Tong Zhu, and the AIRLESS team
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15775–15792,Short summary
Panel studies might be the most suitable way to link intensive air monitoring campaigns for a wide range of pollutant species and personal exposure in different micro-environments, together with epidemiological studies of detailed biological changes in humans. Panel studies are intensive, but related papers are very limited. With the successful collection of a rich dataset, we believe AIRLESS sets a good example for the design of a multidisciplinary study.
Yang Chen, Guangming Shi, Jing Cai, Zongbo Shi, Zhichao Wang, Xiaojiang Yao, Mi Tian, Chao Peng, Yiqun Han, Tong Zhu, Yue Liu, Xi Yang, Mei Zheng, Fumo Yang, Qiang Zhang, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9249–9263,Short summary
Individual particles were observed in two field studies during winter 2016 in the urban and rural areas of Beijing. An online single-particle chemical composition analysis was used as a tracing system to investigate the impact of heating activities and the formation of haze events. During the pollution events, a pattern of transport and accumulation was found with evidence of single particles. The transport from Pinggu to Peking University was significant but PKU to PG occurred occasionally.
Tiantian Wang, Yu Song, Zhenying Xu, Mingxu Liu, Tingting Xu, Wenling Liao, Lifei Yin, Xuhui Cai, Ling Kang, Hongsheng Zhang, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8727–8736,Short summary
Satellite measurements have revealed that the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) has the global maximum ammonia concentrations, with a peak from June to August. Here, we studied the reasons for this phenomenon through computer simulations. Low sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions and high air temperature over the IGP weaken the swallowing of gaseous ammonia by acidic gases. Additionally, the barrier effects of the Himalayas, like a windshield, are also conducive to the accumulation of ammonia.
Yan Zheng, Xi Cheng, Keren Liao, Yaowei Li, Yong Jie Li, Ru-Jin Huang, Weiwei Hu, Ying Liu, Tong Zhu, Shiyi Chen, Limin Zeng, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Qi Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2457–2472,Short summary
This paper provides important information to help researchers to understand the mass quantification and source apportionment by Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometers.
Yingruo Li, Ziqiang Tan, Chunxiang Ye, Junxia Wang, Yanwen Wang, Yi Zhu, Pengfei Liang, Xi Chen, Yanhua Fang, Yiqun Han, Qi Wang, Di He, Yao Wang, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13841–13857,Short summary
Vehicle emissions are a major source of Beijing's pollution. Various vehicle emission control policies have been implemented at great cost, but there is a lack of appropriate methods to evaluate the effectiveness of such policies. Here we developed a new method to evaluate the effectiveness of vehicle emission control policies during APEC. Our findings are instructive for air pollution control policy making.
Yanhua Fang, Chunxiang Ye, Junxia Wang, Yusheng Wu, Min Hu, Weili Lin, Fanfan Xu, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12295–12307,Short summary
Year-long observations of PM2.5, gaseous pollutants, and meteorological parameters in Beijing were analysed to investigate sulfate formation. RH and O3 concentrations above thresholds of 45 % and 35 ppb, respectively, greatly accelerated sulfate formation. Ambient changes in RH and O3 contributed to variations in sulfate formation among different seasons and pollution levels. A shift from gas-phase to multiphase SO2 oxidation contributed to fast sulfate formation under polluted conditions.
Lia Chatzidiakou, Anika Krause, Olalekan A. M. Popoola, Andrea Di Antonio, Mike Kellaway, Yiqun Han, Freya A. Squires, Teng Wang, Hanbin Zhang, Qi Wang, Yunfei Fan, Shiyi Chen, Min Hu, Jennifer K. Quint, Benjamin Barratt, Frank J. Kelly, Tong Zhu, and Roderic L. Jones
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4643–4657,Short summary
This study validates the performance of a personal air quality monitor that integrates miniaturised sensors that measure physical and chemical parameters. Overall, the air pollution sensors showed excellent agreement with standard instrumentation in outdoor, indoor and commuting environments across seasons and different geographical settings. Hence, novel sensing technologies like the ones demonstrated here can revolutionise health studies by providing highly resolved reliable exposure metrics.
Jianjun Li, Gehui Wang, Qi Zhang, Jin Li, Can Wu, Wenqing Jiang, Tong Zhu, and Limin Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10481–10496,Short summary
In this study, we investigated molecular compositions of organic aerosols (OAs) in summertime PM2.5 at a rural site in the North China Plain. We found that regional emission from field biomass burning (BB) significantly affects the concentration and molecular distribution of aliphatic lipids, sugars, and terpene-derived SOA, but has limited influence on PAHs, hopenes, and phthalates. The contribution of BB to OA increased by more than 50 % during the period influenced by regional open-field BB.
Wangshu Tan, Gang Zhao, Yingli Yu, Chengcai Li, Jian Li, Ling Kang, Tong Zhu, and Chunsheng Zhao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3825–3839,Short summary
A new method to retrieve CCN number concentrations using multiwavelength Raman lidars is proposed. The method implements hygroscopic enhancements of backscatter and extinction with relative humidity to represent particle hygroscopicity. The retrieved CCN number concentrations are in good agreement with theoretical calculated values. Sensitivity tests indicate that retrieval error in CCN arises mostly from uncertainties in extinction coefficients and RH profiles.
Zongbo Shi, Tuan Vu, Simone Kotthaus, Roy M. Harrison, Sue Grimmond, Siyao Yue, Tong Zhu, James Lee, Yiqun Han, Matthias Demuzere, Rachel E. Dunmore, Lujie Ren, Di Liu, Yuanlin Wang, Oliver Wild, James Allan, W. Joe Acton, Janet Barlow, Benjamin Barratt, David Beddows, William J. Bloss, Giulia Calzolai, David Carruthers, David C. Carslaw, Queenie Chan, Lia Chatzidiakou, Yang Chen, Leigh Crilley, Hugh Coe, Tie Dai, Ruth Doherty, Fengkui Duan, Pingqing Fu, Baozhu Ge, Maofa Ge, Daobo Guan, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Kebin He, Mathew Heal, Dwayne Heard, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Michael Hollaway, Min Hu, Dongsheng Ji, Xujiang Jiang, Rod Jones, Markus Kalberer, Frank J. Kelly, Louisa Kramer, Ben Langford, Chun Lin, Alastair C. Lewis, Jie Li, Weijun Li, Huan Liu, Junfeng Liu, Miranda Loh, Keding Lu, Franco Lucarelli, Graham Mann, Gordon McFiggans, Mark R. Miller, Graham Mills, Paul Monk, Eiko Nemitz, Fionna O'Connor, Bin Ouyang, Paul I. Palmer, Carl Percival, Olalekan Popoola, Claire Reeves, Andrew R. Rickard, Longyi Shao, Guangyu Shi, Dominick Spracklen, David Stevenson, Yele Sun, Zhiwei Sun, Shu Tao, Shengrui Tong, Qingqing Wang, Wenhua Wang, Xinming Wang, Xuejun Wang, Zifang Wang, Lianfang Wei, Lisa Whalley, Xuefang Wu, Zhijun Wu, Pinhua Xie, Fumo Yang, Qiang Zhang, Yanli Zhang, Yuanhang Zhang, and Mei Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7519–7546,Short summary
APHH-Beijing is a collaborative international research programme to study the sources, processes and health effects of air pollution in Beijing. This introduction to the special issue provides an overview of (i) the APHH-Beijing programme, (ii) the measurement and modelling activities performed as part of it and (iii) the air quality and meteorological conditions during joint intensive field campaigns as a core activity within APHH-Beijing.
Zhenying Xu, Mingxu Liu, Minsi Zhang, Yu Song, Shuxiao Wang, Lin Zhang, Tingting Xu, Tiantian Wang, Caiqing Yan, Tian Zhou, Yele Sun, Yuepeng Pan, Min Hu, Mei Zheng, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5605–5613,
Hao He, Xinrong Ren, Sarah E. Benish, Zhanqing Li, Fei Wang, Yuying Wang, Timothy P. Canty, Xiaobo Dong, Feng Lv, Yongtao Hu, Tong Zhu, and Russell R. Dickerson
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
We conducted aircraft measurements of air pollution in the North China Plain. Concentrations of air pollutants higher than the air quality standards were observed. Our modeling study indicates that the rate of ozone (one major air pollutant) production is determined by volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which is confirmed by satellite observations. Currently, VOCs are not well regulated in China, so this study suggests the future direction of control measures to improve air quality in China.
Mingxu Liu, Xin Huang, Yu Song, Tingting Xu, Shuxiao Wang, Zhijun Wu, Min Hu, Lin Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Yuepeng Pan, Xuejun Liu, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17933–17943,
Yingjie Zhang, Wei Du, Yuying Wang, Qingqing Wang, Haofei Wang, Haitao Zheng, Fang Zhang, Hongrong Shi, Yuxuan Bian, Yongxiang Han, Pingqing Fu, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Tong Zhu, Pucai Wang, Zhanqing Li, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14637–14651,Short summary
We have a comprehensive characterization of aerosol chemistry and particle growth events at a downwind site of a highly polluted city in the North China Plain. Aerosol particles at the urban downwind site were highly aged and mainly from secondary formation. New particle growth events were also frequently observed on both clean and polluted days. While both sulfate and SOA played important roles in particle growth during clean periods, SOA was more important than sulfate during polluted events.
Qianqian Huang, Xuhui Cai, Jian Wang, Yu Song, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7573–7593,Short summary
Air stagnation index is a vital meteorological measure of the atmosphere's ability to dilute air pollutants. We propose a Boundary-layer air Stagnation Index (BSI) based on daily maximal ventilation, real latent instability and precipitation. The BSI is positively correlated with API during 2000–2012, tracks the day-by-day variation of PM2.5 concentration during January 2013 in Beijing well, and successfully represents the improved air quality during November and December in 2017.
Mingjin Wang, Tong Zhu, Defeng Zhao, Florian Rubach, Andreas Wahner, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, and Thomas F. Mentel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7345–7359,Short summary
Organic coatings modify hygroscopicity and CCN activation of mineral dust perticles. Small amounts of oleic acid coating (volume fraction (vf) ≤ 4.1 %) decreased the CCN activity of CaCO3 particles, while more oleic acid coating (vf ≥ 14.8 %) increased the CCN activity of CaCO3 particles, while malonic acid coating (vf = 0.4−42 %) even in smallest amounts increased the CCN activity of CaCO3 particles. Our laboratory results should also hold under conditions of the atmosphere.
Yiqiu Ma, Yubo Cheng, Xinghua Qiu, Gang Cao, Yanhua Fang, Junxia Wang, Tong Zhu, Jianzhen Yu, and Di Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5607–5617,Short summary
Water-soluble humic-like substances (HULISWS) are a potential toxic component of PM2.5 for their redox activity. In this study, we measured HULISWS and associated redox activity in PM2.5 sampled during a 1-year period in Beijing and investigated their sources. We found biomass burning and secondary aerosol formation were the major contributors (> 59 %) to both HULISWS and redox activity, and the combustion-related primary sources accounted for > 70 % of HULISWS and redox activity.
Defeng Zhao, Xiaojuan Song, Tong Zhu, Zefeng Zhang, Yingjun Liu, and Jing Shang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2481–2493,Short summary
The oxidation of SO2 directly by NO2 on solid/liquid particles is proposed to be a major pathway of particle sulfate formation in the polluted atmosphere. We found that the reaction of SO2 and NO2 on CaCO3 particles produced Ca(NO3)2 aqueous droplets, providing a site for the multiphase oxidation of SO2. The direct multiphase oxidation of SO2 by NO2 led to a reactive uptake coefficient of SO2 on the order of 10-8, which is unlikely to be an important source of sulfate in the ambient atmosphere.
Fengcheng Wu, Pinhua Xie, Ang Li, Fusheng Mou, Hao Chen, Yi Zhu, Tong Zhu, Jianguo Liu, and Wenqing Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1535–1554,Short summary
Investigating the temporal and spatial distribution of pollutants, emissions, and pollution transport is necessary to better understand the effect of various sources on air quality. We report on mobile differential optical absorption spectroscopy (mobile DOAS) observations of precursors SO2 and NO2 vertical columns in NCP in the summer of 2013 (from 11 June to 7 July) in this study.
Pengfei Liang, Tong Zhu, Yanhua Fang, Yingruo Li, Yiqun Han, Yusheng Wu, Min Hu, and Junxia Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13921–13940,Short summary
The generalized linear regression model (GLM), even based only on meteorological parameters, could be satisfactory to estimate the contribution of meteorological conditions in reducing air pollution and hence the contribution of control strategies in reducing air pollution. Using the GLM, we found that the meteorological conditions and pollution control strategies contributed 30 % and 28 % to the reduction of the PM2.5 concentration during APEC 2014 and 38 % and 25 % during Parade 2015.
Mingjin Tang, Xin Huang, Keding Lu, Maofa Ge, Yongjie Li, Peng Cheng, Tong Zhu, Aijun Ding, Yuanhang Zhang, Sasho Gligorovski, Wei Song, Xiang Ding, Xinhui Bi, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11727–11777,Short summary
We provide a comprehensive and critical review of laboratory studies of heterogeneous uptake of OH, NO3, O3, and their directly related species by mineral dust particles. The atmospheric importance of heterogeneous uptake as sinks for these species is also assessed. In addition, we have outlined major open questions and challenges in this field and discussed research strategies to address them.
Qianqian Huang, Xuhui Cai, Yu Song, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7793–7805,Short summary
Air stagnation is an important meteorological measure of unfavorable air conditions, and previous studies have found that stagnation events are usually related to air pollution episodes. China is currently experiencing heavy air pollution, but to our knowledge, little is known about air stagnation in the country. In this paper, we conducted a comprehensive investigation of air stagnation climatology in China based on sounding and surface observations across the country.
Xu Yue, Nadine Unger, Kandice Harper, Xiangao Xia, Hong Liao, Tong Zhu, Jingfeng Xiao, Zhaozhong Feng, and Jing Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6073–6089,Short summary
While it is widely recognized that air pollutants adversely affect human health and climate change, their impacts on the regional carbon balance are less well understood. We apply an Earth system model to quantify the combined effects of ozone and aerosol particles on net primary production in China. Ozone vegetation damage dominates over the aerosol effects, leading to a substantial net suppression of land carbon uptake in the present and future worlds.
Huan Yao, Yu Song, Mingxu Liu, Scott Archer-Nicholls, Douglas Lowe, Gordon McFiggans, Tingting Xu, Pin Du, Jianfeng Li, Yusheng Wu, Min Hu, Chun Zhao, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5205–5219,
Yuxuan Zhang, Hang Su, Simonas Kecorius, Zhibin Wang, Min Hu, Tong Zhu, Kebin He, Alfred Wiedensohler, Qiang Zhang, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
The light absorption of black carbon (BC) strongly depends on their mixing state. By now, the BC mixing state in the atmosphere is still unclear. In this work, we have investigated the comprehensive characterization of BC mixing state at a polluted regional background site of the North China Plain (NCP) based on in site measurements. we found that BC aerosols of the NCP were fully aged, suggesting a strong optical and climate effect of BC on the regional scale in northern China.
Yingruo Li, Chunxiang Ye, Jun Liu, Yi Zhu, Junxia Wang, Ziqiang Tan, Weili Lin, Limin Zeng, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14265–14283,Short summary
We developed the surface flux intensity calculation method based on 2-year continuous ground measurement at a cross-boundary site between Beijing and the NCP to investigate the surface regional transport. The long-term and multispecies observation demonstrated the regional transport influence of the megacity Beijing and the NCP on Yufa. Our study has a direct implication in air quality control measures implemented in Beijing and its surrounding areas.
Yi Zhu, Jiping Zhang, Junxia Wang, Wenyuan Chen, Yiqun Han, Chunxiang Ye, Yingruo Li, Jun Liu, Limin Zeng, Yusheng Wu, Xinfeng Wang, Wenxing Wang, Jianmin Chen, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12551–12565,Short summary
With five repeated experiments using a mobile laboratory, we obtained the spatial distribution of major air pollutants over the surface of the North China Plain (NCP). All the pollutants were at high levels, with pollutant peak values in nearby major cities and along transport routes. With simulated wind fields, we identified the prevalent transport routes of air pollutants on different parts of the NCP, reflecting the transport of air pollution between megacities and surrounding regions.
B. Quennehen, J.-C. Raut, K. S. Law, N. Daskalakis, G. Ancellet, C. Clerbaux, S.-W. Kim, M. T. Lund, G. Myhre, D. J. L. Olivié, S. Safieddine, R. B. Skeie, J. L. Thomas, S. Tsyro, A. Bazureau, N. Bellouin, M. Hu, M. Kanakidou, Z. Klimont, K. Kupiainen, S. Myriokefalitakis, J. Quaas, S. T. Rumbold, M. Schulz, R. Cherian, A. Shimizu, J. Wang, S.-C. Yoon, and T. Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10765–10792,Short summary
This paper evaluates the ability of six global models and one regional model in reproducing short-lived pollutants (defined here as ozone and its precursors, aerosols and black carbon) concentrations over Asia using satellite, ground-based and airborne observations. Key findings are that models homogeneously reproduce the trace gas observations although nitrous oxides are underestimated, whereas the aerosol distributions are heterogeneously reproduced, implicating important uncertainties.
Ziqiang Tan, Yanwen Wang, Chunxiang Ye, Yi Zhu, Yingruo Li, Pengfei Liang, Qi Wang, Yiqun Han, Yanhua Fang, Junxia Wang, Lei Meng, Yao Wang, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
We used mobile research platform to evaluate the effectiveness of the strictest vehicle emission control policies ever applied in China during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum, Beijing, China 2014. We applied the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) method to decompose on-road measured concentrations of major air pollutants, and used high frequency signals of the concentrations to represent the "instantaneous emission" from vehicles.
Yuxuan Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Yafang Cheng, Hang Su, Simonas Kecorius, Zhibin Wang, Zhijun Wu, Min Hu, Tong Zhu, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Kebin He
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1833–1843,Short summary
We develop a novel method in this work for in situ measurements of the morphology and effective density of ambient In-BC cores using a volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer and a single-particle soot photometer. We find that In-BC cores hardly transform the morphology of BC into a void-free sphere. Taking the morphology and density of ambient In-BC cores into account, our work provides a new insight into the enhancement of light absorption for In-BC particles in the atmosphere.
Yaning Kang, Mingxu Liu, Yu Song, Xin Huang, Huan Yao, Xuhui Cai, Hongsheng Zhang, Ling Kang, Xuejun Liu, Xiaoyuan Yan, Hong He, Qiang Zhang, Min Shao, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2043–2058,Short summary
The multi-year (1980–2012) comprehensive ammonia emissions inventories were compiled for China on 1 km × 1 km grid. Various realistic parameters (ambient temperature, wind speed, soil acidity, synthetic fertilizer types, etc.) were considered in these inventories to synthetically refine the emission factors of ammonia volatilization according to local agricultural practice. This paper shows the interannual trend and spatial distribution of ammonia emissions in details over recent decades.
A. Stohl, B. Aamaas, M. Amann, L. H. Baker, N. Bellouin, T. K. Berntsen, O. Boucher, R. Cherian, W. Collins, N. Daskalakis, M. Dusinska, S. Eckhardt, J. S. Fuglestvedt, M. Harju, C. Heyes, Ø. Hodnebrog, J. Hao, U. Im, M. Kanakidou, Z. Klimont, K. Kupiainen, K. S. Law, M. T. Lund, R. Maas, C. R. MacIntosh, G. Myhre, S. Myriokefalitakis, D. Olivié, J. Quaas, B. Quennehen, J.-C. Raut, S. T. Rumbold, B. H. Samset, M. Schulz, Ø. Seland, K. P. Shine, R. B. Skeie, S. Wang, K. E. Yttri, and T. Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10529–10566,Short summary
This paper presents a summary of the findings of the ECLIPSE EU project. The project has investigated the climate and air quality impacts of short-lived climate pollutants (especially methane, ozone, aerosols) and has designed a global mitigation strategy that maximizes co-benefits between air quality and climate policy. Transient climate model simulations allowed quantifying the impacts on temperature (e.g., reduction in global warming by 0.22K for the decade 2041-2050) and precipitation.
K. F. Ho, R.-J. Huang, K. Kawamura, E. Tachibana, S. C. Lee, S. S. H. Ho, T. Zhu, and L. Tian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3111–3123,Short summary
The objective of this study is to identify the influence of traffic emissions and regional transport to the atmosphere in Beijing during the CAREBeijing-2007 in summer. This study demonstrates that even when primary exhaust was controlled by traffic restrictions, the contribution of secondary organic species formed from photochemical processes was critical with long-range atmospheric transport of pollutants.
Y. Liu, B. Yuan, X. Li, M. Shao, S. Lu, Y. Li, C.-C. Chang, Z. Wang, W. Hu, X. Huang, L. He, L. Zeng, M. Hu, and T. Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3045–3062,
D. B. Collins, D. F. Zhao, M. J. Ruppel, O. Laskina, J. R. Grandquist, R. L. Modini, M. D. Stokes, L. M. Russell, T. H. Bertram, V. H. Grassian, G. B. Deane, and K. A. Prather
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3667–3683,Short summary
Sea spray aerosol particles represent a system of relatively high chemical complexity. The chemical composition of sea spray aerosol particles was shown in this study to be directly determined by the method used to produce bubbles, which produce aerosol upon bursting at the sea surface. Using methods which deviate from natural breaking waves directly translated into differences in the measured particle sizes and the chemical mixing state of laboratory-generated sea spray aerosol particles.
K. D. Lu, F. Rohrer, F. Holland, H. Fuchs, T. Brauers, A. Oebel, R. Dlugi, M. Hu, X. Li, S. R. Lou, M. Shao, T. Zhu, A. Wahner, Y. H. Zhang, and A. Hofzumahaus
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4979–4999,
W. Zhang, T. Zhu, W. Yang, Z. Bai, Y. L. Sun, Y. Xu, B. Yin, and X. Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 301–316,
C.-C. Chang, M. Shao, C. C. K. Chou, S.-C. Liu, J.-L. Wang, K.-Z. Lee, C.-H. Lai, T. Zhu, and P.-H. Lin
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Laboratory Studies | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Nighttime chemistry of biomass burning emissions in urban areas: A dual mobile chamber studyFormation and evolution of secondary organic aerosols derived from urban-lifestyle sources: vehicle exhaust and cooking emissionsMass spectral characterization of secondary organic aerosol from urban cooking and vehicular sourcesAn organic crystalline state in ageing atmospheric aerosol proxies: spatially resolved structural changes in levitated fatty acid particlesPhotolytically induced changes in composition and volatility of biogenic secondary organic aerosol from nitrate radical oxidation during night-to-day transitionThe driving factors of new particle formation and growth in the polluted boundary layerExploring the composition and volatility of secondary organic aerosols in mixed anthropogenic and biogenic precursor systemsAcidity and the multiphase chemistry of atmospheric aqueous particles and cloudsChemical composition, optical properties, and oxidative potential of water- and methanol-soluble organic compounds emitted from the combustion of biomass materials and coalPhotodegradation of atmospheric chromophores: changes in oxidation state and photochemical reactivityTemperature and volatile organic compound concentrations as controlling factors for chemical composition of α-pinene-derived secondary organic aerosolTracer-based source apportioning of atmospheric organic carbon and the influence of anthropogenic emissions on secondary organic aerosol formation in Hong KongAqueous-phase reactive species formed by fine particulate matter from remote forests and polluted urban airCharacterization of primary and aged wood burning and coal combustion organic aerosols in an environmental chamber and its implications for atmospheric aerosolsRevisiting the reaction of dicarbonyls in aerosol proxy solutions containing ammonia: the case of butenedialTechnical Note: Classical and statistical thermodynamic treatment of adsorption and desorption kinetics and ratesImportance of secondary organic aerosol formation of α-pinene, limonene, and m-cresol comparing day- and nighttime radical chemistrySource apportionment of carbonaceous aerosols in Beijing with radiocarbon and organic tracers: insight into the differences between urban and rural sitesSO2 and NH3 emissions enhance organosulfur compounds and fine particle formation from the photooxidation of a typical aromatic hydrocarbonOn the similarities and differences between the products of oxidation of hydrocarbons under simulated atmospheric conditions and cool flamesEnhanced secondary organic aerosol formation from the photo-oxidation of mixed anthropogenic volatile organic compoundsFormation kinetics and mechanisms of ozone and secondary organic aerosols from photochemical oxidation of different aromatic hydrocarbons: dependence on NOx and organic substituentsIncreased primary and secondary H2SO4 showing the opposing roles in secondary organic aerosol formation from ethyl methacrylate ozonolysisWater uptake of subpollen aerosol particles: hygroscopic growth, cloud condensation nuclei activation, and liquid–liquid phase separationLaboratory study of the collection efficiency of submicron aerosol particles by cloud droplets – Part II: Influence of electric chargesHeterogeneous interactions between SO2 and organic peroxides in submicron aerosolTemperature and acidity dependence of secondary organic aerosol formation from α-pinene ozonolysis with a compact chamber systemProduction of HONO from NO2 uptake on illuminated TiO2 aerosol particles and following the illumination of mixed TiO2∕ammonium nitrate particlesCharacterization of secondary organic aerosol from heated-cooking-oil emissions: evolution in composition and volatilityMeasurement report: Diurnal and temporal variations of sugar compounds in suburban aerosols from the northern vicinity of Beijing, China – an influence of biogenic and anthropogenic sourcesPre-deliquescent water uptake in deposited nanoparticles observed with in situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopyTechnical note: Emission factors, chemical composition, and morphology of particles emitted from Euro 5 diesel and gasoline light-duty vehicles during transient cyclesMeasurement report: Distinct emissions and volatility distribution of intermediate-volatility organic compounds from on-road Chinese gasoline vehicles: implication of high secondary organic aerosol formation potentialEmissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds from domestic fuels used in Delhi, IndiaEffects of liquid–liquid phase separation and relative humidity on the heterogeneous OH oxidation of inorganic–organic aerosols: insights from methylglutaric acid and ammonium sulfate particlesMeasurement report: Sulfuric acid nucleation and experimental conditions in a photolytic flow reactorOzonolysis of fatty acid monolayers at the air–water interface: organic films may persist at the surface of atmospheric aerosolsQuantification of the role of stabilized Criegee intermediates in the formation of aerosols in limonene ozonolysisPhotochemical degradation of iron(III) citrate/citric acid aerosol quantified with the combination of three complementary experimental techniques and a kinetic process modelThe production and hydrolysis of organic nitrates from OH radical oxidation of β-ocimeneEmission factors for PM10 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from illegal burning of different types of municipal waste in householdsKinetic modeling of formation and evaporation of secondary organic aerosol from NO3 oxidation of pure and mixed monoterpenesDirect contribution of ammonia to α-pinene secondary organic aerosol formationHygroscopic behavior of aerosols generated from solutions of 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid, its sodium salts, and its mixtures with NaClChemical composition, structures, and light absorption of N-containing aromatic compounds emitted from burning wood and charcoal in household cookstovesChemical composition and light absorption of carbonaceous aerosols emitted from crop residue burning: influence of combustion efficiencyOn mineral dust aerosol hygroscopicityDistinct chemical and mineralogical composition of Icelandic dust compared to northern African and Asian dustSecondary organic aerosol yields from the oxidation of benzyl alcoholThe Aarhus Chamber Campaign on Highly Oxygenated Organic Molecules and Aerosols (ACCHA): particle formation, organic acids, and dimer esters from α-pinene ozonolysis at different temperatures
Spiro D. Jorga, Kalliopi Florou, Christos Kaltsonoudis, John K. Kodros, Christina Vasilakopoulou, Manuela Cirtog, Axel Fouqueau, Bénédicte Picquet-Varrault, Athanasios Nenes, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15337–15349,Short summary
We test the hypothesis that significant secondary organic aerosol production can take place even during winter nights through the oxidation of the emitted organic vapors by the nitrate radicals produced during the reaction of ozone and nitrogen oxides. Our experiments, using as a starting point the ambient air of an urban area with high biomass burning activity, demonstrate that, even with sunlight, there is 20 %–70 % additional organic aerosol formed in a few hours.
Zirui Zhang, Wenfei Zhu, Min Hu, Kefan Liu, Hui Wang, Rongzhi Tang, Ruizhe Shen, Ying Yu, Rui Tan, Kai Song, Yuanju Li, Wenbin Zhang, Zhou Zhang, Hongming Xu, Shijin Shuai, Shuangde Li, Yunfa Chen, Jiayun Li, Yuesi Wang, and Song Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15221–15237,Short summary
We comprehensively investigated the mass growth potential, oxidation degree, formation pathway, and mass spectra features of typical urban-lifestyle secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) including vehicle SOAs and cooking SOAs. The mass spectra we acquired could provide necessary references to estimate the mass fractions of vehicle and cooking SOAs in the atmosphere, which would greatly decrease the uncertainty in air quality evaluation and health risk assessment in urban areas.
Wenfei Zhu, Song Guo, Zirui Zhang, Hui Wang, Ying Yu, Zheng Chen, Ruizhe Shen, Rui Tan, Kai Song, Kefan Liu, Rongzhi Tang, Yi Liu, Shengrong Lou, Yuanju Li, Wenbin Zhang, Zhou Zhang, Shijin Shuai, Hongming Xu, Shuangde Li, Yunfa Chen, Min Hu, Francesco Canonaco, and Andre S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15065–15079,Short summary
The experiments of primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from urban lifestyle sources (cooking and vehicles) were conducted. The mass spectral features of primary organic aerosol (POA) and SOA were characterized by using a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer. This work, for the first time, establishes the vehicle and cooking SOA source profiles and can be further used as source constraints in the OA source apportionment in the ambient atmosphere.
Adam Milsom, Adam M. Squires, Jacob A. Boswell, Nicholas J. Terrill, Andrew D. Ward, and Christian Pfrang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15003–15021,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols can be solid, semi-solid or liquid. This phase state may impact key aerosol processes such as oxidation and water uptake, affecting cloud droplet formation and urban air pollution. We have observed a solid crystalline organic phase in a levitated proxy for cooking emissions, oleic acid. Spatially resolved structural changes were followed during ageing by X-ray scattering, revealing phase gradients, aggregate products and a markedly reduced ozonolysis reaction rate.
Cheng Wu, David M. Bell, Emelie L. Graham, Sophie Haslett, Ilona Riipinen, Urs Baltensperger, Amelie Bertrand, Stamatios Giannoukos, Janne Schoonbaert, Imad El Haddad, Andre S. H. Prevot, Wei Huang, and Claudia Mohr
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14907–14925,Short summary
Night-time reactions of biogenic volatile organic compounds and nitrate radicals can lead to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (BSOANO3). Here, we study the impacts of light exposure on the BSOANO3 from three biogenic precursors. Our results suggest that photolysis causes photodegradation of a substantial fraction of BSOANO3, changes the chemical composition and bulk volatility, and might be a potentially important loss pathway of BSOANO3 during the night-to-day transition.
Mao Xiao, Christopher R. Hoyle, Lubna Dada, Dominik Stolzenburg, Andreas Kürten, Mingyi Wang, Houssni Lamkaddam, Olga Garmash, Bernhard Mentler, Ugo Molteni, Andrea Baccarini, Mario Simon, Xu-Cheng He, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Lauri R. Ahonen, Rima Baalbaki, Paulus S. Bauer, Lisa Beck, David Bell, Federico Bianchi, Sophia Brilke, Dexian Chen, Randall Chiu, António Dias, Jonathan Duplissy, Henning Finkenzeller, Hamish Gordon, Victoria Hofbauer, Changhyuk Kim, Theodore K. Koenig, Janne Lampilahti, Chuan Ping Lee, Zijun Li, Huajun Mai, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Ruby Marten, Serge Mathot, Roy L. Mauldin, Wei Nie, Antti Onnela, Eva Partoll, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Veronika Pospisilova, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Matti Rissanen, Siegfried Schobesberger, Simone Schuchmann, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, António Tomé, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Andrea C. Wagner, Robert Wagner, Yonghong Wang, Lena Weitz, Daniela Wimmer, Yusheng Wu, Chao Yan, Penglin Ye, Qing Ye, Qiaozhi Zha, Xueqin Zhou, Antonio Amorim, Ken Carslaw, Joachim Curtius, Armin Hansel, Rainer Volkamer, Paul M. Winkler, Richard C. Flagan, Markku Kulmala, Douglas R. Worsnop, Jasper Kirkby, Neil M. Donahue, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El Haddad, and Josef Dommen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14275–14291,Short summary
Experiments at CLOUD show that in polluted environments new particle formation (NPF) is largely driven by the formation of sulfuric acid–base clusters, stabilized by amines, high ammonia concentrations or lower temperatures. While oxidation products of aromatics can nucleate, they play a minor role in urban NPF. Our experiments span 4 orders of magnitude variation of observed NPF rates in ambient conditions. We provide a framework based on NPF and growth rates to interpret ambient observations.
Aristeidis Voliotis, Yu Wang, Yunqi Shao, Mao Du, Thomas J. Bannan, Carl J. Percival, Spyros N. Pandis, M. Rami Alfarra, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14251–14273,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from mixtures of volatile precursors can be affected by the molecular interactions of the products. Composition and volatility measurements of SOA formed from mixtures of anthropogenic and biogenic precursors reveal processes that can increase or decrease the SOA volatility. The unique products of the mixture were more oxygenated and less volatile than those from either precursor. Analytical context is provided to explore the SOA volatility in mixtures.
Andreas Tilgner, Thomas Schaefer, Becky Alexander, Mary Barth, Jeffrey L. Collett Jr., Kathleen M. Fahey, Athanasios Nenes, Havala O. T. Pye, Hartmut Herrmann, and V. Faye McNeill
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13483–13536,Short summary
Feedbacks of acidity and atmospheric multiphase chemistry in deliquesced particles and clouds are crucial for the tropospheric composition, depositions, climate, and human health. This review synthesizes the current scientific knowledge on these feedbacks using both inorganic and organic aqueous-phase chemistry. Finally, this review outlines atmospheric implications and highlights the need for future investigations with respect to reducing emissions of key acid precursors in a changing world.
Tao Cao, Meiju Li, Chunlin Zou, Xingjun Fan, Jianzhong Song, Wanglu Jia, Chiling Yu, Zhiqiang Yu, and Ping'an Peng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13187–13205,Short summary
Brown carbon (BrC) fractions derived from biomass burning and coal combustion including water- and methanol-soluble organic carbon were comprehensively characterized for their optical and chemical properties, as well as oxidative potential. Moreover, the key components or functional groups that were responsible for the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation capacity of BrC were also discussed. These findings are useful for estimation of their environmental, climate, and health impacts.
Zhen Mu, Qingcai Chen, Lixin Zhang, Dongjie Guan, and Hao Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11581–11591,Short summary
Sunlight affects the life and chemical composition of atmospheric aerosols and thus alters air quality. This study demonstrated that the photo-aging process not only changed the chemical compositions of chromophoric aerosols but also changed the roles of the chromophoric organic matter in the photo-aging process of aerosol. This study adds to our understanding of how sunlight affects chromophoric aerosol aging.
Louise N. Jensen, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Kasper Kristensen, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Bernadette Rosati, Ricky Teiwes, Marianne Glasius, Henrik B. Pedersen, Mikael Ehn, and Merete Bilde
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11545–11562,Short summary
This work targets the chemical composition of α-pinene-derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed in the temperature range from -15 to 20°C. Experiments were conducted in an atmospheric simulation chamber. Positive matrix factorization analysis of data obtained by a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer shows that the elemental aerosol composition is controlled by the initial α-pinene concentration and temperature during SOA formation.
Yubo Cheng, Yiqiu Ma, and Di Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10589–10608,Short summary
We conducted chemical characterization and source apportionment of PM2.5 in Hong Kong. Secondary formation was the leading contributor to organic carbon (OC) throughout the year. NOx processing played a key role in both daytime and nighttime secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production, and monoterpene SOA was the most abundant. Sulfate was positively related to total and secondary sulfate-related OC, and particle acidity was significantly correlated with SOC from aging of biomass burning.
Haijie Tong, Fobang Liu, Alexander Filippi, Jake Wilson, Andrea M. Arangio, Yun Zhang, Siyao Yue, Steven Lelieveld, Fangxia Shen, Helmi-Marja K. Keskinen, Jing Li, Haoxuan Chen, Ting Zhang, Thorsten Hoffmann, Pingqing Fu, William H. Brune, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Maosheng Yao, Thomas Berkemeier, Manabu Shiraiwa, and Ulrich Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10439–10455,Short summary
We measured radical yields of aqueous PM2.5 extracts and found lower yields at higher concentrations of PM2.5. Abundances of water-soluble transition metals and aromatics in PM2.5 were positively correlated with the relative fraction of •OH but negatively correlated with the relative fraction of C-centered radicals among detected radicals. Composition-dependent reactive species yields may explain differences in the reactivity and health effects of PM2.5 in clean versus polluted air.
Amir Yazdani, Nikunj Dudani, Satoshi Takahama, Amelie Bertrand, André S. H. Prévôt, Imad El Haddad, and Ann M. Dillner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10273–10293,Short summary
Functional group compositions of primary and aged aerosols from wood burning and coal combustion sources from chamber experiments are interpreted through compounds present in the fuels and known gas-phase oxidation products. Infrared spectra of aged wood burning in the chamber and ambient biomass burning samples reveal striking similarities, and a new method for identifying burning-impacted samples in monitoring network measurements is presented.
Jack C. Hensley, Adam W. Birdsall, Gregory Valtierra, Joshua L. Cox, and Frank N. Keutsch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8809–8821,Short summary
We measured reactions of butenedial, an atmospheric dicarbonyl, in aqueous mixtures that mimic the conditions of aerosol particles. Major reaction products and rates were determined to assess their atmospheric relevance and to compare against other well-studied dicarbonyls. We suggest that the structure of the carbon backbone, not just the dominant functional group, plays a major role in dicarbonyl reactivity, influencing the fate and ability of dicarbonyls to produce brown carbon.
Daniel A. Knopf and Markus Ammann
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Adsorption on and desorption of gas molecules from solid or liquid surfaces or interfaces represent the initial interaction of gas-to-condensed phase processes that can define the physicochemical evolution of the condensed phase. We apply a thermodynamic and microscopic treatment of these multiphase processes to evaluate how adsorption and desorption rates and surface accommodation depend on the choice adsorption model and standard states with implications for desorption energy and lifetime.
Anke Mutzel, Yanli Zhang, Olaf Böge, Maria Rodigast, Agata Kolodziejczyk, Xinming Wang, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8479–8498,Short summary
This study investigates secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and particle growth from α-pinene, limonene, and m-cresol oxidation through NO3 and OH radicals and the effect of relative humidity. The formed SOA is comprehensively characterized with respect to the content of OC / EC, WSOC, SOA-bound peroxides, and SOA marker compounds. The findings present new insights and implications of nighttime chemistry, which can form SOA more efficiently than OH radical reaction during daytime.
Siqi Hou, Di Liu, Jingsha Xu, Tuan V. Vu, Xuefang Wu, Deepchandra Srivastava, Pingqing Fu, Linjie Li, Yele Sun, Athanasia Vlachou, Vaios Moschos, Gary Salazar, Sönke Szidat, André S. H. Prévôt, Roy M. Harrison, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8273–8292,Short summary
This study provides a newly developed method which combines radiocarbon (14C) with organic tracers to enable source apportionment of primary and secondary fossil vs. non-fossil sources of carbonaceous aerosols at an urban and a rural site of Beijing. The source apportionment results were compared with those by chemical mass balance and AMS/ACSM-PMF methods. Correlations of WINSOC and WSOC with different sources of OC were also performed to elucidate the formation mechanisms of SOC.
Zhaomin Yang, Li Xu, Narcisse T. Tsona, Jianlong Li, Xin Luo, and Lin Du
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7963–7981,Short summary
The promotion effects of SO2 and NH3 on particle and organosulfur compound formation from 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (TMB) photooxidation were observed for the first time. The enhanced organosulfur compounds included hitherto unidentified aromatic sulfonates and organosulfates (OSs). OSs were produced via acid-driven heterogeneous chemistry of hydroperoxides. The production of organosulfur compounds might provide a new pathway for the fate of TMB in regions with considerable SO2 emissions.
Roland Benoit, Nesrine Belhadj, Maxence Lailliau, and Philippe Dagaut
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7845–7862,Short summary
This study compares different modes of limonene oxidation (ozonolysis, photooxidation, and cool flame) on the basis of review articles and experimental results. Although the oxidation conditions are totally different, the results obtained present great similarities in the nature of the products but also specificities related to autooxidation such as the presence of keto-hydroperoxides.
Junling Li, Hong Li, Kun Li, Yan Chen, Hao Zhang, Xin Zhang, Zhenhai Wu, Yongchun Liu, Xuezhong Wang, Weigang Wang, and Maofa Ge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7773–7789,Short summary
SOA formation from the mixed anthropogenic volatile organic compounds was enhanced compared to the predicted SOA mass concentration based on the SOA yield of single species; interaction occurred between intermediate products from the two precursors. Interactions between the intermediate products from the mixtures and the effect on SOA formation give us a further understanding of the SOA formed in the atmosphere.
Hao Luo, Jiangyao Chen, Guiying Li, and Taicheng An
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7567–7578,Short summary
The formation kinetics and mechanism of O3 and SOA from different AHs are still unclear. Thus the photochemical oxidation mechanism of nine AHs with NO2 is studied. Increased formation rate and yield of O3 and SOA are observed via promoting AH content. Raising the number of AH substituents enhances O3 formation but decreases SOA yield, which is promoted by increasing the methyl group number of AHs. Results help show conversion of AHs to secondary pollutants in the real atmospheric environment.
Peng Zhang, Tianzeng Chen, Jun Liu, Guangyan Xu, Qingxin Ma, Biwu Chu, Wanqi Sun, and Hong He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7099–7112,Short summary
This work highlights the opposing effects of primary and secondary H2SO4 on both secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and constitutes. Our findings revealed that a substantial increase in secondary H2SO4 particles promoted the SOA formation of ethyl methacrylate with increasing SO2 in the absence of seed particles. However, increased primary H2SO4 with seed acidity enhanced ethyl methacrylate uptake but reduced its SOA formation in the presence of seed particles.
Eugene F. Mikhailov, Mira L. Pöhlker, Kathrin Reinmuth-Selzle, Sergey S. Vlasenko, Ovid O. Krüger, Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Christopher Pöhlker, Olga A. Ivanova, Alexey A. Kiselev, Leslie A. Kremper, and Ulrich Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6999–7022,Short summary
Subpollen particles are a relatively new subset of atmospheric aerosol particles. When pollen grains rupture, they release cytoplasmic fragments known as subpollen particles (SPPs). We found that SPPs, containing a broad spectrum of biopolymers and hydrocarbons, exhibit abnormally high water uptake. This effect may influence the life cycle of SPPs and the related direct and indirect impacts on radiation budget as well as reinforce their allergic potential.
Alexis Dépée, Pascal Lemaitre, Thomas Gelain, Marie Monier, and Andrea Flossmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6963–6984,Short summary
The present article describes a new In-Cloud Aerosol Scavenging Experiment (In-CASE) that has been conceived to measure the collection efficiency of submicron aerosol particles by cloud droplets. The present article focuses on the influence of electrostatic effects on the collection efficiency.
Shunyao Wang, Tengyu Liu, Jinmyung Jang, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, and Arthur W. H. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6647–6661,Short summary
Discrepancies between atmospheric modeling and field observations, especially in highly polluted cities, have highlighted the lack of understanding of sulfate formation mechanisms and kinetics. Here, we directly quantify the reactive uptake coefficient of SO2 onto organic peroxides and study the important governing factors. The SO2 uptake rate was observed to depend on RH, peroxide amount and reactivity, pH, and ionic strength, which provides a framework to better predict sulfate formation.
Yange Deng, Satoshi Inomata, Kei Sato, Sathiyamurthi Ramasamy, Yu Morino, Shinichi Enami, and Hiroshi Tanimoto
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5983–6003,Short summary
The temperature and acidity dependence of yields and chemical compositions of the α-pinene ozonolysis SOA were systematically investigated using a newly developed compact chamber system. Increases in SOA yields were observed with the decrease in temperature and under acidic seed conditions. The differences in chemical compositions between acidic and neutral seed conditions were characterized and explained from the viewpoints of acid-catalyzed reactions. Some organosulfates were newly detected.
Joanna E. Dyson, Graham A. Boustead, Lauren T. Fleming, Mark Blitz, Daniel Stone, Stephen R. Arnold, Lisa K. Whalley, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5755–5775,Short summary
The hydroxyl radical (OH) dominates the removal of atmospheric pollutants, with nitrous acid (HONO) recognised as a major OH source. For remote regions HONO production through the action of sunlight on aerosol surfaces can provide a source of nitrogen oxides. In this study, HONO production rates at illuminated aerosol surfaces are measured under atmospheric conditions, a model consistent with the data is developed and aerosol production of HONO in the atmosphere is shown to be significant.
Manpreet Takhar, Yunchun Li, and Arthur W. H. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5137–5149,Short summary
Our study highlights the importance of molecular composition in constraining the chemical properties of cooking SOA as well as understanding the contribution of aldehydes in formation of SOA from cooking emissions. We show that fragmentation reactions are key in atmospheric processing of cooking SOA, and aldehydes emitted from cooking emissions contribute substantially to SOA formation. Our study provides a framework to better predict SOA formation in and downwind of urban atmospheres.
Santosh Kumar Verma, Kimitaka Kawamura, Fei Yang, Pingqing Fu, Yugo Kanaya, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4959–4978,Short summary
We studied aerosol samples collected in autumn 2007 with day and night intervals in a rural site of Mangshan, north of Beijing, for sugar compounds (SCs) that are abundant organic aerosol components and can influence the air quality and climate. We found higher concentrations of biomass burning (BB) products at nighttime than daytime, whereas pollen tracers and other SCs showed an opposite diurnal trend, because this site is meteorologically characterized by a mountain/valley breeze.
Jack J. Lin, Kamal Raj R, Stella Wang, Esko Kokkonen, Mikko-Heikki Mikkelä, Samuli Urpelainen, and Nønne L. Prisle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4709–4727,Short summary
We used surface-sensitive X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to study laboratory-generated nanoparticles of atmospheric interest at 0–16 % relative humidity. XPS gives direct information about changes in the chemical state from the binding energies of probed elements. Our results indicate water adsorption and associated chemical changes at the particle surfaces well below deliquescence, with distinct features for different particle components and implications for atmospheric chemistry.
Evangelia Kostenidou, Alvaro Martinez-Valiente, Badr R'Mili, Baptiste Marques, Brice Temime-Roussel, Amandine Durand, Michel André, Yao Liu, Cédric Louis, Boris Vansevenant, Daniel Ferry, Carine Laffon, Philippe Parent, and Barbara D'Anna
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4779–4796,Short summary
Passenger vehicle emissions can be a significant source of particulate matter in urban areas. In this study the particle-phase emissions of seven Euro 5 passenger vehicles were characterized. Changes in engine technologies and after-treatment devices can alter the chemical composition and the size of the emitted particulate matter. The condition of the diesel particle filter (DPF) plays an important role in the emitted pollutants.
Rongzhi Tang, Quanyang Lu, Song Guo, Hui Wang, Kai Song, Ying Yu, Rui Tan, Kefan Liu, Ruizhe Shen, Shiyi Chen, Limin Zeng, Spiro D. Jorga, Zhou Zhang, Wenbin Zhang, Shijin Shuai, and Allen L. Robinson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2569–2583,Short summary
We performed chassis dynamometer experiments to investigate the emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation potential of intermediate volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) from an on-road Chinese gasoline vehicle. High IVOC emission factors (EFs) and distinct volatility distribution were recognized. Our results indicate that vehicular IVOCs contribute significantly to SOA, implying the importance of reducing IVOCs when making air pollution control policies in urban areas of China.
Gareth J. Stewart, Beth S. Nelson, W. Joe F. Acton, Adam R. Vaughan, Naomi J. Farren, James R. Hopkins, Martyn W. Ward, Stefan J. Swift, Rahul Arya, Arnab Mondal, Ritu Jangirh, Sakshi Ahlawat, Lokesh Yadav, Sudhir K. Sharma, Siti S. M. Yunus, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Eiko Nemitz, Neil Mullinger, Ranu Gadi, Lokesh K. Sahu, Nidhi Tripathi, Andrew R. Rickard, James D. Lee, Tuhin K. Mandal, and Jacqueline F. Hamilton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2407–2426,Short summary
Biomass burning releases many lower-molecular-weight organic species which are difficult to analyse but important for the formation of organic aerosol. This study examined a new high-resolution technique to better characterise these difficult-to-analyse organic components. Some burning sources analysed in this study, such as cow dung cake and municipal solid waste, released extremely complex mixtures containing many thousands of different lower-volatility organic compounds.
Hoi Ki Lam, Rongshuang Xu, Jack Choczynski, James F. Davies, Dongwan Ham, Mijung Song, Andreas Zuend, Wentao Li, Ying-Lung Steve Tse, and Man Nin Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2053–2066,Short summary
This work demonstrates that organic compounds present at or near the surface of aerosols can be subjected to oxidation initiated by gas-phase oxidants, such as hydroxyl radicals (OH). The heterogeneous reactivity is sensitive to their surface concentrations, which are determined by the phase separation behavior. This results of this work emphasize the effects of phase separation and potentially distinct aerosol morphologies on the chemical transformation of atmospheric aerosols.
David R. Hanson, Seakh Menheer, Michael Wentzel, and Joan Kunz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1987–2001,Short summary
We report experimental measurements of particle formation in a flow reactor that extend the results from this experiment to a total of more than 270 runs over a time period of ~3 years. This has allowed us to detect a general increase in the cleanliness of the system and improve our knowledge of its chemistry. In-house simulations allowed us to construct phenomenological free energies of molecular clusters of sulfuric acid and ammonia that are appropriate for application to the atmosphere.
Benjamin Woden, Maximilian W. A. Skoda, Adam Milsom, Curtis Gubb, Armando Maestro, James Tellam, and Christian Pfrang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1325–1340,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols contain a large amount of organic compounds, whose oxidation affects their physical properties through a process known as ageing. We have simulated atmospheric ageing experimentally to elucidate the nature and behaviour of residual surface films. Our results show an increasing amount of residue at near-zero temperatures, demonstrating that an inert product film may build up during droplet ageing, even if only ordinarily short-lived reactive species are initially emitted.
Yiwei Gong and Zhongming Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 813–829,Short summary
Stabilized Criegee intermediates (SCIs) are important factors in estimating aerosol formation in the atmosphere. Here the results show that SCIs account for more than 60 % of aerosol formation in limonene ozonolysis and water is an uncertainty in SCI performances. The aerosol formation potential of SCIs under high-humidity conditions is double that under dry and low-humidity conditions, suggesting SCI reactions are still important in contributing to aerosols at high relative humidity.
Jing Dou, Peter A. Alpert, Pablo Corral Arroyo, Beiping Luo, Frederic Schneider, Jacinta Xto, Thomas Huthwelker, Camelia N. Borca, Katja D. Henzler, Jörg Raabe, Benjamin Watts, Hartmut Herrmann, Thomas Peter, Markus Ammann, and Ulrich K. Krieger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 315–338,Short summary
Photochemistry of iron(III) complexes plays an important role in aerosol aging, especially in the lower troposphere. Ensuing radical chemistry leads to decarboxylation, and the production of peroxides, and oxygenated volatile compounds, resulting in particle mass loss due to release of the volatile products to the gas phase. We investigated kinetic transport limitations due to high particle viscosity under low relative humidity conditions. For quantification a numerical model was developed.
Ana C. Morales, Thilina Jayarathne, Jonathan H. Slade, Alexander Laskin, and Paul B. Shepson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 129–145,Short summary
Organic nitrates formed from the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds impact both ozone and particulate matter as they remove nitrogen oxides, but they represent important aerosol precursors. We conducted a series of reaction chamber experiments that quantified the total organic nitrate and secondary organic aerosol yield from the OH-radical-initiated oxidation of ocimene, and also measured their hydrolysis lifetimes in the aqueous phase, as a function of pH.
András Hoffer, Beatrix Jancsek-Turóczi, Ádám Tóth, Gyula Kiss, Anca Naghiu, Erika Andrea Levei, Luminita Marmureanu, Attila Machon, and András Gelencsér
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 16135–16144,Short summary
Emission factors for PM10 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are reported for the first time ever for the indoor combustion of 12 common types of municipal solid waste that are frequently burned in households worldwide. We have found that waste burning emits up to 40 times more PM10 and 800 times more PAHs than the combustion of dry firewood. Our finding highlights the need for coordinated actions against illegal waste combustion and the extreme health hazard associated with it.
Thomas Berkemeier, Masayuki Takeuchi, Gamze Eris, and Nga L. Ng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15513–15535,Short summary
This paper presents how environmental chamber data of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation can be interpreted using kinetic modeling techniques. Utilizing pure and mixed precursor experiments, we show that SOA formation and evaporation can be understood by explicitly treating gas-phase chemistry, gas–particle partitioning, and, notably, particle-phase oligomerization, but some of the non-linear, non-equilibrium effects must be accredited to diffusion limitations in the particle phase.
Liqing Hao, Eetu Kari, Ari Leskinen, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Annele Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14393–14405,Short summary
Our work presents the observational results of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in the presence of ammonia. The particle-phase ammonium was continuously produced even after SOA formation had ceased. The gas-phase organic acids were observed to contribute to the formed particle-phase ammonium salts. This study suggests that the presence of ammonia may change the mass and chemical composition of large-size SOA particles and can potentially alter the aerosol impact on climate change.
Li Wu, Clara Becote, Sophie Sobanska, Pierre-Marie Flaud, Emilie Perraudin, Eric Villenave, Young-Chul Song, and Chul-Un Ro
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14103–14122,Short summary
MBTCA (3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid), a second-generation product of monoterpenes, is one of the most relevant tracer compounds for biogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). Laboratory-generated, micrometer-sized, pure-MBTCA, mono-/di-/trisodium MBTCA salts and MBTCA–NaCl mixture aerosol particles were examined systematically to observe their hygroscopic behavior, and it was also observed that the monosodium MBTCA salt aerosols were formed through a reaction between MBTCA and NaCl.
Mingjie Xie, Zhenzhen Zhao, Amara L. Holder, Michael D. Hays, Xi Chen, Guofeng Shen, James J. Jetter, Wyatt M. Champion, and Qin'geng Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14077–14090,Short summary
This study investigated the composition, structures, and light absorption of N-containing aromatic compounds (NACs) in PM2.5 emitted from burning red oak and charcoal in a variety of cookstoves. The results suggest that the identified NACs might have substantial fractions remaining in the gas phase. In comparison to other sources, cookstove emissions from red oak or charcoal fuels did not exhibit unique NAC structural features but had distinct NAC composition.
Yujue Wang, Min Hu, Nan Xu, Yanhong Qin, Zhijun Wu, Liwu Zeng, Xiaofeng Huang, and Lingyan He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13721–13734,Short summary
Field straw residue burning is a widespread type of biomass burning in Asia, while its emissions are poorly understood. In this study, we designed lab-controlled experiments to comprehensively investigate the emission factors, chemical compositions and light absorption properties of both water-soluble and water-insoluble carbonaceous aerosols emitted from straw burning. The results clearly highlight the significant influences of burning conditions and combustion efficiency on the emissions.
Lanxiadi Chen, Chao Peng, Wenjun Gu, Hanjing Fu, Xing Jian, Huanhuan Zhang, Guohua Zhang, Jianxi Zhu, Xinming Wang, and Mingjin Tang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13611–13626,Short summary
We investigated hygroscopic properties of a number of mineral dust particles in a quantitative manner, via measuring the sample mass at different relative humidities. The robust and comprehensive data obtained would significantly improve our knowledge of hygroscopicity of mineral dust and its impacts on atmospheric chemistry and climate.
Clarissa Baldo, Paola Formenti, Sophie Nowak, Servanne Chevaillier, Mathieu Cazaunau, Edouard Pangui, Claudia Di Biagio, Jean-Francois Doussin, Konstantin Ignatyev, Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Olafur Arnalds, A. Robert MacKenzie, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13521–13539,Short summary
We showed that Icelandic dust has a fundamentally different chemical and mineralogical composition from low-latitude dust. In particular, magnetite is as high as 1 %–2 % of the total dust mass. Our results suggest that Icelandic dust may have an important impact on the radiation balance in the subpolar and polar regions.
Sophia M. Charan, Reina S. Buenconsejo, and John H. Seinfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13167–13190,Short summary
In urban areas, the emissions from volatile chemical products may be responsible for the formation of as much particulate matter as motor vehicles. Since exposure to particulate matter is a public health crisis, understanding its formation is critical. In this work, we investigate the secondary organic aerosol formation potential of benzyl alcohol, an important compound that is representative of some of these new emission sources, and find that more particulate matter forms than is expected.
Kasper Kristensen, Louise N. Jensen, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Sigurd Christiansen, Bernadette Rosati, Jonas Elm, Ricky Teiwes, Henrik B. Pedersen, Marianne Glasius, Mikael Ehn, and Merete Bilde
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12549–12567,Short summary
Atmospheric particles are important in relation to human health and the global climate. As the global temperature changes, so may the atmospheric chemistry controlling the formation of particles from reactions of naturally emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In the current work, we show how temperatures influence the formation and chemical composition of atmospheric particles from α-pinene: a biogenic VOC largely emitted in high-latitude environments such as the boreal forests.
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The reaction of SO2 with NO2 on particles is proposed to be one major pathway of sulfate formation in the polluted atmosphere. We found that in the reaction of SO2 with NO2 on CaCO3 particles, presence of O2 enhanced the uptake rate of SO2 by 2–3 orders of magnitude compared with the reaction of SO2 directly with NO2. O2 was the main oxidant of SO2 and NO2 was the initializer of chain reactions. The multiphase oxidation of SO2 by NO2/O2 can be an important source of sulfate in the atmosphere.
The reaction of SO2 with NO2 on particles is proposed to be one major pathway of sulfate...