Articles | Volume 17, issue 18
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10937–10953, 2017
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-10937-2017
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10937–10953, 2017
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-10937-2017
Research article
15 Sep 2017
Research article | 15 Sep 2017

Particulate sulfur in the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere – sources and climate forcing

Bengt G. Martinsson et al.

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Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Stratosphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)
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Cited articles

Andersson, S. M., Martinsson, B. G., Friberg, J., Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M., Rauthe-Schöch, A., Hermann, M., van Velthoven, P. F. J., and Zahn, A.: Composition and evolution of volcanic aerosol from eruptions of Kasatochi, Sarychev and Eyjafjallajökull in 2008–2010 based on CARIBIC observations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1781–1796, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-1781-2013, 2013.
Andersson, S. M., Martinsson, B. G., Vernier, J. P., Friberg, J., Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M., Hermann, M., van Velthoven, P. F. J., and Zahn, A.: Significant radiative impact of volcanic aerosol in the lowermost stratosphere, Nat. Commun., 6, 7692, https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms8692, 2015.
Appenzeller, C., Holton, J. R., and Rosenlof, K. H.: Seasonal variation of mass transport across the tropopause, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 15071–15078, 1996.
Arnold, F., Curtis, J., Spreng, S., and Deshler, T.: Stratospheric aerosol sulfuric acid: First direct in situ measurement using a novel balloon-based mass spectrometer apparatus, J. Atmos. Chem., 30, 3–10, 1998.
Bahm, K. and Khalil, M. A. K.: A new model of tropospheric hydroxyl radical concentrations, Chemosphere, 54, 143–166, 2004.
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Short summary
We find that the aerosol of the lowermost stratosphere has a considerable climate forcing. The upper tropospheric (UT) particulate sulfur is strongly influenced by stratospheric sources the first half of the year, whereas tropospheric sources dominate in fall; 50 % of the UT particulate sulfur (S) was found to be stratospheric at background condition, and 70 % under moderate influence from volcanism. The Asian monsoon is found to be an important tropospheric source of S in the NH extratropical UT.
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