Articles | Volume 16, issue 20
Research article 28 Oct 2016
Research article | 28 Oct 2016
Properties of aerosols and formation mechanisms over southern China during the monsoon season
Weihua Chen et al.
No articles found.
Zhiyong Wu, Leiming Zhang, John T. Walker, Paul A. Makar, Judith A. Perlinger, and Xuemei Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5093–5105,Short summary
A community dry deposition algorithm for modeling the gaseous dry deposition process in chemistry transport models was extended to include an additional 12 oxidized volatile organic compounds and hydrogen cyanide based on their physicochemical properties and was then evaluated using field flux measurements over a mixed forest. This study provides a useful tool that is needed in chemistry transport models with increasing complexity for simulating an important atmospheric process.
Luolin Wu, Jian Hang, Xuemei Wang, Min Shao, and Cheng Gong
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4655–4681,Short summary
In order to investigate street-scale flow and air quality, this study has developed APFoam 1.0 to examine the reactive pollutant formation and dispersion in the urban area. The model has been validated and shows good agreement with wind tunnel experimental data. Model sensitivity cases reveal that vehicle emissions, background concentrations, and wind conditions are the key factors affecting the photochemical reaction process.
Syuichi Itahashi, Baozhu Ge, Keiichi Sato, Zhe Wang, Junichi Kurokawa, Jiani Tan, Kan Huang, Joshua S. Fu, Xuemei Wang, Kazuyo Yamaji, Tatsuya Nagashima, Jie Li, Mizuo Kajino, Gregory R. Carmichael, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8709–8734,Short summary
This study presents the detailed analysis of acid deposition over southeast Asia based on the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) phase III. Simulated wet deposition is evaluated with observation data from the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET). The difficulties of models to capture observations are related to the model performance on precipitation. The precipitation-adjusted approach was applied, and the distribution of wet deposition was successfully revised.
Chenshuo Ye, Bin Yuan, Yi Lin, Zelong Wang, Weiwei Hu, Tiange Li, Wei Chen, Caihong Wu, Chaomin Wang, Shan Huang, Jipeng Qi, Baolin Wang, Chen Wang, Wei Song, Xinming Wang, E Zheng, Jordan E. Krechmer, Penglin Ye, Zhanyi Zhang, Xuemei Wang, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8455–8478,Short summary
We performed measurements of gaseous and particulate organic compounds using a state-of-the-art online mass spectrometer in urban air. Using the dataset, we provide a holistic chemical characterization of oxygenated organic compounds in the polluted urban atmosphere, which can serve as a reference for the future field measurements of organic compounds in cities.
Ming Chang, Jiachen Cao, Qi Zhang, Weihua Chen, Guotong Wu, Liping Wu, Weiwen Wang, and Xuemei Wang
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for GMDShort summary
Despite the importance of nitrogen deposition, its simulation still insufficiently represented in current atmospheric chemistry models. In this study, we apply different improved stomatal resistance and nitrogen-limiting on photosynthesis mechanisms to the Noah-MP-WDDM model. Our tests for Dinghushan show that Noah-MP-WDDM v1.42 now gives a better deposition velocity simulation due to modification of the canopy stomatal resistance mechanism and the nitrogen-limiting schemes for photosynthesis.
Shuo Wang, Jason Blake Cohen, Chuyong Lin, and Weizhi Deng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15401–15426,Short summary
We analyze global measurements of aerosol height from fires. A plume rise model reproduces measurements with a low bias in five regions, while a statistical model based on satellite measurements of trace gasses co-emitted from the fires reproduces measurements without bias in eight regions. We propose that the magnitude of the pollutants emitted may impact their height and subsequent downwind transport. Using satellite data allows better modeling of the global aerosol distribution.
Caihong Wu, Chaomin Wang, Sihang Wang, Wenjie Wang, Bin Yuan, Jipeng Qi, Baolin Wang, Hongli Wang, Chen Wang, Wei Song, Xinming Wang, Weiwei Hu, Shengrong Lou, Chenshuo Ye, Yuwen Peng, Zelong Wang, Yibo Huangfu, Yan Xie, Manni Zhu, Junyu Zheng, Xuemei Wang, Bin Jiang, Zhanyi Zhang, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14769–14785,Short summary
Based on measurements from an online mass spectrometer, we quantify volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations from numerous ions of the mass spectrometer, using information from laboratory-obtained calibration results. We find that most VOC concentrations are from oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs). We further show that these OVOCs also contribute significantly to OH reactivity. Our results suggest the important role of OVOCs in VOC emissions and chemistry in urban air.
Chaomin Wang, Bin Yuan, Caihong Wu, Sihang Wang, Jipeng Qi, Baolin Wang, Zelong Wang, Weiwei Hu, Wei Chen, Chenshuo Ye, Wenjie Wang, Yele Sun, Chen Wang, Shan Huang, Wei Song, Xinming Wang, Suxia Yang, Shenyang Zhang, Wanyun Xu, Nan Ma, Zhanyi Zhang, Bin Jiang, Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, Xuemei Wang, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14123–14138,Short summary
We utilized a novel online mass spectrometry method to measure the total concentration of higher alkanes at each carbon number at two different sites in China, allowing us to take into account SOA contributions from all isomers for higher alkanes. We found that higher alkanes account for significant fractions of SOA formation at the two sites. The contributions are comparable to or even higher than single-ring aromatics, the most-recognized SOA precursors in urban air.
Zhenhao Ling, Qianqian Xie, Min Shao, Zhe Wang, Tao Wang, Hai Guo, and Xuemei Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11451–11467,Short summary
The observation data from a receptor site in the Pearl River Delta region were analyzed by a photochemical box model with near-explicit chemical mechanisms (i.e., the Master Chemical Mechanism, MCM), improvements with reversible and irreversible heterogeneous processes of glyoxal and methylglyoxal, and the gas-particle partitioning of oxidation products in the present study.
Baozhu Ge, Syuichi Itahashi, Keiichi Sato, Danhui Xu, Junhua Wang, Fan Fan, Qixin Tan, Joshua S. Fu, Xuemei Wang, Kazuyo Yamaji, Tatsuya Nagashima, Jie Li, Mizuo Kajino, Hong Liao, Meigen Zhang, Zhe Wang, Meng Li, Jung-Hun Woo, Junichi Kurokawa, Yuepeng Pan, Qizhong Wu, Xuejun Liu, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10587–10610,Short summary
Performances of the simulated deposition for different reduced N (Nr) species in China were conducted with the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia. Results showed that simulated wet deposition of oxidized N was overestimated in northeastern China and underestimated in south China, but Nr was underpredicted in all regions by all models. Oxidized N has larger uncertainties than Nr, indicating that the chemical reaction process is one of the most importance factors affecting model performance.
Junchen Guo, Shengzhen Zhou, Mingfu Cai, Jun Zhao, Wei Song, Weixiong Zhao, Weiwei Hu, Yele Sun, Yao He, Chengqiang Yang, Xuezhe Xu, Zhisheng Zhang, Peng Cheng, Qi Fan, Jian Hang, Shaojia Fan, Xinming Wang, and Xuemei Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7595–7615,Short summary
We characterized non-refractory submicron particulate matter (PM1.0) during winter in Guangzhou, south China. Chemical composition and key sources of ambient PM1.0 are revealed, highlighting the significant role of SOA. The relationship with SOA and peroxy radicals indicated gas-phase oxidation contributed predominantly to SOA formation during non-pollution periods, while heterogeneous/multiphase reactions played more important roles in SOA formation during pollution periods.
Jiani Tan, Joshua S. Fu, Gregory R. Carmichael, Syuichi Itahashi, Zhining Tao, Kan Huang, Xinyi Dong, Kazuyo Yamaji, Tatsuya Nagashima, Xuemei Wang, Yiming Liu, Hyo-Jung Lee, Chuan-Yao Lin, Baozhu Ge, Mizuo Kajino, Jia Zhu, Meigen Zhang, Hong Liao, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7393–7410,Short summary
This study evaluated the performance of 12 chemical transport models from MICS-Asia III for predicting the particulate matter (PM) over East Asia. Four model processes were investigated as the possible reasons for model bias with measurements and the factors causing inconsistent predictions of PM from different models: (1) model inputs, (2) gas–particle conversion, (3) dust emission modules and (4) removal mechanisms (wet and dry depositions). The influence of each process was discussed.
Shengzhen Zhou, Luolin Wu, Junchen Guo, Weihua Chen, Xuemei Wang, Jun Zhao, Yafang Cheng, Zuzhao Huang, Jinpu Zhang, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, Shiguo Jia, Jun Tao, Yanning Chen, and Junxia Kuang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6435–6453,Short summary
In this work, measurements of size-segregated aerosols were conducted at three altitudes (ground level, 118 m, and 488 m) on the 610 m high Canton Tower in southern China. Vertical variations of PM and size-segregated chemical compositions were investigated. The results indicated that meteorological parameters and atmospheric aqueous and heterogeneous reactions together led to aerosol formation and haze episodes in the Pearl River Delta region during the measurement periods.
Syuichi Itahashi, Baozhu Ge, Keiichi Sato, Joshua S. Fu, Xuemei Wang, Kazuyo Yamaji, Tatsuya Nagashima, Jie Li, Mizuo Kajino, Hong Liao, Meigen Zhang, Zhe Wang, Meng Li, Junichi Kurokawa, Gregory R. Carmichael, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2667–2693,Short summary
This study gives an overview of acid deposition from the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) phase III. Wet deposition simulated by a total of nine models is evaluated with observation data from the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET). The total deposition maps comparing to emissions over Asia are presented. To seek a way to improve the model performance, ensemble approaches and the precipitation-adjusted method are discussed.
Lei Kong, Xiao Tang, Jiang Zhu, Zifa Wang, Joshua S. Fu, Xuemei Wang, Syuichi Itahashi, Kazuyo Yamaji, Tatsuya Nagashima, Hyo-Jung Lee, Cheol-Hee Kim, Chuan-Yao Lin, Lei Chen, Meigen Zhang, Zhining Tao, Jie Li, Mizuo Kajino, Hong Liao, Zhe Wang, Kengo Sudo, Yuesi Wang, Yuepeng Pan, Guiqian Tang, Meng Li, Qizhong Wu, Baozhu Ge, and Gregory R. Carmichael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 181–202,Short summary
Evaluation and uncertainty investigation of NO2, CO and NH3 modeling over China were conducted in this study using 14 chemical transport model results from MICS-Asia III. All models largely underestimated CO concentrations and showed very poor performance in reproducing the observed monthly variations of NH3 concentrations. Potential factors related to such deficiencies are investigated and discussed in this paper.
Luolin Wu, Ming Chang, Xuemei Wang, Jian Hang, Jinpu Zhang, Liqing Wu, and Min Shao
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 23–40,Short summary
We developed the Real-time On-road Emission (ROE v1.0) model to obtain the street-scale on-road hot emissions by using real-time big data for traffic provided by the Gaode Map navigation application. The results are close to other emission inventories. Meanwhile, we applied our results to a street-level air quality model for studying the impact of the national holiday traffic volume change on air quality. The model can be further extended to more districts in China or other countries.
C. Y. Lin, S. Wang, and J. B. Cohen
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-3-W9, 119–123,
S. Wang, C. Y. Lin, and J. B. Cohen
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-3-W9, 165–170,
Jie Li, Tatsuya Nagashima, Lei Kong, Baozhu Ge, Kazuyo Yamaji, Joshua S. Fu, Xuemei Wang, Qi Fan, Syuichi Itahashi, Hyo-Jung Lee, Cheol-Hee Kim, Chuan-Yao Lin, Meigen Zhang, Zhining Tao, Mizuo Kajino, Hong Liao, Meng Li, Jung-Hun Woo, Jun-ichi Kurokawa, Zhe Wang, Qizhong Wu, Hajime Akimoto, Gregory R. Carmichael, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12993–13015,Short summary
This study evaluated and intercompared 14 CTMs with ozone observations in East Asia, within the framework of the Model Inter-Comparison Study for ASIA Phase III (MICS-Asia III). Potential causes of the discrepancies between model results and observation were investigated by assessing the planetary boundary layer heights, emission fluxes, dry deposition, chemistry and vertical transport among models. Finally, a multi-model estimate of pollution distributions was provided.
Lei Chen, Yi Gao, Meigen Zhang, Joshua S. Fu, Jia Zhu, Hong Liao, Jialin Li, Kan Huang, Baozhu Ge, Xuemei Wang, Yun Fat Lam, Chuan-Yao Lin, Syuichi Itahashi, Tatsuya Nagashima, Mizuo Kajino, Kazuyo Yamaji, Zifa Wang, and Jun-ichi Kurokawa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11911–11937,Short summary
Simulated aerosol concentrations from 14 CTMs within the framework of MICS-Asia III are detailedly evaluated with an extensive set of measurements in East Asia. Similarities and differences among model performances are also analyzed. Although more considerable capacities for reproducing the aerosol concentrations and their variations are shown in current CTMs than those in MICS-Asia II, more efforts are needed to reduce diversities of simulated aerosol concentrations among air quality models.
Zhuoran He, Xuemei Wang, Zhenhao Ling, Jun Zhao, Hai Guo, Min Shao, and Zhe Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8801–8816,Short summary
In this study, source apportionment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their contributions to photochemical O3 formation were analyzed by the positive matrix factorization model and an observation-based model using data collected at a receptor site in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region. Furthermore, the policies for controlling VOCs are briefly reviewed. The findings could provide quantitative information for devising appropriate measures against VOCs, NOx and O3 pollution in the PRD.
Jun Tao, Zhisheng Zhang, Yunfei Wu, Leiming Zhang, Zhijun Wu, Peng Cheng, Mei Li, Laiguo Chen, Renjian Zhang, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8471–8490,Short summary
Mass-scattering efficiencies (MSE) of dominant chemical species in atmospheric aerosols are important parameters for building the relationships between chemical species and the particle-scattering coefficient. Particle MSE mainly depends on the mass fractions of (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, and organic matter and their MSEs in the droplet mode. MSEs of (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3 and organic matter were determined by their size distributions in the droplet mode.
Liqing Wu, Xuemei Wang, Sihua Lu, Min Shao, and Zhenhao Ling
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8141–8161,Short summary
Semi-volatile and intermediate-volatility organic compounds (S–IVOCs) are considered critical precursors of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), which is an important component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). In this study, an emission inventory of S–IVOCs in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region was developed for the first time for the year 2010, while the contributions of S–IVOCs to SOA formation was evaluated by the WRF-Chem model.
C. Lin and J. Cohen
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-3-W5, 53–59,
Shiguo Jia, Xuemei Wang, Qi Zhang, Sayantan Sarkar, Luolin Wu, Minjuan Huang, Jinpu Zhang, and Liming Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11125–11133,Short summary
Aerosol pH are often directly compared across studies while ignoring the inconsistency in standard states. This study attempts to address this issue by comparing aerosol pH with different standard states on the basis of theoretical considerations followed with a set of field data as an example. Application of a pH standardization protocol including a precise statement of thermodynamic model parameters is recommended to avoid biases in cross-comparison.
Jason Blake Cohen, Daniel Hui Loong Ng, Alan Wei Lun Lim, and Xin Rong Chua
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7095–7108,Short summary
Measured aerosol heights over the Maritime Continent are higher than previously thought, with 61 to 83 % of aerosols above the boundary layer. These aerosols should hence have a larger impact on the climate. The use of a plume rise model cannot match the measurements, unless the measured fire energy is increased by 0–60 %. Furthermore, the model is too spread, indicating the importance of including convection and aerosol–radiation interactions. Significant model improvements will be required.
Shengzhen Zhou, Perry K. Davy, Minjuan Huang, Jingbo Duan, Xuemei Wang, Qi Fan, Ming Chang, Yiming Liu, Weihua Chen, Shanju Xie, Travis Ancelet, and William J. Trompetter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2049–2064,Short summary
We collected hourly samples of PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 at an industrial city in the PRD, China. The samples were analyzed for black carbon and elemental compositions. Receptor modeling of the dataset by positive matrix factorization was used to identify PM sources. Human health exposure risks to the selected trace elements in PM released from the specific sources were estimated. The source–risk apportionment method helps decision makers to manage air quality more effectively.
Yudong Yang, Min Shao, Stephan Keßel, Yue Li, Keding Lu, Sihua Lu, Jonathan Williams, Yuanhang Zhang, Liming Zeng, Anke C. Nölscher, Yusheng Wu, Xuemei Wang, and Junyu Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7127–7142,Short summary
Total OH reactivity is an important parameter to evaluate understanding of atmospheric chemistry, especially the VOC contribution to air pollution. Measured by comparative reactivity methods, total OH reactivity in Beijing and Heshan revealed significant differences between measured and calculated results, such as missing reactivity, which were related to unmeasured primary or secondary species. This missing reactivity would introduce a 21–30 % underestimation for ozone production efficiency.
Jason Blake Cohen, Eve Lecoeur, and Daniel Hui Loong Ng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 721–743,Short summary
This study highlights the importance of taking into account a simultaneous use of land use, fire and precipitation for understanding the impacts of fires on the atmospheric loading and distribution of aerosols in Southeast Asia over both space and time. Also, it highlights that there are significant advantages of using 8-day and monthly average values (instead of daily data) in order to better quantify the magnitude and timing of the inter- and intra-annual variance of Southeast Asian fires.
Z. Y. Wu, L. Zhang, X. M. Wang, and J. W. Munger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7487–7496,Short summary
In this study, we have developed a modified micrometeorological gradient method (MGM), although based on existing micrometeorological theory, to estimate O3 dry deposition fluxes over a forest canopy using concentration gradients between a level above and a level below the canopy top. The new method provides an alternative approach in monitoring/estimating long-term deposition fluxes of similar pollutants over tall canopies and is expected to be useful for the scientific community.
Q. Zhang, B. Yuan, M. Shao, X. Wang, S. Lu, K. Lu, M. Wang, L. Chen, C.-C. Chang, and S. C. Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6089–6101,
H. Liu, X. M. Wang, J. M. Pang, and K. B. He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12013–12027,
S. Situ, A. Guenther, X. Wang, X. Jiang, A. Turnipseed, Z. Wu, J. Bai, and X. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11803–11817,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Ammonium nitrate promotes sulfate formation through uptake kinetic regimeMeasurement report: Indirect evidence for the controlling influence of acidity on the speciation of iodine in Atlantic aerosolsUrban aerosol chemistry at a land–water transition site during summer – Part 1: Impact of agricultural and industrial ammonia emissionsMeasurement report: Vertical distribution of biogenic and anthropogenic secondary organic aerosols in the urban boundary layer over Beijing during late summerSource-specific light absorption by carbonaceous components in the complex aerosol matrix from yearly filter-based measurementsVariability in black carbon mass concentration in surface snow at SvalbardRapid mass growth and enhanced light extinction of atmospheric aerosols during the heating season haze episodes in Beijing revealed by aerosol–chemistry–radiation–boundary layer interactionMeasurement report: Saccharide composition in atmospheric fine particulate matter during spring at the remote sites of southwest China and estimates of source contributionsGas–particle partitioning of polyol tracers at a suburban site in Nanjing, east China: increased partitioning to the particle phaseMeasurement report: Source characteristics of water-soluble organic carbon in PM2.5 at two sites in Japan, as assessed by long-term observation and stable carbon isotope ratioThe importance of sesquiterpene oxidation products for secondary organic aerosol formation in a springtime hemiboreal forestPM1 composition and source apportionment at two sites in Delhi, India, across multiple seasonsIncrease of nitrooxy organosulfates in firework-related urban aerosols during Chinese New Year's EveDifferentiation of coarse-mode anthropogenic, marine and dust particles in the High Arctic islands of SvalbardSource apportionment of atmospheric PM10 oxidative potential: synthesis of 15 year-round urban datasets in FranceMeasurement report: Long-emission-wavelength chromophores dominate the light absorption of brown carbon in aerosols over Bangkok: impact from biomass burningSecondary organic aerosols from anthropogenic volatile organic compounds contribute substantially to air pollution mortalityDramatic changes in Harbin aerosol during 2018–2020: the roles of open burning policy and secondary aerosol formationMediterranean nascent sea spray organic aerosol and relationships with seawater biogeochemistrySeasonal analysis of submicron aerosol in Old Delhi using high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry: chemical characterisation, source apportionment and new marker identificationEight years of sub-micrometre organic aerosol composition data from the boreal forest characterized using a machine-learning approachQuantification of solid fuel combustion and aqueous chemistry contributions to secondary organic aerosol during wintertime haze events in BeijingLarge seasonal and interannual variations of biogenic sulfur compounds in the Arctic atmosphere (Svalbard; 78.9° N, 11.9° E)Disparities in particulate matter (PM10) origins and oxidative potential at a city scale (Grenoble, France) – Part 2: Sources of PM10 oxidative potential using multiple linear regression analysis and the predictive applicability of multilayer perceptron neural network analysisInter-annual variations of wet deposition in Beijing from 2014–2017: implications of below-cloud scavenging of inorganic aerosolsUrban organic aerosol composition in eastern China differs from north to south: molecular insight from a liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (Orbitrap) studyCultivable halotolerant ice-nucleating bacteria and fungi in coastal precipitationDetermination of free amino acids, saccharides, and selected microbes in biogenic atmospheric aerosols – seasonal variations, particle size distribution, chemical and microbial relationsPhysical and chemical properties of urban aerosols in São Paulo, Brazil: links between composition and size distribution of submicron particlesSubstantial changes in gaseous pollutants and chemical compositions in fine particles in the North China Plain during the COVID-19 lockdown period: anthropogenic vs. meteorological influencesMeasurement report: Spatiotemporal and policy-related variations of PM2.5 compositions and sources during 2015–2019 at multisite of a Chinese megacityMeasurement report: Molecular composition, optical properties, and radiative effects of water-soluble organic carbon in snowpack samples from northern Xinjiang, ChinaReduced volatility of aerosols from surface emission to the top of planetary boundary layerSignificant contrasts in aerosol acidity between China and the United StatesIncrease in secondary organic aerosol in an urban environmentCarbonaceous aerosol composition in air masses influenced by large-scale biomass burning: a case study in northwestern VietnamThe role of coarse aerosol particles as a sink of HNO3 in wintertime pollution events in the Salt Lake ValleyMolecular characterization of gaseous and particulate oxygenated compounds at a remote site in Cape Corsica in the western Mediterranean BasinAircraft measurements of aerosol and trace gas chemistry in the eastern North AtlanticImpacts of the COVID-19 lockdown on air pollution at regional and urban background sites in northern ItalyMeasurement report: Fourteen months of real-time characterisation of the submicronic aerosol and its atmospheric dynamics at the Marseille–Longchamp supersiteTrends, composition, and sources of carbonaceous aerosol at the Birkenes Observatory, northern Europe, 2001–2018Enhancement of nanoparticle formation and growth during the COVID-19 lockdown period in urban BeijingChemical composition and source attribution of sub-micrometre aerosol particles in the summertime Arctic lower troposphereSources of black carbon at residential and traffic environmentsIn-depth characterization of submicron particulate matter inter-annual variations at a street canyon site in northern EuropeMeasurement report: The chemical composition and temporal variability of aerosol particles at Tuktoyaktuk, Canada during the Year of Polar Prediction Special Observing PeriodMeasurement report: Firework impacts on air quality in Metro Manila, Philippines, during the 2019 New Year revelryMeasurement report: Receptor modelling for source identification of urban fine and coarse particulate matter using hourly elemental compositionChemical composition of PM2.5 in October 2017 Northern California wildfire plumes
Yongchun Liu, Zemin Feng, Feixue Zheng, Xiaolei Bao, Pengfei Liu, Yanli Ge, Yan Zhao, Tao Jiang, Yunwen Liao, Yusheng Zhang, Xiaolong Fan, Chao Yan, Biwu Chu, Yonghong Wang, Wei Du, Jing Cai, Federico Bianchi, Tuukka Petäjä, Yujing Mu, Hong He, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13269–13286,Short summary
The mechanisms and kinetics of particulate sulfate formation in the atmosphere are still open questions although they have been extensively discussed. We found that uptake of SO2 is the rate-determining step for the conversion of SO2 to particulate sulfate. NH4NO3 plays an important role in AWC, the phase state of aerosol particles, and subsequently the uptake kinetics of SO2 under high-RH conditions. This work is a good example of the feedback between aerosol physics and aerosol chemistry.
Alex R. Baker and Chan Yodle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13067–13076,Short summary
Iodine is emitted from the ocean and helps to destroy ozone in the lower atmosphere before being taken up into aerosol particles. We measured the chemical forms of iodine in aerosols over the Atlantic Ocean, because some of these forms can return to the gas phase and destroy more ozone. Our results indicate that aerosol acidity exerts a strong control on iodine speciation and therefore on its recycling behaviour and impact on ozone concentrations.
Nicholas Balasus, Michael A. Battaglia Jr., Katherine Ball, Vanessa Caicedo, Ruben Delgado, Annmarie G. Carlton, and Christopher J. Hennigan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13051–13065,Short summary
Measurements of aerosol and gas composition were carried out at a land–water transition site near Baltimore, MD. Gas-phase ammonia concentrations were highly elevated compared to measurements at a nearby inland site. Our analysis reveals that NH2 was from both industrial and agricultural sources. This had a pronounced effect on aerosol chemical composition at the site, most notably contributing to episodic spikes of aerosol nitrate.
Hong Ren, Wei Hu, Lianfang Wei, Siyao Yue, Jian Zhao, Linjie Li, Libin Wu, Wanyu Zhao, Lujie Ren, Mingjie Kang, Qiaorong Xie, Sihui Su, Xiaole Pan, Zifa Wang, Yele Sun, Kimitaka Kawamura, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12949–12963,Short summary
This study presents vertical profiles of biogenic and anthropogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) in the urban boundary layer based on a 325 m tower in Beijing in late summer. The increases in the isoprene and toluene SOAs with height were found to be more related to regional transport, whereas the decrease in those from monoterpenes and sesquiterpene were more subject to local emissions. Such complicated vertical distributions of SOA should be considered in future modeling work.
Vaios Moschos, Martin Gysel-Beer, Robin L. Modini, Joel C. Corbin, Dario Massabò, Camilla Costa, Silvia G. Danelli, Athanasia Vlachou, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Sönke Szidat, Paolo Prati, André S. H. Prévôt, Urs Baltensperger, and Imad El Haddad
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12809–12833,Short summary
This study provides a holistic approach to studying the spectrally resolved light absorption by atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) and black carbon using long time series of daily samples from filter-based measurements. The obtained results provide (1) a better understanding of the aerosol absorption profile and its dependence on BrC and on lensing from less absorbing coatings and (2) an estimation of the most important absorbers at typical European locations.
Michele Bertò, David Cappelletti, Elena Barbaro, Cristiano Varin, Jean-Charles Gallet, Krzysztof Markowicz, Anna Rozwadowska, Mauro Mazzola, Stefano Crocchianti, Luisa Poto, Paolo Laj, Carlo Barbante, and Andrea Spolaor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12479–12493,Short summary
We present the daily and seasonal variability in black carbon (BC) in surface snow inferred from two specific experiments based on the hourly and daily time resolution sampling during the Arctic spring in Svalbard. These unique data sets give us, for the first time, the opportunity to evaluate the associations between the observed surface snow BC mass concentration and a set of predictors corresponding to the considered meteorological and snow physico-chemical parameters.
Zhuohui Lin, Yonghong Wang, Feixue Zheng, Ying Zhou, Yishuo Guo, Zemin Feng, Chang Li, Yusheng Zhang, Simo Hakala, Tommy Chan, Chao Yan, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Biwu Chu, Lubna Dada, Juha Kangasluoma, Lei Yao, Xiaolong Fan, Wei Du, Jing Cai, Runlong Cai, Tom V. Kokkonen, Putian Zhou, Lili Wang, Tuukka Petäjä, Federico Bianchi, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Yongchun Liu, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12173–12187,Short summary
We find that ammonium nitrate and aerosol water content contributed most during low mixing layer height conditions; this may further trigger enhanced formation of sulfate and organic aerosol via heterogeneous reactions. The results of this study contribute towards a more detailed understanding of the aerosol–chemistry–radiation–boundary layer feedback that is likely to be responsible for explosive aerosol mass growth events in urban Beijing.
Zhenzhen Wang, Di Wu, Zhuoyu Li, Xiaona Shang, Qing Li, Xiang Li, Renjie Chen, Haidong Kan, Huiling Ouyang, Xu Tang, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12227–12241,Short summary
This study firstly investigates the composition of sugars in the fine fraction of aerosol over three sites in southwest China. The result suggested no significant reduction in biomass burning emissions in southwest Yunnan Province to some extent. The result shown sheds light on the contributions of biomass burning and the characteristics of biogenic saccharides in these regions, which could be further applied to regional source apportionment models and global climate models.
Chao Qin, Yafeng Gou, Yuhang Wang, Yuhao Mao, Hong Liao, Qin'geng Wang, and Mingjie Xie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12141–12153,Short summary
In this study, we found that the aqueous solution in aerosols is an important absorbing phase for gaseous polyols in the atmosphere, indicating that the dissolution in aerosol liquid water should not be ignored when investigating gas–particle partitioning of water-soluble organics. The exponential increase in effective partitioning coefficients of polyol tracers with sulfate ion concentrations could be attributed to organic–inorganic interactions in the particle phase.
Nana Suto and Hiroto Kawashima
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11815–11828,Short summary
The sources and seasonal trends of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in PM2.5 on long-term trends at two sites in Japan are investigated by carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) of WSOC. At the rural site, the δ13C of WSOC from autumn to spring was concluded to reflect mainly the biomass burning of rice straw. The heaviest δ13C of WSOC from February to April 2019 might reflect long-range transport of particles resulting from the overseas burning of C4 plants such as corn.
Luis M. F. Barreira, Arttu Ylisirniö, Iida Pullinen, Angela Buchholz, Zijun Li, Helina Lipp, Heikki Junninen, Urmas Hõrrak, Steffen M. Noe, Alisa Krasnova, Dmitrii Krasnov, Kaia Kask, Eero Talts, Ülo Niinemets, Jose Ruiz-Jimenez, and Siegfried Schobesberger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11781–11800,Short summary
We present results from PM1 atmospheric composition and concentration measurements performed in a springtime hemiboreal forest. Sesquiterpene mixing ratios and particle-phase concentrations of corresponding oxidation products were rapidly increasing on some early mornings. The particle volatility suggested that condensable sesquiterpene oxidation products are rapidly formed in the atmosphere. The results revealed the importance of sesquiterpenes for secondary organic aerosol particulate mass.
Ernesto Reyes-Villegas, Upasana Panda, Eoghan Darbyshire, James M. Cash, Rutambhara Joshi, Ben Langford, Chiara F. Di Marco, Neil J. Mullinger, Mohammed S. Alam, Leigh R. Crilley, Daniel J. Rooney, W. Joe F. Acton, Will Drysdale, Eiko Nemitz, Michael Flynn, Aristeidis Voliotis, Gordon McFiggans, Hugh Coe, James Lee, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Mathew R. Heal, Sachin S. Gunthe, Tuhin K. Mandal, Bhola R. Gurjar, Shivani, Ranu Gadi, Siddhartha Singh, Vijay Soni, and James D. Allan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11655–11667,Short summary
This paper shows the first multisite online measurements of PM1 in Delhi, India, with measurements over different seasons in Old Delhi and New Delhi in 2018. Organic aerosol (OA) source apportionment was performed using positive matrix factorisation (PMF). Traffic was the main primary aerosol source for both OAs and black carbon, seen with PMF and Aethalometer model analysis, indicating that control of primary traffic exhaust emissions would make a significant reduction to Delhi air pollution.
Qiaorong Xie, Sihui Su, Jing Chen, Yuqing Dai, Siyao Yue, Hang Su, Haijie Tong, Wanyu Zhao, Lujie Ren, Yisheng Xu, Dong Cao, Ying Li, Yele Sun, Zifa Wang, Cong-Qiang Liu, Kimitaka Kawamura, Guibin Jiang, Yafang Cheng, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11453–11465,Short summary
This study investigated the role of nighttime chemistry during Chinese New Year's Eve that enhances the formation of nitrooxy organosulfates in the aerosol phase. Results show that anthropogenic precursors, together with biogenic ones, considerably contribute to the formation of low-volatility nitrooxy OSs. Our study provides detailed molecular composition of firework-related aerosols, which gives new insights into the physicochemical properties and potential health effects of urban aerosols.
Congbo Song, Manuel Dall'Osto, Angelo Lupi, Mauro Mazzola, Rita Traversi, Silvia Becagli, Stefania Gilardoni, Stergios Vratolis, Karl Espen Yttri, David C. S. Beddows, Julia Schmale, James Brean, Agung Ghani Kramawijaya, Roy M. Harrison, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11317–11335,Short summary
We present a cluster analysis of relatively long-term (2015–2019) aerosol aerodynamic volume size distributions up to 20 μm in the Arctic for the first time. The study found that anthropogenic and natural aerosols comprised 27 % and 73 % of the occurrence of the coarse-mode aerosols, respectively. Our study shows that about two-thirds of the coarse-mode aerosols are related to two sea-spray-related aerosol clusters, indicating that sea spray aerosol may more complex in the Arctic environment.
Samuël Weber, Gaëlle Uzu, Olivier Favez, Lucille Joanna S. Borlaza, Aude Calas, Dalia Salameh, Florie Chevrier, Julie Allard, Jean-Luc Besombes, Alexandre Albinet, Sabrina Pontet, Boualem Mesbah, Grégory Gille, Shouwen Zhang, Cyril Pallares, Eva Leoz-Garziandia, and Jean-Luc Jaffrezo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11353–11378,Short summary
Oxidative potential (OP) of aerosols is apportioned to the main PM sources found in 15 sites over France. The sources present clear distinct intrinsic OPs at a large geographic scale, and a drastic redistribution between the mass concentration and OP measured by both ascorbic acid and dithiothreitol is highlighted. Moreover, the high discrepancy between the mean and median contributions of the sources to the given metrics raises some important questions when dealing with health endpoints.
Jiao Tang, Jiaqi Wang, Guangcai Zhong, Hongxing Jiang, Yangzhi Mo, Bolong Zhang, Xiaofei Geng, Yingjun Chen, Jianhui Tang, Congguo Tian, Surat Bualert, Jun Li, and Gan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11337–11352,Short summary
This article provides a combined EEM–PARAFAC and statistical analysis method to explore how excitation–emission matrix (EEM) chromophores influence BrC light absorption in soluble organic matter. The application enables us to deduce that BrC absorption is mainly dependent on longer-emission-wavelength chromophores largely associated with biomass burning emissions. This method promotes the application of EEM spectroscopy and helps us understand the light absorption of BrC in the atmosphere.
Benjamin A. Nault, Duseong S. Jo, Brian C. McDonald, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Weiwei Hu, Jason C. Schroder, James Allan, Donald R. Blake, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Hugh Coe, Matthew M. Coggon, Peter F. DeCarlo, Glenn S. Diskin, Rachel Dunmore, Frank Flocke, Alan Fried, Jessica B. Gilman, Georgios Gkatzelis, Jacqui F. Hamilton, Thomas F. Hanisco, Patrick L. Hayes, Daven K. Henze, Alma Hodzic, James Hopkins, Min Hu, L. Greggory Huey, B. Thomas Jobson, William C. Kuster, Alastair Lewis, Meng Li, Jin Liao, M. Omar Nawaz, Ilana B. Pollack, Jeffrey Peischl, Bernhard Rappenglück, Claire E. Reeves, Dirk Richter, James M. Roberts, Thomas B. Ryerson, Min Shao, Jacob M. Sommers, James Walega, Carsten Warneke, Petter Weibring, Glenn M. Wolfe, Dominique E. Young, Bin Yuan, Qiang Zhang, Joost A. de Gouw, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11201–11224,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is an important aspect of poor air quality for urban regions around the world, where a large fraction of the population lives. However, there is still large uncertainty in predicting SOA in urban regions. Here, we used data from 11 urban campaigns and show that the variability in SOA production in these regions is predictable and is explained by key emissions. These results are used to estimate the premature mortality associated with SOA in urban regions.
Yuan Cheng, Qin-qin Yu, Jiu-meng Liu, Xu-bing Cao, Ying-jie Zhong, Zhen-yu Du, Lin-lin Liang, Guan-nan Geng, Wan-li Ma, Hong Qi, Qiang Zhang, and Ke-bin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,Short summary
Open burning policies in Heilongjiang Province experienced a rapid transition during 2018 to 2020. This study evaluated the responses of PM2.5 pollution to this transition, and suggested neither of the policies could be considered successful. In addition, heterogeneous reactions were found to be at play in secondary aerosol formation, even in the frigid atmosphere in Heilongjiang. The unique haze in Northeast China deserves more attention.
Evelyn Freney, Karine Sellegri, Alessia Nicosia, Leah R. Williams, Matteo Rinaldi, Jonathan T. Trueblood, André S. H. Prévôt, Melilotus Thyssen, Gérald Grégori, Nils Haëntjens, Julie Dinasquet, Ingrid Obernosterer, France Van Wambeke, Anja Engel, Birthe Zäncker, Karine Desboeufs, Eija Asmi, Hilkka Timonen, and Cécile Guieu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10625–10641,Short summary
In this work, we present observations of the organic aerosol content in primary sea spray aerosols (SSAs) continuously generated along a 5-week cruise in the Mediterranean. This information is combined with seawater biogeochemical properties also measured continuously along the ship track to develop a number of parametrizations that can be used in models to determine SSA organic content in oligotrophic waters that represent 60 % of the oceans from commonly measured seawater variables.
James M. Cash, Ben Langford, Chiara Di Marco, Neil J. Mullinger, James Allan, Ernesto Reyes-Villegas, Ruthambara Joshi, Mathew R. Heal, W. Joe F. Acton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Pawel K. Misztal, Will Drysdale, Tuhin K. Mandal, Shivani, Ranu Gadi, Bhola Ram Gurjar, and Eiko Nemitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10133–10158,Short summary
We present the first real-time composition of submicron particulate matter (PM1) in Old Delhi using high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry. Seasonal analysis shows peak concentrations occur during the post-monsoon, and novel-tracers reveal the largest sources are a combination of local open and regional crop residue burning. Strong links between increased chloride aerosol concentrations and burning sources of PM1 suggest burning sources are responsible for the post-monsoon chloride peak.
Liine Heikkinen, Mikko Äijälä, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Gang Chen, Olga Garmash, Diego Aliaga, Frans Graeffe, Meri Räty, Krista Luoma, Pasi Aalto, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, Douglas Worsnop, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10081–10109,Short summary
In many locations worldwide aerosol particles have been shown to be made up of organic aerosol (OA). The boreal forest is a region where aerosol particles possess a high OA mass fraction. Here, we studied OA composition using the longest time series of OA composition ever obtained from a boreal environment. For this purpose, we tested a new analysis framework and discovered that most of the OA was highly oxidized, with strong seasonal behaviour reflecting different sources in summer and winter.
Yandong Tong, Veronika Pospisilova, Lu Qi, Jing Duan, Yifang Gu, Varun Kumar, Pragati Rai, Giulia Stefenelli, Liwei Wang, Ying Wang, Haobin Zhong, Urs Baltensperger, Junji Cao, Ru-Jin Huang, André S. H. Prévôt, and Jay G. Slowik
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9859–9886,Short summary
We investigate SOA sources and formation processes by a field deployment of the EESI-TOF-MS and L-TOF AMS in Beijing in late autumn and early winter. Our study shows that the sources and processes giving rise to haze events in Beijing are variable and seasonally dependent: (1) in the heating season, SOA formation is driven by oxidation of aromatics from solid fuel combustion; and (2) under high-NOx and RH conditions, aqueous-phase chemistry can be a major contributor to SOA formation.
Sehyun Jang, Ki-Tae Park, Kitack Lee, Young Jun Yoon, Kitae Kim, Hyun Young Chung, Eunho Jang, Silvia Becagli, Bang Yong Lee, Rita Traversi, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Radovan Krejci, and Ove Hermansen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9761–9777,Short summary
This study provides comprehensive datasets encompassing seasonal and interannual variations in sulfate and MSA concentration in aerosol particles in the Arctic atmosphere. As oxidation products of DMS have important roles in new particle formation and growth, we focused on factors affecting their variability and the branching ratio of DMS oxidation. We found a strong correlation between the ratio and the light condition, chemical properties of particles, and biological activities near Svalbard.
Lucille Joanna S. Borlaza, Samuël Weber, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Stephan Houdier, Rémy Slama, Camille Rieux, Alexandre Albinet, Steve Micallef, Cécile Trébluchon, and Gaëlle Uzu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9719–9739,Short summary
With an enhanced source apportionment obtained in a companion paper, this paper acquires more understanding of the spatiotemporal associations of the sources of PM to oxidative potential (OP), an emerging health-based metric. Multilayer perceptron neural network analysis was used to apportion OP from PM sources. Results showed that such a methodology is as robust as the linear classical inversion and permits an improvement in the OP prediction when local features or non-linear effects occur.
Baozhu Ge, Danhui Xu, Oliver Wild, Xuefeng Yao, Junhua Wang, Xueshun Chen, Qixin Tan, Xiaole Pan, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9441–9454,Short summary
In this study, an improved sequential sampling method is developed and implemented to estimate the contribution of below-cloud and in-cloud wet deposition over four years of measurements in Beijing. We find that the contribution of below-cloud scavenging for Ca2+, SO4 2–, and NH4+ decreases from above 50 % in 2014 to below 40 % in 2017. This suggests that the Action Plan has mitigated particulate matter pollution in the surface layer and hence decreased scavenging due to the washout process.
Kai Wang, Ru-Jin Huang, Martin Brüggemann, Yun Zhang, Lu Yang, Haiyan Ni, Jie Guo, Meng Wang, Jiajun Han, Merete Bilde, Marianne Glasius, and Thorsten Hoffmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9089–9104,Short summary
Here we present the detailed molecular composition of the organic aerosol collected in three eastern Chinese cities from north to south, Changchun, Shanghai and Guangzhou, by applying LC–Orbitrap analysis. Accordingly, the aromaticity degree of chemical compounds decreases from north to south, while the oxidation degree increases from north to south, which can be explained by the different anthropogenic emissions and photochemical oxidation processes.
Charlotte M. Beall, Jennifer M. Michaud, Meredith A. Fish, Julie Dinasquet, Gavin C. Cornwell, M. Dale Stokes, Michael D. Burkart, Thomas C. Hill, Paul J. DeMott, and Kimberly A. Prather
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9031–9045,Short summary
Ice-nucleating particles (INPs) can influence multiple climate-relevant cloud properties by triggering droplet freezing at relative humidities below or temperatures above the freezing point of water. The ocean is a significant INP source; however, the specific identities of marine INPs remain largely unknown. Here, we identify 14 ice-nucleating microbes from aerosol and precipitation samples collected at a coastal site in southern California, two or more of which are likely marine.
Jose Ruiz-Jimenez, Magdalena Okuljar, Outi-Maaria Sietiö, Giorgia Demaria, Thanaporn Liangsupree, Elisa Zagatti, Juho Aalto, Kari Hartonen, Jussi Heinonsalo, Jaana Bäck, Tuukka Petäjä, and Marja-Liisa Riekkola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8775–8790,Short summary
Altogether, 84 size-segregated aerosol samples from four particle size fractions were collected at the Station for Measuring Forest Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations, Hyytiälä, Finland, in autumn 2017 for the clarification of the complex interrelationships between airborne and particulate chemical traces, amino acids and saccharides, gene copy numbers (16S and 18S for bacteria and fungi, respectively), gas-phase chemistry, and the particle size distribution.
Djacinto Monteiro dos Santos, Luciana Varanda Rizzo, Samara Carbone, Patrick Schlag, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8761–8773,Short summary
The metropolitan area of São Paulo (MASP), with very extensive biofuel use, has unique atmospheric chemistry among world megacities. In this study, we examine the complex relationships between aerosol chemical composition and particle size distribution. Our findings provide a better understanding of the dynamics of the physicochemical properties of submicron particles and highlight the key role of secondary organic aerosol formation in the pollution levels in São Paulo.
Rui Li, Yilong Zhao, Hongbo Fu, Jianmin Chen, Meng Peng, and Chunying Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8677–8692,Short summary
Based on a random forest model, the strict lockdown measures significantly decreased primary components such as Cr (−67 %) and Fe (−61 %) in PM2.5 (p < 0.01), whereas the higher relative humidity (RH) and NH3 level and the lower air temperature (T) remarkably enhanced the production of secondary aerosol including SO42− (29 %), NO3− (29 %), and NH4+ (21 %) (p < 0.05). The natural experiment suggested that the NH3 emission should be strictly controlled.
Xinyao Feng, Yingze Tian, Qianqian Xue, Danlin Song, Fengxia Huang, and Yinchang Feng
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This study focused on PM2.5 compositions and sources, and explored their spatiotemporal and policy-related variations based on observation at 19 sites during wintertime of 2015–2019 in a fast-developing megacity. We found that PM2.5 compositions for outer-most zone in 2019 were similar to that for core zone two or three years ago. Percentage contributions of coal and biomass combustion dramatically declined in core zone, while traffic source showed an increasing trend.
Yue Zhou, Christopher P. West, Anusha P. S. Hettiyadura, Xiaoying Niu, Hui Wen, Jiecan Cui, Tenglong Shi, Wei Pu, Xin Wang, and Alexander Laskin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8531–8555,Short summary
We present a comprehensive characterization of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in seasonal snow of northwestern China. We applied complementary multimodal analytical techniques to investigate bulk and molecular-level composition, optical properties, and sources of WSOC. For the first time, we estimated the extent of radiative forcing due to WSOC in snow using a model simulation and showed the profound influences of WSOC on the energy budget of midlatitude seasonal snowpack.
Quan Liu, Dantong Liu, Yangzhou Wu, Kai Bi, Wenkang Gao, Ping Tian, Delong Zhao, Siyuan Li, Chenjie Yu, Yunfei Wu, Kang Hu, Shuo Ding, Qian Gao, Fei Wang, Hui He, Mengyu Huang, and Deping Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Through simultaneous online measurements of detailed aerosol compositions at both surface and surface-influenced mountain sites, the evolution of aerosol composition during daytime vertical transport was investigated. The results show that from surface to the top of the PBL, the oxidation state of organic aerosol had been significantly enhanced due to evaporation and further oxidation on these evaporated gases.
Bingqing Zhang, Huizhong Shen, Pengfei Liu, Hongyu Guo, Yongtao Hu, Yilin Chen, Shaodong Xie, Ziyan Xi, T. Nash Skipper, and Armistead G. Russell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8341–8356,Short summary
Extended ground-level measurements are coupled with model simulations to comprehensively compare the aerosol acidity in China and the United States. Aerosols in China are significantly less acidic than those in the United States, with pH values 1–2 units higher. Higher aerosol mass concentrations and the abundance of ammonia and ammonium in China, compared to the United States, are leading causes of the pH difference between these two countries.
Marta Via, María Cruz Minguillón, Cristina Reche, Xavier Querol, and Andrés Alastuey
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8323–8339,Short summary
Atmospheric pollutants have been measured in an urban environment by means of state-of-the-art techniques, allowing the origin and the sources of pollution to be identified. Recent years are shown to be increasingly dominated by non-directly emitted particulate matter. Knowledge about the sources of atmospheric pollutants is necessary to design effective mitigation policies.
Dac-Loc Nguyen, Hendryk Czech, Simone M. Pieber, Jürgen Schnelle-Kreis, Martin Steinbacher, Jürgen Orasche, Stephan Henne, Olga B. Popovicheva, Gülcin Abbaszade, Guenter Engling, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Nhat-Anh Nguyen, Xuan-Anh Nguyen, and Ralf Zimmermann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8293–8312,Short summary
Southeast Asia is well-known for emission-intense and recurring wildfires and after-harvest crop residue burning during the pre-monsoon season from February to April. We describe a biomass burning (BB) plume arriving at remote Pha Din meteorological station, outline its carbonaceous particulate matter (PM) constituents based on more than 50 target compounds and discuss possible BB sources. This study adds valuable information on chemical PM composition for a region with scarce data availability.
Amy Hrdina, Jennifer G. Murphy, Anna Gannet Hallar, John C. Lin, Alexander Moravek, Ryan Bares, Ross C. Petersen, Alessandro Franchin, Ann M. Middlebrook, Lexie Goldberger, Ben H. Lee, Munkh Baasandorj, and Steven S. Brown
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8111–8126,Short summary
Wintertime air pollution in the Salt Lake Valley is primarily composed of ammonium nitrate, which is formed when gas-phase ammonia and nitric acid react. The major point in this work is that the chemical composition of snow tells a very different story to what we measured in the atmosphere. With the dust–sea salt cations observed in PM2.5 and particle sizing data, we can estimate how much nitric acid may be lost to dust–sea salt that is not accounted for and how much more PM2.5 this could form.
Vincent Michoud, Elise Hallemans, Laura Chiappini, Eva Leoz-Garziandia, Aurélie Colomb, Sébastien Dusanter, Isabelle Fronval, François Gheusi, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Thierry Léonardis, Nadine Locoge, Nicolas Marchand, Stéphane Sauvage, Jean Sciare, and Jean-François Doussin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8067–8088,Short summary
A multiphasic molecular characterization of oxygenated compounds has been carried out during the ChArMEx field campaign using offline analysis. It leads to the identification of 97 different compounds in the gas and aerosol phases and reveals the important contribution of organic acids to organic aerosol. In addition, comparison between experimental and theoretical partitioning coefficients revealed in most cases a large underestimation by the theory reaching 1 to 7 orders of magnitude.
Maria A. Zawadowicz, Kaitlyn Suski, Jiumeng Liu, Mikhail Pekour, Jerome Fast, Fan Mei, Arthur J. Sedlacek, Stephen Springston, Yang Wang, Rahul A. Zaveri, Robert Wood, Jian Wang, and John E. Shilling
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7983–8002,Short summary
This paper describes the results of a recent field campaign in the eastern North Atlantic, where two mass spectrometers were deployed aboard a research aircraft to measure the chemistry of aerosols and trace gases. Very clean conditions were found, dominated by local sulfate-rich acidic aerosol and very aged organics. Evidence of long-range transport of aerosols from the continents was also identified.
Jean-Philippe Putaud, Luca Pozzoli, Enrico Pisoni, Sebastiao Martins Dos Santos, Friedrich Lagler, Guido Lanzani, Umberto Dal Santo, and Augustin Colette
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7597–7609,Short summary
To determine the impact of the COVID lockdown on air quality in northern Italy, measurements of atmospheric pollutants (NO2, PM10, O3, NO, SO2 ) were compared to the output of a model ignoring the lockdown. We found that NO2 decreased on average by −30 % to −40 %. Unlike NO2, PM10 was not significantly affected due to the compensation of decreased emissions from traffic by increased emissions from domestic heating and/or by changes in atmospheric chemistry enhancing secondary aerosol formation.
Benjamin Chazeau, Brice Temime-Roussel, Grégory Gille, Boualem Mesbah, Barbara D'Anna, Henri Wortham, and Nicolas Marchand
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7293–7319,Short summary
The temporal trends in the chemical composition and particle number of the submicron aerosols in a Mediterranean city, Marseille, are investigated over 14 months. Fifteen days were found to exceed the WHO PM2.5 daily limit (25 µg m−3) only during the cold period, with two distinct origins: local pollution events with an increased fraction of the carbonaceous fraction due to domestic wood burning and long-range pollution events with a high level of oxygenated organic aerosol and ammonium nitrate.
Karl Espen Yttri, Francesco Canonaco, Sabine Eckhardt, Nikolaos Evangeliou, Markus Fiebig, Hans Gundersen, Anne-Gunn Hjellbrekke, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Stephen Matthew Platt, André S. H. Prévôt, David Simpson, Sverre Solberg, Jason Surratt, Kjetil Tørseth, Hilde Uggerud, Marit Vadset, Xin Wan, and Wenche Aas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7149–7170,Short summary
Carbonaceous aerosol sources and trends were studied at the Birkenes Observatory. A large decrease in elemental carbon (EC; 2001–2018) and a smaller decline in levoglucosan (2008–2018) suggest that organic carbon (OC)/EC from traffic/industry is decreasing, whereas the abatement of OC/EC from biomass burning has been less successful. Positive matrix factorization apportioned 72 % of EC to fossil fuel sources and 53 % (PM2.5) and 78 % (PM10–2.5) of OC to biogenic sources.
Xiaojing Shen, Junying Sun, Fangqun Yu, Ying Wang, Junting Zhong, Yangmei Zhang, Xinyao Hu, Can Xia, Sinan Zhang, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7039–7052,Short summary
In this work, we revealed the changes of PNSD and NPF events during the COVID-19 lockdown period in Beijing, China, to illustrate the impact of reduced primary emission and elavated atmospheric oxidized capicity on the nucleation and growth processes. The subsequent growth of nucleated particles and their contribution to the aerosol pollution formation were also explored, to highlight the necessity of controlling the nanoparticles in the future air quality management.
Franziska Köllner, Johannes Schneider, Megan D. Willis, Hannes Schulz, Daniel Kunkel, Heiko Bozem, Peter Hoor, Thomas Klimach, Frank Helleis, Julia Burkart, W. Richard Leaitch, Amir A. Aliabadi, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Andreas B. Herber, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6509–6539,Short summary
We present in situ observations of vertically resolved particle chemical composition in the summertime Arctic lower troposphere. Our analysis demonstrates the strong vertical contrast between particle properties within the boundary layer and aloft. Emissions from vegetation fires and anthropogenic sources in northern Canada, Europe, and East Asia influenced particle composition in the free troposphere. Organics detected in Arctic aerosol particles can partly be identified as dicarboxylic acids.
Sanna Saarikoski, Jarkko V. Niemi, Minna Aurela, Liisa Pirjola, Anu Kousa, Topi Rönkkö, and Hilkka Timonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This study presents the main sources of black carbon (BC) at two urban environments. The largest fraction of BC originated from biomass burning at the residential site (38 %) and from vehicular emissions (57 %) at the street canyon. Also, a significant fraction of BC was associated with urban background or long-range transport. The data are needed by modelers and authorities when assessing climate and air quality impact of BC as well as directing the emission legislation and mitigation actions.
Luis M. F. Barreira, Aku Helin, Minna Aurela, Kimmo Teinilä, Milla Friman, Leena Kangas, Jarkko V. Niemi, Harri Portin, Anu Kousa, Liisa Pirjola, Topi Rönkkö, Sanna Saarikoski, and Hilkka Timonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6297–6314,Short summary
We present results from the long-term measurements (5 years) of highly time-resolved atmospheric PM1 composition at an urban street canyon site. Overall, the results increased knowledge of the variability of PM1 concentration, composition, and sources in a traffic site and the implications for urban air quality. The investigation of pollution episodes showed that both local and long-range-transported pollutants can still cause elevated PM1 and PM2.5 concentrations in northern Europe.
John MacInnis, Jai Prakash Chaubey, Crystal Weagle, David Atkinson, and Rachel Ying-Wen Chang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This study measured particulate matter in the western Canadian Arctic during 2018 as part of the Year of Polar Prediction. It was found that the particles were likely from the ocean, soil, road dust, and combustion. The concentrations of small aerosol particles, which can affect human health, were low, suggesting they had little impact on local air quality. These results can be used to understand future changes in local aerosol particle sources and concentrations.
Genevieve Rose Lorenzo, Paola Angela Bañaga, Maria Obiminda Cambaliza, Melliza Templonuevo Cruz, Mojtaba AzadiAghdam, Avelino Arellano, Grace Betito, Rachel Braun, Andrea F. Corral, Hossein Dadashazar, Eva-Lou Edwards, Edwin Eloranta, Robert Holz, Gabrielle Leung, Lin Ma, Alexander B. MacDonald, Jeffrey S. Reid, James Bernard Simpas, Connor Stahl, Shane Marie Visaga, and Armin Sorooshian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6155–6173,Short summary
Firework emissions change the physicochemical and optical properties of water-soluble particles, which subsequently alters the background aerosol’s respirability, influence on surroundings, ability to uptake gases, and viability as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). There was heavy aerosol loading due to fireworks in the boundary layer. The aerosol constituents were largely water-soluble and submicrometer in size due to both inorganic salts in firework materials and gas-to-particle conversion.
Magdalena Reizer, Giulia Calzolai, Katarzyna Maciejewska, José A. G. Orza, Luca Carraresi, Franco Lucarelli, and Katarzyna Juda-Rezler
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Elemental composition of atmospheric PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 was measured during wintertime with 1-hour resolution by the use of “streaker” sampler for the first time at Central European urban background site. A set of multivariate, wind- and trajectory-based receptor models identified main sources of ambient aerosol. Fine PM fraction was mainly comprised of regionally transported aged secondary sulfate from solid fuel combustion in residential sector, while coarse mode showed traffic-related origin.
Yutong Liang, Coty N. Jen, Robert J. Weber, Pawel K. Misztal, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5719–5737,Short summary
This article reports the molecular composition of smoke particles people in SF Bay Area were exposed to during northern California wildfires in Oct. 2017. Major components are sugars, acids, aromatics, and terpenoids. These observations can be used to better understand health impacts of smoke exposure. Tracer compounds indicate which fuels burned, including diterpenoids for softwood and syringyls for hardwood. A statistical analysis reveals a group of secondary compounds formed in daytime aging.
Anlauf, K., Li, S. M., Leaitch, R., Brook, J., Hayden, K., Toom-Sauntry D., and Wiebe, A.: Ionic composition and size characteristics of particles in the Lower Fraser Valley: Pacific 2001 field study, Atmos. Environ., 40, 2662–2675, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.12.027, 2006.
Barth, M. C., Hegg, D. A., and Hobbs, P. V.: Numerical modeling of cloud and precipitation chemistry associated with two rainbands and some comparisons with observations, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 5825–5845, https://doi.org/10.1029/92JD00464, 1992.
Brioude, J., Arnold, D., Stohl, A., Cassiani, M., Morton, D., Seibert, P., Angevine, W., Evan, S., Dingwell, A., Fast, J. D., Easter, R. C., Pisso, I., Burkhart, J., and Wotawa, G.: The Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART-WRF version 3.1, Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 1889–1904, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-6-1889-2013, 2013.
Burnett, R. T., Pope III, C. A., Ezzati, M., Olives, C., Lim, S. S., Mehta, S., Shin, H. H., Singh, G. S., Hubbell, B., Brauer, M., Anderson, H. R., Smith, K. R., Balmes, J. R., Bruce, N. G., Kan, H. D., Laden, F., Prüss-Ustün, A., Turner, M. C., Gapstur, S. M., Diver, W. R., and Cohen, A.: An integrated risk function for estimating the global burden of disease attributable to ambient fine particulate matter exposure, Environ. Health Persp., 122, 397–403, https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307049, 2014.
Cao, J. J., Lee, S. C., Ho, K. F., Zou, S. C., Fung, K., Li, Y., Watson, J. G., and Chow, J. C.: Spatial and seasonal variations of atmospheric organic carbon and elemental carbon in Pearl River Delta Region, China, Atmos. Environ., 38, 4447–4456, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.05.016, 2004.
Chatterjee, A., Adak, A., Singh, A. K., Srivastava, M. K., Ghosh, S. K., Tiwari, S., Devara, P. C. S., and Raha, S.: Aerosol chemistry over a high altitude station at northeastern Himalayas, India, PLoS ONE, 5, e11122, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011122, 2010.
Chen, H. Z., Wu, D., Liao, B. T., Mao, X., Zhuang, H. B., Li, L., Liu, A. M., Li, H. Y., and Li, F.: Influence of different acidic gases and relative humidity on the chlorine loss of marine aerosols, Acta Scientiae Circustantiae, 33, 1141–1149, 2013b (in Chinese with English Abstract).
Chen, S. Y., Huang, J. P., Zhao, C., Qian, Y., Leung, L. R., and Yang, B.: Modeling the transport and radiative forcing of Taklimakan dust over the Tibetan Plateau: A case study in the summer of 2006, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 797–812, https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrd.50122, 2013a.
Clegg, S.L., Brimblecombe, P., and Wexler, A.S.: Thermodynamic Model of the System H+−NH4+−SO42−−NO3−−H2O at Tropospheric Temperatures, J. Phys. Chem. A, 102, 2137–2154, https://doi.org/10.1021/jp973042r, 1998.
Cohen, J. B.: Quantifying the Occurrence and Magnitude of the Southeast Asian Fire Climatology, Environ. Res. Lett., 9, 114018, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/9/11/114018, 2014.
Cohen, J. B. and Lecoeur, E.: Decadal-scale relationship between measurements of aerosols, land-use change, and fire over Southeast Asia, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 15, 26895–26957, https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-15-26895-2015, 2015.
Cohen, J. B. and Prinn, R. G.: Development of a fast, urban chemistry metamodel for inclusion in global models, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 7629–7656, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-7629-2011, 2011.
Cohen, J. B. and Wang, C.: An Estimate of Global Black Carbon Emissions Using a Top-Down Kalman Filter Approach, J. Geophys. Res., 119, 1–17, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013JD019912, 2013.
Cohen, J. B., Prinn, R.G., and Wang, C.: The Impact of detailed urban-scale processing on the composition, distribution, and radiative forcing of anthropogenic aerosols, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L10808, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL047417, 2011.
Chung S. H. and Seinfeld, J. H.: Climate response of direct radiative forcing of anthropogenic black carbon, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D11102, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JD005441, 2005.
Dasgupta, P. K., Campbell, S. W., Al-Horr, R. S., Ullah, S. M. R., Li, J. Z., Amalfitano, C., and Poor, N. D.: Conversion of sea salt aerosol to NaNO3 and the production of HCl: Analysis of temporal behavior of aerosol chloride/nitrate and gaseous HCl/HNO3concentrations with AIM, Atmos. Environ., 41, 4242–4257, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.09.054, 2007.
Delene, D. J. and Ogren, J. A.: Variability of aerosol optical properties at four North American surface monitoring sites, J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 1135–1150, 2002.
Draxler, R. R. and Hess, G. D.: An overview of the HYSPLIT_4 modeling system of trajectories, dispersion, and deposition, Aust. Meteorol. Mag., 47, 295–308, 1998.
Dubovik, O., Smirnov, A., Holben, B. N., King, M. D., Kaufman, Y. J., Eck, T. F., and Slutsker, I.: Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun and sky radiance measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 9791–9806, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000JD900040, 2000.
Ervens, B., Turpin, B. J., and Weber, R. J.: Secondary organic aerosol formation in cloud droplets and aqueous particles (aqSOA): a review of laboratory, field and model studies, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 11069–11102, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-11069-2011, 2011.
Grell, G. A., Peckham, S. E., Schmitz, R., McKeen, S. A., Frost, G., Skamarock, W. C., and Eder. B.: Fully coupled “online” chemistry in the WRF model, Atmos. Environ., 39, 6957–6976, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.04.027, 2005.
Giglio, L., Kendall, J. D., and Mack, R.: A multi-year active fire data set for the tropics derived from the TRMM VIRS, Int. J. Remote Sens., 24, 4505–4525, https://doi.org/10.1080/0143116031000070283, 2003.
Giglio, L., Csiszar, I., and Justice, C.O.: Global distribution and seasonality of active fires as observed with the Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors, J. Geophys. Res., 111, G02016, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JG000142, 2006.
Han, Y., Han, Z., Cao, J. J., Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., An, Z. S., Liu, S. X., and Zhang, R. J.: Distribution and origin of carbonaceous aerosol over a rural high-mountain lake area, Northern China and its transport significance, Atmos. Environ., 42, 2405–2414, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.12.020, 2008.
Harrison, R. M. and Pio, C. A.: Size differentiated composition of inorganic atmospheric aerosols of both marine and polluted continental origin, Atmos. Environ., 17, 1733–1738, https://doi.org/10.1016/0004-6981(83)90180-4, 1983.
Heald, C. L. and Spracklen, D. V.: Atmospheric budget of primary biological aerosol particles from fungal spores, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L09806, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL037493, 2009.
Huang, J. P., Wang, T. H., Wang, W. C., Li, Z. Q., and Yan, H. R.: Climate effects of dust aerosols over East Asian arid and semiarid regions, J. Geophys. Res., 119, 11398–11416, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JD021796, 2014.
Huang, X. F., Yu, J. Z., He, L. Y., and Hu, M.,: Size distribution characteristics of elemental carbon emitted from Chinese vehicles: results of a tunnel study and atmospheric implications, Environ. Sci. Technol., 44, 5355–5360, https://doi.org/10.1021/es0607281, 2006.
Huang, Z. E., Harrision, R. M., Allen, A. G., James, J. D., Tilling, R. M., and Yin, J. X.: Field intercomparison of filter pack and impactor sampling for aerosol nitrate, ammonium, and sulphate at coastal and inland sites, Atmos. Res., 71, 215–232, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2004.05.002, 2004.
Hsu, S. C., Liu, S. C., Kao, S. J., Jeng, W. L., Huang, Y. T., Tseng, C. M., Tsai, F. J., Tu, J. Y., and Yang, Y.: Water-soluble species in the marine aerosol from the northern South China Sea: High chloride depletion related to air pollution, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D19304, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JD008844,2007.
Jacobson, M. Z.: Global direct radiative forcing due to multicomponent anthropogenic and natural aerosols, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 1551–156, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000JD900514, 2001.
Kim, S.-W., Berthier, S., Raut, J.-C., Chazette, P., Dulac, F., and Yoon, S.-C.: Validation of aerosol and cloud layer structures from the space-borne lidar CALIOP using a ground-based lidar in Seoul, Korea, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 3705–3720, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-8-3705-2008, 2008.
Lan, Z. J., Chen, D. L., Li, X., Huang, X. F., He, L. Y., Deng, Y. G., Feng, N., and Hu, M.: Modal characteristics of carbonaceous aerosol size distribution in an urban atmosphere of South China, Atmos. Res., 100, 51–60, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2010.12.022, 2011.
Levy, R., Remer, L., and Dubovik, O.: Global aerosol optical properties and application to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer aerosol retrieval over land, J. Geophys. Res., 112, 1–15, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JD007815, 2007.
Levy, R. C., Remer, L. A., Kleidman, R. G., Mattoo, S., Ichoku, C., Kahn, R., and Eck, T. F.: Global evaluation of the Collection 5 MODIS dark-target aerosol products over land, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 10399–10420, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-10399-2010, 2010.
Lim, Y. B., Tan, Y., Perri, M. J., Seitzinger, S. P., and Turpin, B. J.: Aqueous chemistry and its role in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 10521–10539, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-10521-2010, 2010.
Liu, S., Hu, M., Slanina, S., He, L. Y., Niu, Y. W., Bruegemann, E., Gnauk, T., and Herrmann, H.: Size distribution and source analysis of ionic compositions of aerosols in polluted periods at Xinken in Pearl River Delta (PRD) of China, Atmos. Environ., 42, 6284–6295, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.12.035, 2008.
Liu, Y., Huang, J., Shi, G., Takamura, T., Khatri, P., Bi, J., Shi, J., Wang, T., Wang, X., and Zhang, B.: Aerosol optical properties and radiative effect determined from sky-radiometer over Loess Plateau of Northwest China, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 11455–11463, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-11455-2011, 2011.
Lu, Q., Zheng, J. Y., Ye, S. Q., Shen, X. L., Yuan, Z. B., and Yin, S. S.: Emission trends and source characteristics of SO2, NOx, PM10 and VOCs in the Pearl River Delta region from 2000 to 2009, Atmos. Environ., 76, 11–20, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.10.062, 2013.
Meng, Z. and Seinfeld, J. H.: On the source of the submicrometer droplet mode of urban and regional aerosols, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 20, 253–265, https://doi.org/10.1080/02786829408959681, 1994.
Myhre, G., Samset, B. H., Schulz, M., Balkanski, Y., Bauer, S., Berntsen, T. K., Bian, H., Bellouin, N., Chin, M., Diehl, T., Easter, R. C., Feichter, J., Ghan, S. J., Hauglustaine, D., Iversen, T., Kinne, S., Kirkevåg, A., Lamarque, J.-F., Lin, G., Liu, X., Lund, M. T., Luo, G., Ma, X., van Noije, T., Penner, J. E., Rasch, P. J., Ruiz, A., Seland, Ø., Skeie, R. B., Stier, P., Takemura, T., Tsigaridis, K., Wang, P., Wang, Z., Xu, L., Yu, H., Yu, F., Yoon, J.-H., Zhang, K., Zhang, H., and Zhou, C.: Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect from AeroCom Phase II simulations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1853–1877, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-1853-2013, 2013.
Morisette, J. T., Giglio, L., Csiszar, I., and Justice, C. O.: Validation of the MODIS active fire product over Southern Africa with ASTER data, Int. J. Remote Sens., 26, 4239–4264, https://doi.org/10.1080/01431160500113526, 2005a.
Morisette, J. T., Giglio, L., Csiszar, I., Setzer, A., Schroeder, W., Morton, D., and Justice, C. O.: Validation of MODIS active fire dectection productes derived from two algorithms, Earth Interact., 9, 1–23, https://doi.org/10.1175/EI141.1, 2005b.
Petrenko, M., Kahn, R., Chin, M., Soja, A., Kucsera, T., and Harshvardhan, T. K.: The use of satellite-measured aerosol optical depth to constrain biomass burning emissions source strength in the global model GOCART, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D18212, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012JD017870, 2012.
Pierson, W. R. and Brachaczek, W. W.: Coarse and fine particle atmospheric nitrate and HNO3(g) in Claremont, California, during the 1985 nitrogen species methods comparison study, Atmos. Environ., 22, 1665–1668, https://doi.org/10.1016/0004-6981(88)90394-0, 1998.
Pillai, P. S. and Moorthy, K. K.: Aerosol mass-size distributions at a tropical suburban environment: response to mesoscale and synoptic processes, Atmos. Environ., 35, 4099–4112, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(01)00211-4, 2001.
Pio, C., Legrand, M., Oliveira, T., Afonso, J., Santos, C., Caseiro, A., Fialho, P., Barata, F., Puxbaum, H., Sanchez-Ochoa, A., Kasper-Giebl, A., Gelencsér, A., Preunkert, S., and Schock, M.: Climatology of aerosol composition (organic versus inorganic) at nonurban sites on a west–east transect across Europe, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 112, D23S02, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JD008038, 2007.
Ramanathan, V. and Garmichael, G.: Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon, Nat. Geosci., 1, 221–227, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo156, 2008.
Remer, L., Kaufman, Y., Tanre, D., Mattoo, S., Chu, D. A., Martins, J. V., Li, R. R., Ichoku, C., Levy, R. C., Kleidman, R. G., Eck, T. F, Vermote, E., and Holben, B. N.: The MODIS Aerosol Algorithms, Products, and Validation, J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 947–973, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS3385.1, 2005.
Remer, L. A., Mattoo, S., Levy, R. C., and Munchak, L. A.: MODIS 3 km aerosol product: algorithm and global perspective, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1829–1844, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-6-1829-2013, 2013.
Rosenfeld, D., Sherwood, S., Wood, R., and Donner, L.: Climate effects of aerosol- cloud interactions, Science, 343, 379–380, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1247490, 2014.
Schuster, G. L., Dubovik, O., and Holben, B. N.: Angstrom exponent and bimodal aerosol size distributions, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D07207, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD006328, 2006.
Seinfeld, J. and Pandis, S.: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2006.
Situ, S., Guenther, A., Wang, X., Jiang, X., Turnipseed, A., Wu, Z., Bai, J., and Wang, X.: Impacts of seasonal and regional variability in biogenic VOC emissions on surface ozone in the Pearl River delta region, China, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11803–11817, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-11803-2013, 2013.
Skamarock, W. C., Klemp, J. B., Dudhia, J., Gill, D. O., Barker, D. M., Duda, M. G., Huang, X. Y., Wang, W., and Powers, J. G.: A Description of the Advanced Research WRF Version 3, NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-475+STR, 113, https://doi.org/10.5065/D68S4MVH, 2008.
Stelson, A. W. and Seinfeld, J. H.: Relative humidity and temperature dependence of the ammonium nitrate dissociation constant, Atmos. Environ., 16, 983–992, https://doi.org/10.1016/0004-6981(82)90184-6, 1982.
Stohl, A., Hittenberer, M., and Wotawa, G.: Validation of the Lagrangian particle dispersion model Flexpart against large-scale tracer experiment data, Atmos. Environ., 32, 4245–4264, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(98)00184-8, 1998.
Tao, J., Ho, K. F., Chen, L. G., Zhu, L. H., Han, J. L., and Xu, Z. C.: Effect of chemical composition of PM2.5 on visibility in Guangzhou, China, 2007 Spring, Particulogy, 7, 68–75, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.partic.2008.11.002, 2009.
Tsigaridis, K., Daskalakis, N., Kanakidou, M., Adams, P. J., Artaxo, P., Bahadur, R., Balkanski, Y., Bauer, S. E., Bellouin, N., Benedetti, A., Bergman, T., Berntsen, T. K., Beukes, J. P., Bian, H., Carslaw, K. S., Chin, M., Curci, G., Diehl, T., Easter, R. C., Ghan, S. J., Gong, S. L., Hodzic, A., Hoyle, C. R., Iversen, T., Jathar, S., Jimenez, J. L., Kaiser, J. W., Kirkevåg, A., Koch, D., Kokkola, H., Lee, Y. H., Lin, G., Liu, X., Luo, G., Ma, X., Mann, G. W., Mihalopoulos, N., Morcrette, J.-J., Müller, J.-F., Myhre, G., Myriokefalitakis, S., Ng, N. L., O'Donnell, D., Penner, J. E., Pozzoli, L., Pringle, K. J., Russell, L. M., Schulz, M., Sciare, J., Seland, Ø., Shindell, D. T., Sillman, S., Skeie, R. B., Spracklen, D., Stavrakou, T., Steenrod, S. D., Takemura, T., Tiitta, P., Tilmes, S., Tost, H., van Noije, T., van Zyl, P. G., von Salzen, K., Yu, F., Wang, Z., Wang, Z., Zaveri, R. A., Zhang, H., Zhang, K., Zhang, Q., and Zhang, X.: The AeroCom evaluation and intercomparison of organic aerosol in global models, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10845–10895, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-10845-2014, 2014.
Volkamer, R., Ziemann, P. J., and Molina, M. J.: Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Acetylene (C2H2): seed effect on SOA yields due to organic photochemistry in the aerosol aqueous phase, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 1907–1928, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-1907-2009, 2009.
Wang, Y., Zhuang, G. S., Tang, A. H., Yuan, H., Sun, Y. L., Chen, S., and Zheng, A. H.: The ion chemistry and the source of PM2.5 aerosol in Beijing, Atmos. Enviorn., 39, 3771–3784, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.03.013, 2005.
Wang, Z., Wang, T., Gao, R., Xue, L. K., Guo, J., Zhou, Y., Nie, W., Wang, X. F., Xu, P. J., Gao, J., Zhou, X. H., Wang, W. X., and Zhang, Q. Z.: Source and variation of carbonaceous aerosols at Mount Tai, North China: results from a semi-continuous instrument, Atmos. Environ., 45, 1655–1667, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.01.006, 2011.
Wang, X. F., Wang, W. X., Yang, L. X., Gao, X. M., Nie, W., Yu, Y. C., Xu, P. J., Zhou, Y., and Wang, Z.: The secondary formation of inorganic aerosols in the droplet mode through heterogeneous aqueous reactions under haze conditions, Atmos. Environ., 63, 68–76, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.09.029, 2012.
Yang, X. and Wenig, M.: Study of columnar aerosol size distribution in Hong Kong, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 6175–6189, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-6175-2009, 2009.
Yao, X. H., Lau, A. P. S., Fang, M., Chan, C. K., and Hu, M.: Size distributions and formation of ionic species in atmospheric particulate pollutants in Beijing, China: 2–dicarboxylic acids, Atmos. Environ., 37, 3001–3007, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(03)00256-5, 2003a.
Yao, X. H., Ling, T. Y., Fang, M., and Chan, C. K.: Comparison of thermodynamic predictions for in situ pH in PM2.5, Atmos. Environ., 40, 2835–2844, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.01.006, 2006.
Yu, C., Chen, L. F., Li, S. S., Tao, J. H., and Su, L.: Estimating Biomass Burned Areas from Multispectral Dataset Detected by Multiple-Satellite, Spectrosc. Spect. Anal., 35, 739–745, https://doi.org/10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2015)03-0739-07, 2015.
Zhang, Z. S., Engling, G., Chan, C. Y., Yang, Y. H., Lin, M., Shi, S., He, J., Li, Y. D., and Wang, X. M.: Determination of isoprene-derived secondary organic aerosol tracers (2-methyltetrols) by HPAEC-PAD: Results from size-resolved aerosols in a tropical rainforest, Atmos. Environ., 70, 468–476, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.01.020, 2013a.
Zhang, Q., Tie, X. X., Lin, W. L., Cao, J. J., Quan, J. N., Ran, L., and Xu, W. Y.: Variability of SO2 in an intensive fog in North China Plain: Evidence of high solubility SO2, Particuology, 11, 41–47, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.partic.2012.09.005, 2013b.
Zhang, Z. S., Engling, G., Zhang, L. M., Kawamura, K., Yang, Y. H., Tao, J., Zhang, R. J., Chan, C. Y., and Li, Y. D.: Significant influence of fungi on coarse carbonaceous and potassium aerosols in a tropical rainforest, Environ. Res. Lett., 10, 034015, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/10/3/034015, 2015.
Zhao, Y. L. and Gao, Y.: Mass size distributions of water-soluble inorganic and organic ions in size-segregated aerosols over metropolitan Newark in the US east coast, Atmos. Environ., 42, 4063–4078, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.01.032, 2008a.
Zhao, Y. L. and Gao, Y.: Acidic species and chloride depletion in coarse aerosol particles in the US east coast, Sci. Total Environ., 407, 541–547, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.09.002, 2008b.
Zheng, J. Y., Zhang, L. J., Che, W. W., Zheng, Z. Y., and Yin, S. S.: A highly resolved temporal and spatial air pollutant emission inventory for the Pearl River Delta region, China and its uncertainty assessment, Atmos. Environ., 43, 5112–5122, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.04.060, 2009.
Zheng, J. Y., He, M., Shen, X. L., Yin, S. S., and Yuan, Z. B.: High resolution of black carbon and organic carbon emissions in the Pearl River Delta region, China, Sci. Total Environ.t, 438, 189–200, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.08.068, 2012.
Zhou, S. Z., Davy, P. K., Wang, X. M., Cohen, J. B., Liang, J. Q., Huang, M.J ., Fan, Q., Chen, W. H. Chang, M., Ancelet, T., and Trompetter, W. J.: High time-resolved elemental components infine and coarse particles in the Pearl River Delta region of Southern China: Dynamic variations and effects of meteorology, Sci. Total Environ., in press, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.05.194, 2016.
Zhou, Y., Xue, L. K., Wang, T., Gao, X. M., Wang, Z., Wang, X. F., Zhang, J. M., Zhang, Q. Z., and Wang, W. X.: Characterization of aerosol acidity at a high mountain site in central eastern China, Atmos. Environ., 51, 11–20, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.01.061, 2012.
Zhuang, H., Chan, C. K., Fang, M., and Wexler, A. S.: Size distributions of particulate sulfate, nitrate and ammonium at a suburban site in Hong Kong, Atmos. Environ.,33, 843–853, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(98)00305-7, 1999.
Measurements of size-resolved aerosols (0.25–18 μm) were conducted at three sites (urban, suburban and background sites) in southern China during monsoon season (May–June) in 2010 aqueous-phase reaction was the main formation pathway of droplet mode sulfate. New particle formation, chemical aging, and long-range transport from upwind urban or biomass burning regions were also found to be important in at least some of the sights on some of the sampling days.
Measurements of size-resolved aerosols (0.25–18 μm) were conducted at three sites (urban,...