Articles | Volume 16, issue 2
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 989–1002, 2016
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article 27 Jan 2016
Research article | 27 Jan 2016
Inverse modeling of black carbon emissions over China using ensemble data assimilation
P. Wang et al.
No articles found.
Huan Zhang, Sunling Gong, Lei Zhang, Jianjun He, Yaqiang Wang, Lixin Shi, Jingyue Mo, Huabing Ke, and Shuhua Lu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
This study established a multi-model simulation system for street level circulation and pollutant tracking, and applied to real building scenarios and atmospheric conditions. Results showed that to a particular site the potential contribution ratio vary with the height of the site with a peak not at the ground but on a certain height. The work is of significance for urban planning and improvement of urban air quality.
Ke Gui, Huizheng Che, Yu Zheng, Hujia Zhao, Wenrui Yao, Lei Li, Lei Zhang, Hong Wang, Yaqiang Wang, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
This study utilized the globally gridded aerosol extinction data from CALIOP during 2007–2019 to investigate the 3D climatology, trends and meteorological drivers of tropospheric type-dependent aerosols. Results revealed that the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and the free troposphere contribute 61.86 % and 38.13 %, respectively, of the global tropospheric TAOD. Trends in CALIOP-derived aerosol loading, in particular those partitioned in the PBL, can be explained to a large extent by meteorology.
Wenxing Jia and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
Heavy aerosol pollution incidents have attracted much attention since 2013, but the temporal and spatial limitations of observations and the inaccuracy of simulation are a stumbling block of assessing pollution mechanisms. The correct simulation of boundary layer mixing process of pollutant is a challenge for mesoscale numerical models.
Qingyang Xiao, Yixuan Zheng, Guannan Geng, Cuihong Chen, Xiaomeng Huang, Huizheng Che, Xiaoye Zhang, Kebin He, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9475–9496,Short summary
We used both statistical methods and a chemical transport model to assess the contribution of meteorology and emissions to PM2.5 during 2000–2018. Both methods revealed that emissions dominated the long-term PM2.5 trend with notable meteorological effects ranged up to 37.9 % of regional annual average PM2.5. The meteorological contribution became more beneficial to PM2.5 control in southern China but more unfavorable in northern China during the studied period.
Xiaojing Shen, Junying Sun, Fangqun Yu, Ying Wang, Junting Zhong, Yangmei Zhang, Xinyao Hu, Can Xia, Sinan Zhang, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7039–7052,Short summary
In this work, we revealed the changes of PNSD and NPF events during the COVID-19 lockdown period in Beijing, China, to illustrate the impact of reduced primary emission and elavated atmospheric oxidized capicity on the nucleation and growth processes. The subsequent growth of nucleated particles and their contribution to the aerosol pollution formation were also explored, to highlight the necessity of controlling the nanoparticles in the future air quality management.
Linlin Liang, Guenter Engling, Chang Liu, Wanyun Xu, Xuyan Liu, Yuan Cheng, Zhenyu Du, Gen Zhang, Junying Sun, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3181–3192,Short summary
A unique episode with extreme biomass burning (BB) impact, with daily concentration of levoglucosan as high as 4.37 µg m-3, was captured at an area upwind of Beijing. How this extreme BB pollution event was generated and what were the chemical properties of PM2.5 under this kind severe BB pollution level in the real atmospheric environment were both presented in this measurement report. Moreover, the variation of the ratios of BB tracers during different BB pollution periods was also exhibited.
Sunling Gong, Hongli Liu, Bihui Zhang, Jianjun He, Hengde Zhang, Yaqiang Wang, Shuxiao Wang, Lei Zhang, and Jie Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2999–3013,Short summary
Surface concentrations of PM2.5 in China have had a declining trend since 2013 across the country. This research found that the control measures of emission reduction are the dominant factors in the PM2.5 declining trends in various regions. The contribution by the meteorology to the surface PM2.5 concentrations from 2013 to 2019 was not found to show a consistent trend, fluctuating positively or negatively by about 5% on the annual average and 10–20% for the fall–winter heavy-pollution seasons.
Lei Zhang, Sunling Gong, Tianliang Zhao, Chunhong Zhou, Yuesi Wang, Jiawei Li, Dongsheng Ji, Jianjun He, Hongli Liu, Ke Gui, Xiaomei Guo, Jinhui Gao, Yunpeng Shan, Hong Wang, Yaqiang Wang, Huizheng Che, and Xiaoye Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 703–718,Short summary
Development of chemical transport models with advanced physics and chemical schemes is important for improving air-quality forecasts. This study develops the chemical module CUACE by updating with a new particle dry deposition scheme and adding heterogenous chemical reactions and couples it with the WRF model. The coupled model (WRF/CUACE) was able to capture well the variations of PM2.5, O3, NO2, and secondary inorganic aerosols in eastern China.
Yucong Miao, Huizheng Che, Xiaoye Zhang, and Shuhua Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5899–5909,Short summary
By combining long-term observational data analyses, synoptic classifications, and meteorology–chemistry coupled simulations, the complicated impacts of large-scale synoptic forcing and local boundary layer processes on the aerosol pollution in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region have been investigated. The influences of the aerosol radiative effect on boundary layer structure and pollution were also examined. This study has important implications for better understanding pollution in China.
Linlin Liang, Guenter Engling, Chang Liu, Wanyun Xu, Xuyan Liu, Yuan Cheng, Zhenyu Du, Gen Zhang, Junying Sun, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Our study captured an episode with extreme biomass burning tracer level at an agricultural site in North China, with concentrations of levoglucosan as high as 4.37 μg m−3. Based on comparison of the chemical composition between different biomass burning periods, it appeared that biomass burning can obviously elevate the levels of organic components, but seems to have no significant effect on the production of secondary inorganic ions, although their precursors increased during the episode.
Renmin Yuan, Xiaoye Zhang, Hao Liu, Yu Gui, Bohao Shao, Xiaoping Tao, Yaqiang Wang, Junting Zhong, Yubin Li, and Zhiqiu Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12857–12874,Short summary
To understand the contribution of ground emission during heavy pollution in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei, aerosol fluxes were estimated in Beijing and Gucheng areas. The results show that in the three stages of a heavy pollution process (transport, accumulative and removal stages: TS, AS and RS), the ground emissions in the TS and RS stages are stronger, while the ground discharge in the AS stage is weak. The weakened mass flux indicates that the already weak turbulence would be further weakened.
Huizheng Che, Xiangao Xia, Hujia Zhao, Oleg Dubovik, Brent N. Holben, Philippe Goloub, Emilio Cuevas-Agulló, Victor Estelles, Yaqiang Wang, Jun Zhu, Bing Qi, Wei Gong, Honglong Yang, Renjian Zhang, Leiku Yang, Jing Chen, Hong Wang, Yu Zheng, Ke Gui, Xiaochun Zhang, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11843–11864,Short summary
A full-scale description of ground-based aerosol microphysical and optical properties over China is presented. Moreover, the results have also provided significant information about optical and radiative aerosol properties for different types of sites covering a broad expanse of China. The results have considerable value for ground-truthing satellite observations and validating aerosol models.
Xianyi Yang, Huizheng Che, Hitoshi Irie, Quanliang Chen, Ke Gui, Ying Cai, Yu Zheng, Linchang An, Hujia Zhao, Lei Li, Yuanxin Liang, Yaqiang Wang, Hong Wang, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
This study assesses the performance of SKYNET in comparison to AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) for retrieving aerosol optical properties (AOPs) in Beijing, China. SKYNET data retrieved by SR-CEReS analysis package are used to analyze a serious pollution event in winter over Beijing. The AOPs under three weather conditions (clean, dusty, haze) in Beijing are discussed. Measurements from the SKYNET skyradiometer can be used to analyze the AOPs over Beijing reasonably.
Huizheng Che, Ke Gui, Xiangao Xia, Yaqiang Wang, Brent N. Holben, Philippe Goloub, Emilio Cuevas-Agulló, Hong Wang, Yu Zheng, Hujia Zhao, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10497–10523,Short summary
A comprehensive assessment of the global and regional AOD trends over the past 37 years (1980–2016) is presented. AOD observations from both AERONET and CARSNET were used for the first time to assess the performance of the MERRA-2 AOD dataset on a global scale. Based on statistical models, we found the meteorological parameters explained a larger proportion of the regional AOD variability (20.4 %–2.8 %) when compared with emission factors (0 %%–56 %).
Hua Yu, Weijun Li, Yangmei Zhang, Peter Tunved, Manuel Dall'Osto, Xiaojing Shen, Junying Sun, Xiaoye Zhang, Jianchao Zhang, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10433–10446,Short summary
Interaction of anthropogenic particles with radiation and clouds plays an important role in Arctic climate change. The mixing state of different aerosols is a key parameter influencing such interactions. However, little is known of this parameter, preventing an accurate representation of this information in global models. Multi-microscopic techniques were used to find one general core–shell structure in which secondary sulfate particles were covered by organic coating in the Arctic atmosphere.
Weijun Li, Lei Liu, Qi Yuan, Liang Xu, Yanhong Zhu, Bingbing Wang, Hua Yu, Xiaokun Ding, Jian Zhang, Dao Huang, Dantong Liu, Wei Hu, Daizhou Zhang, Pingqing Fu, Maosheng Yao, Min Hu, Xiaoye Zhang, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
The real state of individual primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) derived from natural sources is under mystery, although many studies well evaluate the morphology, mixing state, and elemental composition of anthropogenic particles. It induces that some studies mislead some anthropogenic particles into biological particles through electron microscopy. Here we firstly estimate the full database of individual PBAPs through two microscopic instruments. The database is good for research.
Linlin Wang, Junkai Liu, Zhiqiu Gao, Yubin Li, Meng Huang, Sihui Fan, Xiaoye Zhang, Yuanjian Yang, Shiguang Miao, Han Zou, Yele Sun, Yong Chen, and Ting Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6949–6967,Short summary
Urban boundary layer (UBL) affects the physical and chemical processes of the pollutants, and UBL structure can also be altered by pollutants. This paper presents the interactions between air pollution and the UBL structure by using the field data mainly collected from a 325 m meteorology tower, as well as from a Doppler wind lidar, during a severe heavy pollution event that occurred during 1–4 December 2016 in Beijing.
Junting Zhong, Xiaoye Zhang, Yaqiang Wang, Jizhi Wang, Xiaojing Shen, Hongsheng Zhang, Tijian Wang, Zhouqing Xie, Cheng Liu, Hengde Zhang, Tianliang Zhao, Junying Sun, Shaojia Fan, Zhiqiu Gao, Yubin Li, and Linlin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3287–3306,Short summary
In various haze regions in China, including the Guanzhong Plain, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the Pearl River Delta, the Sichuan Basin, and the Northeast China Plain, heavy aerosol pollution episodes include inter-/trans-regional transport stages and cumulative stages (CSs). During CSs a two-way feedback mechanism exists between unfavorable meteorological conditions and cumulative aerosol pollution. This two-way feedback is further quantified and its magnitude is compared.
Angela Benedetti, Francesca Di Giuseppe, Luke Jones, Vincent-Henri Peuch, Samuel Rémy, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 987–998,
Bowei Li, Steven Sai Hang Ho, Sunling Gong, Jingwei Ni, Huairui Li, Liyan Han, Yi Yang, Yijin Qi, and Dongxu Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 617–638,Short summary
Ozone (O3) pollution is affecting Chinese cities. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are important contributors in the production of tropospheric O3. The local chemical species that play a vital role in O3 formation are identified. Vehicle emissions, coal + biomass burning and solvent use were the most important sources for ambient VOCs. This study provides first-hand information on the characteristics of VOCs and assists in overcoming the O3 pollution issue in Zhengzhou, China.
Hong Wang, Yue Peng, Xiaoye Zhang, Hongli Liu, Meng Zhang, Huizheng Che, Yanli Cheng, and Yu Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17717–17733,Short summary
The explosive growth (EG) of PM2.5 resulted in a PM2.5 maximum, which was generally underestimated by atmospheric chemical models due to the deficient description of the local
turbulence intermittent. The aerosol–radiation feedback (AF) and decrease in turbulence diffusion (DTD) may reduce the underestimation of PM2.5 EG by 20–25% and 14–20%, respectively. The modeled EG stage PM2.5 error was decreased from −40 to −51% to −11 to 2% by the combined effects of AF and DTD in Jing–Jin–Ji.
Yue Peng, Hong Wang, Yubin Li, Changwei Liu, Tianliang Zhao, Xiaoye Zhang, Zhiqiu Gao, Tong Jiang, Huizheng Che, and Meng Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17421–17435,Short summary
Two surface layer schemes are evaluated in eastern China based on observational flux data. The results indicate that the Li scheme better describes regional atmosphere stratification compared with the MM5 scheme, especially for the transition stage from unstable to stable atmosphere conditions, corresponding to PM2.5 accumulation. Our research suggests the potential improved possibilities for severe haze prediction in eastern China by coupling Li online into atmosphere chemical models.
Shixian Zhai, Xingqin An, Tianliang Zhao, Zhaobin Sun, Wei Wang, Qing Hou, Zengyuan Guo, and Chao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6241–6258,Short summary
The GRAPES–CUACE aerosol adjoint model was developed and applied in detecting PM2.5 sources for haze events in eastern China (EC). The response time of Beijing PM2.5 pollution peaks to local and surrounding emissions is quantized for regional transport of air pollution over the EC. The adjoint results agreed well with the Models-3/CMAQ assessments. The adjoint method is powerful in simulating the receptor–source relationship and can be utilized in dynamic air quality control scheme design.
Xiaoye Zhang, Junting Zhong, Jizhi Wang, Yaqiang Wang, and Yanju Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5991–5999,Short summary
The relation between interdecadal changes in weather conditions and climate warming is uncertain. Here, the decadal worsening of meteorological conditions since the 1960s in the Beijing area was found to be partly attributed to climate warming, which is defined by more warming in the higher layers of the boundary layer (BL) than the lower layers. This worsening may also partly be related to the impact on the increasing aerosol pollution (particularly after 2010).
Tianze Sun, Huizheng Che, Bing Qi, Yaqiang Wang, Yunsheng Dong, Xiangao Xia, Hong Wang, Ke Gui, Yu Zheng, Hujia Zhao, Qianli Ma, Rongguang Du, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2949–2971,Short summary
The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region is a key hub in China with air pollution problems. We applied various data from observations and satellites, finding particles in summer prefer hygroscopic growth leading to high scatter. Transported scatter particles lead to a cooling effect which lowers the boundary layer, creating positive feedback. Transported pollutants over YRD are from the North China Plain, northwestern deserts, and southern biomass burning. This finding helps air quality control.
Lei Zhang, Tianliang Zhao, Sunling Gong, Shaofei Kong, Lili Tang, Duanyang Liu, Yongwei Wang, Lianji Jin, Yunpeng Shan, Chenghao Tan, Yingjie Zhang, and Xiaomei Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2065–2079,Short summary
An updated emission inventory of coal-fired power plants (UEIPP) based on online monitoring data in Jiangsu Province in China for the year of 2012 was implemented in the Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC). By employing the model WRF-Chem, two simulations were executed to assess the atmospheric environmental change by using the original MEIC and the MEIC with the UEIPP. Interestingly, when the UEIPP was used, the atmospheric oxidizing capacity significantly reinforced.
Xiaojing Shen, Junying Sun, Niku Kivekäs, Adam Kristensson, Xiaoye Zhang, Yangmei Zhang, Lu Zhang, Ruxia Fan, Xuefei Qi, Qianli Ma, and Huaigang Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 587–599,Short summary
In this study we used the NanoMap method by applying back trajectories and particle number size distribution in different rural sites in China to evaluate the spatial distribution of NPF events and their occurrence probability. We found difference in the horizontal spatial distribution of new particle source areas was connected to typical meteorological conditions. The horizontal extent of NPF reached to larger than 500 km at two sites, favoured by the fast transport of northwesterly air masses.
Huizheng Che, Bing Qi, Hujia Zhao, Xiangao Xia, Thomas F. Eck, Philippe Goloub, Oleg Dubovik, Victor Estelles, Emilio Cuevas-Agulló, Luc Blarel, Yunfei Wu, Jun Zhu, Rongguang Du, Yaqiang Wang, Hong Wang, Ke Gui, Jie Yu, Yu Zheng, Tianze Sun, Quanliang Chen, Guangyu Shi, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 405–425,Short summary
Sun photometer measurements from seven sites in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) from 2011 to 2015 were used to characterize the climatology of aerosol microphysical and optical properties, calculate direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF) and classify aerosols based on size and absorption. This study contributes to our understanding of aerosols and regional climate/air quality, and the results will be useful for validating satellite retrievals and for improving climate models and remote sensing.
Junting Zhong, Xiaoye Zhang, Yunsheng Dong, Yaqiang Wang, Cheng Liu, Jizhi Wang, Yangmei Zhang, and Haochi Che
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 247–258,Short summary
Beijing heavy pollution episodes are characterized by the transport stage (TS) and the cumulative stage (CS). PM2.5 pollution formation in the TS is primarily caused by pollutants transported from the south of Beijing. PM2.5 cumulative explosive growth in the CS is dominated by stable atmospheric stratification due to the interaction of particulate matter (PM) and meteorological factors. The positive meteorological feedback on PM2.5 mass noted explains over 70% of cumulative explosive growth.
Xiangde Xu, Xueliang Guo, Tianliang Zhao, Xingqin An, Yang Zhao, Jiannong Quan, Fei Mao, Yang Gao, Xinghong Cheng, Wenhui Zhu, and Yinjun Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8011–8019,Short summary
Aerosols have complicated effects on clouds and precipitation, depending on many factors such as aerosol properties, topography and meteorological conditions. Most previous investigations of aerosol impacts on clouds and precipitation are primarily based on limited cases on relatively small spatial and temporal scales. The climate forcing of aerosols on precipitation in large-scale continental regions and their physical causes remain uncertain.
Tingting Liu, Sunling Gong, Jianjun He, Meng Yu, Qifeng Wang, Huairui Li, Wei Liu, Jie Zhang, Lei Li, Xuguan Wang, Shuli Li, Yanli Lu, Haitao Du, Yaqiang Wang, Chunhong Zhou, Hongli Liu, and Qichao Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2971–2980,Short summary
This paper presents a study on the severe air pollution in the winter of 2015 in China's Jing-Jin-Ji area. This triggered the first-ever red alert in the air pollution control history of Beijing, with an instantaneous PM2.5 concentration over 1 mg m−3. Analysis and modeling results show that the worsening meteorology conditions are the main reason behind this unusual increase in air pollutant concentrations.
Shurui Chen, Liang Xu, Yinxiao Zhang, Bing Chen, Xinfeng Wang, Xiaoye Zhang, Mei Zheng, Jianmin Chen, Wenxing Wang, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, and Weijun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1259–1270,Short summary
Many studies have focused on the unusually severe hazes instead of the more frequent light and moderate hazes (22–63 %) in winter in the North China Plain (NCP). The morphology, mixing state, and size of organic aerosols in the L & M hazes were characterized. We conclude that the direct emissions from residential coal stoves without any pollution controls in rural and urban outskirts contribute large amounts of primary OM particles to the regional L & M hazes in winter in the NCP.
Xing Qin An, Shi Xian Zhai, Min Jin, Sunling Gong, and Yu Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 2153–2165,Short summary
The aerosol adjoint module of the atmospheric chemical modeling system GRAPES–CUACE was developed, tested for its correctness, and used in a receptor–source sensitivity test. The results showed that controlling critical emission sources during critical time intervals on the basis of adjoint sensitivity analysis is much more efficient than controlling administrative specified regions during an experiential time period.
Ting Ting Liu, Sunling Gong, Meng Yu, Qi Chao Zhao, Huai Rui Li, Jian Jun He, Jie Zhang, Lei Li, Xu Guan Wang, Shu Li Li, Yan Li Lu, Hai Tao Du, Ya Qiang Wang, Chun Hong Zhou, and Hong Li Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
Network monitoring data of air pollutants and meteorology as well as an air quality modeling system in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region were used to analyze impacts the changes of meteorology on the variation of air pollutants. Results show that the worsening meteorology conditions are the main reason behind this unusual increase of air pollutant concentrations in the winter of 2015 and the emission control measures taken during this period of time have contributed to mitigate the air pollution.
Jianjun He, Lin Wu, Hongjun Mao, Hongli Liu, Boyu Jing, Ye Yu, Peipei Ren, Cheng Feng, and Xuehao Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3171–3184,Short summary
Based on a vehicle emission inventory with high temporal–spatial resolution established by bottom-up methodology, this paper evaluates the performance of the CUACE model and investigates the vehicle emission contribution (VEC) to ambient NO2 and PM2.5 with an emission source sensitivity method. With good performance of pollutant concentrations, numerical simulation revealed that the mean VEC is 55.4 and 48.5 % for NO2 and 5.4 and 10.5 % for PM2.5 in July and December 2013 respectively.
Y. Q. Yang, J. Z. Wang, S. L. Gong, X. Y. Zhang, H. Wang, Y. Q. Wang, J. Wang, D. Li, and J. P. Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1353–1364,Short summary
A new model, PLAM/h, has been developed and used in near-real-time air quality forecasts by considering both meteorology and pollutant emissions, based on the two-dimensional probability density function diagnosis model for emissions. The results show that combining the influence of regular meteorological conditions and emission factors together in the PLAM/h parameterization scheme is very effective in improving the forecasting ability for fog-haze weather in North China.
C. Zhou, X. Zhang, S. Gong, Y. Wang, and M. Xue
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 145–160,Short summary
A comprehensive aerosol-cloud-precipitation interaction (ACI) scheme from emissions to precipitation has been developed under the CMA chemical weather modeling system GRAPES/CUACE. The ACI for January 2013 has been studied using this model. The interactive microphysical properties of clouds improve the precipitation, showing 24 to 48 % enhancements of threat score for 6 h precipitation in all regions and reduction of the regional mean bias of temperature by 3 °C in certain precipitation events.
Y. Q. Wang, X. Y. Zhang, J. Y. Sun, X. C. Zhang, H. Z. Che, and Y. Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13585–13598,Short summary
Concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 were monitored at 24 stations of CAWNET from 2006 to 2014. The average levels of particulate matter (PM) concentrations and relationships were investigated. Seasonal, interannual and diurnal variations of the PM were revealed. The effects of meteorological factors on the PM were discussed. The highest PM concentrations were observed at the stations of Xian, Zhengzhou and Gucheng, in Guanzhong and the Huabei Plain.
X. Y. Zhang, J. Z. Wang, Y. Q. Wang, H. L. Liu, J. Y. Sun, and Y. M. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12935–12952,Short summary
No obvious changes were found in annual mean concentrations of major chemical components and PM10 in 2013, relative to 2012. But wintertime mass were quite different; approximately 60% of the winter mass increase from 2012 to 2013 can be attributed to severe meteorological conditions in the HBP area, and mass of chemical components exhibited a decline during 2006 to 2010, and then a rise till 2013. Coal-combustion was still the largest anthropogenic source of aerosol pollution in 2013 in China.
J. W. Chi, W. J. Li, D. Z. Zhang, J. C. Zhang, Y. T. Lin, X. J. Shen, J. Y. Sun, J. M. Chen, X. Y. Zhang, Y. M. Zhang, and W. X. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11341–11353,Short summary
Sea salt aerosols (SSA) are dominant particles in the Arctic atmosphere. Our result suggests that the hydrophilic MgCl2 coating in fresh SSA likely intrigued the heterogeneous reactions at the beginning of SSA and acidic gases in the Arctic. The content of organic matter increased in the aged SSA compared with the fresh SSA, which suggests organic acids (beside inorganic acids) participate in the ageing of SSA in the Arctic.
W. Tao, J. Liu, G. A. Ban-Weiss, D. A. Hauglustaine, L. Zhang, Q. Zhang, Y. Cheng, Y. Yu, and S. Tao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8597–8614,Short summary
We examine the responses of a range of meteorological and air quality indicators to the expansion of urban land using WRF/Chem. Sensitivity studies indicate that the responses of pollutant concentrations to the spatial extent of urbanization are linear near the surface but nonlinear at higher altitudes. The results of process analysis demonstrate that urban heat island circulation and a deeper boundary layer with stronger turbulent intensities play a significant role in relocating pollutants.
L. Zhang, J. Y. Sun, X. J. Shen, Y. M. Zhang, H. Che, Q. L. Ma, Y. W. Zhang, X. Y. Zhang, and J. A. Ogren
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8439–8454,Short summary
The aerosol hygroscopic properties at a rural background site in the Yangtze River delta of China was discussed. The results show the scattering coefficient and backscattering coefficient increased by 58 and 25% as relative humidity (RH) increased from 40 to 85%, while the hemispheric backscatter fraction decreased by 21%. Aerosol hygroscopic growth caused a 47% increase in calculated aerosol direct radiative forcing at 85% RH compared to the forcing at 40% RH. Nitrate played a vital role.
H. Che, X.-Y. Zhang, X. Xia, P. Goloub, B. Holben, H. Zhao, Y. Wang, X.-C. Zhang, H. Wang, L. Blarel, B. Damiri, R. Zhang, X. Deng, Y. Ma, T. Wang, F. Geng, B. Qi, J. Zhu, J. Yu, Q. Chen, and G. Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7619–7652,Short summary
This work studied more than 10 years of measurements of aerosol optical depths (AODs) made for 50 sites of CARSNET compiled into a climatology of aerosol optical properties for China. It lets us see a detailed full-scale description of AOD observations over China. The results would benefit us a lot in comprehending the temporal and special distribution aerosol optical property over China. Also the data would be valuable to communities of aerosol satellite retrieval, modelling, etc.
Z. L. Wang, H. Zhang, and X. Y. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3671–3685,Short summary
This study highlights that there are no effective ways to remove the black carbon exclusively without influencing the other co-emitted components, our results therefore indicate that a reduction in BC emission can lead to an unexpected warming on the Earth’s climate system in the future.
H. Wang, M. Xue, X. Y. Zhang, H. L. Liu, C. H. Zhou, S. C. Tan, H. Z. Che, B. Chen, and T. Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3257–3275,
H. Wang, G. Y. Shi, X. Y. Zhang, S. L. Gong, S. C. Tan, B. Chen, H. Z. Che, and T. Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3277–3287,Short summary
Solar radiation reaching the ground decreases about 15% in Chinese 3JNS region and by 20 to 25% in the region with the highest AOD. Aerosol cools the PBL atmosphere but warms the atmosphere above it, leading to a more stable atmosphere that causes a decrease in turbulence diffusion of about 52% and in PBL height of about 33%; this results in a positive feedback on the PM2.5 concentration within the PBL and the surface as well as the haze formation.
L. Huang, S. L. Gong, M. Gordon, J. Liggio, R. Staebler, C. A. Stroud, G. Lu, C. Mihele, J. R. Brook, and C. Q. Jia
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12631–12648,
Y. M. Zhang, X. Y. Zhang, J. Y. Sun, G. Y. Hu, X. J. Shen, Y. Q. Wang, T. T. Wang, D. Z. Wang, and Y. Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12237–12249,Short summary
An AMS was employed to measure the mass and size distributions of PM1 at an elevated site. Features of PM1 at four seasons, during different kinds of episodes including NPF, polluted, PBL, LFT and in-cloud, were discussed. The characterizations of PM1 at seven clusters of air masses were also analyzed. BBOA, CCOA and oxidized organic aerosols were resolved by AMS-PMF (positive matrix function). Almost half of OA were oxidized, and BBOA is 34% of OA in summer; CCOA is 22% of OA in winter as well.
K. Tsigaridis, N. Daskalakis, M. Kanakidou, P. J. Adams, P. Artaxo, R. Bahadur, Y. Balkanski, S. E. Bauer, N. Bellouin, A. Benedetti, T. Bergman, T. K. Berntsen, J. P. Beukes, H. Bian, K. S. Carslaw, M. Chin, G. Curci, T. Diehl, R. C. Easter, S. J. Ghan, S. L. Gong, A. Hodzic, C. R. Hoyle, T. Iversen, S. Jathar, J. L. Jimenez, J. W. Kaiser, A. Kirkevåg, D. Koch, H. Kokkola, Y. H Lee, G. Lin, X. Liu, G. Luo, X. Ma, G. W. Mann, N. Mihalopoulos, J.-J. Morcrette, J.-F. Müller, G. Myhre, S. Myriokefalitakis, N. L. Ng, D. O'Donnell, J. E. Penner, L. Pozzoli, K. J. Pringle, L. M. Russell, M. Schulz, J. Sciare, Ø. Seland, D. T. Shindell, S. Sillman, R. B. Skeie, D. Spracklen, T. Stavrakou, S. D. Steenrod, T. Takemura, P. Tiitta, S. Tilmes, H. Tost, T. van Noije, P. G. van Zyl, K. von Salzen, F. Yu, Z. Wang, Z. Wang, R. A. Zaveri, H. Zhang, K. Zhang, Q. Zhang, and X. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10845–10895,
H. Che, X. Xia, J. Zhu, Z. Li, O. Dubovik, B. Holben, P. Goloub, H. Chen, V. Estelles, E. Cuevas-Agulló, L. Blarel, H. Wang, H. Zhao, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, J. Sun, R. Tao, X. Zhang, and G. Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2125–2138,
A. Petzold, J. A. Ogren, M. Fiebig, P. Laj, S.-M. Li, U. Baltensperger, T. Holzer-Popp, S. Kinne, G. Pappalardo, N. Sugimoto, C. Wehrli, A. Wiedensohler, and X.-Y. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8365–8379,
H. Jiang, H. Liao, H. O. T. Pye, S. Wu, L. J. Mickley, J. H. Seinfeld, and X. Y. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7937–7960,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)A comprehensive observation-based multiphase chemical model analysis of sulfur dioxide oxidations in both summer and winterPredicting gas–particle partitioning coefficients of atmospheric molecules with machine learningDevelopment of a new emission reallocation method for industrial sources in ChinaProjections of shipping emissions and the related impact on air pollution and human health in the Nordic regionA predictive model for salt nanoparticle formation using heterodimer stability calculationsUsing GECKO-A to derive mechanistic understanding of secondary organic aerosol formation from the ubiquitous but understudied campheneSeasonal distribution and drivers of surface fine particulate matter and organic aerosol over the Indo-Gangetic PlainIntensified modulation of winter aerosol pollution in China by El Niño with short durationForest-fire aerosol–weather feedbacks over western North America using a high-resolution, online coupled air-quality modelEstimation of secondary organic aerosol viscosity from explicit modeling of gas-phase oxidation of isoprene and α-pineneQuantitative assessment of changes in surface particulate matter concentrations and precursor emissions over China during the COVID-19 pandemic and their implications for Chinese economic activitySecondary aerosol formation from dimethyl sulfide – improved mechanistic understanding based on smog chamber experiments and modellingNon-linear response of PM2.5 to changes in NOx and NH3 emissions in the Po basin (Italy): consequences for air quality plansInsights into seasonal variation of wet deposition over southeast Asia via precipitation adjustment from the findings of MICS-Asia IIIModeling the impact of COVID-19 on air quality in southern California: implications for future control policiesResponses of Arctic black carbon and surface temperature to multi-region emission reductions: a Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution Phase 2 (HTAP2) ensemble modeling studyNonlinear responses of particulate nitrate to NOx emission controls in the megalopolises of ChinaAnalysis of secondary organic aerosol simulation bias in the Community Earth System Model (CESM2.1)Future evolution of aerosols and implications for climate change in the Euro-Mediterranean region using the CNRM-ALADIN63 regional climate modelSource apportionment of fine organic carbon at an urban site of Beijing using a chemical mass balance modelModeled changes in source contributions of particulate matter during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Yangtze River Delta, ChinaAerosols from anthropogenic and biogenic sources and their interactions – modeling aerosol formation, optical properties, and impacts over the central Amazon basinAerosol radiative forcings induced by substantial changes in anthropogenic emissions in China from 2008 to 2016A study of the effect of aerosols on surface ozone through meteorology feedbacks over ChinaEvaluation and intercomparison of wildfire smoke forecasts from multiple modeling systems for the 2019 Williams Flats fireInsight into PM2.5 Sources by Applying Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) at an Urban and Rural Site of BeijingSensitivities to biological aerosol particle properties and ageing processes: potential implications for aerosol–cloud interactions and optical propertiesFuture changes in isoprene-epoxydiol-derived secondary organic aerosol (IEPOX SOA) under the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways: the importance of physicochemical dependencyImproving regional air quality predictions in the Indo-Gangetic Plain – case study of an intensive pollution episode in November 2017Recommendations on benchmarks for numerical air quality model applications in China – Part 1: PM2.5 and chemical speciesGlobal modeling studies of composition and decadal trends of the Asian Tropopause Aerosol LayerComparison of chemical lateral boundary conditions for air quality predictions over the contiguous United States during pollutant intrusion eventsClimate-driven chemistry and aerosol feedbacks in CMIP6 Earth system modelsSize-resolved aerosol pH over Europe during summerInsights into the aging of biomass burning aerosol from satellite observations and 3D atmospheric modeling: evolution of the aerosol optical properties in Siberian wildfire plumesGlobal modeling of heterogeneous hydroxymethanesulfonate chemistryHow alkaline compounds control atmospheric aerosol aciditySignificant wintertime PM2.5 mitigation in the Yangtze River Delta, China, from 2016 to 2019: observational constraints on anthropogenic emission controlsHistorical and future changes in air pollutants from CMIP6 modelsEvaluating trends and seasonality in modeled PM2.5 concentrations using empirical mode decompositionLong-term observational constraints of organic aerosol dependence on inorganic species in the southeast USModel bias in simulating major chemical components of PM2.5 in ChinaAerosol pH and chemical regimes of sulfate formation in aerosol water during winter haze in the North China PlainPollutant emission reductions deliver decreased PM2.5-caused mortality across China during 2015–2017Effects of global ship emissions on European air pollution levelsTreatment of non-ideality in the SPACCIM multiphase model – Part 2: Impacts on the multiphase chemical processing in deliquesced aerosol particlesInverse modeling of fire emissions constrained by smoke plume transport using HYSPLIT dispersion model and geostationary satellite observationsComprehensive analyses of source sensitivities and apportionments of PM2.5 and ozone over Japan via multiple numerical techniquesNumerical analysis of agricultural emissions impacts on PM2.5 in China using a high-resolution ammonia emission inventoryClimate and air quality impacts due to mitigation of non-methane near-term climate forcers
Huan Song, Keding Lu, Can Ye, Huabin Dong, Shule Li, Shiyi Chen, Zhijun Wu, Mei Zheng, Limin Zeng, Min Hu, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13713–13727,Short summary
Secondary sulfate aerosols are an important component of fine particles in severe air pollution events. We calculated the sulfate formation rates via a state-of-the-art multiphase model constrained to the observed values. We showed that transition metals in urban aerosols contribute significantly to sulfate formation during haze periods and thus play an important role in mitigation strategies and public health measures in megacities worldwide.
Emma Lumiaro, Milica Todorović, Theo Kurten, Hanna Vehkamäki, and Patrick Rinke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13227–13246,Short summary
The study of climate change relies on climate models, which require an understanding of aerosol formation. We train a machine-learning model to predict the partitioning coefficients of atmospheric molecules, which govern condensation into aerosols. The model can make instant predictions based on molecular structures with accuracy surpassing that of standard computational methods. This will allow the screening of low-volatility molecules that contribute most to aerosol formation.
Yun Fat Lam, Chi Chiu Cheung, Xuguo Zhang, Joshua S. Fu, and Jimmy Chi Hung Fung
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12895–12908,Short summary
In recent years, air pollution forecasting has become an important municipal service of the government. In this study, a new spatial allocation method based on satellite remote sensing and GIS techniques was developed to address the spatial deficiency of industrial source emissions in China, providing a substantial improvement on NO2 and PM2.5 forecast for the Pearl River Delta/Greater Bay Area.
Camilla Geels, Morten Winther, Camilla Andersson, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, Jørgen Brandt, Lise M. Frohn, Ulas Im, Wing Leung, and Jesper H. Christensen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12495–12519,Short summary
In this study, we set up new shipping emissions scenarios and use two chemistry transport models and a health assessment model to assess the development of air quality and related health impacts in the Nordic region. Shipping alone is associated with about 850 premature deaths during present-day conditions, decreasing to approximately 550–600 cases in the 2050 scenarios.
Sabrina Chee, Kelley Barsanti, James N. Smith, and Nanna Myllys
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11637–11654,Short summary
We explored molecular properties affecting atmospheric particle formation efficiency and derived a parameterization between particle formation rate and heterodimer concentration, which showed good agreement to previously reported experimental data. Considering the simplicity of calculating heterodimer concentration, this approach has potential to improve estimates of global cloud condensation nuclei in models that are limited by the computational expense of calculating particle formation rate.
Isaac Kwadjo Afreh, Bernard Aumont, Marie Camredon, and Kelley Claire Barsanti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11467–11487,Short summary
This is the first mechanistic modeling study of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from the understudied monoterpene, camphene. The semi-explicit chemical model GECKO-A predicted camphene SOA yields that were ~2 times α-pinene. Using 50/50 α-pinene + limonene as a surrogate for camphene increased predicted SOA mass from biomass burning fuels by up to ~100 %. The accurate representation of camphene in air quality models can improve predictions of SOA when camphene is a dominant monoterpene.
Caterina Mogno, Paul I. Palmer, Christoph Knote, Fei Yao, and Timothy J. Wallington
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10881–10909,Short summary
We use a 3-D atmospheric chemistry model to investigate how seasonal emissions sources and meteorological conditions affect the surface distribution of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and organic aerosol (OA) over the Indo-Gangetic Plain. We find that all seasonal mean values of PM2.5 still exceed safe air quality levels, with human emissions contributing to PM2.5 all year round, open fires during post- and pre-monsoon, and biogenic emissions during monsoon. OA contributes up to 30 % to PM2.5.
Liangying Zeng, Yang Yang, Hailong Wang, Jing Wang, Jing Li, Lili Ren, Huimin Li, Yang Zhou, Pinya Wang, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10745–10761,Short summary
Using an aerosol–climate model, the impacts of El Niño with different durations on aerosols in China are examined. The modulation on aerosol concentrations and haze days by short-duration El Niño events is 2–3 times more than that by long-duration El Niño events in China. The frequency of short-duration El Niño has been increasing significantly in recent decades, suggesting that El Niño events have exerted increasingly intense modulation on aerosol pollution in China over the past few decades.
Paul A. Makar, Ayodeji Akingunola, Jack Chen, Balbir Pabla, Wanmin Gong, Craig Stroud, Christopher Sioris, Kerry Anderson, Philip Cheung, Junhua Zhang, and Jason Milbrandt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10557–10587,Short summary
We have examined the effects of airborne particles on absorption and scattering of incoming sunlight by the particles themselves via cloud formation. We used an advanced, combined high-resolution weather forecast and chemical transport computer model, for western North America, and simulations with and without the connections between particles and weather enabled. Feedbacks improved weather and air pollution forecasts and changed cloud behaviour and forest-fire pollutant amount and height.
Tommaso Galeazzo, Richard Valorso, Ying Li, Marie Camredon, Bernard Aumont, and Manabu Shiraiwa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10199–10213,Short summary
We simulate SOA viscosity with explicit modeling of gas-phase oxidation of isoprene and α-pinene. While the viscosity dependence on relative humidity and mass loadings is captured well by simulations, the model underestimates measured viscosity, indicating missing processes. Kinetic limitations and reduction in mass accommodation may cause an increase in viscosity. The developed model is powerful for investigation of the interplay among gas reactions, chemical composition and phase state.
Hyun Cheol Kim, Soontae Kim, Mark Cohen, Changhan Bae, Dasom Lee, Rick Saylor, Minah Bae, Eunhye Kim, Byeong-Uk Kim, Jin-Ho Yoon, and Ariel Stein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10065–10080,Short summary
Global outbreaks of COVID-19 offer rare opportunities of natural experiments in emission control and corresponding responses of tropospheric chemistry. This study's novel approach investigates (1) isolating the pandemic's impact from natural and anthropogenic variations, (2) emission adjustment to reproduce real-time emissions, and (3) brute-force modeling to investigate Chinese economic activities. Results provide characteristics of the region's chemistry and emissions.
Robin Wollesen de Jonge, Jonas Elm, Bernadette Rosati, Sigurd Christiansen, Noora Hyttinen, Dana Lüdemann, Merete Bilde, and Pontus Roldin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9955–9976,Short summary
This study presents a detailed analysis of the OH-initiated oxidation of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) based on experiments performed in the Aarhus University Research on Aerosol (AURA) smog chamber and the gas- and particle-phase chemistry kinetic multilayer model (ADCHAM). We capture the formation, growth and chemical composition of aerosols in the chamber setup by an improved multiphase oxidation mechanism and utilize our results to reproduce the important role of DMS in the marine boundary layer.
Philippe Thunis, Alain Clappier, Matthias Beekmann, Jean Philippe Putaud, Cornelis Cuvelier, Jessie Madrazo, and Alexander de Meij
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9309–9327,Short summary
Modelling simulations are used to identify the most efficient emission reduction strategies to reduce PM2.5 concentration levels in northern Italy. Results show contrasting chemical regimes and important non-linearities during wintertime, with the striking result that PM2.5 levels may increase when NOx reductions are applied in NOx-rich areas – a process that may have contributed to the absence of significant PM2.5 decrease during the COVID-19 lockdowns in many European cities.
Syuichi Itahashi, Baozhu Ge, Keiichi Sato, Zhe Wang, Junichi Kurokawa, Jiani Tan, Kan Huang, Joshua S. Fu, Xuemei Wang, Kazuyo Yamaji, Tatsuya Nagashima, Jie Li, Mizuo Kajino, Gregory R. Carmichael, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8709–8734,Short summary
This study presents the detailed analysis of acid deposition over southeast Asia based on the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) phase III. Simulated wet deposition is evaluated with observation data from the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET). The difficulties of models to capture observations are related to the model performance on precipitation. The precipitation-adjusted approach was applied, and the distribution of wet deposition was successfully revised.
Zhe Jiang, Hongrong Shi, Bin Zhao, Yu Gu, Yifang Zhu, Kazuyuki Miyazaki, Xin Lu, Yuqiang Zhang, Kevin W. Bowman, Takashi Sekiya, and Kuo-Nan Liou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8693–8708,Short summary
We use the COVID-19 pandemic as a unique natural experiment to obtain a more robust understanding of the effectiveness of emission reductions toward air quality improvement by combining chemical transport simulations and observations. Our findings imply a shift from current control policies in California: a strengthened control on primary PM2.5 emissions and a well-balanced control on NOx and volatile organic compounds are needed to effectively and sustainably alleviate PM2.5 and O3 pollution.
Na Zhao, Xinyi Dong, Kan Huang, Joshua S. Fu, Marianne Tronstad Lund, Kengo Sudo, Daven Henze, Tom Kucsera, Yun Fat Lam, Mian Chin, and Simone Tilmes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8637–8654,Short summary
Black carbon acts as a strong climate forcer, especially in vulnerable pristine regions such as the Arctic. This work utilizes ensemble modeling results from the task force Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution Phase 2 to investigate the responses of Arctic black carbon and surface temperature to various source emission reductions. East Asia contributed the most to Arctic black carbon. The response of Arctic temperature to black carbon was substantially more sensitive than the global average.
Mengmeng Li, Zihan Zhang, Tijian Wang, Min Xie, Shu Li, Bingliang Zhuang, and Yong Han
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Nitrate production is related to the abundance of both NOx and atmospheric oxidants. We establish the nonlinear responses between nitrate and NOx in China. Reduction of NOx results in linearly lower nitrate in summer-autumn, whereas an increase of winter nitrate until an inflexion point appears at 40–50 reduction. Such nonlinear nitrate-NOx responses can be explained by the excess oxidants under lower NOx emissions. This paper helps understand the nonlinear aerosol and photochemistry feedback.
Yaman Liu, Xinyi Dong, Minghuai Wang, Louisa K. Emmons, Yawen Liu, Yuan Liang, Xiao Li, and Manish Shrivastava
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8003–8021,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is considered one of the most important uncertainties in climate modeling. We evaluate SOA performance in the Community Earth System Model version 2.1 (CESM2.1) configured with the Community Atmosphere Model version 6 with chemistry (CAM6-Chem) through a long-term simulation (1988–2019) with observations in the United States, which indicates monoterpene-formed SOA contributes most to the overestimation of SOA at the surface and underestimation in the upper air.
Thomas Drugé, Pierre Nabat, Marc Mallet, and Samuel Somot
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7639–7669,Short summary
This study presents the surface mass concentration and AOD evolution of various aerosols over the Euro-Mediterranean region between the end of the 20th century and the mid-21st century. This study also describes the part of the expected climate change over the Euro-Mediterranean region that can be explained by the evolution of these different aerosols.
Jingsha Xu, Di Liu, Xuefang Wu, Tuan V. Vu, Yanli Zhang, Pingqing Fu, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Bo Zheng, Roy M. Harrison, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7321–7341,Short summary
Source apportionment of fine aerosols in an urban site of Beijing used a chemical mass balance (CMB) model. Seven primary sources (industrial/residential coal burning, biomass burning, gasoline/diesel vehicles, cooking and vegetative detritus) explained an average of 75.7 % and 56.1 % of fine OC in winter and summer, respectively. CMB was found to resolve more primary OA sources than AMS-PMF, but the latter apportioned more secondary OA sources.
Jinlong Ma, Juanyong Shen, Peng Wang, Shengqiang Zhu, Yu Wang, Pengfei Wang, Gehui Wang, Jianmin Chen, and Hongliang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7343–7355,Short summary
Due to the reduced anthropogenic emissions during the COVID-19 lockdown, mainly from the transportation and industrial sectors, PM2.5 decreased significantly in the whole Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and its major cities. However, the contributions and relative importance of different source sectors and regions changed differently, indicating that control strategies should be adjusted accordingly for further pollution control.
Janaína P. Nascimento, Megan M. Bela, Bruno B. Meller, Alessandro L. Banducci, Luciana V. Rizzo, Angel Liduvino Vara-Vela, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Helber Gomes, Sameh A. A. Rafee, Marco A. Franco, Samara Carbone, Glauber G. Cirino, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Stuart A. McKeen, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6755–6779,
Mingxu Liu and Hitoshi Matsui
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5965–5982,Short summary
By integrating an advanced global climate model with the latest anthropogenic emission inventory, we quantify the aerosol perturbations to regional radiative budgets due to the changes in anthropogenic emissions in China from 2008–2016. We find that aerosol–radiation interactions lead to a relatively small net radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere but contribute largely to surface brightening in China over the past few decades.
Yawei Qu, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Tijian Wang, Matthew Kasoar, Chris Wells, Cheng Yuan, Sunil Varma, and Laura Mansfield
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5705–5718,Short summary
The meteorological effect of aerosols on tropospheric ozone is investigated using global atmospheric modelling. We found that aerosol-induced meteorological effects act to reduce modelled ozone concentrations over China, which brings the simulation closer to observed levels. Our work sheds light on understudied processes affecting the levels of tropospheric gaseous pollutants and provides a basis for evaluating such processes using a combination of observations and model sensitivity experiments.
Xinxin Ye, Pargoal Arab, Ravan Ahmadov, Eric James, Georg A. Grell, Bradley Pierce, Aditya Kumar, Paul Makar, Jack Chen, Didier Davignon, Greg Carmichael, Gonzalo Ferrada, Jeff McQueen, Jianping Huang, Rajesh Kumar, Louisa Emmons, Farren L. Herron-Thorpe, Mark Parrington, Richard Engelen, Vincent-Henri Peuch, Arlindo da Silva, Amber Soja, Emily Gargulinski, Elizabeth Wiggins, Johnathan W. Hair, Marta Fenn, Taylor Shingler, Shobha Kondragunta, Alexei Lyapustin, Yujie Wang, Brent Holben, David Giles, and Pablo E. Saide
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Wildfire smoke has crucial impacts on air quality, while uncertainties in the numerical forecasts remain significant. We present an evaluation of twelve real-time forecasting systems. Comparison of predicted smoke emissions suggests a large spread in magnitudes with temporal patterns deviating from satellite detections. The performance for AOD and surface PM2.5 and their discrepancies highlighted the role of accurately represented spatiotemporal emission profiles, for improving smoke forecasts.
Deepchandra Srivastava, Jingsha Xu, Tuan V. Vu, Di Liu, Linjie Li, Pingqing Fu, Siqi Hou, Zongbo Shi, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This study presents the source apportionment of PM2.5 performed by PMF at an urban and a rural site in Beijing. These factors are interpreted to be traffic emissions, biomass burning, road dust, soil dust, coal combustion, oil combustion and secondary inorganics. The PMF failed to resolve some sources identified by CMB and AMS, and appears to overestimate the dust sources. A comparison with earlier PMF studies from the Beijing area highlights inconsistent findings using this method.
Minghui Zhang, Amina Khaled, Pierre Amato, Anne-Marie Delort, and Barbara Ervens
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3699–3724,Short summary
Although primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs, bioaerosols) represent a small fraction of total atmospheric aerosol burden, they might affect climate and public health. We summarize which PBAP properties are important to affect their inclusion in clouds and interaction with light and might also affect their residence time and transport in the atmosphere. Our study highlights that not only chemical and physical but also biological processes can modify these physicochemical properties.
Duseong S. Jo, Alma Hodzic, Louisa K. Emmons, Simone Tilmes, Rebecca H. Schwantes, Michael J. Mills, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Weiwei Hu, Rahul A. Zaveri, Richard C. Easter, Balwinder Singh, Zheng Lu, Christiane Schulz, Johannes Schneider, John E. Shilling, Armin Wisthaler, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3395–3425,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is a major component of submicron particulate matter, but there are a lot of uncertainties in the future prediction of SOA. We used CESM 2.1 to investigate future IEPOX SOA concentration changes. The explicit chemistry predicted substantial changes in IEPOX SOA depending on the future scenario, but the parameterization predicted weak changes due to simplified chemistry, which shows the importance of correct physicochemical dependencies in future SOA prediction.
Behrooz Roozitalab, Gregory R. Carmichael, and Sarath K. Guttikunda
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2837–2860,Short summary
We used air quality modeling to study an extreme pollution episode in November 2017 in India. We found both local and regional emissions contribute to high pollution levels. The extreme pollution values were the result of agricultural fires in the northwest of India. Ozone should be considered in future air quality management strategies.
Ling Huang, Yonghui Zhu, Hehe Zhai, Shuhui Xue, Tianyi Zhu, Yun Shao, Ziyi Liu, Chris Emery, Greg Yarwood, Yangjun Wang, Joshua Fu, Kun Zhang, and Li Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2725–2743,Short summary
Numerical air quality models (AQMs) are being applied extensively to address diverse scientific and regulatory compliance associated with deteriorating air quality in China. For any AQM applications, model performance evaluation is a critical step that guarantees the robustness and reliability of the baseline modeling results and subsequent applications. We provided benchmarks for model performance evaluation of AQM applications in China to demonstrate model robustness.
Adriana Bossolasco, Fabrice Jegou, Pasquale Sellitto, Gwenaël Berthet, Corinna Kloss, and Bernard Legras
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2745–2764,Short summary
Using the Community Earth System Model, we simulate the surface aerosols lifted to the Asian tropopause (the ATAL layer), its composition and trend, covering a long-term period (2000–2015). We identify a
double-peakaerosol vertical profile that we attribute to
convectivecloud-borne aerosols. We find that natural aerosol (mineral dust) is the dominant aerosol type and has no long-term trend. ATAL's anthropogenic fraction, by contrast, shows a marked positive trend.
Youhua Tang, Huisheng Bian, Zhining Tao, Luke D. Oman, Daniel Tong, Pius Lee, Patrick C. Campbell, Barry Baker, Cheng-Hsuan Lu, Li Pan, Jun Wang, Jeffery McQueen, and Ivanka Stajner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2527–2550,Short summary
Chemical lateral boundary condition (CLBC) impact is essential for regional air quality prediction during intrusion events. We present a model mapping Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) to Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) CB05–AERO6 (Carbon Bond 5; version 6 of the aerosol module) species. Influence depends on distance from the inflow boundary and species and their regional characteristics. We use aerosol optical thickness to derive CLBCs, achieving reasonable prediction.
Gillian Thornhill, William Collins, Dirk Olivié, Ragnhild B. Skeie, Alex Archibald, Susanne Bauer, Ramiro Checa-Garcia, Stephanie Fiedler, Gerd Folberth, Ada Gjermundsen, Larry Horowitz, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Martine Michou, Jane Mulcahy, Pierre Nabat, Vaishali Naik, Fiona M. O'Connor, Fabien Paulot, Michael Schulz, Catherine E. Scott, Roland Séférian, Chris Smith, Toshihiko Takemura, Simone Tilmes, Kostas Tsigaridis, and James Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1105–1126,Short summary
We find that increased temperatures affect aerosols and reactive gases by changing natural emissions and their rates of removal from the atmosphere. Changing the composition of these species in the atmosphere affects the radiative budget of the climate system and therefore amplifies or dampens the climate response of climate models of the Earth system. This study found that the largest effect is a dampening of climate change as warmer temperatures increase the emissions of cooling aerosols.
Stylianos Kakavas, David Patoulias, Maria Zakoura, Athanasios Nenes, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 799–811,Short summary
The dependence of aerosol acidity on particle size, location, and altitude over Europe during a summertime period is investigated. Differences of up to 1–4 pH units are predicted between sub- and supermicron particles in northern and southern Europe. Particles of all sizes become increasingly acidic with altitude (0.5–2.5 pH units decrease over 2.5 km). The size-dependent pH differences carry important implications for pH-sensitive processes in the aerosol.
Igor B. Konovalov, Nikolai A. Golovushkin, Matthias Beekmann, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 357–392,Short summary
A lack of consistent observational constraints on the atmospheric evolution of the optical properties of biomass burning (BB) aerosol limits the accuracy of assessments of the aerosol radiative and climate effects. We show that useful insights into the evolution of the BB aerosol optical properties can be inferred from a combination of satellite observations and 3D modeling. We report major changes that occurred in the optical properties of Siberian BB aerosol during its long-range transport.
Shaojie Song, Tao Ma, Yuzhong Zhang, Lu Shen, Pengfei Liu, Ke Li, Shixian Zhai, Haotian Zheng, Meng Gao, Jonathan M. Moch, Fengkui Duan, Kebin He, and Michael B. McElroy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 457–481,Short summary
We simulate the atmospheric chemical processes of an important sulfur-containing organic aerosol species, which is produced by the reaction between sulfur dioxide and formaldehyde. We can predict its distribution on a global scale. We find it is particularly rich in East Asia. This aerosol species is more abundant in the colder season partly because of weaker sunlight.
Vlassis A. Karydis, Alexandra P. Tsimpidi, Andrea Pozzer, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Aerosol pH is well-buffered by alkaline compounds, notably NH3 and in some areas crustal elements. NH3 is found to supply remarkable buffering capacity on a global scale, from the polluted continents to the remote oceans. Potential future changes in agricultural NH3 must be accompanied by strong reductions of SO2 and NOx to avoid that aerosols become highly acidic with implications for human health (aerosol toxicity), ecosystems (acid deposition), clouds and climate (aerosol hygroscopicity).
Liqiang Wang, Shaocai Yu, Pengfei Li, Xue Chen, Zhen Li, Yibo Zhang, Mengying Li, Khalid Mehmood, Weiping Liu, Tianfeng Chai, Yannian Zhu, Daniel Rosenfeld, and John H. Seinfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14787–14800,Short summary
The Chinese government has made major strides in curbing anthropogenic emissions. In this study, we constrain a state-of-the-art CTM by a reliable data assimilation method with extensive chemical and meteorological observations. This comprehensive technical design provides a crucial advance in isolating the influences of emission changes and meteorological perturbations over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) from 2016 to 2019, thus establishing the first map of the PM2.5 mitigation across the YRD.
Steven T. Turnock, Robert J. Allen, Martin Andrews, Susanne E. Bauer, Makoto Deushi, Louisa Emmons, Peter Good, Larry Horowitz, Jasmin G. John, Martine Michou, Pierre Nabat, Vaishali Naik, David Neubauer, Fiona M. O'Connor, Dirk Olivié, Naga Oshima, Michael Schulz, Alistair Sellar, Sungbo Shim, Toshihiko Takemura, Simone Tilmes, Kostas Tsigaridis, Tongwen Wu, and Jie Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14547–14579,Short summary
A first assessment is made of the historical and future changes in air pollutants from models participating in the 6th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). Substantial benefits to future air quality can be achieved in future scenarios that implement measures to mitigate climate and involve reductions in air pollutant emissions, particularly methane. However, important differences are shown between models in the future regional projection of air pollutants under the same scenario.
Huiying Luo, Marina Astitha, Christian Hogrefe, Rohit Mathur, and S. Trivikrama Rao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13801–13815,Short summary
A new method is introduced to evaluate nonlinear, nonstationary modeled PM2.5 time series by decomposing decadal PM2.5 concentrations and its species onto various timescales. It does not require preselection of temporal scales and assumptions of linearity and stationarity. It provides a unique opportunity to assess the influence of each species on total PM2.5. The results reveal a phase shift in modeled EC/OC concentrations, indicating the need for improved model treatment of organic aerosols.
Yiqi Zheng, Joel A. Thornton, Nga Lee Ng, Hansen Cao, Daven K. Henze, Erin E. McDuffie, Weiwei Hu, Jose L. Jimenez, Eloise A. Marais, Eric Edgerton, and Jingqiu Mao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13091–13107,Short summary
This study aims to address a challenge in biosphere–atmosphere interactions: to what extent can biogenic organic aerosol (OA) be modified through human activities? From three surface network observations, we show OA is weakly dependent on sulfate and aerosol acidity in the summer southeast US, on both long-term trends and monthly variability. The results are in strong contrast to a global model, GEOS-Chem, suggesting the need to revisit the representation of aqueous-phase secondary OA formation.
Ruqian Miao, Qi Chen, Yan Zheng, Xi Cheng, Yele Sun, Paul I. Palmer, Manish Shrivastava, Jianping Guo, Qiang Zhang, Yuhan Liu, Zhaofeng Tan, Xuefei Ma, Shiyi Chen, Limin Zeng, Keding Lu, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12265–12284,Short summary
In this study we evaluated the model performances for simulating secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) and organic aerosol (OA) in PM2.5 in China against comprehensive datasets. The potential biases from factors related to meteorology, emission, chemistry, and atmospheric removal are systematically investigated. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of modeling PM2.5, which is important for studies on the effectiveness of emission control strategies.
Wei Tao, Hang Su, Guangjie Zheng, Jiandong Wang, Chao Wei, Lixia Liu, Nan Ma, Meng Li, Qiang Zhang, Ulrich Pöschl, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11729–11746,Short summary
We simulated the thermodynamic and multiphase reactions in aerosol water during a wintertime haze event over the North China Plain. It was found that aerosol pH exhibited a strong spatiotemporal variability, and multiple oxidation pathways were predominant for particulate sulfate formation in different locations. Sensitivity tests further showed that ammonia, crustal particles, and dissolved transition metal ions were important factors for multiphase chemistry during haze episodes.
Ben Silver, Luke Conibear, Carly L. Reddington, Christoph Knote, Steve R. Arnold, and Dominick V. Spracklen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11683–11695,Short summary
China suffers from serious air pollution, which is thought to cause millions of early deaths each year. Measurements on the ground show that overall air quality is improving. Air quality is also affected by weather conditions, which can vary from year to year. We conduct computer simulations to show it is the reduction of the amount of pollution emitted, rather than weather conditions, which caused air quality to improve during 2015–2017. We then estimate that 150 000 fewer people die early.
Jan Eiof Jonson, Michael Gauss, Michael Schulz, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, and Hilde Fagerli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11399–11422,Short summary
We have calculated the effects of air pollution in Europe from shipping on levels of PM2.5 and ozone and depositions of oxidised nitrogen and sulfur from individual sea areas and from all global shipping. Model results are shown for Europe as a whole but also focusing on select, mainly coastal, countries. Calculations are made using 2017 emissions supplemented by calculations reducing sulfur emissions from ships by about 80 % following the implementation of the 2020 global sulfur cap.
Ahmad Jhony Rusumdar, Andreas Tilgner, Ralf Wolke, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10351–10377,Short summary
In the present study, simulations with the SPACCIM-SpactMod multiphase chemistry model are performed. The investigations aim at assessing the impact of a detailed treatment of non-ideality in multiphase models dealing with aqueous aerosol chemistry. The model studies demonstrate that the inclusion of non-ideality considerably affects the multiphase chemical processing of transition metal ions, oxidants, and related chemical subsystems such as organic chemistry in aqueous aerosols.
Hyun Cheol Kim, Tianfeng Chai, Ariel Stein, and Shobha Kondragunta
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10259–10277,Short summary
Smoke forecasts have been challenged by high uncertainty in fire emission estimates. We develop an inverse modeling system, the HYSPLIT-based Emissions Inverse Modeling System for wildfires, that estimates wildfire emissions from the transport and dispersion of smoke plumes as measured by satellite observations. Using NOAA HYSPLIT and GOES Aerosol/Smoke Product (GASP), the system resolves smoke source strength as a function of time and vertical level and outperforms current operational system.
Satoru Chatani, Hikari Shimadera, Syuichi Itahashi, and Kazuyo Yamaji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10311–10329,Short summary
Source sensitivities and apportionments of PM2.5 and ozone concentrations over Japan for 2016 were evaluated using multiple numerical techniques including BFM, HDDM, and ISAM, embedded in regional chemical transport models. Influences of stringent emission controls recently implemented in Asian countries were reflected. Differences between sensitivities and apportionments greatly helped distinguish various direct and indirect effects of emission sources on PM2.5 and ozone concentrations.
Xiao Han, Lingyun Zhu, Mingxu Liu, Yu Song, and Meigen Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9979–9996,Short summary
China is one of the largest agricultural countries in the world. Some of the major PM2.5 particles that cause the atmospheric haze and impact the climate change were converted from agricultural NH3 emission. This paper applied the numerical modeling system, coupled with a high-resolution agricultural NH3 emissions inventory, to investigate the contribution of agricultural NH3 to PM2.5 mass burden in China and obtained some interesting results.
Robert J. Allen, Steven Turnock, Pierre Nabat, David Neubauer, Ulrike Lohmann, Dirk Olivié, Naga Oshima, Martine Michou, Tongwen Wu, Jie Zhang, Toshihiko Takemura, Michael Schulz, Kostas Tsigaridis, Susanne E. Bauer, Louisa Emmons, Larry Horowitz, Vaishali Naik, Twan van Noije, Tommi Bergman, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Prodromos Zanis, Ina Tegen, Daniel M. Westervelt, Philippe Le Sager, Peter Good, Sungbo Shim, Fiona O'Connor, Dimitris Akritidis, Aristeidis K. Georgoulias, Makoto Deushi, Lori T. Sentman, Jasmin G. John, Shinichiro Fujimori, and William J. Collins
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9641–9663,
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An ensemble optimal interpolation (EnOI) data assimilation technique is used to investigate the possibility of optimally recovering the spatially resolved emissions bias of BC. The inversed emission over China in January is 240.1 Gg, and annual emission is about 2539 Gg. Even though only monthly mean BC measurements are employed to inverse the emissions, the accuracy of the daily model simulation improves. We finds that EnOI is a useful and computation-free method to make top-down estimation.
An ensemble optimal interpolation (EnOI) data assimilation technique is used to investigate the...