Articles | Volume 12, issue 8
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 3783–3790, 2012
© Author(s) 2012. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Special issue: Atmospheric impacts of Eastern Asia megacities
Research article 25 Apr 2012
Research article | 25 Apr 2012
Impact of aerosol composition on cloud condensation nuclei activity
Q. Zhang et al.
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Laboratory Studies | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Effects of liquid–liquid phase separation and relative humidity on the heterogeneous OH oxidation of inorganic–organic aerosols: insights from methylglutaric acid and ammonium sulfate particlesMeasurement report: Sulfuric acid nucleation and experimental conditions in a photolytic flow reactorOzonolysis of fatty acid monolayers at the air–water interface: organic films may persist at the surface of atmospheric aerosolsQuantification of the role of stabilized Criegee intermediates in the formation of aerosols in limonene ozonolysisPhotochemical degradation of iron(III) citrate/citric acid aerosol quantified with the combination of three complementary experimental techniques and a kinetic process modelThe production and hydrolysis of organic nitrates from OH radical oxidation of β-ocimeneEmission factors for PM10 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from illegal burning of different types of municipal waste in householdsKinetic modeling of formation and evaporation of secondary organic aerosol from NO3 oxidation of pure and mixed monoterpenesDirect contribution of ammonia to α-pinene secondary organic aerosol formationHygroscopic behavior of aerosols generated from solutions of 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid, its sodium salts, and its mixtures with NaClChemical composition, structures, and light absorption of N-containing aromatic compounds emitted from burning wood and charcoal in household cookstovesChemical composition and light absorption of carbonaceous aerosols emitted from crop residue burning: influence of combustion efficiencyOn mineral dust aerosol hygroscopicityMeasurement report: Distinct Emissions and Volatility Distribution of Intermediate Volatility Organic Compounds from on-road Chinese Gasoline Vehicle: Implication of High Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation PotentialDistinct chemical and mineralogical composition of Icelandic dust compared to northern African and Asian dustSecondary organic aerosol yields from the oxidation of benzyl alcoholThe Aarhus Chamber Campaign on Highly Oxygenated Organic Molecules and Aerosols (ACCHA): particle formation, organic acids, and dimer esters from α-pinene ozonolysis at different temperaturesMolecular understanding of the suppression of new-particle formation by isopreneCharacterization of secondary organic aerosol from heated cooking oil emissions: evolution in composition and volatilityComplex plant-derived organic aerosol as ice-nucleating particles – more than the sums of their parts?Liquid–liquid phase separation and morphologies in organic particles consisting of α-pinene and β-caryophyllene ozonolysis products and mixtures with commercially available organic compoundsCharacterization of primary and aged wood burning and coal combustion organic aerosols in environmental chamber and its implications for atmospheric aerosolsOligomer and highly oxygenated organic molecule formation from oxidation of oxygenated monoterpenes emitted by California sage plantsTechnical note: Emission factors, chemical composition and morphology of particles emitted from Euro 5 diesel and gasoline light duty vehicles during transient cyclesLaboratory studies of fresh and aged biomass burning aerosol emitted from east African biomass fuels – Part 2: Chemical properties and characterizationImpact of NOx on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from α-pinene and β-pinene photooxidation: the role of highly oxygenated organic nitratesEmissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds from domestic fuels used in Delhi, IndiaEvaluation of the chemical composition of gas- and particle-phase products of aromatic oxidationGlyoxal's impact on dry ammonium salts: fast and reversible surface aerosol browningOxygenated products formed from OH-initiated reactions of trimethylbenzene: autoxidation and accretionBiomass-burning-derived particles from a wide variety of fuels – Part 2: Effects of photochemical aging on particle optical and chemical propertiesMeasured solid state and subcooled liquid vapour pressures of nitroaromatics using Knudsen effusion mass spectrometryPolar semivolatile organic compounds in biomass-burning emissions and their chemical transformations during aging in an oxidation flow reactorTemperature effects on optical properties and chemical composition of secondary organic aerosol derived from n-dodecaneAn investigation on hygroscopic properties of 15 black carbon (BC)-containing particles from different carbon sources: roles of organic and inorganic componentsDeconvolution of FIGAERO–CIMS thermal desorption profiles using positive matrix factorisation to identify chemical and physical processes during particle evaporationMineralogy and geochemistry of Asian dust: dependence on migration path, fractionation, and reactions with polluted airPhotochemical transformation of residential wood combustion emissions: dependence of organic aerosol composition on OH exposureSeawater analysis by ambient mass-spectrometry-based seaomicsMolecular composition and photochemical evolution of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) extracted from field biomass burning aerosols using high-resolution mass spectrometryHeterogeneous oxidation of amorphous organic aerosol surrogates by O3, NO3, and OH at typical tropospheric temperaturesHigh levels of primary biogenic organic aerosols are driven by only a few plant-associated microbial taxaFormation of highly oxygenated organic molecules from chlorine-atom-initiated oxidation of alpha-pinenePre-deliquescent water uptake in deposited nanoparticles observed with in situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopyThe evolutionary behavior of chromophoric brown carbon during ozone aging of fine particles from biomass burningTechnical note: Preparation and purification of atmospherically relevant α-hydroxynitrate esters of monoterpenesEffect of inorganic-to-organic mass ratio on the heterogeneous OH reaction rates of erythritol: implications for atmospheric chemical stability of 2-methyltetrolsAmbient air quality in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, during the pre-monsoon: concentrations and sources of particulate matter and trace gasesMorphology and size of the particles emitted from a gasoline-direct-injection-engine vehicle and their ageing in an environmental chamberA robust clustering algorithm for analysis of composition-dependent organic aerosol thermal desorption measurements
Hoi Ki Lam, Rongshuang Xu, Jack Choczynski, James F. Davies, Dongwan Ham, Mijung Song, Andreas Zuend, Wentao Li, Ying-Lung Steve Tse, and Man Nin Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2053–2066,Short summary
This work demonstrates that organic compounds present at or near the surface of aerosols can be subjected to oxidation initiated by gas-phase oxidants, such as hydroxyl radicals (OH). The heterogeneous reactivity is sensitive to their surface concentrations, which are determined by the phase separation behavior. This results of this work emphasize the effects of phase separation and potentially distinct aerosol morphologies on the chemical transformation of atmospheric aerosols.
David R. Hanson, Seakh Menheer, Michael Wentzel, and Joan Kunz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1987–2001,Short summary
We report experimental measurements of particle formation in a flow reactor that extend the results from this experiment to a total of more than 270 runs over a time period of ~3 years. This has allowed us to detect a general increase in the cleanliness of the system and improve our knowledge of its chemistry. In-house simulations allowed us to construct phenomenological free energies of molecular clusters of sulfuric acid and ammonia that are appropriate for application to the atmosphere.
Benjamin Woden, Maximilian W. A. Skoda, Adam Milsom, Curtis Gubb, Armando Maestro, James Tellam, and Christian Pfrang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1325–1340,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols contain a large amount of organic compounds, whose oxidation affects their physical properties through a process known as ageing. We have simulated atmospheric ageing experimentally to elucidate the nature and behaviour of residual surface films. Our results show an increasing amount of residue at near-zero temperatures, demonstrating that an inert product film may build up during droplet ageing, even if only ordinarily short-lived reactive species are initially emitted.
Yiwei Gong and Zhongming Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 813–829,Short summary
Stabilized Criegee intermediates (SCIs) are important factors in estimating aerosol formation in the atmosphere. Here the results show that SCIs account for more than 60 % of aerosol formation in limonene ozonolysis and water is an uncertainty in SCI performances. The aerosol formation potential of SCIs under high-humidity conditions is double that under dry and low-humidity conditions, suggesting SCI reactions are still important in contributing to aerosols at high relative humidity.
Jing Dou, Peter A. Alpert, Pablo Corral Arroyo, Beiping Luo, Frederic Schneider, Jacinta Xto, Thomas Huthwelker, Camelia N. Borca, Katja D. Henzler, Jörg Raabe, Benjamin Watts, Hartmut Herrmann, Thomas Peter, Markus Ammann, and Ulrich K. Krieger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 315–338,Short summary
Photochemistry of iron(III) complexes plays an important role in aerosol aging, especially in the lower troposphere. Ensuing radical chemistry leads to decarboxylation, and the production of peroxides, and oxygenated volatile compounds, resulting in particle mass loss due to release of the volatile products to the gas phase. We investigated kinetic transport limitations due to high particle viscosity under low relative humidity conditions. For quantification a numerical model was developed.
Ana C. Morales, Thilina Jayarathne, Jonathan H. Slade, Alexander Laskin, and Paul B. Shepson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 129–145,Short summary
Organic nitrates formed from the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds impact both ozone and particulate matter as they remove nitrogen oxides, but they represent important aerosol precursors. We conducted a series of reaction chamber experiments that quantified the total organic nitrate and secondary organic aerosol yield from the OH-radical-initiated oxidation of ocimene, and also measured their hydrolysis lifetimes in the aqueous phase, as a function of pH.
András Hoffer, Beatrix Jancsek-Turóczi, Ádám Tóth, Gyula Kiss, Anca Naghiu, Erika Andrea Levei, Luminita Marmureanu, Attila Machon, and András Gelencsér
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 16135–16144,Short summary
Emission factors for PM10 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are reported for the first time ever for the indoor combustion of 12 common types of municipal solid waste that are frequently burned in households worldwide. We have found that waste burning emits up to 40 times more PM10 and 800 times more PAHs than the combustion of dry firewood. Our finding highlights the need for coordinated actions against illegal waste combustion and the extreme health hazard associated with it.
Thomas Berkemeier, Masayuki Takeuchi, Gamze Eris, and Nga L. Ng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15513–15535,Short summary
This paper presents how environmental chamber data of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation can be interpreted using kinetic modeling techniques. Utilizing pure and mixed precursor experiments, we show that SOA formation and evaporation can be understood by explicitly treating gas-phase chemistry, gas–particle partitioning, and, notably, particle-phase oligomerization, but some of the non-linear, non-equilibrium effects must be accredited to diffusion limitations in the particle phase.
Liqing Hao, Eetu Kari, Ari Leskinen, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Annele Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14393–14405,Short summary
Our work presents the observational results of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in the presence of ammonia. The particle-phase ammonium was continuously produced even after SOA formation had ceased. The gas-phase organic acids were observed to contribute to the formed particle-phase ammonium salts. This study suggests that the presence of ammonia may change the mass and chemical composition of large-size SOA particles and can potentially alter the aerosol impact on climate change.
Li Wu, Clara Becote, Sophie Sobanska, Pierre-Marie Flaud, Emilie Perraudin, Eric Villenave, Young-Chul Song, and Chul-Un Ro
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14103–14122,Short summary
MBTCA (3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid), a second-generation product of monoterpenes, is one of the most relevant tracer compounds for biogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). Laboratory-generated, micrometer-sized, pure-MBTCA, mono-/di-/trisodium MBTCA salts and MBTCA–NaCl mixture aerosol particles were examined systematically to observe their hygroscopic behavior, and it was also observed that the monosodium MBTCA salt aerosols were formed through a reaction between MBTCA and NaCl.
Mingjie Xie, Zhenzhen Zhao, Amara L. Holder, Michael D. Hays, Xi Chen, Guofeng Shen, James J. Jetter, Wyatt M. Champion, and Qin'geng Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14077–14090,Short summary
This study investigated the composition, structures, and light absorption of N-containing aromatic compounds (NACs) in PM2.5 emitted from burning red oak and charcoal in a variety of cookstoves. The results suggest that the identified NACs might have substantial fractions remaining in the gas phase. In comparison to other sources, cookstove emissions from red oak or charcoal fuels did not exhibit unique NAC structural features but had distinct NAC composition.
Yujue Wang, Min Hu, Nan Xu, Yanhong Qin, Zhijun Wu, Liwu Zeng, Xiaofeng Huang, and Lingyan He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13721–13734,Short summary
Field straw residue burning is a widespread type of biomass burning in Asia, while its emissions are poorly understood. In this study, we designed lab-controlled experiments to comprehensively investigate the emission factors, chemical compositions and light absorption properties of both water-soluble and water-insoluble carbonaceous aerosols emitted from straw burning. The results clearly highlight the significant influences of burning conditions and combustion efficiency on the emissions.
Lanxiadi Chen, Chao Peng, Wenjun Gu, Hanjing Fu, Xing Jian, Huanhuan Zhang, Guohua Zhang, Jianxi Zhu, Xinming Wang, and Mingjin Tang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13611–13626,Short summary
We investigated hygroscopic properties of a number of mineral dust particles in a quantitative manner, via measuring the sample mass at different relative humidities. The robust and comprehensive data obtained would significantly improve our knowledge of hygroscopicity of mineral dust and its impacts on atmospheric chemistry and climate.
Rongzhi Tang, Quanyang Lu, Song Guo, Hui Wang, Kai Song, Ying Yu, Rui Tan, Kefan Liu, Ruizhe Shen, Shiyi Chen, Limin Zeng, Spiro D. Jorga, Zhou Zhang, Wenbin Zhang, Shijin Shuai, and Allen L. Robinson
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We performed chassis dynamometer experiments to investigate the emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation potential of intermediate volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) from an on-road Chinese gasoline vehicle. High IVOCs emission factors (EFs) and distinct volatility distribution were recognized.Our results indicate that vehicular IVOCs contribute significantly to SOA, implying the importance of reducing IVOCs when making air pollution controlling policies in urban area of China.
Clarissa Baldo, Paola Formenti, Sophie Nowak, Servanne Chevaillier, Mathieu Cazaunau, Edouard Pangui, Claudia Di Biagio, Jean-Francois Doussin, Konstantin Ignatyev, Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Olafur Arnalds, A. Robert MacKenzie, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13521–13539,Short summary
We showed that Icelandic dust has a fundamentally different chemical and mineralogical composition from low-latitude dust. In particular, magnetite is as high as 1 %–2 % of the total dust mass. Our results suggest that Icelandic dust may have an important impact on the radiation balance in the subpolar and polar regions.
Sophia M. Charan, Reina S. Buenconsejo, and John H. Seinfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13167–13190,Short summary
In urban areas, the emissions from volatile chemical products may be responsible for the formation of as much particulate matter as motor vehicles. Since exposure to particulate matter is a public health crisis, understanding its formation is critical. In this work, we investigate the secondary organic aerosol formation potential of benzyl alcohol, an important compound that is representative of some of these new emission sources, and find that more particulate matter forms than is expected.
Kasper Kristensen, Louise N. Jensen, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Sigurd Christiansen, Bernadette Rosati, Jonas Elm, Ricky Teiwes, Henrik B. Pedersen, Marianne Glasius, Mikael Ehn, and Merete Bilde
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12549–12567,Short summary
Atmospheric particles are important in relation to human health and the global climate. As the global temperature changes, so may the atmospheric chemistry controlling the formation of particles from reactions of naturally emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In the current work, we show how temperatures influence the formation and chemical composition of atmospheric particles from α-pinene: a biogenic VOC largely emitted in high-latitude environments such as the boreal forests.
Martin Heinritzi, Lubna Dada, Mario Simon, Dominik Stolzenburg, Andrea C. Wagner, Lukas Fischer, Lauri R. Ahonen, Stavros Amanatidis, Rima Baalbaki, Andrea Baccarini, Paulus S. Bauer, Bernhard Baumgartner, Federico Bianchi, Sophia Brilke, Dexian Chen, Randall Chiu, Antonio Dias, Josef Dommen, Jonathan Duplissy, Henning Finkenzeller, Carla Frege, Claudia Fuchs, Olga Garmash, Hamish Gordon, Manuel Granzin, Imad El Haddad, Xucheng He, Johanna Helm, Victoria Hofbauer, Christopher R. Hoyle, Juha Kangasluoma, Timo Keber, Changhyuk Kim, Andreas Kürten, Houssni Lamkaddam, Tiia M. Laurila, Janne Lampilahti, Chuan Ping Lee, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Markus Leiminger, Huajun Mai, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna Elina Manninen, Ruby Marten, Serge Mathot, Roy Lee Mauldin, Bernhard Mentler, Ugo Molteni, Tatjana Müller, Wei Nie, Tuomo Nieminen, Antti Onnela, Eva Partoll, Monica Passananti, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Veronika Pospisilova, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Matti P. Rissanen, Clémence Rose, Siegfried Schobesberger, Wiebke Scholz, Kay Scholze, Mikko Sipilä, Gerhard Steiner, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Annele Virtanen, Alexander L. Vogel, Rainer Volkamer, Robert Wagner, Mingyi Wang, Lena Weitz, Daniela Wimmer, Mao Xiao, Chao Yan, Penglin Ye, Qiaozhi Zha, Xueqin Zhou, Antonio Amorim, Urs Baltensperger, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, António Tomé, Paul M. Winkler, Douglas R. Worsnop, Neil M. Donahue, Jasper Kirkby, and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11809–11821,Short summary
With experiments performed at CLOUD, we show how isoprene interferes in monoterpene oxidation via RO2 termination at atmospherically relevant concentrations. This interference shifts the distribution of highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) away from C20 class dimers towards C15 class dimers, which subsequently reduces both biogenic nucleation and early growth rates. Our results may help to understand the absence of new-particle formation in isoprene-rich environments.
Manpreet Takhar, Yunchun Li, and Arthur W. H. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Our study highlights the importance of molecular composition in constraining the chemical properties of cooking SOA, as well as understanding the contribution of aldehydes in formation of SOA from cooking emissions. We show that fragmentation reactions are key in atmospheric processing of cooking SOA, and aldehydes emitted from cooking emissions contribute substantially to SOA formation. Our study provides a framework to better predict SOA formation in and downwind of urban atmospheres.
Isabelle Steinke, Naruki Hiranuma, Roger Funk, Kristina Höhler, Nadine Tüllmann, Nsikanabasi Silas Umo, Peter G. Weidler, Ottmar Möhler, and Thomas Leisner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11387–11397,Short summary
In this study, we highlight the potential impact of particles from certain terrestrial sources on the formation of ice crystals in clouds. In particular, we focus on biogenic particles consisting of various organic compounds, which makes it very difficult to predict the ice nucleation properties of complex ambient particles. We find that these ambient particles are often more ice active than individual components.
Young-Chul Song, Ariana G. Bé, Scot T. Martin, Franz M. Geiger, Allan K. Bertram, Regan J. Thomson, and Mijung Song
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11263–11273,Short summary
We report the liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS) of organic aerosol consisting of α-pinene- and β-caryophyllene-derived ozonolysis products and commercial organic compounds. As compositional complexity increased from one to two organic species, LLPS occurred over a wider range of average O : C values (increasing from 0.44 to 0.67). These results provide further evidence that LLPS is likely frequent in organic aerosol particles in the troposphere, even in the absence of inorganic salt.
Amir Yazdani, Nikunj Dudani, Satoshi Takahama, Amelie Bertrand, André S. H. Prévôt, Imad El Haddad, and Ann M. Dillner
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Functional group composition of primary and aged aerosols from wood burning and coal combustion sources from chamber experiments are interpreted through compounds present in the fuels and known gas-phase oxidation products. Infrared spectra of aged wood burning in the chamber and ambient biomass burning samples reveal striking similarities, and a new method for identifying burning-impacted samples in monitoring network measurements is presented.
Archit Mehra, Jordan E. Krechmer, Andrew Lambe, Chinmoy Sarkar, Leah Williams, Farzaneh Khalaj, Alex Guenther, John Jayne, Hugh Coe, Douglas Worsnop, Celia Faiola, and Manjula Canagaratna
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10953–10965,Short summary
Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from plants are important for tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Real plant emissions are much more diverse than the few proxies widely used for studies of plant SOA. Here we present the first study of SOA from Californian sage plants and the oxygenated monoterpenes representing their major emissions. We identify SOA products and show the importance of the formation of highly oxygenated organic molecules and oligomers.
Evangelia Kostenidou, Alvaro Martinez-Valiente, Badr R'Mili, Baptiste Marques, Brice Temime-Roussel, Michel André, Yao Liu, Cédric Louis, Boris Vansevenant, Daniel Ferry, Carine Laffon, Philippe Parent, and Barbara D'Anna
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Passenger vehicles' emissions can be a significant source of particulate matter in urban areas. In this study the particle phase emissions of seven Euro 5 passenger cars were characterized. Changes in engine technologies and after-treatment devices can alter the chemical composition and the size of the emitted particulate matter. The condition of the Diesel Particle Filter (DPF) plays an important role on the emitted pollutants.
Damon M. Smith, Tianqu Cui, Marc N. Fiddler, Rudra P. Pokhrel, Jason D. Surratt, and Solomon Bililign
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10169–10191,Short summary
Biomass fuels used for domestic purposes in east Africa produce a significant atmospheric burden of aerosols and volatile organic compounds. The chemical properties and composition of these aerosols have not been investigated in the laboratory. In this work methanol extracts from filter samples of aerosol collected from an indoor smog chamber were analyzed to determine the chemical composition and identify the light absorption properties of organic aerosol constituents.
Iida Pullinen, Sebastian Schmitt, Sungah Kang, Mehrnaz Sarrafzadeh, Patrick Schlag, Stefanie Andres, Einhard Kleist, Thomas F. Mentel, Franz Rohrer, Monika Springer, Ralf Tillmann, Jürgen Wildt, Cheng Wu, Defeng Zhao, Andreas Wahner, and Astrid Kiendler-Scharr
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10125–10147,Short summary
Biogenic and anthropogenic air masses mix in the atmosphere, bringing plant-emitted monoterpenes and traffic-related nitrogen oxides together. There is debate whether the presence of nitrogen oxides reduces or increases secondary aerosol formation. This is important as secondary aerosols have cooling effects in the climate system but also constitute a health risk in populated areas. We show that the presence of NOx alone should not much affect the mass yields of secondary organic aerosols.
Gareth J. Stewart, Beth S. Nelson, W. Joe F. Acton, Adam R. Vaughan, Naomi J. Farren, James R. Hopkins, Martyn W. Ward, Stefan J. Swift, Rahul Arya, Arnab Mondal, Ritu Jangirh, Sakshi Ahlawat, Lokesh Yadav, Sudhir K. Sharma, Siti S. M. Yunus, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Eiko Nemitz, Neil Mullinger, Ranu Gadi, Lokesh K. Sahu, Nidhi Tripathi, Andrew R. Rickard, James D. Lee, Tuhin K. Mandal, and Jacqueline F. Hamilton
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Biomass burning releases many lower molecular weight organic species which are difficult to analyse, but important to the formation of organic aerosol. This study examined a new high-resolution technique to a better characterise these difficult to analyse organic components. Some burning sources analysed in this study, such as cow dung cake and municipal solid waste, released extremely complex mixtures containing many thousands of different lower-volatility organic compounds.
Archit Mehra, Yuwei Wang, Jordan E. Krechmer, Andrew Lambe, Francesca Majluf, Melissa A. Morris, Michael Priestley, Thomas J. Bannan, Daniel J. Bryant, Kelly L. Pereira, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Andrew R. Rickard, Mike J. Newland, Harald Stark, Philip Croteau, John T. Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Lin Wang, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9783–9803,Short summary
Aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from anthropogenic activity are important for tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Here we present a detailed chemical characterisation of SOA from four C9-aromatic isomers and a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). We identify and compare their oxidation products in the gas and particle phases, showing the different relative importance of oxidation pathways and proportions of highly oxygenated organic molecules.
David O. De Haan, Lelia N. Hawkins, Kevin Jansen, Hannah G. Welsh, Raunak Pednekar, Alexia de Loera, Natalie G. Jimenez, Margaret A. Tolbert, Mathieu Cazaunau, Aline Gratien, Antonin Bergé, Edouard Pangui, Paola Formenti, and Jean-François Doussin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9581–9590,Short summary
When exposed to glyoxal in chamber experiments, dry ammonium or methylammonium sulfate particles turn brown immediately and reversibly without increasing in size. Much less browning was observed on wet aerosol particles, and no browning was observed with sodium sulfate aerosol. While estimated dry aerosol light absorption caused by background glyoxal (70 ppt) is insignificant compared to that of secondary brown carbon overall, in polluted regions this process could be a source of brown carbon.
Yuwei Wang, Archit Mehra, Jordan E. Krechmer, Gan Yang, Xiaoyu Hu, Yiqun Lu, Andrew Lambe, Manjula Canagaratna, Jianmin Chen, Douglas Worsnop, Hugh Coe, and Lin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9563–9579,Short summary
A series of OH-initiated oxidation experiments of trimethylbenzene were investigated in the absence and presence of NOx. Many C9 products with 1–11 oxygen atoms and C18 products presumably formed from dimerization of C9 peroxy radicals were observed, hinting at the extensive existence of autoxidation and accretion reaction pathways. The presence of NOx would suppress the formation of highly oxygenated C18 molecules and enhance the formation of organonitrates and even dinitrate compounds.
Christopher D. Cappa, Christopher Y. Lim, David H. Hagan, Matthew Coggon, Abigail Koss, Kanako Sekimoto, Joost de Gouw, Timothy B. Onasch, Carsten Warneke, and Jesse H. Kroll
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8511–8532,Short summary
Smoke from combustion of a wide range of biomass fuels (e.g., leaves, twigs, logs, peat, and dung) was photochemically aged in a small chamber for up to 8 d of equivalent atmospheric aging. Upon aging, the particle chemical composition and ability to absorb sunlight changed owing to reactions in both the gas and particulate phases. We developed a model to explain the observations and used this to derive insights into the aging of smoke in the atmosphere.
Petroc D. Shelley, Thomas J. Bannan, Stephen D. Worrall, M. Rami Alfarra, Ulrich K. Krieger, Carl J. Percival, Arthur Garforth, and David Topping
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8293–8314,Short summary
The methods used to estimate the vapour pressures of compounds in the atmosphere typically perform poorly when applied to organic compounds found in the atmosphere. New measurements have been made and compared to previous experimental data and estimated values so that the limitations within the estimation methods can be identified and in the future be rectified.
Deep Sengupta, Vera Samburova, Chiranjivi Bhattarai, Adam C. Watts, Hans Moosmüller, and Andrey Y. Khlystov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8227–8250,Short summary
This paper presents important results on the atmospheric chemistry of combustion emissions. Organic compounds from these emissions can contribute significantly to chemical and physical properties of atmospheric aerosols. In this paper, a detailed chemical analysis of gas- and particle-phase polar organic compounds from the laboratory combustion of globally important fuels is presented. The aging experiments were performed to understand the fate of biomass-burning organics in the atmosphere.
Junling Li, Weigang Wang, Kun Li, Wenyu Zhang, Chao Peng, Li Zhou, Bo Shi, Yan Chen, Mingyuan Liu, Hong Li, and Maofa Ge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8123–8137,Short summary
Long-chain alkanes (a large fraction of diesel fuel and its exhaust) are important potential contributors of SOA. Through the analysis of the components of formed SOA, we found that low-temperature conditions promote the oligomerization of n-dodecane, and the degree of oligomerization can reach tetramerization. The presence of the oligomers enhances the light extinction of the particles. UV-scattering particles in the boundary layer can accelerate photochemical reactions and haze production.
Minli Wang, Yiqun Chen, Heyun Fu, Xiaolei Qu, Bengang Li, Shu Tao, and Dongqiang Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7941–7954,Short summary
The mechanism and factors controlling the hygroscopicity of black-carbon-containing particles (BCPs) from different carbon sources are not well understood. We thoroughly characterized the chemical and compositional properties of 15 samples of BCPs from different sources (wood, herb, and soot) and further investigated their hygroscopicity. Depending on the carbon source, organic carbon and dissolved mineral contents were key determinants of the equilibrium and kinetics of water uptake by BCPs.
Angela Buchholz, Arttu Ylisirniö, Wei Huang, Claudia Mohr, Manjula Canagaratna, Douglas R. Worsnop, Siegfried Schobesberger, and Annele Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7693–7716,Short summary
To understand the role of aerosol particles in the atmosphere, it is necessary to know their detailed chemical composition and physical properties, especially volatility. The thermal desorption data from FIGAERO–CIMS provides both but are difficult to analyse. With positive matrix factorisation, we can separate instrument background from the real signal. Compounds can be classified by their apparent volatility, and the contribution of thermal decomposition in the instrument can be identified.
Gi Young Jeong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7411–7428,Short summary
During long-range transport, mineral dust interacts with the atmosphere, biosphere, cryosphere, and pedosphere, influencing ecosystems, the atmospheric energy balance, and air quality. This study analyzed the mineral and chemical compositions of Asian dust samples collected during 14 years in Korea. The result showed mineralogical and geochemical variation depending on the dust migration path, fractionation, and atmospheric reactions as well as average properties.
Anni Hartikainen, Petri Tiitta, Mika Ihalainen, Pasi Yli-Pirilä, Jürgen Orasche, Hendryk Czech, Miika Kortelainen, Heikki Lamberg, Heikki Suhonen, Hanna Koponen, Liqing Hao, Ralf Zimmermann, Jorma Jokiniemi, Jarkko Tissari, and Olli Sippula
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6357–6378,Short summary
Residential wood combustion emits large amounts of organic compounds, which are transformed in the atmosphere via photochemical ageing reactions. We assessed this organic emission at various stages of exposure with an oxidation flow reactor. Ageing led to major changes in both gaseous and particulate phases including increased acidic compounds and transformation of the polycyclic aromatic compounds. Such changes have serious implications for the health- and climate-related effects of combustion.
Nicolás Zabalegui, Malena Manzi, Antoine Depoorter, Nathalie Hayeck, Marie Roveretto, Chunlin Li, Manuela van Pinxteren, Hartmut Herrmann, Christian George, and María Eugenia Monge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6243–6257,Short summary
A new approach to bridging different fields of science by studying the air–sea interface is described. An untargeted ambient mass-spectrometry-based metabolomics method enables the study of enriched organic compounds found on the sea surface for air–water transfer processes. Results from the metabolomics experiments and a lab-to-field approach provide new opportunities for characterizing the seawater organic-matter content and discovering compounds involved in aerosol-formation processes.
Jing Cai, Xiangying Zeng, Guorui Zhi, Sasho Gligorovski, Guoying Sheng, Zhiqiang Yu, Xinming Wang, and Ping'an Peng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6115–6128,Short summary
The composition and light-induced evolution of a water-soluble organic carbon mixture from fresh biomass burning aerosols was investigated with direct infusion electrospray ionisation high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and liquid chromatography coupled with HRMS. Our findings indicate that the water-soluble organic fraction of combustion-derived aerosols has the potential to form more oxidised organic matter, contributing to the highly oxygenated nature of atmospheric organic aerosols.
Jienan Li, Seanna M. Forrester, and Daniel A. Knopf
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6055–6080,Short summary
Organic aerosol is ubiquitous in the atmosphere and can change its phase state from liquid to solid in response to temperature. Our laboratory measurements demonstrate that the chemical reactivity of typical organic aerosol species with atmospheric oxidants is modulated by the species’ phase state. We find that under temperatures typical of the middle and upper troposphere the chemical lifetime of organic aerosol can be significantly extended due to the reduced reactive uptake of gas oxidants.
Abdoulaye Samaké, Aurélie Bonin, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Pierre Taberlet, Samuël Weber, Gaëlle Uzu, Véronique Jacob, Sébastien Conil, and Jean M. F. Martins
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5609–5628,Short summary
Despite being a major source of coarse organic matter, primary biogenic organic aerosols (PBOAs) remain poorly implemented in source-resolved chemical transport models. This study, based on an intensive field sampling of aerosols, combined physicochemical characterizations of PM10 with DNA high-throughput sequencing to provide a comprehensive understanding of the microbial fingerprints associated with primary sugar compounds (tracers of PBOAs) and their main surrounding environmental sources.
Yonghong Wang, Matthieu Riva, Hongbin Xie, Liine Heikkinen, Simon Schallhart, Qiaozhi Zha, Chao Yan, Xu-Cheng He, Otso Peräkylä, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5145–5155,Short summary
Chamber experiments were conducted with alpha-pinene and chlorine under low- and high-nitrogen-oxide (NOX) conditions. We estimated the HOM yields from chlorine-initiated oxidation of alpha-pinene under low-NOX conditions to be around 1.8 %, though with a uncertainty range (0.8 %–4 %) due to lack of suitable calibration methods. Our study clearly demonstrates that the chlorine-atom-initiated oxidation of alpha-pinene can produce low-volatility organic compounds.
Jack J. Lin, Kamal Raj R, Stella Wang, Esko Kokkonen, Mikko-Heikki Mikkelä, Samuli Urpelainen, and Nønne L. Prisle
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACP
Xingjun Fan, Tao Cao, Xufang Yu, Yan Wang, Xin Xiao, Feiyue Li, Yue Xie, Wenchao Ji, Jianzhong Song, and Ping'an Peng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4593–4605,Short summary
A particle-phase O3 oxidation of biomass burning (BB) smoke particles was conducted to investigate the evolution of brown carbon (BrC) therein. The O3 aging induced the decomposition of chromophores and fluorophores. EEM–PARAFAC showed a predominant decomposition of protein-like substances and a gradual increase proportion of humic-like substances for BB BrC during O3 aging. The dynamic spectral behavior of chromophores and functional groups within BrC was further explored by 2D-COS.
Elena Ali McKnight, Nicole P. Kretekos, Demi Owusu, and Rebecca Lyn LaLonde
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4241–4254,Short summary
This report describes a simple, safe and effective method to prepare nitrate esters of terpenes (carene, limonene, perillic alcohol, beta-pinene and alpha-pinene) which are key oxidation products in the atmosphere. These compounds are implicated in the formation of secondary organic aerosols. A compilation of the relevant spectroscopic data has been presented. The availability of these compounds and their characterization data will enable further study of the structure–reactivity relationships.
Rongshuang Xu, Hoi Ki Lam, Kevin R. Wilson, James F. Davies, Mijung Song, Wentao Li, Ying-Lung Steve Tse, and Man Nin Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3879–3893,Short summary
Atmospheric particles, a complex mixture of inorganic salts, organic compounds and water, can continually undergo heterogeneous oxidation initiated by gas-phase oxidants at the particle surface. We found that ammonium sulfate can decelerate the rate of heterogeneous OH reaction with 2-methyltetrols when the inorganic-to-organic mass ratio increases. These results would suggest 2-methyltetrols are likely chemically stable against heterogeneous OH oxidation in the atmosphere.
Md. Robiul Islam, Thilina Jayarathne, Isobel J. Simpson, Benjamin Werden, John Maben, Ashley Gilbert, Puppala S. Praveen, Sagar Adhikari, Arnico K. Panday, Maheswar Rupakheti, Donald R. Blake, Robert J. Yokelson, Peter F. DeCarlo, William C. Keene, and Elizabeth A. Stone
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2927–2951,Short summary
The Kathmandu Valley experiences high levels of air pollution. In this study, atmospheric gases and particulate matter were characterized by online and off-line measurements, with an emphasis on understanding their sources. The major sources of particulate matter and trace gases were identified as garbage burning, biomass burning, and vehicles. The majority of secondary organic aerosol was attributed to anthropogenic precursors, while a minority was attributed to biogenic gases.
Jiaoping Xing, Longyi Shao, Wenbin Zhang, Jianfei Peng, Wenhua Wang, Shijin Shuai, Min Hu, and Daizhou Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2781–2794,Short summary
Our results highlight the contribution of gasoline-direct-injection (GDI) vehicles to aerosols, both primary and secondary. The major particles from GDI vehicles are organic and soot particles; they actively participate in chemical conversions in the atmosphere, leading to morphology and composition changes in hours. Rapid ageing could be attributable to the acid-catalysed mechanism and high concentrations of gaseous pollutants. These results would be beneficial for control of PM2.5 pollution.
Ziyue Li, Emma L. D'Ambro, Siegfried Schobesberger, Cassandra J. Gaston, Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker, Jiumeng Liu, John E. Shilling, Joel A. Thornton, and Christopher D. Cappa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2489–2512,Short summary
We discuss the development and application of a robust clustering method for the interpretation of compound-specific organic aerosol thermal desorption profiles. We demonstrate the utility of clustering for analysis and interpretation of the composition and volatility of secondary organic aerosol. We show that the thermal desorption profiles are represented by only 9–13 distinct clusters, with the number of clusters obtained dependent on the precursor and formation conditions.
Allan, J. D., Jimenez, J. L., Coe, H., Bower, K. N., Williams, P. I., and Worsnop, D. R.: Quantitative sampling using an aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer. Part 1: Techniques of data interpretation and error analysis, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 108, 4090, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD002358, 2003.
Allan, J. D., Coe, H., Bower, K. N., Alfarra, M. R., Delia, A. E., Jimenez, J. L., Middlebrook, A. M., Drewnick, F., Onasch, T. B., Canagaratna, M. R., Jayne, J. T., and Worsnop, D. R.: Technical note: extraction of chemically resolved mass spectra from aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer data, J. Aerosol Sci., 35, 909–922, 2004.
Andreae, M. O., Rosenfeld, D., Artaxo, P., Costa, A. A., Frank, G. P., Longo, K. M., and Silva-Dias, M. A. F.: Smoking rain clouds over the Amazon, Science, 303, 1337–1342, 2004.
Broekhuizen, K., Kumar, P. P., and Abbatt, J. P. D.: Partially soluble organics as cloud condensation nuclei: Role of trace soluble and surface active species, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L01107, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003GL018203, 2004.
Brooks, S. D., Garland, R. M., Wise, M. E., Prenni, A. J., Cushing, M., Hewitt, E., and Tolbert, M. A.: Phase changes in internally mixed maleic acid/ammonium sulfate aerosols, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4487, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD003204, 2003.
Cruz, C. N. and Pandis, S. N.: The effect of organic coatings on the cloud condensation nuclei activation of inorganic atmospheric aerosol, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 13111–13123, 1998.
DeCarlo, P. F., Kimmel, J. R., Trimborn, A., Northway, M. J., Jayne, J. T., Aiken, A. C., Gonin, M., Fuhrer, K., Horvath, T., Docherty, K. S., Worsnop, D. R., and Jimenez, J. L.: Field-deployable, high-resolution, time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer, Anal. Chem., 78, 8281–8289, 2006.
Deng, Z. Z., Zhao, C. S., Ma, N., Liu, P. F., Ran, L., Xu, W. Y., Chen, J., Liang, Z., Liang, S., Huang, M. Y., Ma, X. C., Zhang, Q., Quan, J. N., Yan, P., Henning, S., Mildenberger, K., Sommerhage, E., Schäfer, M., Stratmann, F., and Wiedensohler, A.: Size-resolved and bulk activation properties of aerosols in the North China Plain, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 3835–3846, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-3835-2011, 2011.
Drewnick, F., Hings, S. S., DeCarlo, P., Jayne, J. T., Gonin, M., Fuhrer, K., Weimer, S., Jimenez, J. L., Demerjian, K. L., Borrmann, S., Worsnop, D. R.: A new Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (TOF-AMS)-instrument description and first field deployment, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 39, 637–658, 2005.
Dusek, U., Frank, G. P., Hildebrandt, L., Curtius, J., Schneider, J., Walter, S., Chand, D., Drewnick, F., Hings, S., Jung, D., Borrmann, S., and Andreae, M. O.: Size matters more than chemistry for cloud nucleating ability of aerosol particles, Science, 312, 1375–1378, 2006.
Hegg, D. A., Gao, S., Hoppel, W., Frick, G., Caffrey, P., Leaitch, W. R., Shantz, N., Ambrusko, J., and Albrechcinski, T.: Laboratory studies of the efficiency of selected organic aerosols as CCN, Atmos. Res., 58, 155–166, 2001.
Henning, S., Rosenørn, T., D'Anna, B., Gola, A. A., Svenningsson, B., and Bilde, M.: Cloud droplet activation and surface tension of mixtures of slightly soluble organics and inorganic salt, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 575–582, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-5-575-2005, 2005.
Hings, S. S., Wrobel, W. C., Cross, E. S., Worsnop, D. R., Davidovits, P., and Onasch, T. B.: CCN activation experiments with adipic acid: effect of particle phase and adipic acid coatings on soluble and insoluble particles, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 3735–3748, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-8-3735-2008, 2008.
IPCC: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 996 pp., 2007.
Jayne, J. T., Leard, D. C., Zhang, X., Davidovits, P., Smith, K. A.,Kolb, C. E., and Worsnop, D. R.: Development of an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer for Size and Composition, Analysis of Submicron Particles, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 33, 49–70, 2000.
Jin, M. and Shepherd, J. M.: Aerosol relationships to warm season clouds and rainfall at monthly scales over east China: Urban land versus ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D24S90, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD010276, 2008.
Jimenez, J. L., Jayne, J. T., Shi, Q., Kolb, C. E., Worsnop, D. R., Yourshaw, I., Seinfeld, J. H., Flagan, R. C., Zhang, X., Smith, K. A., Morris, J. W., and Davidovits, P.: Ambient aerosol sampling using the Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 8425, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD001213, 2003.
Kulmala, M., Laaksonen, A., Charlson, R. J., and Korhonen, P.: Clouds without supersaturation, Nature, 388, 336–337, 1997.
Kumar, P. P., Broekhuizen, K., and Abbatt, J. P. D.: Organic acids as cloud condensation nuclei: Laboratory studies of highly soluble and insoluble species, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 509–520, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-3-509-2003, 2003.
Lance, S., Medina, J., Smith, J. N., and Nenes, A.: Mapping the operation of the dmt continuous flow CCN counter, Aerosol Sci. Tech., 40, 242–254, 2006.
Low, R. D. H.: A generalized equation for the solution effect in droplet 1 growth, J. Atmos. Sci., 26, 608–611, 1969.
Marcolli, C., Luo, B. P., and Peter, T.: Mixing of the organic aerosol fractions: Liquids as the thermodynamically stable phases, J. Phys. Chem., 108, 2216–2224, 2004.
Moore, R. H., Nenes, A., and Medina, J.: Scanning mobility CCN analysis–-a method for fast measurements of size-resolved CCN distributions and activation kinetics, Aerosol Sci. Tech., 44, 861–871, 2010.
Prenni, A. J., DeMott, P. J., Kreidenweis, S. M., Sherman, D. E., Russell, L. M., and Ming, Y.: The effects of low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids on cloud formation, J. Phys. Chem., 105, 11240–11248, 2001.
Ramanathan, V., Crutzen, P. J., Lelieveld, J., Mitra, A. P., Althausen, D., Anderson, J., Andreae, M. O., Cantrell, W., Cass, G. R., Chung, C. E., Clarke, A. D., Coakley, J. A., Collins, W. D., Conant, W. C., Dulac, F., Heintzenberg, J., Heymsfield, A. J., Holben, B., Howell, S., Hudson, J., Jayaraman, A., Kiehl, J. T., Krishnamurti, T. N., Lubin, D., McFarquhar, G., Novakov, T., Ogren, J. A., Podgorny, I. A., Prather, K., Priestley, K., Prospero, J. M., Quinn, P. K., Rajeev, K., Rasch, P., Rupert, S., Sadourny, R., Satheesh, S. K., Shaw, G. E., Sheridan P., and Valero F. P. J.: Indian Ocean Experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 28371–28399, 2001.
Raymond, T. M. and Pandis, S. N.: Formation of cloud droplets by multicomponent organic particles, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4469, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JD003503, 2003.
Roberts, G. C. and Nenes, A.: A continuous-flow streamwise thermal-gradient CCN chamber for atmospheric measurements, Aerosol Sci. Tech., 39, 206–221, 2005.
Rose, D., Gunthe, S. S., Mikhailov, E., Frank, G. P., Dusek, U., Andreae, M. O., and Pöschl, U.: Calibration and measurement uncertainties of a continuous-flow cloud condensation nuclei counter (DMT-CCNC): CCN activation of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol particles in theory and experiment, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 1153–1179, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-8-1153-2008, 2008.
Rosenfeld, D., Lohmann, U., Raga, G. B., O'Dowd, C. D., Kulmala, M., Fuzzi, S., Reissell, A., and Andreae, M. O.: Flood or Drought: How Do Aerosols Affect Precipitation?, Science, 321, 1309–1313, 2008.
Seinfeld, J. H. and Pandis, S. N.: Atmospheric chemistry and physics: From air pollution to climate change, 2 ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1225 pp., 2006.
Wang, S. and Flagan, R.: Scanning electrical mobility spectrometer, J. Aerosol Sci., 20, 1485–1488, 1989.
Young, K. C. and Warren, A. J.: A reexamination of the derivation of the equilibrium supersaturation curve for soluble particles, J. Atmos. Sci., 49, 1138–1143, 1992.
Zhang, Q., Ma, X., Tie, X., Huang, M., and Zhao, C.: Vertical Distributions of Aerosols under Different Weather Conditions: Analysis of In-situ Aircraft Measurements in Beijing, China, Atmos. Environ., 43, 5526–5535, 2009.
Zhang, Q., Quan, J., Tie, X., Huang, M., and Ma, X.: Impact Aerosol Particles on Cloud Formation: Aircraft Measurements in Beijing, China, Atmos. Environ., 45, 665–672, 2011.
Zhang, X., Smith, K. A., Worsnop, D. R., Jimenez, J. L., Jayne, J. T., and Kolb, C. E.: A numerical characterization of particle beam collimation by an aerodynamic lens-nozzle system. Part I: An individual lens or nozzle, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 36, 617–631, 2002.
Zhang, X., Smith, K. A., Worsnop, D. R., Jimenez, J. L., Jayne, J. T., Kolb, C. E., Morris, J., and Davidovits, P.: Numerical characterization of particle beam collimation: Part II: Integrated aerodynamic lens-nozzle system, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 38, 619–638, 2004.