Articles | Volume 20, issue 3
Research article 17 Feb 2020
Research article | 17 Feb 2020
Water-soluble iron emitted from vehicle exhaust is linked to primary speciated organic compounds
Joseph R. Salazar et al.
No articles found.
Yutong Liang, Coty N. Jen, Robert J. Weber, Pawel K. Misztal, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5719–5737,Short summary
This article reports the molecular composition of smoke particles people in SF Bay Area were exposed to during northern California wildfires in Oct. 2017. Major components are sugars, acids, aromatics, and terpenoids. These observations can be used to better understand health impacts of smoke exposure. Tracer compounds indicate which fuels burned, including diterpenoids for softwood and syringyls for hardwood. A statistical analysis reveals a group of secondary compounds formed in daytime aging.
Rongzhi Tang, Quanyang Lu, Song Guo, Hui Wang, Kai Song, Ying Yu, Rui Tan, Kefan Liu, Ruizhe Shen, Shiyi Chen, Limin Zeng, Spiro D. Jorga, Zhou Zhang, Wenbin Zhang, Shijin Shuai, and Allen L. Robinson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2569–2583,Short summary
We performed chassis dynamometer experiments to investigate the emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation potential of intermediate volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) from an on-road Chinese gasoline vehicle. High IVOC emission factors (EFs) and distinct volatility distribution were recognized. Our results indicate that vehicular IVOCs contribute significantly to SOA, implying the importance of reducing IVOCs when making air pollution control policies in urban areas of China.
Ryan Schmedding, Quazi Z. Rasool, Yue Zhang, Havala O. T. Pye, Haofei Zhang, Yuzhi Chen, Jason D. Surratt, Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker, Joel A. Thornton, Allen H. Goldstein, and William Vizuete
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8201–8225,Short summary
Accurate model prediction of aerosol concentrations is a known challenge. It is assumed in many modeling systems that aerosols are in a homogeneously mixed phase state. It has been observed that aerosols do phase separate and can form a highly viscous organic shell with an aqueous core impacting the formation processes of aerosols. This work is a model implementation to determine an aerosol's phase state using glass transition temperature and aerosol composition.
Quanyang Lu, Benjamin N. Murphy, Momei Qin, Peter J. Adams, Yunliang Zhao, Havala O. T. Pye, Christos Efstathiou, Chris Allen, and Allen L. Robinson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4313–4332,Short summary
This research work investigates organic aerosol formation in California during the CalNex study. We update the chemical transport model with the most recent mobile-source emission data and introduce a simple parameterization for secondary organic aerosol formed from intermediate-volatility organic compounds. Our results highlight the important contribution of IVOCs to SOA production in the Los Angeles region but underscore that other uncertainties must be addressed to close the SOA mass balance.
Suzane S. de Sá, Luciana V. Rizzo, Brett B. Palm, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Lindsay D. Yee, Rebecca Wernis, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Yingjun J. Liu, Arthur Sedlacek, Stephen Springston, Allen H. Goldstein, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Paulo Artaxo, Jose L. Jimenez, and Scot T. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7973–8001,Short summary
This study investigates the impacts of urban and fire emissions on the concentration, composition, and optical properties of submicron particulate matter (PM1) in central Amazonia during the dry season. Biomass-burning and urban emissions appeared to contribute at least 80 % of brown carbon absorption while accounting for 30 % to 40 % of the organic PM1 mass concentration. Only a fraction of the 9-fold increase in mass concentration relative to the wet season was due to biomass burning.
Shino Toma, Steve Bertman, Christopher Groff, Fulizi Xiong, Paul B. Shepson, Paul Romer, Kaitlin Duffey, Paul Wooldridge, Ronald Cohen, Karsten Baumann, Eric Edgerton, Abigail R. Koss, Joost de Gouw, Allen Goldstein, Weiwei Hu, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1867–1880,Short summary
Acyl peroxy nitrates (APN) were measured near the ground in Alabama using GC in summer 2013 to study biosphere–atmosphere interactions. APN were lower than measured in the SE USA over the past 2 decades. Historical data showed APN in 2013 was limited by NOx and production was dominated by biogenic precursors more than in the past. Isoprene-derived MPAN correlated with isoprene hydroxynitrates as NOx-dependent products. MPAN varied with aerosol growth, but not with N-containing particles.
Coty N. Jen, Lindsay E. Hatch, Vanessa Selimovic, Robert J. Yokelson, Robert Weber, Arantza E. Fernandez, Nathan M. Kreisberg, Kelley C. Barsanti, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1013–1026,Short summary
Wildfires in the western US are occurring more frequently and burning larger land areas. Smoke from these fires will play a greater role in regional air quality and atmospheric chemistry than in the past. To help fire and climate modelers and atmospheric experimentalists better understand how smoke impacts the environment, we have separated, identified, classified, and quantified the thousands of organic compounds found in smoke and related their amounts emitted to fire conditions.
Lindsay E. Hatch, Albert Rivas-Ubach, Coty N. Jen, Mary Lipton, Allen H. Goldstein, and Kelley C. Barsanti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17801–17817,Short summary
We demonstrate the use of solid-phase extraction (SPE) disks for the untargeted analysis of gas-phase intermediate volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds emitted from biomass burning. SPE and Teflon filter samples collected from laboratory fires were analyzed by two-dimensional gas chromatography, with distinct differences in the observed chromatographic profiles as a function of fuel type. Fuel-dependent emissions and volatility differences among benzenediol isomers were captured.
Quanyang Lu, Yunliang Zhao, and Allen L. Robinson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17637–17654,Short summary
This work combines previously published data to illustrate the mechanics of emission from internal combustion engine sources. Engine exhaust can be decomposed into combustion "by-product", "unburned fuel" and "oil" modes. Intermediate and semi-volatile organic compounds are included to create comprehensive model-ready organic emission profiles. Gasoline and gas-turbine engine emissions are enriched in intermediate volatile organic compounds relative to unburned fuel.
Rishabh U. Shah, Ellis S. Robinson, Peishi Gu, Allen L. Robinson, Joshua S. Apte, and Albert A. Presto
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16325–16344,Short summary
We measured spatial differences in airborne particulate matter (PM) in Oakland, CA, with repeated mobile measurements on all city streets. In addition to primary, we also find higher secondary organic PM downtown, which suggests stronger photochemical PM production in areas of high emissions and poor air ventilation (i.e., urban street canyons). This finding is original because while other modeling studies have predicted higher photochemistry in street canyons, we confirm this observationally.
Jason A. Ducker, Christopher D. Holmes, Trevor F. Keenan, Silvano Fares, Allen H. Goldstein, Ivan Mammarella, J. William Munger, and Jordan Schnell
Biogeosciences, 15, 5395–5413,Short summary
We have developed an accurate method (SynFlux) to estimate ozone deposition and stomatal uptake across 103 flux tower sites (43 US, 60 Europe), where ozone concentrations and fluxes have not been measured. In all, the SynFlux public dataset provides monthly values of ozone dry deposition for 926 site years across a wide array of ecosystems. The SynFlux dataset will promote further applications to ecosystem, air quality, or climate modeling across the geoscience community.
Suzane S. de Sá, Brett B. Palm, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Weiwei Hu, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Lindsay D. Yee, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Igor O. Ribeiro, Glauber G. Cirino, Yingjun Liu, Ryan Thalman, Arthur Sedlacek, Aaron Funk, Courtney Schumacher, John E. Shilling, Johannes Schneider, Paulo Artaxo, Allen H. Goldstein, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Jian Wang, Karena A. McKinney, Henrique Barbosa, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Jose L. Jimenez, and Scot T. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12185–12206,Short summary
This study aimed at understanding and quantifying the changes in mass concentration and composition of submicron airborne particulate matter (PM) in Amazonia due to urban pollution. Downwind of Manaus, PM concentrations increased by up to 200 % under polluted compared with background conditions. The observed changes included contributions from both primary and secondary processes. The differences in organic PM composition suggested a shift in the pathways of secondary production with pollution.
Lindsay D. Yee, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Rebecca A. Wernis, Meng Meng, Ventura Rivera, Nathan M. Kreisberg, Susanne V. Hering, Mads S. Bering, Marianne Glasius, Mary Alice Upshur, Ariana Gray Bé, Regan J. Thomson, Franz M. Geiger, John H. Offenberg, Michael Lewandowski, Ivan Kourtchev, Markus Kalberer, Suzane de Sá, Scot T. Martin, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Brett B. Palm, Weiwei Hu, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Jose L. Jimenez, Yingjun Liu, Karena A. McKinney, Paulo Artaxo, Juarez Viegas, Antonio Manzi, Maria B. Oliveira, Rodrigo de Souza, Luiz A. T. Machado, Karla Longo, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10433–10457,Short summary
Biogenic volatile organic compounds react in the atmosphere to form secondary organic aerosol, yet the chemical pathways remain unclear. We collected filter samples and deployed a semi-volatile thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph in the central Amazon. We measured 30 sesquiterpenes and 4 diterpenes and find them to be important for reactive ozone loss. We estimate that sesquiterpene oxidation contributes at least 0.4–5 % (median 1 %) of observed submicron organic aerosol mass.
Amelie Bertrand, Giulia Stefenelli, Coty N. Jen, Simone M. Pieber, Emily A. Bruns, Haiyan Ni, Brice Temime-Roussel, Jay G. Slowik, Allen H. Goldstein, Imad El Haddad, Urs Baltensperger, André S. H. Prévôt, Henri Wortham, and Nicolas Marchand
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7607–7624,Short summary
A thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph coupled to an aerosol mass spectrometer (TAG–AMS) is connected to an atmospheric chamber. The setup serves the quantitative study of the impact of combustion conditions and atmospheric aging on the chemical fingerprint at the molecular level of biomass burning organic aerosol.
Penglin Ye, Yunliang Zhao, Wayne K. Chuang, Allen L. Robinson, and Neil M. Donahue
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6171–6186,Short summary
This work describes experiments to constrain the production of secondary organic aerosol from pinanediol, a semi-volatile oxidation product of α-pinene. Our results and the implications for SOA aging are directly relevant to the atmospheric chemistry community because they connect new-particle formation experiments and SOA formation experiments. The oxidation conditions are typically different and experiments are also influenced in different ways by wall losses of condensible vapors.
Paul S. Romer, Kaitlin C. Duffey, Paul J. Wooldridge, Eric Edgerton, Karsten Baumann, Philip A. Feiner, David O. Miller, William H. Brune, Abigail R. Koss, Joost A. de Gouw, Pawel K. Misztal, Allen H. Goldstein, and Ronald C. Cohen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2601–2614,Short summary
Observations of increased ozone on hotter days are widely reported, but the mechanisms driving this relationship remain uncertain. We use measurements from the rural southeastern United States to study how temperature affects ozone production. We find that changing NOx emissions, most likely from soil microbes, can be a major driver of increased ozone with temperature in the continental background. These findings suggest that ozone will increase with temperature under a wide range of conditions.
Brett B. Palm, Suzane S. de Sá, Douglas A. Day, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Weiwei Hu, Roger Seco, Steven J. Sjostedt, Jeong-Hoo Park, Alex B. Guenther, Saewung Kim, Joel Brito, Florian Wurm, Paulo Artaxo, Ryan Thalman, Jian Wang, Lindsay D. Yee, Rebecca Wernis, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Allen H. Goldstein, Yingjun Liu, Stephen R. Springston, Rodrigo Souza, Matt K. Newburn, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Scot T. Martin, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 467–493,Short summary
Ambient air was oxidized by OH or O3 in an oxidation flow reactor during both wet and dry seasons in the GoAmazon2014/5 campaign to study secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. We investigated how much biogenic, urban, and biomass burning sources contributed to the ambient concentrations of SOA precursor gases and how their contributions changed diurnally and seasonally. SOA yields and hygroscopicity of organic aerosol in the oxidation flow reactor were also studied.
Naomi Zimmerman, Albert A. Presto, Sriniwasa P. N. Kumar, Jason Gu, Aliaksei Hauryliuk, Ellis S. Robinson, Allen L. Robinson, and R. Subramanian
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 291–313,Short summary
Low-cost sensors promise neighborhood-scale air quality monitoring but have been plagued by inconsistent performance for precision, accuracy, and drift. CMU and SenSevere collaborated to develop the RAMP, which uses electrochemical sensors. We present a machine learning algorithm that overcomes previous performance issues and meets US EPA's data quality recommendations for personal exposure for NO2 and tougher "supplemental monitoring" standards for CO & ozone across 19 RAMPs for several months.
Havala O. T. Pye, Andreas Zuend, Juliane L. Fry, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Shannon L. Capps, K. Wyat Appel, Hosein Foroutan, Lu Xu, Nga L. Ng, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 357–370,Short summary
Thermodynamic modeling revealed that some but not all measurements of ammonium-to-sulfate ratios are consistent with theory. The measurement diversity likely explains the previously reported range of results regarding the suitability of thermodynamic modeling. Despite particles being predominantly phase separated, organic–inorganic interactions resulted in increased aerosol pH and partitioning towards the particle phase for highly oxygenated organic compounds compared to traditional methods.
Prettiny K. Ma, Yunliang Zhao, Allen L. Robinson, David R. Worton, Allen H. Goldstein, Amber M. Ortega, Jose L. Jimenez, Peter Zotter, André S. H. Prévôt, Sönke Szidat, and Patrick L. Hayes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9237–9259,Short summary
Airborne particulate matter (PM) negatively impacts air quality in cities throughout the world. An important fraction of PM is organic aerosol. We have evaluated and developed several new models for secondary organic aerosol (SOA), which is formed from the chemical processing of gaseous precursors. Using our model results, we have quantified important SOA sources and precursors and also identified possible model parameterizations that could be used for air quality predictions.
Suzane S. de Sá, Brett B. Palm, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Matthew K. Newburn, Weiwei Hu, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Lindsay D. Yee, Ryan Thalman, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Paulo Artaxo, Allen H. Goldstein, Antonio O. Manzi, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Fan Mei, John E. Shilling, Stephen R. Springston, Jian Wang, Jason D. Surratt, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Jose L. Jimenez, and Scot T. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6611–6629,
Shantanu H. Jathar, Matthew Woody, Havala O. T. Pye, Kirk R. Baker, and Allen L. Robinson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4305–4318,Short summary
Mobile sources such as cars and trucks are large sources of pollution in cities, but it is unclear what their relative contribution to organic particle pollution is. We used a numerical model along with recent data gathered from tests performed on cars and trucks to calculate organic particle levels in southern California. We found that model calculations agreed better with measurements and gasoline cars and trucks dominated the organic particle pollution.
Anusha P. S. Hettiyadura, Thilina Jayarathne, Karsten Baumann, Allen H. Goldstein, Joost A. de Gouw, Abigail Koss, Frank N. Keutsch, Kate Skog, and Elizabeth A. Stone
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1343–1359,Short summary
Organosulfates are components of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed in the presence of sulfate. Herein, their abundance, identity, and potential to form as sampling artifacts were studied in Centreville, AL, USA. The 10 most abundant signals accounted for 58–78 % of the total, with at least 20–200 other species accounting for the remainder. These major species were largely associated with biogenic gases, like isoprene and monoterpenes, and are proposed targets for future standard development.
Havala O. T. Pye, Benjamin N. Murphy, Lu Xu, Nga L. Ng, Annmarie G. Carlton, Hongyu Guo, Rodney Weber, Petros Vasilakos, K. Wyat Appel, Sri Hapsari Budisulistiorini, Jason D. Surratt, Athanasios Nenes, Weiwei Hu, Jose L. Jimenez, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Pawel K. Misztal, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 343–369,Short summary
We use a chemical transport model to examine how organic compounds in the atmosphere interact with water present in particles. Organic compounds themselves lead to water uptake, and organic compounds interact with water associated with inorganic compounds in the rural southeast atmosphere. Including interactions of organic compounds with water requires a treatment of nonideality to more accurately represent aerosol observations during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) 2013.
Yaping Zhang, Brent J. Williams, Allen H. Goldstein, Kenneth S. Docherty, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5637–5653,Short summary
The binning method provides an alternate way to process GC–MS data in a very fast manner. It only takes a very small portion of time (days versus years) compared to the traditional GC–MS data analysis method (peak identification and integration). Furthermore, the binning method can also be applied to any data set from a measurement (mass spectrometry, spectroscopy, etc.) with additional separations (volatility, polarity, size, etc.).
Omar Amador-Muñoz, Pawel K. Misztal, Robin Weber, David R. Worton, Haofei Zhang, Greg Drozd, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5315–5329,Short summary
Proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used to detect n-alkanes that generally have a lower proton affinity than water and therefore proton transfer (PT) by reaction with H3O+ is not an effective mechanism for their detection. In this study, we developed a method using a conventional PTR-MS to detect n-alkanes by optimizing ion source and drift tube conditions to vary the relative amounts of different primary ions (H3O+, O2+, NO+) in the reaction chamber (drift tube).
Weiwei Hu, Brett B. Palm, Douglas A. Day, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jordan E. Krechmer, Zhe Peng, Suzane S. de Sá, Scot T. Martin, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Karsten Baumann, Lina Hacker, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Abigail R. Koss, Joost A. de Gouw, Allen H. Goldstein, Roger Seco, Steven J. Sjostedt, Jeong-Hoo Park, Alex B. Guenther, Saewung Kim, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, William H. Brune, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11563–11580,Short summary
IEPOX-SOA is biogenically derived secondary organic aerosol under anthropogenic influence, which has been shown to comprise a substantial fraction of OA globally. We investigated the lifetime of ambient IEPOX-SOA in the SE US and Amazonia, with an oxidation flow reactor and thermodenuder coupled with MS-based instrumentation. The low volatility and long lifetime of IEPOX-SOA against OH radicals' oxidation (> 2 weeks) was observed, which can help to constrain OA impact on air quality and climate.
Pawel K. Misztal, Jeremy C. Avise, Thomas Karl, Klaus Scott, Haflidi H. Jonsson, Alex B. Guenther, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9611–9628,Short summary
In this study, for the first time regional BVOC models are compared with direct regional measurements of fluxes from aircraft, allowing assessment of model accuracy at scales relevant to air quality modeling. We directly assess modeled isoprene emission inventories which are important for regional air quality simulations of ozone and secondary particle concentrations.
J. Kaiser, K. M. Skog, K. Baumann, S. B. Bertman, S. B. Brown, W. H. Brune, J. D. Crounse, J. A. de Gouw, E. S. Edgerton, P. A. Feiner, A. H. Goldstein, A. Koss, P. K. Misztal, T. B. Nguyen, K. F. Olson, J. M. St. Clair, A. P. Teng, S. Toma, P. O. Wennberg, R. J. Wild, L. Zhang, and F. N. Keutsch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9349–9359,Short summary
OH reactivity can be used to assess the amount of reactive carbon in an air mass. “Missing” reactivity is commonly found in forested environments and is attributed to either direct emissions of unmeasured volatile organic compounds or to unmeasured/underpredicted oxidation products. Using a box model and measurements from the 2013 SOAS campaign, we find only small discrepancies in measured and calculated reactivity. Our results suggest the discrepancies stem from unmeasured direct emissions.
Luping Su, Edward G. Patton, Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Alex B. Guenther, Lisa Kaser, Bin Yuan, Fulizi Xiong, Paul B. Shepson, Li Zhang, David O. Miller, William H. Brune, Karsten Baumann, Eric Edgerton, Andrew Weinheimer, Pawel K. Misztal, Jeong-Hoo Park, Allen H. Goldstein, Kate M. Skog, Frank N. Keutsch, and John E. Mak
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7725–7741,
Paul S. Romer, Kaitlin C. Duffey, Paul J. Wooldridge, Hannah M. Allen, Benjamin R. Ayres, Steven S. Brown, William H. Brune, John D. Crounse, Joost de Gouw, Danielle C. Draper, Philip A. Feiner, Juliane L. Fry, Allen H. Goldstein, Abigail Koss, Pawel K. Misztal, Tran B. Nguyen, Kevin Olson, Alex P. Teng, Paul O. Wennberg, Robert J. Wild, Li Zhang, and Ronald C. Cohen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7623–7637,Short summary
The lifetime of nitrogen oxides (NOx) is evaluated by analysis of field measurements from the southeastern United States. At warm temperatures in the daytime boundary layer, NOx interconverts rapidly with both PAN and alkyl and multifunctional nitrates (RONO2), and the relevant lifetime is the combined lifetime of these three classes. We find that the production of RONO2, followed by hydrolysis to produce nitric acid, is the dominant pathway for NOx removal in an isoprene dominated forest.
Jenny A. Fisher, Daniel J. Jacob, Katherine R. Travis, Patrick S. Kim, Eloise A. Marais, Christopher Chan Miller, Karen Yu, Lei Zhu, Robert M. Yantosca, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Jingqiu Mao, Paul O. Wennberg, John D. Crounse, Alex P. Teng, Tran B. Nguyen, Jason M. St. Clair, Ronald C. Cohen, Paul Romer, Benjamin A. Nault, Paul J. Wooldridge, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Weiwei Hu, Paul B. Shepson, Fulizi Xiong, Donald R. Blake, Allen H. Goldstein, Pawel K. Misztal, Thomas F. Hanisco, Glenn M. Wolfe, Thomas B. Ryerson, Armin Wisthaler, and Tomas Mikoviny
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5969–5991,Short summary
We use new airborne and ground-based observations from two summer 2013 campaigns in the southeastern US, interpreted with a chemical transport model, to understand the impact of isoprene and monoterpene chemistry on the atmospheric NOx budget via production of organic nitrates (RONO2). We find that a diversity of species contribute to observed RONO2. Our work implies that the NOx sink to RONO2 production is only sensitive to NOx emissions in regions where they are already low.
S. T. Martin, P. Artaxo, L. A. T. Machado, A. O. Manzi, R. A. F. Souza, C. Schumacher, J. Wang, M. O. Andreae, H. M. J. Barbosa, J. Fan, G. Fisch, A. H. Goldstein, A. Guenther, J. L. Jimenez, U. Pöschl, M. A. Silva Dias, J. N. Smith, and M. Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4785–4797,Short summary
The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) Experiment took place in central Amazonia throughout 2014 and 2015. The experiment focused on the complex links among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other, especially when altered by urban pollution. This article serves as an introduction to the special issue of publications presenting findings of this experiment.
Brent J. Williams, Yaping Zhang, Xiaochen Zuo, Raul E. Martinez, Michael J. Walker, Nathan M. Kreisberg, Allen H. Goldstein, Kenneth S. Docherty, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1569–1586,Short summary
The thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph (TAG) has been used for in situ measurements of organic marker compounds to identify atmospheric particle sources and transformation processes. Here we identify that inorganic aerosol components (e.g., nitrate and sulfate) and highly oxygenated organic components experience thermal decomposition upon sample heating. This thermal decomposition signal in the TAG system is investigated through laboratory and field data.
A. W. H. Chan, N. M. Kreisberg, T. Hohaus, P. Campuzano-Jost, Y. Zhao, D. A. Day, L. Kaser, T. Karl, A. Hansel, A. P. Teng, C. R. Ruehl, D. T. Sueper, J. T. Jayne, D. R. Worsnop, J. L. Jimenez, S. V. Hering, and A. H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1187–1205,Short summary
Using a novel instrument, we have made measurements of organic compounds that can exist as a gas or particle in the rural atmosphere. Through hourly measurements, we have identified the sources and atmospheric processes of these compounds, which are important for modeling the climate and health impact of these emissions.
J. Timkovsky, A. W. H. Chan, T. Dorst, A. H. Goldstein, B. Oyama, and R. Holzinger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 5177–5187,
S. J. Lawson, M. D. Keywood, I. E. Galbally, J. L. Gras, J. M. Cainey, M. E. Cope, P. B. Krummel, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, S. T. Bentley, C. P. Meyer, Z. Ristovski, and A. H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13393–13411,Short summary
Biomass burning (BB) plumes were opportunistically measured at the Cape Grim Baseline Station in Tasmania, Australia. We provide a unique set of trace gas and particle emission factors for temperate Australian coastal heathland fires, and attribute a major short-lived enhancement in emission ratios to a minor rainfall event. The ability of BB particles to act as cloud condensation nuclei, and the contribution of BB emissions to observed particle growth and ozone enhancements are discussed.
B. R. Ayres, H. M. Allen, D. C. Draper, S. S. Brown, R. J. Wild, J. L. Jimenez, D. A. Day, P. Campuzano-Jost, W. Hu, J. de Gouw, A. Koss, R. C. Cohen, K. C. Duffey, P. Romer, K. Baumann, E. Edgerton, S. Takahama, J. A. Thornton, B. H. Lee, F. D. Lopez-Hilfiker, C. Mohr, P. O. Wennberg, T. B. Nguyen, A. Teng, A. H. Goldstein, K. Olson, and J. L. Fry
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13377–13392,Short summary
This paper reports atmospheric gas- and aerosol-phase field measurements from the southeastern United States in summer 2013 to demonstrate that the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds by nitrate radical produces a substantial amount of secondary organic aerosol in this region. This process, driven largely by monoterpenes, results in a comparable aerosol nitrate production rate to inorganic nitrate formation by heterogeneous uptake of HNO3 onto dust particles.
A. Guha, D. R. Gentner, R. J. Weber, R. Provencal, and A. H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12043–12063,Short summary
We perform a positive matrix factorization (PMF)-based source apportionment by combining GHG measurements with coincident VOC measurements in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Using VOCs as source tracers, we identify dairies and livestock as major sources of CH4 and N2O in the region. Agriculture is a significant source of N2O enhancements too, while vehicle emissions are found to be a negligible source of N2O. The findings are relevant to the state’s GHG inventory verification process.
W. W. Hu, P. Campuzano-Jost, B. B. Palm, D. A. Day, A. M. Ortega, P. L. Hayes, J. E. Krechmer, Q. Chen, M. Kuwata, Y. J. Liu, S. S. de Sá, K. McKinney, S. T. Martin, M. Hu, S. H. Budisulistiorini, M. Riva, J. D. Surratt, J. M. St. Clair, G. Isaacman-Van Wertz, L. D. Yee, A. H. Goldstein, S. Carbone, J. Brito, P. Artaxo, J. A. de Gouw, A. Koss, A. Wisthaler, T. Mikoviny, T. Karl, L. Kaser, W. Jud, A. Hansel, K. S. Docherty, M. L. Alexander, N. H. Robinson, H. Coe, J. D. Allan, M. R. Canagaratna, F. Paulot, and J. L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11807–11833,Short summary
This work summarized all the studies reporting isoprene epoxydiols-derived secondary organic aerosol (IEPOX-SOA) measured globally by aerosol mass spectrometer and compare them with modeled gas-phase IEPOX, with results suggestive of the importance of IEPOX-SOA for regional and global OA budgets. A real-time tracer of IEPOX-SOA is thoroughly evaluated for the first time by combing multiple field and chamber studies. A quick and easy empirical method on IEPOX-SOA estimation is also presented.
F. Xiong, K. M. McAvey, K. A. Pratt, C. J. Groff, M. A. Hostetler, M. A. Lipton, T. K. Starn, J. V. Seeley, S. B. Bertman, A. P. Teng, J. D. Crounse, T. B. Nguyen, P. O. Wennberg, P. K. Misztal, A. H. Goldstein, A. B. Guenther, A. R. Koss, K. F. Olson, J. A. de Gouw, K. Baumann, E. S. Edgerton, P. A. Feiner, L. Zhang, D. O. Miller, W. H. Brune, and P. B. Shepson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11257–11272,Short summary
Hydroxynitrates from isoprene oxidation were quantified both in the laboratory and through field studies. The yield of hydroxynitrates 9(+4/-3)% derived from chamber experiments was applied in a zero-dimensional model to simulate the production and loss of isoprene hydroxynitrates in an ambient environment during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS). NOx was determined to be the limiting factor for the formation of isoprene hydroxynitrates during SOAS.
G. Wohlfahrt, C. Amelynck, C. Ammann, A. Arneth, I. Bamberger, A. H. Goldstein, L. Gu, A. Guenther, A. Hansel, B. Heinesch, T. Holst, L. Hörtnagl, T. Karl, Q. Laffineur, A. Neftel, K. McKinney, J. W. Munger, S. G. Pallardy, G. W. Schade, R. Seco, and N. Schoon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7413–7427,Short summary
Methanol is the second most abundant volatile organic compound in the troposphere and plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. While there is consensus about the dominant role of plants as the major source and the reaction with OH as the major sink, global methanol budgets diverge considerably in terms of source/sink estimates. Here we present micrometeorological methanol flux data from eight sites in order to provide a first cross-site synthesis of the terrestrial methanol exchange.
M. C. Woody, J. J. West, S. H. Jathar, A. L. Robinson, and S. Arunachalam
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6929–6942,Short summary
Utilizing an aircraft-specific parameterization based on smog chamber data in a regional AQM, contributions of non-traditional secondary organic aerosols (NTSOA) from aircraft emissions of semi-volatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds were assessed. NTSOA, a previously unaccounted component of PM2.5 in most AQMs, contributed up to 7.4% of aviation-attributable PM2.5 at the airport and rose to 17.9% downwind, suggesting its significance in aviation-attributed PM2.5 at all scales.
K. R. Baker, A. G. Carlton, T. E. Kleindienst, J. H. Offenberg, M. R. Beaver, D. R. Gentner, A. H. Goldstein, P. L. Hayes, J. L. Jimenez, J. B. Gilman, J. A. de Gouw, M. C. Woody, H. O. T. Pye, J. T. Kelly, M. Lewandowski, M. Jaoui, P. S. Stevens, W. H. Brune, Y.-H. Lin, C. L. Rubitschun, and J. D. Surratt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5243–5258,Short summary
This work details the evaluation of PM2.5 carbon, VOC precursors, and OH estimated by the CMAQ photochemical transport model using routine and special measurements from the 2010 CalNex field study. Here, CMAQ and most recent emissions inventory (2011 NEI) are used to generate model PM2.5 OC estimates that are examined in novel ways including primary vs. secondary formation, fossil vs. contemporary carbon, OH and HO2 evaluation, and the relationship between key VOC precursors and SOC tracers.
J. R. Roscioli, T. I. Yacovitch, C. Floerchinger, A. L. Mitchell, D. S. Tkacik, R. Subramanian, D. M. Martinez, T. L. Vaughn, L. Williams, D. Zimmerle, A. L. Robinson, S. C. Herndon, and A. J. Marchese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2017–2035,Short summary
This report presents an overview and detailed description of the measurement methods, analysis approach, and example data from a 10-week EDF-sponsored field campaign measuring methane emissions from natural gas gathering and processing facilities across the US. The dual-tracer ratio method was employed to quantify methane release rates and identify emission sources at a wide variety of facilities, using downwind measurements of CH4, C2H6, CO2, and CO with N2O and C2H2 as tracers.
G. Isaacman, N. M. Kreisberg, L. D. Yee, D. R. Worton, A. W. H. Chan, J. A. Moss, S. V. Hering, and A. H. Goldstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4417–4429,Short summary
We present here a new in situ instrument for ambient measurements of highly polar organic semi-volatile and low-volatility compounds in both the gas and particle phase by gas chromatography. Compounds previously measured only through filter collection and offline analysis can now be measured hourly with, in most cases, less than 20% uncertainty. This instrument provides unprecedented time resolution and the first ever observations of gas-particle partitioning for most of these compounds.
N. M. Kreisberg, D. R. Worton, Y. Zhao, G. Isaacman, A. H. Goldstein, and S. V. Hering
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4431–4444,
Y. You, V. P. Kanawade, J. A. de Gouw, A. B. Guenther, S. Madronich, M. R. Sierra-Hernández, M. Lawler, J. N. Smith, S. Takahama, G. Ruggeri, A. Koss, K. Olson, K. Baumann, R. J. Weber, A. Nenes, H. Guo, E. S. Edgerton, L. Porcelli, W. H. Brune, A. H. Goldstein, and S.-H. Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12181–12194,Short summary
Amiens play important roles in atmospheric secondary aerosol formation and human health, but the fast response measurements of amines are lacking. Here we show measurements in a southeastern US forest and a moderately polluted midwestern site. Our results show that gas to particle conversion is an important process that controls ambient amine concentrations and that biomass burning is an important source of amines.
P. K. Misztal, T. Karl, R. Weber, H. H. Jonsson, A. B. Guenther, and A. H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10631–10647,
C. E. Stockwell, R. J. Yokelson, S. M. Kreidenweis, A. L. Robinson, P. J. DeMott, R. C. Sullivan, J. Reardon, K. C. Ryan, D. W. T. Griffith, and L. Stevens
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9727–9754,
T. R. Dallmann, T. B. Onasch, T. W. Kirchstetter, D. R. Worton, E. C. Fortner, S. C. Herndon, E. C. Wood, J. P. Franklin, D. R. Worsnop, A. H. Goldstein, and R. A. Harley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7585–7599,
J. Ortega, A. Turnipseed, A. B. Guenther, T. G. Karl, D. A. Day, D. Gochis, J. A. Huffman, A. J. Prenni, E. J. T. Levin, S. M. Kreidenweis, P. J. DeMott, Y. Tobo, E. G. Patton, A. Hodzic, Y. Y. Cui, P. C. Harley, R. S. Hornbrook, E. C. Apel, R. K. Monson, A. S. D. Eller, J. P. Greenberg, M. C. Barth, P. Campuzano-Jost, B. B. Palm, J. L. Jimenez, A. C. Aiken, M. K. Dubey, C. Geron, J. Offenberg, M. G. Ryan, P. J. Fornwalt, S. C. Pryor, F. N. Keutsch, J. P. DiGangi, A. W. H. Chan, A. H. Goldstein, G. M. Wolfe, S. Kim, L. Kaser, R. Schnitzhofer, A. Hansel, C. A. Cantrell, R. L. Mauldin, and J. N. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6345–6367,
C. Knote, A. Hodzic, J. L. Jimenez, R. Volkamer, J. J. Orlando, S. Baidar, J. Brioude, J. Fast, D. R. Gentner, A. H. Goldstein, P. L. Hayes, W. B. Knighton, H. Oetjen, A. Setyan, H. Stark, R. Thalman, G. Tyndall, R. Washenfelder, E. Waxman, and Q. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6213–6239,
B. N. Murphy, N. M. Donahue, A. L. Robinson, and S. N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5825–5839,
S. H. Jathar, N. M. Donahue, P. J. Adams, and A. L. Robinson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5771–5780,
D. R. Gentner, E. Ormeño, S. Fares, T. B. Ford, R. Weber, J.-H. Park, J. Brioude, W. M. Angevine, J. F. Karlik, and A. H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5393–5413,
A. A. Presto, T. D. Gordon, and A. L. Robinson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5015–5036,
D. R. Gentner, T. B. Ford, A. Guha, K. Boulanger, J. Brioude, W. M. Angevine, J. A. de Gouw, C. Warneke, J. B. Gilman, T. B. Ryerson, J. Peischl, S. Meinardi, D. R. Blake, E. Atlas, W. A. Lonneman, T. E. Kleindienst, M. R. Beaver, J. M. St. Clair, P. O. Wennberg, T. C. VandenBoer, M. Z. Markovic, J. G. Murphy, R. A. Harley, and A. H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4955–4978,
T. D. Gordon, A. A. Presto, N. T. Nguyen, W. H. Robertson, K. Na, K. N. Sahay, M. Zhang, C. Maddox, P. Rieger, S. Chattopadhyay, H. Maldonado, M. M. Maricq, and A. L. Robinson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4643–4659,
T. D. Gordon, A. A. Presto, A. A. May, N. T. Nguyen, E. M. Lipsky, N. M. Donahue, A. Gutierrez, M. Zhang, C. Maddox, P. Rieger, S. Chattopadhyay, H. Maldonado, M. M. Maricq, and A. L. Robinson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4661–4678,
S. E. Pusede, D. R. Gentner, P. J. Wooldridge, E. C. Browne, A. W. Rollins, K.-E. Min, A. R. Russell, J. Thomas, L. Zhang, W. H. Brune, S. B. Henry, J. P. DiGangi, F. N. Keutsch, S. A. Harrold, J. A. Thornton, M. R. Beaver, J. M. St. Clair, P. O. Wennberg, J. Sanders, X. Ren, T. C. VandenBoer, M. Z. Markovic, A. Guha, R. Weber, A. H. Goldstein, and R. C. Cohen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3373–3395,
J.-H. Park, S. Fares, R. Weber, and A. H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 231–244,
N. Unger, K. Harper, Y. Zheng, N. Y. Kiang, I. Aleinov, A. Arneth, G. Schurgers, C. Amelynck, A. Goldstein, A. Guenther, B. Heinesch, C. N. Hewitt, T. Karl, Q. Laffineur, B. Langford, K. A. McKinney, P. Misztal, M. Potosnak, J. Rinne, S. Pressley, N. Schoon, and D. Serça
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10243–10269,
R. Holzinger, A. H. Goldstein, P. L. Hayes, J. L. Jimenez, and J. Timkovsky
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10125–10141,
R. Saleh, C. J. Hennigan, G. R. McMeeking, W. K. Chuang, E. S. Robinson, H. Coe, N. M. Donahue, and A. L. Robinson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7683–7693,
K. Kristensen, K. L. Enggrob, S. M. King, D. R. Worton, S. M. Platt, R. Mortensen, T. Rosenoern, J. D. Surratt, M. Bilde, A. H. Goldstein, and M. Glasius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3763–3776,
J.-H. Park, A. H. Goldstein, J. Timkovsky, S. Fares, R. Weber, J. Karlik, and R. Holzinger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1439–1456,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)In-depth characterization of submicron particulate matter inter-annual variations at a street canyon site in northern EuropeMeasurement report: Firework impacts on air quality in Metro Manila, Philippines, during the 2019 New Year revelryChemical composition of PM2.5 in October 2017 Northern California wildfire plumesAtmospheric conditions and composition that influence PM2.5 oxidative potential in Beijing, ChinaOrganic aerosol volatility and viscosity in the North China Plain: contrast between summer and winterDisparities in particulate matter (PM10) origins and oxidative potential at a city scale (Grenoble, France) – Part 1: Source apportionment at three neighbouring sitesMeasurement report: Comparison of wintertime individual particles at ground level and above the mixed layer in urban BeijingAerosol characteristics at the Southern Great Plains site during the HI-SCALE campaignA two-component parameterization of marine ice-nucleating particles based on seawater biology and sea spray aerosol measurements in the Mediterranean SeaSeasonal variations in the highly time-resolved aerosol composition, sources and chemical processes of background submicron particles in the North China PlainConcerted measurements of lipids in seawater and on submicrometer aerosol particles at the Cabo Verde islands: biogenic sources, selective transfer and high enrichmentsMeasurement report: Long-range transport patterns into the tropical northwest Pacific during the CAMP2Ex aircraft campaign: chemical composition, size distributions, and the impact of convectionIdentification and source attribution of organic compounds in ultrafine particles near Frankfurt International AirportSource apportionment and impact of long-range transport on carbonaceous aerosol particles in central Germany during HCCT-2010Measurement report: PM2.5-bound nitrated aromatic compounds in Xi'an, Northwest China – seasonal variations and contributions to optical properties of brown carbonCompositions and mixing states of aerosol particles by aircraft observations in the Arctic springtime, 2018Measurement report: Chemical characteristics of PM2.5 during typical biomass burning season at an agricultural site of the North China PlainMeasurement report: Spatial variations in ionic chemistry and water-stable isotopes in the snowpack on glaciers across Svalbard during the 2015–2016 snow accumulation seasonOrganosulfates in atmospheric aerosols in Shanghai, China: seasonal and interannual variability, origin, and formation mechanismsMeasurement report: Hydrolyzed amino acids in fine and coarse atmospheric aerosol in Nanchang, China: concentrations, compositions, sources and possible bacterial degradation stateSulfuric acid–amine nucleation in urban BeijingPersistent residential burning-related primary organic particles during wintertime hazes in North China: insights into their aging and optical changesConcentrations, particle-size distributions, and dry deposition fluxes of aerosol trace elements over the Antarctic Peninsula in austral summerCharacteristics, primary sources and secondary formation of water-soluble organic aerosols in downtown BeijingMeasurement report: Effects of photochemical aging on the formation and evolution of summertime secondary aerosol in BeijingIncreased new particle yields with largely decreased probability of survival to CCN size at the summit of Mt. Tai under reduced SO2 emissionsEnhancement of secondary aerosol formation by reduced anthropogenic emissions during Spring Festival 2019 and enlightenment for regional PM2.5 control in BeijingLinking marine phytoplankton emissions, meteorological processes, and downwind particle properties with FLEXPARTHighly time-resolved measurements of element concentrations in PM10 and PM2.5: comparison of Delhi, Beijing, London, and KrakowAtmospheric evolution of emissions from a boreal forest fire: the formation of highly functionalized oxygen-, nitrogen-, and sulfur-containing organic compoundsConcerted measurements of free amino acids at the Cabo Verde islands: high enrichments in submicron sea spray aerosol particles and cloud dropletsInvestigating three patterns of new particles growing to the size of cloud condensation nuclei in Beijing's urban atmosphereCultivable, halotolerant ice nucleating bacteria and fungi in coastal precipitationMeasurement report: dual-carbon isotopic characterization of carbonaceous aerosol reveals different primary and secondary sources in Beijing and Xi'an during severe haze eventsNorth Atlantic marine organic aerosol characterized by novel offline thermal desorption mass spectrometry: polysaccharides, recalcitrant material, and secondary organicsSources and characteristics of size-resolved particulate organic acids and methanesulfonate in a coastal megacity: Manila, PhilippinesEffects of AIR pollution on cardiopuLmonary disEaSe in urban and peri-urban reSidents in Beijing: protocol for the AIRLESS studyChemical composition and source apportionment of atmospheric aerosols on the Namibian coastExploring the drivers of the increased ozone production in Beijing in summertime during 2005–2016Increase of secondary organic aerosol over four years in an urban environmentOptical source apportionment and radiative effect of light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosols in a tropical marine monsoon climate zone: the importance of ship emissionsTrends, composition, and sources of carbonaceous aerosol in the last 18 years at the Birkenes Observatory, Northern EuropeMeasurement report: Seasonality, distribution and sources of organophosphate esters in PM2.5 from an inland urban city in Southwest ChinaNationwide increase of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ultrafine particles during winter over China revealed by size-segregated measurementsSize-resolved exposure risk of persistent free radicals (PFRs) in atmospheric aerosols and their potential sourcesSource apportionment of black carbon aerosols from light absorption observation and source-oriented modeling: an implication in a coastal city in ChinaTracing the evolution of morphology and mixing state of soot particles along with the movement of an Asian dust stormA comparison of PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in summer Beijing (China) and Delhi (India)Impact of in-cloud aqueous processes on the chemical compositions and morphology of individual atmospheric aerosolsTropospheric aerosol hygroscopicity in China
Luis M. F. Barreira, Aku Helin, Minna Aurela, Kimmo Teinilä, Milla Friman, Leena Kangas, Jarkko V. Niemi, Harri Portin, Anu Kousa, Liisa Pirjola, Topi Rönkkö, Sanna Saarikoski, and Hilkka Timonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6297–6314,Short summary
We present results from the long-term measurements (5 years) of highly time-resolved atmospheric PM1 composition at an urban street canyon site. Overall, the results increased knowledge of the variability of PM1 concentration, composition, and sources in a traffic site and the implications for urban air quality. The investigation of pollution episodes showed that both local and long-range-transported pollutants can still cause elevated PM1 and PM2.5 concentrations in northern Europe.
Genevieve Rose Lorenzo, Paola Angela Bañaga, Maria Obiminda Cambaliza, Melliza Templonuevo Cruz, Mojtaba AzadiAghdam, Avelino Arellano, Grace Betito, Rachel Braun, Andrea F. Corral, Hossein Dadashazar, Eva-Lou Edwards, Edwin Eloranta, Robert Holz, Gabrielle Leung, Lin Ma, Alexander B. MacDonald, Jeffrey S. Reid, James Bernard Simpas, Connor Stahl, Shane Marie Visaga, and Armin Sorooshian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6155–6173,Short summary
Firework emissions change the physicochemical and optical properties of water-soluble particles, which subsequently alters the background aerosol’s respirability, influence on surroundings, ability to uptake gases, and viability as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). There was heavy aerosol loading due to fireworks in the boundary layer. The aerosol constituents were largely water-soluble and submicrometer in size due to both inorganic salts in firework materials and gas-to-particle conversion.
Yutong Liang, Coty N. Jen, Robert J. Weber, Pawel K. Misztal, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5719–5737,Short summary
This article reports the molecular composition of smoke particles people in SF Bay Area were exposed to during northern California wildfires in Oct. 2017. Major components are sugars, acids, aromatics, and terpenoids. These observations can be used to better understand health impacts of smoke exposure. Tracer compounds indicate which fuels burned, including diterpenoids for softwood and syringyls for hardwood. A statistical analysis reveals a group of secondary compounds formed in daytime aging.
Steven J. Campbell, Kate Wolfer, Battist Utinger, Joe Westwood, Zhi-Hui Zhang, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Sarah S. Steimer, Tuan V. Vu, Jingsha Xu, Nicholas Straw, Steven Thomson, Atallah Elzein, Yele Sun, Di Liu, Linjie Li, Pingqing Fu, Alastair C. Lewis, Roy M. Harrison, William J. Bloss, Miranda Loh, Mark R. Miller, Zongbo Shi, and Markus Kalberer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5549–5573,Short summary
In this study, we quantify PM2.5 oxidative potential (OP), a metric widely suggested as a potential measure of particle toxicity, in Beijing in summer and winter using four acellular assays. We correlate PM2.5 OP with a comprehensive range of atmospheric and particle composition measurements, demonstrating inter-assay differences and seasonal variation of PM2.5 OP. Using multivariate statistical analysis, we highlight specific particle chemical components and sources that influence OP.
Weiqi Xu, Chun Chen, Yanmei Qiu, Ying Li, Zhiqiang Zhang, Eleni Karnezi, Spyros N. Pandis, Conghui Xie, Zhijie Li, Jiaxing Sun, Nan Ma, Wanyun Xu, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Jiang Zhu, Douglas R. Worsnop, Nga Lee Ng, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5463–5476,Short summary
Here aerosol volatility and viscosity at a rural site (Gucheng) and an urban site (Beijing) in the North China Plain (NCP) were investigated in summer and winter. Our results showed that organic aerosol (OA) in winter in the NCP is more volatile than that in summer due to enhanced primary emissions from coal combustion and biomass burning. We also found that OA existed mainly as a solid in winter in Beijing but as semisolids in Beijing in summer and Gucheng in winter.
Lucille Joanna S. Borlaza, Samuël Weber, Gaëlle Uzu, Véronique Jacob, Trishalee Cañete, Steve Micallef, Cécile Trébuchon, Rémy Slama, Olivier Favez, and Jean-Luc Jaffrezo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5415–5437,Short summary
This study focuses on fully discriminating the origins of particulates by tackling specific secondary organic aerosol (SOA) sources that are difficult to resolve using traditional datasets, especially at a city scale. This is done through the use of additional fit-for-purpose tracers in the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model, which can be obtained using simpler and more targeted techniques, and the comparison of the PMF models from sites in close range but with different urban typologies.
Wenhua Wang, Longyi Shao, Claudio Mazzoleni, Yaowei Li, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Janarjan Bhandari, Jiaoping Xing, Xiaolei Feng, Mengyuan Zhang, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5301–5314,Short summary
We compared the characteristics of individual particles at ground level and above the mixed-layer height. We found that the particles above the mixed-layer height during haze periods are more aged compared to ground level. More coal-combustion-related primary organic particles were found above the mixed-layer height. We suggest that the particles above the mixed-layer height are affected by the surrounding areas, and once mixed down to the ground, they might contribute to ground air pollution.
Jiumeng Liu, Liz Alexander, Jerome D. Fast, Rodica Lindenmaier, and John E. Shilling
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5101–5116,Short summary
To bridge the gaps in modeling and observational results due to insufficient understanding of aerosol properties, co-located measurements of aerosols and trace gases were conducted at SGP during the HI-SCALE campaign. Organic aerosols at the SGP site exhibited to be highly oxidized, and biogenic emissions appear to largely control the formation of organic aerosols. Seasonal variations of sources and meteorological impacts likely resulted in the highly oxygenated feature of aerosols.
Jonathan V. Trueblood, Alessia Nicosia, Anja Engel, Birthe Zäncker, Matteo Rinaldi, Evelyn Freney, Melilotus Thyssen, Ingrid Obernosterer, Julie Dinasquet, Franco Belosi, Antonio Tovar-Sánchez, Araceli Rodriguez-Romero, Gianni Santachiara, Cécile Guieu, and Karine Sellegri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4659–4676,Short summary
Sea spray aerosols (SSAs) can be an important source of ice-nucleating particles (INPs) that impact cloud properties over the oceans. In the Mediterranean Sea, we found that the INPs in the seawater surface microlayer increased by an order of magnitude after a rain dust event that impacted iron and bacterial abundances. The INP properties of SSA (INPSSA) increased after a 3 d delay. Outside this event, INPSSA could be parameterized as a function of the seawater biogeochemistry.
Jiayun Li, Liming Cao, Wenkang Gao, Lingyan He, Yingchao Yan, Yuexin He, Yuepeng Pan, Dongsheng Ji, Zirui Liu, and Yuesi Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4521–4539,Short summary
For the first time, we investigated the highly time-resolved chemical characterization, sources and evolution of atmospheric submicron aerosols at a regional background site in the North China Plain (NCP) using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer and evaluated the seasonal differentials of photochemical and aqueous-phase processing on SOA composition and oxidation degree of OA. The results will help to understand air pollution in the NCP on a regional scale.
Nadja Triesch, Manuela van Pinxteren, Sanja Frka, Christian Stolle, Tobias Spranger, Erik Hans Hoffmann, Xianda Gong, Heike Wex, Detlef Schulz-Bull, Blaženka Gašparović, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4267–4283,Short summary
To investigate the source of lipids and their representatives in the marine atmosphere, concerted measurements of seawater and submicrometer aerosol particle sampling were carried out on the Cabo Verde islands. This field study describes the biogenic sources of lipids, their selective transfer from the ocean into the atmosphere and their enrichment as part of organic matter. A strong enrichment of the studied representatives of the lipid classes on submicrometer aerosol particles was observed.
Miguel Ricardo A. Hilario, Ewan Crosbie, Michael Shook, Jeffrey S. Reid, Maria Obiminda L. Cambaliza, James Bernard B. Simpas, Luke Ziemba, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Phu Nguyen, F. Joseph Turk, Edward Winstead, Claire E. Robinson, Jian Wang, Jiaoshi Zhang, Yang Wang, Subin Yoon, James Flynn, Sergio L. Alvarez, Ali Behrangi, and Armin Sorooshian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3777–3802,Short summary
This study characterizes long-range transport from major Asian pollution sources into the tropical northwest Pacific and the impact of scavenging on these air masses. We combined aircraft observations, HYSPLIT trajectories, reanalysis, and satellite retrievals to reveal distinct composition and size distribution profiles associated with specific emission sources and wet scavenging. The results of this work have implications for international policymaking related to climate and health.
Florian Ungeheuer, Dominik van Pinxteren, and Alexander L. Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3763–3775,Short summary
We analysed the chemical composition of ultrafine particles from 10–56 nm near Frankfurt Airport based on cascade impactor samples. We used an offline non-target screening to determine size-resolved molecular fingerprints. Unambiguous attribution of two homologous ester series to jet engine oils enables a new strategy of source attribution and explains the majority of the detected compounds. In addition, we identified additives of jet oils and a detrimental thermal transformation product.
Laurent Poulain, Benjamin Fahlbusch, Gerald Spindler, Konrad Müller, Dominik van Pinxteren, Zhijun Wu, Yoshiteru Iinuma, Wolfram Birmili, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3667–3684,Short summary
We present results from source apportionment analysis on the carbonaceous aerosol particles, including organic aerosol (OA) and equivalent black carbon (eBC), allowing us to distinguish local emissions from long-range transport for OA and eBC sources. By merging online chemical measurements and considering particle number size distribution, the different air masses reaching the sampling place were described and discussed, based on their respective chemical composition and size distribution.
Wei Yuan, Ru-Jin Huang, Lu Yang, Ting Wang, Jing Duan, Jie Guo, Haiyan Ni, Yang Chen, Qi Chen, Yongjie Li, Ulrike Dusek, Colin O'Dowd, and Thorsten Hoffmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3685–3697,Short summary
We characterized the seasonal variations in nitrated aromatic compounds (NACs) in composition, sources, and their light absorption contribution to brown carbon (BrC) aerosol in Xi'an, Northwest China. Our results show that secondary formation and vehicular emission were dominant sources in summer (~80 %), and biomass burning and coal combustion were major sources in winter (~75 %), and they indicate that the composition and sources of NACs have a profound impact on the light absorption of BrC
Kouji Adachi, Naga Oshima, Sho Ohata, Atsushi Yoshida, Nobuhiro Moteki, and Makoto Koike
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3607–3626,Short summary
Aerosol particles influence the Arctic climate by interacting with solar radiation, forming clouds, and melting surface snow and ice. Individual-particle analyses using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and model simulations provide evidence of biomass burning and anthropogenic contributions to the Arctic aerosols by showing a wide range of compositions and mixing states depending on sampling altitude. Our results reveal the aerosol aging processes and climate influences in the Arctic.
Linlin Liang, Guenter Engling, Chang Liu, Wanyun Xu, Xuyan Liu, Yuan Cheng, Zhenyu Du, Gen Zhang, Junying Sun, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3181–3192,Short summary
A unique episode with extreme biomass burning (BB) impact, with daily concentration of levoglucosan as high as 4.37 µg m-3, was captured at an area upwind of Beijing. How this extreme BB pollution event was generated and what were the chemical properties of PM2.5 under this kind severe BB pollution level in the real atmospheric environment were both presented in this measurement report. Moreover, the variation of the ratios of BB tracers during different BB pollution periods was also exhibited.
Elena Barbaro, Krystyna Koziol, Mats P. Björkman, Carmen P. Vega, Christian Zdanowicz, Tonu Martma, Jean-Charles Gallet, Daniel Kępski, Catherine Larose, Bartłomiej Luks, Florian Tolle, Thomas V. Schuler, Aleksander Uszczyk, and Andrea Spolaor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3163–3180,Short summary
This paper shows the most comprehensive seasonal snow chemistry survey to date, carried out in April 2016 across 22 sites on 7 glaciers across Svalbard. The dataset consists of the concentration, mass loading, spatial and altitudinal distribution of major ion species (Ca2+, K+, Na2+, Mg2+, NH4+, SO42−, Br−, Cl− and NO3−), together with its stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition (δ18O and δ2H) in the snowpack. This study was part of the larger Community Coordinated Snow Study in Svalbard.
Yao Wang, Yue Zhao, Yuchen Wang, Jian-Zhen Yu, Jingyuan Shao, Ping Liu, Wenfei Zhu, Zhen Cheng, Ziyue Li, Naiqiang Yan, and Huayun Xiao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2959–2980,Short summary
Organosulfates (OSs) are important constituents and tracers of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) in the atmosphere. Here we characterized the OS species in ambient aerosols in Shanghai, China. We find that the contributions of OSs and SOAs to organic aerosols have increased in recent years and that OS production was largely controlled by the oxidant level (Ox), particularly in summer. We infer that mitigation of Ox pollution can effectively reduce the production of OSs and SOAs in eastern China.
Ren-Guo Zhu, Hua-Yun Xiao, Li Luo, Hongwei Xiao, Zequn Wen, Yuwen Zhu, Xiaozheng Fang, Yuanyuan Pan, and Zhenping Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2585–2600,Short summary
Amino acids (AAs), as important organic nitrogen compounds, play key roles in the nitrogen cycles, climate change and public health. The sources and transformation of AAs in two size-segregated aerosol particles were explored. This study presents the first isotopic evidence that the sources of AAs for fine and coarse aerosol particles may be similar. And the potentially significant role of bacterial degradation processes in aerosol protein degradation state was suggested.
Runlong Cai, Chao Yan, Dongsen Yang, Rujing Yin, Yiqun Lu, Chenjuan Deng, Yueyun Fu, Jiaxin Ruan, Xiaoxiao Li, Jenni Kontkanen, Qiang Zhang, Juha Kangasluoma, Yan Ma, Jiming Hao, Douglas R. Worsnop, Federico Bianchi, Pauli Paasonen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Yongchun Liu, Lin Wang, Jun Zheng, Markku Kulmala, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2457–2468,Short summary
Based on long-term measurements, we discovered that the collision of H2SO4–amine clusters is the governing mechanism that initializes fast new particle formation in the polluted atmospheric environment of urban Beijing. The mechanism and the governing factors for H2SO4–amine nucleation in the polluted atmosphere are quantitatively investigated in this study.
Lei Liu, Jian Zhang, Yinxiao Zhang, Yuanyuan Wang, Liang Xu, Qi Yuan, Dantong Liu, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, Zongbo Shi, and Weijun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2251–2265,Short summary
We found that large numbers of light-absorbing primary organic particles with high viscosity, especially tarballs, from domestic coal and biomass burning occurred in rural and even urban hazes in the winter of North China. For the first time, we characterized the atmospheric aging process of these burning-related primary organic particles by microscopic analysis and further evaluated their light absorption enhancement resulting from the “lensing effect” of secondary inorganic coatings.
Songyun Fan, Yuan Gao, Robert M. Sherrell, Shun Yu, and Kaixuan Bu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2105–2124,Short summary
Aerosol sampling was carried out at Palmer Station in the west Antarctic Peninsula during the austral summer of 2016–2017. This study generated new data on the concentrations and particle-size distributions of aerosol trace elements in the marine atmosphere over this region. Measurement data allowed estimating the dry deposition fluxes. The new results are critically important to understanding the properties of aerosol particles and regional biogeochemical cycles.
Qing Yu, Jing Chen, Weihua Qin, Siming Cheng, Yuepeng Zhang, Yuewei Sun, Ke Xin, and Mushtaq Ahmad
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1775–1796,Short summary
Water-soluble organic aerosols have significant impacts on haze formation, climate change and human health. This study investigated the characteristics of WSOC in PM2.5 in Beijing to compare the source contributions of different WSOC fractions and the influencing factors for different secondary components in WSOC. Our results help to propose control measures for WSOC during severe haze episodes and underline the importance of SOA properties and heterogeneous reactions in different seasons.
Tianzeng Chen, Jun Liu, Qingxin Ma, Biwu Chu, Peng Zhang, Jinzhu Ma, Yongchun Liu, Cheng Zhong, Pengfei Liu, Yafei Wang, Yujing Mu, and Hong He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1341–1356,Short summary
Effects of photochemical aging on the formation and evolution of summertime secondary aerosol were systematically investigated in a suburb of Beijing. Higher PM1 concentration accompanied longer photochemical age (ta). Sulfate and more-oxidized OOA formation were significantly sensitive to the increase in ta, and their contributions were greatly enhanced at elevated ta levels. Our results suggested that photochemical aging process played a crucial role in PM1 and O3 pollution in summertime.
Yujiao Zhu, Likun Xue, Jian Gao, Jianmin Chen, Hongyong Li, Yong Zhao, Zhaoxin Guo, Tianshu Chen, Liang Wen, Penggang Zheng, Ye Shan, Xinfeng Wang, Tao Wang, Xiaohong Yao, and Wenxing Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1305–1323,Short summary
This work investigates the long-term changes in new particle formation (NPF) events under reduced SO2 emissions at the summit of Mt. Tai during seven campaigns from 2007 to 2018. We found the NPF intensity increased 2- to 3-fold in 2018 compared to 2007. In contrast, the probability of new particles growing to CCN size largely decreased. Changes to biogenic VOCs and anthropogenic emissions are proposed to explain the distinct NPF characteristics.
Yuying Wang, Zhanqing Li, Qiuyan Wang, Xiaoai Jin, Peng Yan, Maureen Cribb, Yanan Li, Cheng Yuan, Hao Wu, Tong Wu, Rongmin Ren, and Zhaoxin Cai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 915–926,Short summary
The unexpected increase in surface ozone concentration was found along with the reduced anthropogenic emissions during the 2019 Chinese Spring Festival in Beijing. The enhanced atmospheric oxidation capacity could promote the formation of secondary aerosols, especially sulfate, which offset the decrease in PM2.5 mass concentration. This phenomenon was likely to exist throughout the entire Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH) region to be a contributing factor to the haze during the COVID-19 lockdown.
Kevin J. Sanchez, Bo Zhang, Hongyu Liu, Georges Saliba, Chia-Li Chen, Savannah L. Lewis, Lynn M. Russell, Michael A. Shook, Ewan C. Crosbie, Luke D. Ziemba, Matthew D. Brown, Taylor J. Shingler, Claire E. Robinson, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Edward L. Winstead, Carolyn Jordan, Patricia K. Quinn, Timothy S. Bates, Jack Porter, Thomas G. Bell, Eric S. Saltzman, Michael J. Behrenfeld, and Richard H. Moore
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 831–851,Short summary
Models describing atmospheric airflow were combined with satellite measurements representative of marine phytoplankton and other meteorological variables. These combined variables were compared to measured aerosol to identify upwind influences on aerosol concentrations. Results indicate that phytoplankton production rates upwind impact the aerosol mass. Also, results suggest that the condensation of mass onto short-lived large sea spray particles may be a significant sink of aerosol mass.
Pragati Rai, Jay G. Slowik, Markus Furger, Imad El Haddad, Suzanne Visser, Yandong Tong, Atinderpal Singh, Günther Wehrle, Varun Kumar, Anna K. Tobler, Deepika Bhattu, Liwei Wang, Dilip Ganguly, Neeraj Rastogi, Ru-Jin Huang, Jaroslaw Necki, Junji Cao, Sachchida N. Tripathi, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 717–730,Short summary
We present a simple conceptual framework based on elemental size distributions and enrichment factors that allows for a characterization of major sources, site-to-site similarities, and local differences and the identification of key information required for efficient policy development. Absolute concentrations are by far the highest in Delhi, followed by Beijing, and then the European cities.
Jenna C. Ditto, Megan He, Tori N. Hass-Mitchell, Samar G. Moussa, Katherine Hayden, Shao-Meng Li, John Liggio, Amy Leithead, Patrick Lee, Michael J. Wheeler, Jeremy J. B. Wentzell, and Drew R. Gentner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 255–267,Short summary
Forest fires are an important source of reactive organic gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. We analyzed organic aerosols collected from an aircraft above a boreal forest fire and reported an increasing contribution from compounds containing oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur as the plume aged, with sulfide and ring-bound nitrogen functionality. Our results demonstrated chemistry that is important in biomass burning but also in urban/developing regions with high local nitrogen and sulfur emissions.
Nadja Triesch, Manuela van Pinxteren, Anja Engel, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 163–181,Short summary
To investigate the sources of free amino acids (FAAs) in the marine atmosphere, concerted measurements (the simultaneous investigation of seawater, size-segregated aerosol particles and cloud water) were performed at the Cabo Verde islands. This study describes the transfer of FAAs as part of organic matter from the ocean into the atmosphere on a molecular level. In the investigated marine environment, a high enrichment of FAAs in submicron aerosol particles and in cloud droplets was observed.
Liya Ma, Yujiao Zhu, Mei Zheng, Yele Sun, Lei Huang, Xiaohuan Liu, Yang Gao, Yanjie Shen, Huiwang Gao, and Xiaohong Yao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 183–200,Short summary
In this study, we investigate three patterns of new particles growing to CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) size, i.e., one-stage growth and two-stage growth-A and growth-B patterns. Combining the observations of gaseous pollutants and measured or modeled particulate chemical species, the three growth patterns were discussed regarding the spatial heterogeneity, formation of secondary aerosols, and evaporation of semivolatile particulates as was the survival probability of new particles to CCN size.
Charlotte M. Beall, Jennifer M. Michaud, Meredith A. Fish, Julie Dinasquet, Gavin C. Cornwell, M. Dale Stokes, Michael D. Burkart, Thomas C. Hill, Paul J. DeMott, and Kimberly A. Prather
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Ice nucleating particles (INPs) can influence multiple climate-relevant cloud properties by triggering droplet freezing at relative humidities below or temperatures above the freezing point of water. The ocean is a significant INP source, yet the specific identities of marine INPs remain largely unknown. Here we identify 14 ice nucleating microbes from aerosol and precipitation samples collected at a coastal site in Southern California, two or more of which are marine.
Haiyan Ni, Ru-Jin Huang, Max M. Cosijn, Lu Yang, Jie Guo, Junji Cao, and Ulrike Dusek
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 16041–16053,Short summary
We investigated sources of carbonaceous aerosols in Beijing and Xi'an during severe winter haze. Elemental carbon (EC) was dominated by vehicle emissions in Xi’an and coal burning in Beijing. Organic carbon (OC) increment during haze days was driven by the increase in primary and secondary OC (SOC). SOC was more from fossil sources in Beijing than Xi’an, especially during haze days. In Xi’an, no strong day–night differences in EC or OC sources suggest a large accumulation of particles.
Michael J. Lawler, Savannah L. Lewis, Lynn M. Russell, Patricia K. Quinn, Timothy S. Bates, Derek J. Coffman, Lucia M. Upchurch, and Eric S. Saltzman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 16007–16022,Short summary
This work describes new measurements of aerosol (particles) composition over the North Atlantic Ocean. It provides concentrations of polysaccharide material likely made from organisms in the surface ocean and improves our understanding of the relative importance of such fresh biogenic material compared to more recalcitrant organic carbon in forming marine organic aerosol. We aim ultimately to understand the role that ocean biology plays in cloud formation in marine regions.
Connor Stahl, Melliza Templonuevo Cruz, Paola Angela Bañaga, Grace Betito, Rachel A. Braun, Mojtaba Azadi Aghdam, Maria Obiminda Cambaliza, Genevieve Rose Lorenzo, Alexander B. MacDonald, Miguel Ricardo A. Hilario, Preciosa Corazon Pabroa, John Robin Yee, James Bernard Simpas, and Armin Sorooshian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15907–15935,Short summary
Long-term (16-month) high-frequency (weekly) measurements of size-resolved aerosol composition are reported. Important insights are discussed about factors (e.g., transport, fires, precipitation, photo-oxidation) impacting the mass size distributions of organic and sulfonic acids at a coastal megacity with diverse meteorology. The size-resolved nature of the data yielded one such finding that organic acids preferentially adsorb to dust rather than sea salt particles.
Yiqun Han, Wu Chen, Lia Chatzidiakou, Anika Krause, Li Yan, Hanbin Zhang, Queenie Chan, Ben Barratt, Rod Jones, Jing Liu, Yangfeng Wu, Meiping Zhao, Junfeng Zhang, Frank J. Kelly, Tong Zhu, and the AIRLESS team
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15775–15792,Short summary
Panel studies might be the most suitable way to link intensive air monitoring campaigns for a wide range of pollutant species and personal exposure in different micro-environments, together with epidemiological studies of detailed biological changes in humans. Panel studies are intensive, but related papers are very limited. With the successful collection of a rich dataset, we believe AIRLESS sets a good example for the design of a multidisciplinary study.
Danitza Klopper, Paola Formenti, Andreas Namwoonde, Mathieu Cazaunau, Servanne Chevaillier, Anaïs Feron, Cécile Gaimoz, Patrick Hease, Fadi Lahmidi, Cécile Mirande-Bret, Sylvain Triquet, Zirui Zeng, and Stuart J. Piketh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15811–15833,Short summary
The chemical composition of aerosol particles is very important as it determines to which extent they can affect the Earth's climate by acting with solar light and modifying the properties of clouds. The South Atlantic region is a remote and under-explored region to date where these effects could be important. The measurements presented in this paper consist in the analysis of samples collected at a coastal site in Namibia. The first long-term source apportionment is presented and discussed.
Wenjie Wang, David D. Parrish, Xin Li, Min Shao, Ying Liu, Ziwei Mo, Sihua Lu, Min Hu, Xin Fang, Yusheng Wu, Limin Zeng, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15617–15633,Short summary
During the past decade, China has devoted very substantial resources to improving the environment. These efforts have improved atmospheric particulate matter loading, but ambient ozone levels have continued to increase. In this paper we investigate the causes of the increasing ozone concentrations through analysis of a data set that is, to our knowledge, unique: a 12-year data set including ground-level O3, NOx, and VOC precursors collected at an urban site in Beijing.
Marta Via, María Cruz Minguillón, Cristina Reche, Xavier Querol, and Andrés Alastuey
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Atmospheric pollutants have been measured in an urban environment by means of state-of-the-art tecniques allowing to identify the origin and the sources of pollution. Last years are shown to be increasingly dominated by non-directly emitted particulate matter. Gathered knowledge about the sources of atmospheric pollutants is mandatory to design effective mitigation policies.
Qiyuan Wang, Huikun Liu, Ping Wang, Wenting Dai, Ting Zhang, Youzhi Zhao, Jie Tian, Wenyan Zhang, Yongming Han, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15537–15549,Short summary
Light-absorbing carbonaceous (LAC) aerosol is an important influencing factor for global climate forcing. In this study, we used a receptor model coupling multi-wavelength absorption with chemical species to explore the source-specific LAC optical properties at a tropical marine monsoon climate zone. The results can improve our understanding of the LAC radiative effects caused by ship emissions.
Karl Espen Yttri, Francesco Canonaco, Sabine Eckhardt, Nikolaos Evangeliou, Markus Fiebig, Hans Gundersen, Anne-Gunn Hjellbrekke, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Stephen Matthew Platt, André S.H. Prévôt, David Simpson, Sverre Solberg, Jason Surratt, Kjetil Tørseth, Hilde Uggerud, Marit Vadset, Xin Wan, and Wenche Aas
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Carbonaceous aerosol sources and trends were studied at the Birkenes Observatory, a site representative of the Northern European region. A large decrease in EC (−3.9 % to −4.2 % yr−1) (2001–2018) and a smaller decline in levoglucosan (−2.8 % yr−1) (2008–2018), suggest that OC / EC from traffic/industry is decreasing, while abatement of OC / EC from biomass burning is less successful. PMF apportioned 72 % of EC to fossil fuel sources and 53 % (PM2.5) and 78 % (PM10-2.5) of OC to biogenic sources.
Hongling Yin, Jinfeng Liang, Di Wu, Shiping Li, Yi Luo, and Xu Deng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14933–14945,Short summary
Samples were collected from six ground-based sites located in Chengdu, a typical rapidly developing metropolitan area in Southwest China, and were analysed for seven OPEs in atmospheric PM2.5 (Σ7 OPEs). The concentrations of Σ7 OPEs were higher in autumn and winter than in summer. In contrast to coastal cities, sustained and stable high local emissions in the inland city studied were identified, which is particularly noteworthy.
Qingqing Yu, Xiang Ding, Quanfu He, Weiqiang Yang, Ming Zhu, Sheng Li, Runqi Zhang, Ruqin Shen, Yanli Zhang, Xinhui Bi, Yuesi Wang, Ping'an Peng, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14581–14595,Short summary
We carried out a 1-year PM concurrent observation at 12 sites across six regions of China, and size-segregated PAHs were measured. We found both PAHs and BaPeq were concentrated in PM1.1, and northern China had higher PAHs' pollution and inhalation cancer risk than southern China. Nationwide increases in both PAH levels and inhalation cancer risk occurred in winter. We suggest reducing coal and biofuel consumption in the residential sector is an important option to mitigate PAHs' health risks.
Qingcai Chen, Haoyao Sun, Wenhuai Song, Fang Cao, Chongguo Tian, and Yan-Lin Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14407–14417,Short summary
This study found environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) are widely present in atmospheric particles of different particle sizes and exhibit significant particle size distribution characteristics. EPFR concentrations are higher in coarse particles than in fine particles in summer and vice versa in winter. The potential toxicity caused by EPFRs may also vary with particle size and season. Combustion is the most important source of EPFRs (>70 %).
Junjun Deng, Hao Guo, Hongliang Zhang, Jialei Zhu, Xin Wang, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14419–14435,Short summary
One-year source apportionment of BC aerosols in a coastal city in China was conducted with the light-absorption observation-based method and source-oriented model. Source contributions identified by the two source apportionment methods were compared. Temporal variability, potential sources and transport pathways of BC from fossil fuel and biomass burning were characterized. Significant influence of biomass burning in North and East–Central China on BC in the region was highlighted.
Liang Xu, Satoshi Fukushima, Sophie Sobanska, Kotaro Murata, Ayumi Naganuma, Lei Liu, Yuanyuan Wang, Hongya Niu, Zongbo Shi, Tomoko Kojima, Daizhou Zhang, and Weijun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14321–14332,Short summary
We quantified the mixing structures of soot particles and found that the dominant mixing structure changed from fresh to partially embedded to fully embedded along the pathway of an Asian dust storm from eastern China to Japan. Soot particles became more compact following transport. Our findings not only provide direct evidence for soot aging during regional transport but also help us understand how their morphology changes in different air environments.
Atallah Elzein, Gareth J. Stewart, Stefan J. Swift, Beth S. Nelson, Leigh R. Crilley, Mohammed S. Alam, Ernesto Reyes-Villegas, Ranu Gadi, Roy M. Harrison, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, and Alastair C. Lewis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14303–14319,Short summary
We collected high-frequency air particle samples (PM2.5) in Beijing (China) and Delhi (India) and measured the concentration of PAHs in daytime and night-time. PAHs were higher in Delhi than in Beijing, and the five-ring PAHs contribute the most to the total PAH concentration. We compared the emission sources and identified the major sectors that could be subject to mitigation measures. The adverse health effects from inhalation exposure to PAHs in Delhi are 2.2 times higher than in Beijing.
Yuzhen Fu, Qinhao Lin, Guohua Zhang, Yuxiang Yang, Yiping Yang, Xiufeng Lian, Long Peng, Feng Jiang, Xinhui Bi, Lei Li, Yuanyuan Wang, Duohong Chen, Jie Ou, Xinming Wang, Ping'an Peng, Jianxi Zhu, and Guoying Sheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14063–14075,Short summary
Based on the analysis of the morphology and mixing structure of the activated and unactivated particles, our results emphasize the role of in-cloud processes in the chemistry and microphysical properties of individual activated particles. Given that organic coatings may determine the particle hygroscopicity and heterogeneous chemical reactivity, the increase of OM-shelled particles upon in-cloud processes should have considerable implications for their evolution and climate impact.
Chao Peng, Yu Wang, Zhijun Wu, Lanxiadi Chen, Ru-Jin Huang, Weigang Wang, Zhe Wang, Weiwei Hu, Guohua Zhang, Maofa Ge, Min Hu, Xinming Wang, and Mingjin Tang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13877–13903,
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The solubility of atmospheric iron is important in human health and environmental chemistry. To understand the origin of water-soluble iron in urban areas, tailpipe emissions were collected from 32 low-emitting vehicles, from which iron solubility averaged 30 % (0–82 %), more than 10 times the average in the Earth's crust. Water-soluble iron was independent of almost all exhaust components and of the iron phase in the particles but was correlated with specific exhaust-derived organic compounds.
The solubility of atmospheric iron is important in human health and environmental chemistry. To...