Articles | Volume 16, issue 17
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10899–10910, 2016
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10899–10910, 2016
Research article
01 Sep 2016
Research article | 01 Sep 2016

A comprehensive estimate for loss of atmospheric carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) to the ocean

James H. Butler et al.

Related authors

Model sensitivity studies of the decrease in atmospheric carbon tetrachloride
Martyn P. Chipperfield, Qing Liang, Matthew Rigby, Ryan Hossaini, Stephen A. Montzka, Sandip Dhomse, Wuhu Feng, Ronald G. Prinn, Ray F. Weiss, Christina M. Harth, Peter K. Salameh, Jens Mühle, Simon O'Doherty, Dickon Young, Peter G. Simmonds, Paul B. Krummel, Paul J. Fraser, L. Paul Steele, James D. Happell, Robert C. Rhew, James Butler, Shari A. Yvon-Lewis, Bradley Hall, David Nance, Fred Moore, Ben R. Miller, James W. Elkins, Jeremy J. Harrison, Chris D. Boone, Elliot L. Atlas, and Emmanuel Mahieu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15741–15754,,, 2016
Short summary
Current systematic carbon-cycle observations and the need for implementing a policy-relevant carbon observing system
P. Ciais, A. J. Dolman, A. Bombelli, R. Duren, A. Peregon, P. J. Rayner, C. Miller, N. Gobron, G. Kinderman, G. Marland, N. Gruber, F. Chevallier, R. J. Andres, G. Balsamo, L. Bopp, F.-M. Bréon, G. Broquet, R. Dargaville, T. J. Battin, A. Borges, H. Bovensmann, M. Buchwitz, J. Butler, J. G. Canadell, R. B. Cook, R. DeFries, R. Engelen, K. R. Gurney, C. Heinze, M. Heimann, A. Held, M. Henry, B. Law, S. Luyssaert, J. Miller, T. Moriyama, C. Moulin, R. B. Myneni, C. Nussli, M. Obersteiner, D. Ojima, Y. Pan, J.-D. Paris, S. L. Piao, B. Poulter, S. Plummer, S. Quegan, P. Raymond, M. Reichstein, L. Rivier, C. Sabine, D. Schimel, O. Tarasova, R. Valentini, R. Wang, G. van der Werf, D. Wickland, M. Williams, and C. Zehner
Biogeosciences, 11, 3547–3602,,, 2014
Global sea-to-air flux climatology for bromoform, dibromomethane and methyl iodide
F. Ziska, B. Quack, K. Abrahamsson, S. D. Archer, E. Atlas, T. Bell, J. H. Butler, L. J. Carpenter, C. E. Jones, N. R. P. Harris, H. Hepach, K. G. Heumann, C. Hughes, J. Kuss, K. Krüger, P. Liss, R. M. Moore, A. Orlikowska, S. Raimund, C. E. Reeves, W. Reifenhäuser, A. D. Robinson, C. Schall, T. Tanhua, S. Tegtmeier, S. Turner, L. Wang, D. Wallace, J. Williams, H. Yamamoto, S. Yvon-Lewis, and Y. Yokouchi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8915–8934,,, 2013

Related subject area

Subject: Gases | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)
Measurement report: Variations in surface SO2 and NOx mixing ratios from 2004 to 2016 at a background site in the North China Plain
Xueli Liu, Liang Ran, Weili Lin, Xiaobin Xu, Zhiqiang Ma, Fan Dong, Di He, Liyan Zhou, Qingfeng Shi, and Yao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7071–7085,,, 2022
Short summary
Fate of the nitrate radical at the summit of a semi-rural mountain site in Germany assessed with direct reactivity measurements
Patrick Dewald, Clara M. Nussbaumer, Jan Schuladen, Akima Ringsdorf, Achim Edtbauer, Horst Fischer, Jonathan Williams, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7051–7069,,, 2022
Short summary
Spatiotemporal variations of the δ(O2 ∕ N2), CO2 and δ(APO) in the troposphere over the western North Pacific
Shigeyuki Ishidoya, Kazuhiro Tsuboi, Yosuke Niwa, Hidekazu Matsueda, Shohei Murayama, Kentaro Ishijima, and Kazuyuki Saito
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6953–6970,,, 2022
Short summary
OH and HO2 radical chemistry at a suburban site during the EXPLORE-YRD campaign in 2018
Xuefei Ma, Zhaofeng Tan, Keding Lu, Xinping Yang, Xiaorui Chen, Haichao Wang, Shiyi Chen, Xin Fang, Shule Li, Xin Li, Jingwei Liu, Ying Liu, Shengrong Lou, Wanyi Qiu, Hongli Wang, Limin Zeng, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7005–7028,,, 2022
Short summary
Towards reconstructing the Arctic atmospheric methane history over the 20th century: measurement and modelling results for the North Greenland Ice Core Project firn
Taku Umezawa, Satoshi Sugawara, Kenji Kawamura, Ikumi Oyabu, Stephen J. Andrews, Takuya Saito, Shuji Aoki, and Takakiyo Nakazawa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6899–6917,,, 2022
Short summary

Cited articles

Bowyer, P. and Woolf, D.: Gas exchange and bubble-induced supersaturation in a wind-wave tank, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 21, 1925–1935, 2004.
Broecker, W. S., Peng T.-H., Ostlund, G., and Stuiver, M.: The distribution of bomb radiocarbon in the ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 90, 6953–6970, 1985.
Bullister, J. L. and Lee, B.-S.: Chlorofluorocarbon-11 removal in anoxic marine waters, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 1893–1896,, 1995.
Bullister, J. L. and Weiss, R. F.: Determination of CCl3F and CCl2F2 in seawater and air, Deep Sea Res., 35, 839–854,, 1988.
Bullister, J. L. and Wisegarver, D. P.: The solubility of carbon tetrachloride in water and seawater, Deep Sea Res. Pt. I, 45, 1285–1302,, 1998.
Short summary
This study was conducted to understand the influence of the ocean on the lifetime of atmospheric carbon tetrachloride, a strong, ozone-depleting gas. Data from 16 research cruises conducted between 1987 and 2010 show that, unlike the unreactive chlorofluorocarbons, carbon tetrachloride is undersaturated in surface waters regardless of temperature, wind, or biological regime, but with larger undersaturations with upwelling. Results suggest that the ocean consumes about 18 % of atmospheric CCl4.
Final-revised paper