Articles | Volume 18, issue 17
Research article 13 Sep 2018
Research article | 13 Sep 2018
Molecular insights on aging and aqueous-phase processing from ambient biomass burning emissions-influenced Po Valley fog and aerosol
Matthew Brege et al.
No articles found.
Janne Lampilahti, Hanna E. Manninen, Tuomo Nieminen, Sander Mirme, Mikael Ehn, Iida Pullinen, Katri Leino, Siegfried Schobesberger, Juha Kangasluoma, Jenni Kontkanen, Emma Järvinen, Riikka Väänänen, Taina Yli-Juuti, Radovan Krejci, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Janne Levula, Aadu Mirme, Stefano Decesari, Ralf Tillmann, Douglas R. Worsnop, Franz Rohrer, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Thomas F. Mentel, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We studied aerosol particle formation and growth in different parts of the planetary boundary layer at two different locations (Po Valley, Italy and Hyytiälä, Finland). The observations consist of airborne measurements on board an instrumented Zeppelin and a small airplane combined with comprehensive ground-based measurements.
Jianhui Jiang, Imad El Haddad, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Giulia Stefenelli, Amelie Bertrand, Nicolas Marchand, Francesco Canonaco, Jean-Eudes Petit, Olivier Favez, Stefania Gilardoni, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1681–1697,Short summary
We developed a box model with a volatility basis set to simulate organic aerosol (OA) from biomass burning and optimized the vapor-wall-loss-corrected OA yields with a genetic algorithm. The optimized parameterizations were then implemented in the air quality model CAMx v6.5. Comparisons with ambient measurements indicate that the vapor-wall-loss-corrected parameterization effectively improves the model performance in predicting OA, which reduced the mean fractional bias from −72.9 % to −1.6 %.
Congbo Song, Manuel Dall’Osto, Angelo Lupi, Mauro Mazzola, Rita Traversi, Silvia Becagli, Stefania Gilardoni, Stergios Vratolis, Karl Espen Yttri, David C. S. Beddows, Julia Schmale, James Brean, Agung Ghani Kramawijaya, Roy M. Harrison, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We present a cluster analysis of relatively long-term (2015–2019) aerosol aerodynamic volume size distributions up to 20 μm in the high Arctic for the first time. The study found that anthropogenic and natural aerosols comprised 27 % and 73 % of the occurrence of the coarse-mode aerosols, respectively. Our study shows that about two third of the coarse-mode aerosols are related to two sea spray-related aerosol clusters, indicating that sea spray aerosol may more complex in the Arctic environment.
Matteo Rinaldi, Naruki Hiranuma, Gianni Santachiara, Mauro Mazzola, Karam Mansour, Marco Paglione, Cheyanne A. Rodriguez, Rita Traversi, Silvia Becagli, David M. Cappelletti, and Franco Belosi
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
This work contributes to fill the present gap of Ice Nucleating Particle (INP) observations in the Arctic, reporting INP concentrations measured at Ny-Ålesund (Svalbard) during spring and summer 2018, by two offline quantification techniques. The lack of a clear concentration seasonal trend, in contrast to previous works, evidences an important interannual variability of Arctic INP sources, which may be both terrestrial and marine, outside the Arctic Haze period.
August Andersson, Elena N. Kirillova, Stefano Decesari, Langley DeWitt, Jimmy Gasore, Katherine E. Potter, Ronald G. Prinn, Maheswar Rupakheti, Jean de Dieu Ndikubwimana, Julius Nkusi, and Bonfils Safari
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4561–4573,Short summary
Large-scale biomass burning events seasonally cover sub-Saharan Africa with air particles. In this study, we find that the concentrations of these particles at a remote mountain site in Rwanda may increase by a factor of 10 during such dry biomass burning periods, with strong implications for the regional climate and human health. These results provide quantitative constraints that could contribute to reducing the large uncertainties regarding the environmental impact of these fires.
Stefano Decesari, Marco Paglione, Matteo Rinaldi, Manuel Dall'Osto, Rafel Simó, Nicola Zanca, Francesca Volpi, Maria Cristina Facchini, Thorsten Hoffmann, Sven Götz, Christopher Johannes Kampf, Colin O'Dowd, Darius Ceburnis, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, and Emilio Tagliavini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4193–4207,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols in Antarctica contribute to regulate the delicate budget of cloud formation and precipitations. Besides the well-known biogenic production of sulfur-containing aerosol components such as methanesulfonate (MSA), the assessment of biological sources of organic particles in Antarctica remains an active area of research. Here we present the results of aerosol organic characterization during a research cruise performed in the Weddell Sea and in the Southern Ocean in Jan–Feb 2015.
Marco Paglione, Stefania Gilardoni, Matteo Rinaldi, Stefano Decesari, Nicola Zanca, Silvia Sandrini, Lara Giulianelli, Dimitri Bacco, Silvia Ferrari, Vanes Poluzzi, Fabiana Scotto, Arianna Trentini, Laurent Poulain, Hartmut Herrmann, Alfred Wiedensohler, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, Paola Massoli, Claudio Carbone, Maria Cristina Facchini, and Sandro Fuzzi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1233–1254,Short summary
Our multi-year observational study regarding organic aerosol (OA) in the Po Valley indicates that more than half of OA is of secondary origin (SOA) through all the year and at both urban and rural sites. Within the SOA, the measurements show the importance of biomass burning (BB) aging products during cold seasons and indicate aqueous-phase processing of BB emissions as a fundamental driver of SOA formation in wintertime, with important consequences for air quality policy at the global level.
Jianhui Jiang, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, Imad El-Haddad, Giancarlo Ciarelli, Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon, Francesco Canonaco, Stefania Gilardoni, Marco Paglione, María Cruz Minguillón, Olivier Favez, Yunjiang Zhang, Nicolas Marchand, Liqing Hao, Annele Virtanen, Kalliopi Florou, Colin O'Dowd, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Urs Baltensperger, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15247–15270,Short summary
We use an air quality model with a modified organic aerosol (OA) module based on chamber experiments to identify the OA sources and their contributions in Europe. Comparisons with long-term measurements at nine sites in 2011 show an improvement in OA simulation. Our results suggest that the biomass burning and biogenic emissions are the dominant sources in winter and summer, respectively. Contributions of diesel and gasoline vehicles are relatively small compared to a previous study in the US.
Chunshui Lin, Darius Ceburnis, Ru-Jin Huang, Wei Xu, Teresa Spohn, Damien Martin, Paul Buckley, John Wenger, Stig Hellebust, Matteo Rinaldi, Maria Cristina Facchini, Colin O'Dowd, and Jurgita Ovadnevaite
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14091–14106,Short summary
To gain insight into the spatial and chemical variation in submicron aerosol, a nationwide characterization of wintertime PM1 was performed at four representative sites across Ireland. This nationwide source apportionment study highlights the large contribution of residential solid fuel burning to urban air pollution and has significant implications for aerosol regional-transport models.
George S. Fanourgakis, Maria Kanakidou, Athanasios Nenes, Susanne E. Bauer, Tommi Bergman, Ken S. Carslaw, Alf Grini, Douglas S. Hamilton, Jill S. Johnson, Vlassis A. Karydis, Alf Kirkevåg, John K. Kodros, Ulrike Lohmann, Gan Luo, Risto Makkonen, Hitoshi Matsui, David Neubauer, Jeffrey R. Pierce, Julia Schmale, Philip Stier, Kostas Tsigaridis, Twan van Noije, Hailong Wang, Duncan Watson-Parris, Daniel M. Westervelt, Yang Yang, Masaru Yoshioka, Nikos Daskalakis, Stefano Decesari, Martin Gysel-Beer, Nikos Kalivitis, Xiaohong Liu, Natalie M. Mahowald, Stelios Myriokefalitakis, Roland Schrödner, Maria Sfakianaki, Alexandra P. Tsimpidi, Mingxuan Wu, and Fangqun Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8591–8617,Short summary
Effects of aerosols on clouds are important for climate studies but are among the largest uncertainties in climate projections. This study evaluates the skill of global models to simulate aerosol, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and cloud droplet number concentrations (CDNCs). Model results show reduced spread in CDNC compared to CCN due to the negative correlation between the sensitivities of CDNC to aerosol number concentration (air pollution) and updraft velocity (atmospheric dynamics).
Simeon K. Schum, Bo Zhang, Katja Džepina, Paulo Fialho, Claudio Mazzoleni, and Lynn R. Mazzoleni
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14017–14036,Short summary
This paper presents the detailed molecular composition of free tropospheric aerosol. We studied three pollution events with different origins and residence times and observed differences in the molecular composition pertaining to the atmospheric oxidation. The results indicated that the transport pathways contributed to the observed differences and imply that emissions injected into the free troposphere are longer-lived than those in the boundary layer.
Deep Sengupta, Vera Samburova, Chiranjivi Bhattarai, Elena Kirillova, Lynn Mazzoleni, Michealene Iaukea-Lum, Adam Watts, Hans Moosmüller, and Andrey Khlystov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10849–10867,Short summary
Optical properties of polar and non-polar extracts of biomass burning organic aerosols (BBOAs) generated by burning of globally and regionally important fuels were studied. The non-polar fraction of BBOAs was found to be more light absorbing than the polar fraction. Laboratory aging of BBOAs produced by flaming fuels increased aerosol light absorption attributed to the formation of organo-nitrogen compounds. Refractive indices were retrieved for both polar and non-polar extracts of BBOAs.
Jorma Joutsensaari, Matthew Ozon, Tuomo Nieminen, Santtu Mikkonen, Timo Lähivaara, Stefano Decesari, M. Cristina Facchini, Ari Laaksonen, and Kari E. J. Lehtinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9597–9615,Short summary
New particle formation (NPF) in the atmosphere is globally an important source of aerosol particles. NPF events are typically identified and analyzed manually by researchers from particle size distribution data day by day, which is time consuming and might be inconsistent. We have developed an automatic analysis method based on deep learning for NPF event identification. The developed method can be easily utilized to analyze any long-term datasets more accurately and consistently.
Silvia Bucci, Paolo Cristofanelli, Stefano Decesari, Angela Marinoni, Silvia Sandrini, Johannes Größ, Alfred Wiedensohler, Chiara F. Di Marco, Eiko Nemitz, Francesco Cairo, Luca Di Liberto, and Federico Fierli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5371–5389,Short summary
This paper analyses some of the processes affecting PM levels over the Po Valley, one of the most polluted regions of Europe, during the 2012 summer campaigns. Under conditions of air transport from the Sahara, data show that desert dust can rapidly penetrate into the lower atmosphere, directly affecting the PM concentration at the ground. Processes of particles growth in high relative humidity and uplift of local soil particles, potentially affecting PM level, are also analysed.
Katia Cugerone, Carlo De Michele, Antonio Ghezzi, Vorne Gianelle, and Stefania Gilardoni
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4831–4842,Short summary
The aerosol particle number size distributions (PNSDs) measured in one urban background site (Milan) and in one rural mountainous site (Oga San Colombano) have been studied and compared. Detailed statistical analyses have shown that a common empirical PNSD pattern exists, except for the urban winter data. In order to explain this phenomenon, we analysed the aerosol dynamics by considering the influence of primary aerosol components and the interaction with precipitation and high wind speed.
Julia Schmale, Silvia Henning, Stefano Decesari, Bas Henzing, Helmi Keskinen, Karine Sellegri, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Mira L. Pöhlker, Joel Brito, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Adam Kristensson, Nikos Kalivitis, Iasonas Stavroulas, Samara Carbone, Anne Jefferson, Minsu Park, Patrick Schlag, Yoko Iwamoto, Pasi Aalto, Mikko Äijälä, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Mikael Ehn, Göran Frank, Roman Fröhlich, Arnoud Frumau, Erik Herrmann, Hartmut Herrmann, Rupert Holzinger, Gerard Kos, Markku Kulmala, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Athanasios Nenes, Colin O'Dowd, Tuukka Petäjä, David Picard, Christopher Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Laurent Poulain, André Stephan Henry Prévôt, Erik Swietlicki, Meinrat O. Andreae, Paulo Artaxo, Alfred Wiedensohler, John Ogren, Atsushi Matsuki, Seong Soo Yum, Frank Stratmann, Urs Baltensperger, and Martin Gysel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2853–2881,Short summary
Collocated long-term observations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentrations, particle number size distributions and chemical composition from 12 sites are synthesized. Observations cover coastal environments, the Arctic, the Mediterranean, the boreal and rain forest, high alpine and continental background sites, and Monsoon-influenced areas. We interpret regional and seasonal variability. CCN concentrations are predicted with the κ–Köhler model and compared to the measurements.
Stefano Decesari, Simona Kovarich, Manuela Pavan, Arianna Bassan, Andrea Ciacci, and David Topping
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2329–2340,Short summary
Particulate matter (PM) chemical composition includes thousands of individual organic compounds that have never been tested for their toxicological potential. Computational (in silico) screenings represent a promising approach to identify new target compounds for more in-depth toxicological analyses. We provide here a proof-of-concept evaluation based on ca. 100 aerosol organic compounds. Reliable toxicological predictions were obtained for more than 80 % of them.
Nicola Zanca, Andrew T. Lambe, Paola Massoli, Marco Paglione, David R. Croasdale, Yatish Parmar, Emilio Tagliavini, Stefania Gilardoni, and Stefano Decesari
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10405–10421,Short summary
Simulating the composition of organic aerosol particles formed by chemical reactions in the atmosphere (secondary organic aerosol, SOA) is challenged by the enormous complexity of molecular species and chemical processes involved. We report spectroscopic (NMR) and chromatographic data for SOA samples obtained using a flow reactor designed to simulate photochemical ageing. We show that the composition of aged biogenic (monoterpene) SOA particles closely resembles that of ambient aerosols.
Stefano Decesari, Mohammad Hossein Sowlat, Sina Hasheminassab, Silvia Sandrini, Stefania Gilardoni, Maria Cristina Facchini, Sandro Fuzzi, and Constantinos Sioutas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7721–7731,Short summary
Exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) represents one of the biggest environmental health risks. We show that the intrinsic PM toxicity at a rural site, far from traffic emissions, is comparable to that of urban areas heavily impacted by traffic. Potentially toxic, redox-active compounds in PM are efficiently scavenged in the presence of fog but are also produced in fog. These findings provide evidence that atmospheric processing can significantly alter the toxicity of airborne PM.
Nathan F. Taylor, Don R. Collins, Douglas H. Lowenthal, Ian B. McCubbin, A. Gannet Hallar, Vera Samburova, Barbara Zielinska, Naresh Kumar, and Lynn R. Mazzoleni
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2555–2571,Short summary
The impacts of aerosols on health, visibility, and climate are very sensitive to their ability to take up water under subsaturated conditions and to serve as cloud condensation nuclei. These hydration properties are tightly linked to aerosol composition. This report finds that water soluble organic compounds contribute significantly to atmospheric aerosol hydration both as an independent fraction of aerosol mass and through complementary interactions with common inorganic aerosol constituents.
Francesca Costabile, Stefania Gilardoni, Francesca Barnaba, Antonio Di Ianni, Luca Di Liberto, Davide Dionisi, Maurizio Manigrasso, Marco Paglione, Vanes Poluzzi, Matteo Rinaldi, Maria Cristina Facchini, and Gian Paolo Gobbi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 313–326,Short summary
We investigate the particle size distribution and spectral optical properties of brown carbon (BrC) associated with the formation of secondary aerosol in the ambient atmosphere and relate these properties to major aerosol chemical components. We found that BrC occurs in particles in the droplet mode size range, enriched in ammonium nitrate and poor in black carbon (BC), with a strong dependance on the organic aerosol to BC ratio.
Silvia Sandrini, Dominik van Pinxteren, Lara Giulianelli, Hartmut Herrmann, Laurent Poulain, Maria Cristina Facchini, Stefania Gilardoni, Matteo Rinaldi, Marco Paglione, Barbara J. Turpin, Francesca Pollini, Silvia Bucci, Nicola Zanca, and Stefano Decesari
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10879–10897,Short summary
This paper deals with impactor measurements performed in the summer 2012 during the EU project PEGASOS campaign in the Po Valley, at an urban and a rural site. The paper tries to disentangle the effects of weather anomalies (temporal and spatial) from those of diverse emissions (NH3) and chemical processes on the formation of secondary aerosols in the region, with special focus on nocturnal ammonium nitrate formation and its implications (aqueous formation of secondary organic aerosol).
Amy P. Sullivan, Natasha Hodas, Barbara J. Turpin, Kate Skog, Frank N. Keutsch, Stefania Gilardoni, Marco Paglione, Matteo Rinaldi, Stefano Decesari, Maria Cristina Facchini, Laurent Poulain, Hartmut Herrmann, Alfred Wiedensohler, Eiko Nemitz, Marsailidh M. Twigg, and Jeffrey L. Collett Jr.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8095–8108,Short summary
This paper presents the results from our measurements and approach for the investigation of aqueous secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA) formation in the ambient atmosphere. When local aqSOA formation was observed, a correlation of water-soluble organic carbon with organic aerosol, aerosol liquid water, relative humidity, and aerosol nitrate was found. Key factors of local aqSOA production include air mass stagnation, formation of local nitrate overnight, and significant amounts of ammonia.
Bernadette Rosati, Martin Gysel, Florian Rubach, Thomas F. Mentel, Brigitta Goger, Laurent Poulain, Patrick Schlag, Pasi Miettinen, Aki Pajunoja, Annele Virtanen, Henk Klein Baltink, J. S. Bas Henzing, Johannes Größ, Gian Paolo Gobbi, Alfred Wiedensohler, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Stefano Decesari, Maria Cristina Facchini, Ernest Weingartner, and Urs Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7295–7315,Short summary
This study presents PEGASOS project data from field campaigns in the Po Valley, Italy and the Netherlands. Vertical profiles of aerosol hygroscopicity and chemical composition were investigated with airborne measurements on board a Zeppelin NT airship. A special focus was on the evolution of different mixing layers within the PBL as a function of daytime. A closure study showed that variations in aerosol hygroscopicity can well be explained by the variations in chemical composition.
Jenni Kontkanen, Emma Järvinen, Hanna E. Manninen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Juha Kangasluoma, Stefano Decesari, Gian Paolo Gobbi, Ari Laaksonen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1919–1935,
D. Fowler, C. E. Steadman, D. Stevenson, M. Coyle, R. M. Rees, U. M. Skiba, M. A. Sutton, J. N. Cape, A. J. Dore, M. Vieno, D. Simpson, S. Zaehle, B. D. Stocker, M. Rinaldi, M. C. Facchini, C. R. Flechard, E. Nemitz, M. Twigg, J. W. Erisman, K. Butterbach-Bahl, and J. N. Galloway
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13849–13893,
M. Rinaldi, S. Gilardoni, M. Paglione, S. Sandrini, S. Fuzzi, P. Massoli, P. Bonasoni, P. Cristofanelli, A. Marinoni, V. Poluzzi, and S. Decesari
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11327–11340,Short summary
This work highlights the important contribution of organic aerosols to the composition of submicron particles at remote mountain sites. Moreover, it confirms the importance of regional-scale physical and chemical processes and of transboundary transport in determining the background aerosol composition at rural European sites.
S. Fuzzi, U. Baltensperger, K. Carslaw, S. Decesari, H. Denier van der Gon, M. C. Facchini, D. Fowler, I. Koren, B. Langford, U. Lohmann, E. Nemitz, S. Pandis, I. Riipinen, Y. Rudich, M. Schaap, J. G. Slowik, D. V. Spracklen, E. Vignati, M. Wild, M. Williams, and S. Gilardoni
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8217–8299,Short summary
Particulate matter (PM) constitutes one of the most challenging problems both for air quality and climate change policies. This paper reviews the most recent scientific results on the issue and the policy needs that have driven much of the increase in monitoring and mechanistic research over the last 2 decades. The synthesis reveals many new processes and developments in the science underpinning climate-PM interactions and the effects of PM on human health and the environment.
K. Dzepina, C. Mazzoleni, P. Fialho, S. China, B. Zhang, R. C. Owen, D. Helmig, J. Hueber, S. Kumar, J. A. Perlinger, L. J. Kramer, M. P. Dziobak, M. T. Ampadu, S. Olsen, D. J. Wuebbles, and L. R. Mazzoleni
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5047–5068,Short summary
Aerosol was sampled at the Pico Mountain Observatory located at 2.2km amsl on Pico Island of the North Atlantic Azores archipelago. Two aerosol samples characterized by ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry had biomass burning and marine emissions origins, as corroborated by collocated gas- and particle-phase measurements, air masses analyses and satellites. The paper presents the first molecular characterization of aged and processed aerosol intercepted at a remote lower free troposphere
G. Curci, L. Ferrero, P. Tuccella, F. Barnaba, F. Angelini, E. Bolzacchini, C. Carbone, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, M. C. Facchini, G. P. Gobbi, J. P. P. Kuenen, T. C. Landi, C. Perrino, M. G. Perrone, G. Sangiorgi, and P. Stocchi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2629–2649,Short summary
Particulate matter (PM) at ground level is of primary concern for the quality of the air we breathe. Most direct sources of PM are near the ground, but an important fraction of PM is produced by photochemical processes happening also in the upper atmospheric layers. We investigated the contribution of those layers to the PM near the ground and found a significant impact. Nitrate is a major player in the “vertical direction”, owing to its sensitivity to ambient temperature and relative humidity.
S. Decesari, J. Allan, C. Plass-Duelmer, B. J. Williams, M. Paglione, M. C. Facchini, C. O'Dowd, R. M. Harrison, J. K. Gietl, H. Coe, L. Giulianelli, G. P. Gobbi, C. Lanconelli, C. Carbone, D. Worsnop, A. T. Lambe, A. T. Ahern, F. Moretti, E. Tagliavini, T. Elste, S. Gilge, Y. Zhang, and M. Dall'Osto
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12109–12132,Short summary
We made use of multiple spectrometric techniques for characterizing the aerosol chemical composition and mixing in the Po Valley in the summer. The oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) concentrations were correlated with simple tracers for recirculated planetary boundary layer air. A full internal mixing between black carbon (BC) and the non-refractory aerosol components was never observed. Local sources in the Po Valley were responsible for the production of organic particles unmixed with BC.
C. O'Dowd, D. Ceburnis, J. Ovadnevaite, A. Vaishya, M. Rinaldi, and M. C. Facchini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10687–10704,
S. Gilardoni, P. Massoli, L. Giulianelli, M. Rinaldi, M. Paglione, F. Pollini, C. Lanconelli, V. Poluzzi, S. Carbone, R. Hillamo, L. M. Russell, M. C. Facchini, and S. Fuzzi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6967–6981,
M. Paglione, S. Saarikoski, S. Carbone, R. Hillamo, M. C. Facchini, E. Finessi, L. Giulianelli, C. Carbone, S. Fuzzi, F. Moretti, E. Tagliavini, E. Swietlicki, K. Eriksson Stenström, A. S. H. Prévôt, P. Massoli, M. Canaragatna, D. Worsnop, and S. Decesari
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5089–5110,
J. Bialek, M. Dall Osto, P. Vaattovaara, S. Decesari, J. Ovadnevaite, A. Laaksonen, and C. O'Dowd
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1557–1570,
S. Sandrini, L. Giulianelli, S. Decesari, S. Fuzzi, P. Cristofanelli, A. Marinoni, P. Bonasoni, M. Chiari, G. Calzolai, S. Canepari, C. Perrino, and M. C. Facchini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1075–1092,
M. Paglione, A. Kiendler-Scharr, A. A. Mensah, E. Finessi, L. Giulianelli, S. Sandrini, M. C. Facchini, S. Fuzzi, P. Schlag, A. Piazzalunga, E. Tagliavini, J. S. Henzing, and S. Decesari
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 25–45,
Y. Zhao, A. G. Hallar, and L. R. Mazzoleni
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12343–12362,
D. M. Westervelt, J. R. Pierce, I. Riipinen, W. Trivitayanurak, A. Hamed, M. Kulmala, A. Laaksonen, S. Decesari, and P. J. Adams
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7645–7663,
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North China Plain: contrast between summer and winterDisparities in particulate matter (PM10) origins and oxidative potential at a city scale (Grenoble, France) – Part 1: Source apportionment at three neighbouring sitesMeasurement report: Comparison of wintertime individual particles at ground level and above the mixed layer in urban BeijingAerosol characteristics at the Southern Great Plains site during the HI-SCALE campaignSaccharide composition in atmospheric fine particulate matter at the remote sites of Southwest China and estimates of source contributionsA two-component parameterization of marine ice-nucleating particles based on seawater biology and sea spray aerosol measurements in the Mediterranean SeaSeasonal variations in the highly time-resolved aerosol composition, sources and chemical processes of background submicron particles in the North China PlainConcerted measurements of lipids in seawater and on submicrometer aerosol particles at the Cabo Verde islands: biogenic sources, selective transfer and high enrichmentsMeasurement report: Long-range transport patterns into the tropical northwest Pacific during the CAMP2Ex aircraft campaign: chemical composition, size distributions, and the impact of convectionIdentification and source attribution of organic compounds in ultrafine particles near Frankfurt International AirportSource apportionment and impact of long-range transport on carbonaceous aerosol particles in central Germany during HCCT-2010Measurement report: PM2.5-bound nitrated aromatic compounds in Xi'an, Northwest China – seasonal variations and contributions to optical properties of brown carbonCompositions and mixing states of aerosol particles by aircraft observations in the Arctic springtime, 2018Measurement report: Chemical characteristics of PM2.5 during typical biomass burning season at an agricultural site of the North China PlainMeasurement report: Spatial variations in ionic chemistry and water-stable isotopes in the snowpack on glaciers across Svalbard during the 2015–2016 snow accumulation seasonOrganosulfates in atmospheric aerosols in Shanghai, China: seasonal and interannual variability, origin, and formation mechanismsSource apportionment of atmospheric PM10 Oxidative Potential: synthesis of 15 year-round urban datasets in FranceMeasurement report: Hydrolyzed amino acids in fine and coarse atmospheric aerosol in Nanchang, China: concentrations, compositions, sources and possible bacterial degradation stateSulfuric acid–amine nucleation in urban BeijingImpact of firework on nitrooxy-organosulfates in urban aerosols during Chinese New Year EvePersistent residential burning-related primary organic particles during wintertime hazes in North China: insights into their aging and optical changes
Evelyn Freney, Karine Sellegri, Alessia Nicosia, Leah R. Williams, Matteo Rinaldi, Jonathan T. Trueblood, André S. H. Prévôt, Melilotus Thyssen, Gérald Grégori, Nils Haëntjens, Julie Dinasquet, Ingrid Obernosterer, France Van Wambeke, Anja Engel, Birthe Zäncker, Karine Desboeufs, Eija Asmi, Hilkka Timonen, and Cécile Guieu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10625–10641,Short summary
In this work, we present observations of the organic aerosol content in primary sea spray aerosols (SSAs) continuously generated along a 5-week cruise in the Mediterranean. This information is combined with seawater biogeochemical properties also measured continuously along the ship track to develop a number of parametrizations that can be used in models to determine SSA organic content in oligotrophic waters that represent 60 % of the oceans from commonly measured seawater variables.
James M. Cash, Ben Langford, Chiara Di Marco, Neil J. Mullinger, James Allan, Ernesto Reyes-Villegas, Ruthambara Joshi, Mathew R. Heal, W. Joe F. Acton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Pawel K. Misztal, Will Drysdale, Tuhin K. Mandal, Shivani, Ranu Gadi, Bhola Ram Gurjar, and Eiko Nemitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10133–10158,Short summary
We present the first real-time composition of submicron particulate matter (PM1) in Old Delhi using high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry. Seasonal analysis shows peak concentrations occur during the post-monsoon, and novel-tracers reveal the largest sources are a combination of local open and regional crop residue burning. Strong links between increased chloride aerosol concentrations and burning sources of PM1 suggest burning sources are responsible for the post-monsoon chloride peak.
Liine Heikkinen, Mikko Äijälä, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Gang Chen, Olga Garmash, Diego Aliaga, Frans Graeffe, Meri Räty, Krista Luoma, Pasi Aalto, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, Douglas Worsnop, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10081–10109,Short summary
In many locations worldwide aerosol particles have been shown to be made up of organic aerosol (OA). The boreal forest is a region where aerosol particles possess a high OA mass fraction. Here, we studied OA composition using the longest time series of OA composition ever obtained from a boreal environment. For this purpose, we tested a new analysis framework and discovered that most of the OA was highly oxidized, with strong seasonal behaviour reflecting different sources in summer and winter.
Yandong Tong, Veronika Pospisilova, Lu Qi, Jing Duan, Yifang Gu, Varun Kumar, Pragati Rai, Giulia Stefenelli, Liwei Wang, Ying Wang, Haobin Zhong, Urs Baltensperger, Junji Cao, Ru-Jin Huang, André S. H. Prévôt, and Jay G. Slowik
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9859–9886,Short summary
We investigate SOA sources and formation processes by a field deployment of the EESI-TOF-MS and L-TOF AMS in Beijing in late autumn and early winter. Our study shows that the sources and processes giving rise to haze events in Beijing are variable and seasonally dependent: (1) in the heating season, SOA formation is driven by oxidation of aromatics from solid fuel combustion; and (2) under high-NOx and RH conditions, aqueous-phase chemistry can be a major contributor to SOA formation.
Sehyun Jang, Ki-Tae Park, Kitack Lee, Young Jun Yoon, Kitae Kim, Hyun Young Chung, Eunho Jang, Silvia Becagli, Bang Yong Lee, Rita Traversi, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Radovan Krejci, and Ove Hermansen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9761–9777,Short summary
This study provides comprehensive datasets encompassing seasonal and interannual variations in sulfate and MSA concentration in aerosol particles in the Arctic atmosphere. As oxidation products of DMS have important roles in new particle formation and growth, we focused on factors affecting their variability and the branching ratio of DMS oxidation. We found a strong correlation between the ratio and the light condition, chemical properties of particles, and biological activities near Svalbard.
Lucille Joanna S. Borlaza, Samuël Weber, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Stephan Houdier, Rémy Slama, Camille Rieux, Alexandre Albinet, Steve Micallef, Cécile Trébluchon, and Gaëlle Uzu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9719–9739,Short summary
With an enhanced source apportionment obtained in a companion paper, this paper acquires more understanding of the spatiotemporal associations of the sources of PM to oxidative potential (OP), an emerging health-based metric. Multilayer perceptron neural network analysis was used to apportion OP from PM sources. Results showed that such a methodology is as robust as the linear classical inversion and permits an improvement in the OP prediction when local features or non-linear effects occur.
Baozhu Ge, Danhui Xu, Oliver Wild, Xuefeng Yao, Junhua Wang, Xueshun Chen, Qixin Tan, Xiaole Pan, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9441–9454,Short summary
In this study, an improved sequential sampling method is developed and implemented to estimate the contribution of below-cloud and in-cloud wet deposition over four years of measurements in Beijing. We find that the contribution of below-cloud scavenging for Ca2+, SO4 2–, and NH4+ decreases from above 50 % in 2014 to below 40 % in 2017. This suggests that the Action Plan has mitigated particulate matter pollution in the surface layer and hence decreased scavenging due to the washout process.
Kai Wang, Ru-Jin Huang, Martin Brüggemann, Yun Zhang, Lu Yang, Haiyan Ni, Jie Guo, Meng Wang, Jiajun Han, Merete Bilde, Marianne Glasius, and Thorsten Hoffmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9089–9104,Short summary
Here we present the detailed molecular composition of the organic aerosol collected in three eastern Chinese cities from north to south, Changchun, Shanghai and Guangzhou, by applying LC–Orbitrap analysis. Accordingly, the aromaticity degree of chemical compounds decreases from north to south, while the oxidation degree increases from north to south, which can be explained by the different anthropogenic emissions and photochemical oxidation processes.
Charlotte M. Beall, Jennifer M. Michaud, Meredith A. Fish, Julie Dinasquet, Gavin C. Cornwell, M. Dale Stokes, Michael D. Burkart, Thomas C. Hill, Paul J. DeMott, and Kimberly A. Prather
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9031–9045,Short summary
Ice-nucleating particles (INPs) can influence multiple climate-relevant cloud properties by triggering droplet freezing at relative humidities below or temperatures above the freezing point of water. The ocean is a significant INP source; however, the specific identities of marine INPs remain largely unknown. Here, we identify 14 ice-nucleating microbes from aerosol and precipitation samples collected at a coastal site in southern California, two or more of which are likely marine.
Jose Ruiz-Jimenez, Magdalena Okuljar, Outi-Maaria Sietiö, Giorgia Demaria, Thanaporn Liangsupree, Elisa Zagatti, Juho Aalto, Kari Hartonen, Jussi Heinonsalo, Jaana Bäck, Tuukka Petäjä, and Marja-Liisa Riekkola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8775–8790,Short summary
Altogether, 84 size-segregated aerosol samples from four particle size fractions were collected at the Station for Measuring Forest Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations, Hyytiälä, Finland, in autumn 2017 for the clarification of the complex interrelationships between airborne and particulate chemical traces, amino acids and saccharides, gene copy numbers (16S and 18S for bacteria and fungi, respectively), gas-phase chemistry, and the particle size distribution.
Djacinto Monteiro dos Santos, Luciana Varanda Rizzo, Samara Carbone, Patrick Schlag, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8761–8773,Short summary
The metropolitan area of São Paulo (MASP), with very extensive biofuel use, has unique atmospheric chemistry among world megacities. In this study, we examine the complex relationships between aerosol chemical composition and particle size distribution. Our findings provide a better understanding of the dynamics of the physicochemical properties of submicron particles and highlight the key role of secondary organic aerosol formation in the pollution levels in São Paulo.
Rui Li, Yilong Zhao, Hongbo Fu, Jianmin Chen, Meng Peng, and Chunying Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8677–8692,Short summary
Based on a random forest model, the strict lockdown measures significantly decreased primary components such as Cr (−67 %) and Fe (−61 %) in PM2.5 (p < 0.01), whereas the higher relative humidity (RH) and NH3 level and the lower air temperature (T) remarkably enhanced the production of secondary aerosol including SO42− (29 %), NO3− (29 %), and NH4+ (21 %) (p < 0.05). The natural experiment suggested that the NH3 emission should be strictly controlled.
Yue Zhou, Christopher P. West, Anusha P. S. Hettiyadura, Xiaoying Niu, Hui Wen, Jiecan Cui, Tenglong Shi, Wei Pu, Xin Wang, and Alexander Laskin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8531–8555,Short summary
We present a comprehensive characterization of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in seasonal snow of northwestern China. We applied complementary multimodal analytical techniques to investigate bulk and molecular-level composition, optical properties, and sources of WSOC. For the first time, we estimated the extent of radiative forcing due to WSOC in snow using a model simulation and showed the profound influences of WSOC on the energy budget of midlatitude seasonal snowpack.
Bingqing Zhang, Huizhong Shen, Pengfei Liu, Hongyu Guo, Yongtao Hu, Yilin Chen, Shaodong Xie, Ziyan Xi, T. Nash Skipper, and Armistead G. Russell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8341–8356,Short summary
Extended ground-level measurements are coupled with model simulations to comprehensively compare the aerosol acidity in China and the United States. Aerosols in China are significantly less acidic than those in the United States, with pH values 1–2 units higher. Higher aerosol mass concentrations and the abundance of ammonia and ammonium in China, compared to the United States, are leading causes of the pH difference between these two countries.
Marta Via, María Cruz Minguillón, Cristina Reche, Xavier Querol, and Andrés Alastuey
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8323–8339,Short summary
Atmospheric pollutants have been measured in an urban environment by means of state-of-the-art techniques, allowing the origin and the sources of pollution to be identified. Recent years are shown to be increasingly dominated by non-directly emitted particulate matter. Knowledge about the sources of atmospheric pollutants is necessary to design effective mitigation policies.
Dac-Loc Nguyen, Hendryk Czech, Simone M. Pieber, Jürgen Schnelle-Kreis, Martin Steinbacher, Jürgen Orasche, Stephan Henne, Olga B. Popovicheva, Gülcin Abbaszade, Guenter Engling, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Nhat-Anh Nguyen, Xuan-Anh Nguyen, and Ralf Zimmermann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8293–8312,Short summary
Southeast Asia is well-known for emission-intense and recurring wildfires and after-harvest crop residue burning during the pre-monsoon season from February to April. We describe a biomass burning (BB) plume arriving at remote Pha Din meteorological station, outline its carbonaceous particulate matter (PM) constituents based on more than 50 target compounds and discuss possible BB sources. This study adds valuable information on chemical PM composition for a region with scarce data availability.
Amy Hrdina, Jennifer G. Murphy, Anna Gannet Hallar, John C. Lin, Alexander Moravek, Ryan Bares, Ross C. Petersen, Alessandro Franchin, Ann M. Middlebrook, Lexie Goldberger, Ben H. Lee, Munkh Baasandorj, and Steven S. Brown
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8111–8126,Short summary
Wintertime air pollution in the Salt Lake Valley is primarily composed of ammonium nitrate, which is formed when gas-phase ammonia and nitric acid react. The major point in this work is that the chemical composition of snow tells a very different story to what we measured in the atmosphere. With the dust–sea salt cations observed in PM2.5 and particle sizing data, we can estimate how much nitric acid may be lost to dust–sea salt that is not accounted for and how much more PM2.5 this could form.
Vincent Michoud, Elise Hallemans, Laura Chiappini, Eva Leoz-Garziandia, Aurélie Colomb, Sébastien Dusanter, Isabelle Fronval, François Gheusi, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Thierry Léonardis, Nadine Locoge, Nicolas Marchand, Stéphane Sauvage, Jean Sciare, and Jean-François Doussin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8067–8088,Short summary
A multiphasic molecular characterization of oxygenated compounds has been carried out during the ChArMEx field campaign using offline analysis. It leads to the identification of 97 different compounds in the gas and aerosol phases and reveals the important contribution of organic acids to organic aerosol. In addition, comparison between experimental and theoretical partitioning coefficients revealed in most cases a large underestimation by the theory reaching 1 to 7 orders of magnitude.
Maria A. Zawadowicz, Kaitlyn Suski, Jiumeng Liu, Mikhail Pekour, Jerome Fast, Fan Mei, Arthur J. Sedlacek, Stephen Springston, Yang Wang, Rahul A. Zaveri, Robert Wood, Jian Wang, and John E. Shilling
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7983–8002,Short summary
This paper describes the results of a recent field campaign in the eastern North Atlantic, where two mass spectrometers were deployed aboard a research aircraft to measure the chemistry of aerosols and trace gases. Very clean conditions were found, dominated by local sulfate-rich acidic aerosol and very aged organics. Evidence of long-range transport of aerosols from the continents was also identified.
Jean-Philippe Putaud, Luca Pozzoli, Enrico Pisoni, Sebastiao Martins Dos Santos, Friedrich Lagler, Guido Lanzani, Umberto Dal Santo, and Augustin Colette
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7597–7609,Short summary
To determine the impact of the COVID lockdown on air quality in northern Italy, measurements of atmospheric pollutants (NO2, PM10, O3, NO, SO2 ) were compared to the output of a model ignoring the lockdown. We found that NO2 decreased on average by −30 % to −40 %. Unlike NO2, PM10 was not significantly affected due to the compensation of decreased emissions from traffic by increased emissions from domestic heating and/or by changes in atmospheric chemistry enhancing secondary aerosol formation.
Benjamin Chazeau, Brice Temime-Roussel, Grégory Gille, Boualem Mesbah, Barbara D'Anna, Henri Wortham, and Nicolas Marchand
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7293–7319,Short summary
The temporal trends in the chemical composition and particle number of the submicron aerosols in a Mediterranean city, Marseille, are investigated over 14 months. Fifteen days were found to exceed the WHO PM2.5 daily limit (25 µg m−3) only during the cold period, with two distinct origins: local pollution events with an increased fraction of the carbonaceous fraction due to domestic wood burning and long-range pollution events with a high level of oxygenated organic aerosol and ammonium nitrate.
Karl Espen Yttri, Francesco Canonaco, Sabine Eckhardt, Nikolaos Evangeliou, Markus Fiebig, Hans Gundersen, Anne-Gunn Hjellbrekke, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Stephen Matthew Platt, André S. H. Prévôt, David Simpson, Sverre Solberg, Jason Surratt, Kjetil Tørseth, Hilde Uggerud, Marit Vadset, Xin Wan, and Wenche Aas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7149–7170,Short summary
Carbonaceous aerosol sources and trends were studied at the Birkenes Observatory. A large decrease in elemental carbon (EC; 2001–2018) and a smaller decline in levoglucosan (2008–2018) suggest that organic carbon (OC)/EC from traffic/industry is decreasing, whereas the abatement of OC/EC from biomass burning has been less successful. Positive matrix factorization apportioned 72 % of EC to fossil fuel sources and 53 % (PM2.5) and 78 % (PM10–2.5) of OC to biogenic sources.
Xiaojing Shen, Junying Sun, Fangqun Yu, Ying Wang, Junting Zhong, Yangmei Zhang, Xinyao Hu, Can Xia, Sinan Zhang, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7039–7052,Short summary
In this work, we revealed the changes of PNSD and NPF events during the COVID-19 lockdown period in Beijing, China, to illustrate the impact of reduced primary emission and elavated atmospheric oxidized capicity on the nucleation and growth processes. The subsequent growth of nucleated particles and their contribution to the aerosol pollution formation were also explored, to highlight the necessity of controlling the nanoparticles in the future air quality management.
Franziska Köllner, Johannes Schneider, Megan D. Willis, Hannes Schulz, Daniel Kunkel, Heiko Bozem, Peter Hoor, Thomas Klimach, Frank Helleis, Julia Burkart, W. Richard Leaitch, Amir A. Aliabadi, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Andreas B. Herber, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6509–6539,Short summary
We present in situ observations of vertically resolved particle chemical composition in the summertime Arctic lower troposphere. Our analysis demonstrates the strong vertical contrast between particle properties within the boundary layer and aloft. Emissions from vegetation fires and anthropogenic sources in northern Canada, Europe, and East Asia influenced particle composition in the free troposphere. Organics detected in Arctic aerosol particles can partly be identified as dicarboxylic acids.
Luis M. F. Barreira, Aku Helin, Minna Aurela, Kimmo Teinilä, Milla Friman, Leena Kangas, Jarkko V. Niemi, Harri Portin, Anu Kousa, Liisa Pirjola, Topi Rönkkö, Sanna Saarikoski, and Hilkka Timonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6297–6314,Short summary
We present results from the long-term measurements (5 years) of highly time-resolved atmospheric PM1 composition at an urban street canyon site. Overall, the results increased knowledge of the variability of PM1 concentration, composition, and sources in a traffic site and the implications for urban air quality. The investigation of pollution episodes showed that both local and long-range-transported pollutants can still cause elevated PM1 and PM2.5 concentrations in northern Europe.
Genevieve Rose Lorenzo, Paola Angela Bañaga, Maria Obiminda Cambaliza, Melliza Templonuevo Cruz, Mojtaba AzadiAghdam, Avelino Arellano, Grace Betito, Rachel Braun, Andrea F. Corral, Hossein Dadashazar, Eva-Lou Edwards, Edwin Eloranta, Robert Holz, Gabrielle Leung, Lin Ma, Alexander B. MacDonald, Jeffrey S. Reid, James Bernard Simpas, Connor Stahl, Shane Marie Visaga, and Armin Sorooshian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6155–6173,Short summary
Firework emissions change the physicochemical and optical properties of water-soluble particles, which subsequently alters the background aerosol’s respirability, influence on surroundings, ability to uptake gases, and viability as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). There was heavy aerosol loading due to fireworks in the boundary layer. The aerosol constituents were largely water-soluble and submicrometer in size due to both inorganic salts in firework materials and gas-to-particle conversion.
Yutong Liang, Coty N. Jen, Robert J. Weber, Pawel K. Misztal, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5719–5737,Short summary
This article reports the molecular composition of smoke particles people in SF Bay Area were exposed to during northern California wildfires in Oct. 2017. Major components are sugars, acids, aromatics, and terpenoids. These observations can be used to better understand health impacts of smoke exposure. Tracer compounds indicate which fuels burned, including diterpenoids for softwood and syringyls for hardwood. A statistical analysis reveals a group of secondary compounds formed in daytime aging.
Steven J. Campbell, Kate Wolfer, Battist Utinger, Joe Westwood, Zhi-Hui Zhang, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Sarah S. Steimer, Tuan V. Vu, Jingsha Xu, Nicholas Straw, Steven Thomson, Atallah Elzein, Yele Sun, Di Liu, Linjie Li, Pingqing Fu, Alastair C. Lewis, Roy M. Harrison, William J. Bloss, Miranda Loh, Mark R. Miller, Zongbo Shi, and Markus Kalberer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5549–5573,Short summary
In this study, we quantify PM2.5 oxidative potential (OP), a metric widely suggested as a potential measure of particle toxicity, in Beijing in summer and winter using four acellular assays. We correlate PM2.5 OP with a comprehensive range of atmospheric and particle composition measurements, demonstrating inter-assay differences and seasonal variation of PM2.5 OP. Using multivariate statistical analysis, we highlight specific particle chemical components and sources that influence OP.
Jiao Tang, Jiaqi Wang, Guangcai Zhong, Hongxing Jiang, Yangzhi Mo, Bolong Zhang, Xiaofei Geng, Yingjun Chen, Jianhui Tang, Congguo Tian, Surat Bualert, Jun Li, and Gan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This article provides a combining EEM-PARAFAC and statistical analyses method to explore how the EEM chromophores influence BrC light absorption in soluble organic matter. The application enables us to deduce that the BrC absorption is mainly dependent on the longer emission-wavelength chromophores that were largely associated with biomass burning emissions. This method promotes the application of EEM spectroscopy and helps for understanding the light absorption of BrC in the atmosphere.
Weiqi Xu, Chun Chen, Yanmei Qiu, Ying Li, Zhiqiang Zhang, Eleni Karnezi, Spyros N. Pandis, Conghui Xie, Zhijie Li, Jiaxing Sun, Nan Ma, Wanyun Xu, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Jiang Zhu, Douglas R. Worsnop, Nga Lee Ng, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5463–5476,Short summary
Here aerosol volatility and viscosity at a rural site (Gucheng) and an urban site (Beijing) in the North China Plain (NCP) were investigated in summer and winter. Our results showed that organic aerosol (OA) in winter in the NCP is more volatile than that in summer due to enhanced primary emissions from coal combustion and biomass burning. We also found that OA existed mainly as a solid in winter in Beijing but as semisolids in Beijing in summer and Gucheng in winter.
Lucille Joanna S. Borlaza, Samuël Weber, Gaëlle Uzu, Véronique Jacob, Trishalee Cañete, Steve Micallef, Cécile Trébuchon, Rémy Slama, Olivier Favez, and Jean-Luc Jaffrezo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5415–5437,Short summary
This study focuses on fully discriminating the origins of particulates by tackling specific secondary organic aerosol (SOA) sources that are difficult to resolve using traditional datasets, especially at a city scale. This is done through the use of additional fit-for-purpose tracers in the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model, which can be obtained using simpler and more targeted techniques, and the comparison of the PMF models from sites in close range but with different urban typologies.
Wenhua Wang, Longyi Shao, Claudio Mazzoleni, Yaowei Li, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Janarjan Bhandari, Jiaoping Xing, Xiaolei Feng, Mengyuan Zhang, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5301–5314,Short summary
We compared the characteristics of individual particles at ground level and above the mixed-layer height. We found that the particles above the mixed-layer height during haze periods are more aged compared to ground level. More coal-combustion-related primary organic particles were found above the mixed-layer height. We suggest that the particles above the mixed-layer height are affected by the surrounding areas, and once mixed down to the ground, they might contribute to ground air pollution.
Jiumeng Liu, Liz Alexander, Jerome D. Fast, Rodica Lindenmaier, and John E. Shilling
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5101–5116,Short summary
To bridge the gaps in modeling and observational results due to insufficient understanding of aerosol properties, co-located measurements of aerosols and trace gases were conducted at SGP during the HI-SCALE campaign. Organic aerosols at the SGP site exhibited to be highly oxidized, and biogenic emissions appear to largely control the formation of organic aerosols. Seasonal variations of sources and meteorological impacts likely resulted in the highly oxygenated feature of aerosols.
Zhenzhen Wang, Di Wu, Zhuoyu Li, Xiaona Shang, Qing Li, Xiang Li, Renjie Chen, Haidong Kan, Huiling Ouyang, Xu Tang, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This study firstly investigates the composition of sugars in the fine fraction of aerosol over three sites in the southwest China. The result suggested no significant reduction in biomass burning emissions in Southwest Yunnan Province to some extent. The result shown shed a light on the contributions of biomass burning and the characteristic of biogenic saccharides in these regions, which can be further applied to regional source apportionment models and global climate models.
Jonathan V. Trueblood, Alessia Nicosia, Anja Engel, Birthe Zäncker, Matteo Rinaldi, Evelyn Freney, Melilotus Thyssen, Ingrid Obernosterer, Julie Dinasquet, Franco Belosi, Antonio Tovar-Sánchez, Araceli Rodriguez-Romero, Gianni Santachiara, Cécile Guieu, and Karine Sellegri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4659–4676,Short summary
Sea spray aerosols (SSAs) can be an important source of ice-nucleating particles (INPs) that impact cloud properties over the oceans. In the Mediterranean Sea, we found that the INPs in the seawater surface microlayer increased by an order of magnitude after a rain dust event that impacted iron and bacterial abundances. The INP properties of SSA (INPSSA) increased after a 3 d delay. Outside this event, INPSSA could be parameterized as a function of the seawater biogeochemistry.
Jiayun Li, Liming Cao, Wenkang Gao, Lingyan He, Yingchao Yan, Yuexin He, Yuepeng Pan, Dongsheng Ji, Zirui Liu, and Yuesi Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4521–4539,Short summary
For the first time, we investigated the highly time-resolved chemical characterization, sources and evolution of atmospheric submicron aerosols at a regional background site in the North China Plain (NCP) using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer and evaluated the seasonal differentials of photochemical and aqueous-phase processing on SOA composition and oxidation degree of OA. The results will help to understand air pollution in the NCP on a regional scale.
Nadja Triesch, Manuela van Pinxteren, Sanja Frka, Christian Stolle, Tobias Spranger, Erik Hans Hoffmann, Xianda Gong, Heike Wex, Detlef Schulz-Bull, Blaženka Gašparović, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4267–4283,Short summary
To investigate the source of lipids and their representatives in the marine atmosphere, concerted measurements of seawater and submicrometer aerosol particle sampling were carried out on the Cabo Verde islands. This field study describes the biogenic sources of lipids, their selective transfer from the ocean into the atmosphere and their enrichment as part of organic matter. A strong enrichment of the studied representatives of the lipid classes on submicrometer aerosol particles was observed.
Miguel Ricardo A. Hilario, Ewan Crosbie, Michael Shook, Jeffrey S. Reid, Maria Obiminda L. Cambaliza, James Bernard B. Simpas, Luke Ziemba, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Phu Nguyen, F. Joseph Turk, Edward Winstead, Claire E. Robinson, Jian Wang, Jiaoshi Zhang, Yang Wang, Subin Yoon, James Flynn, Sergio L. Alvarez, Ali Behrangi, and Armin Sorooshian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3777–3802,Short summary
This study characterizes long-range transport from major Asian pollution sources into the tropical northwest Pacific and the impact of scavenging on these air masses. We combined aircraft observations, HYSPLIT trajectories, reanalysis, and satellite retrievals to reveal distinct composition and size distribution profiles associated with specific emission sources and wet scavenging. The results of this work have implications for international policymaking related to climate and health.
Florian Ungeheuer, Dominik van Pinxteren, and Alexander L. Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3763–3775,Short summary
We analysed the chemical composition of ultrafine particles from 10–56 nm near Frankfurt Airport based on cascade impactor samples. We used an offline non-target screening to determine size-resolved molecular fingerprints. Unambiguous attribution of two homologous ester series to jet engine oils enables a new strategy of source attribution and explains the majority of the detected compounds. In addition, we identified additives of jet oils and a detrimental thermal transformation product.
Laurent Poulain, Benjamin Fahlbusch, Gerald Spindler, Konrad Müller, Dominik van Pinxteren, Zhijun Wu, Yoshiteru Iinuma, Wolfram Birmili, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3667–3684,Short summary
We present results from source apportionment analysis on the carbonaceous aerosol particles, including organic aerosol (OA) and equivalent black carbon (eBC), allowing us to distinguish local emissions from long-range transport for OA and eBC sources. By merging online chemical measurements and considering particle number size distribution, the different air masses reaching the sampling place were described and discussed, based on their respective chemical composition and size distribution.
Wei Yuan, Ru-Jin Huang, Lu Yang, Ting Wang, Jing Duan, Jie Guo, Haiyan Ni, Yang Chen, Qi Chen, Yongjie Li, Ulrike Dusek, Colin O'Dowd, and Thorsten Hoffmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3685–3697,Short summary
We characterized the seasonal variations in nitrated aromatic compounds (NACs) in composition, sources, and their light absorption contribution to brown carbon (BrC) aerosol in Xi'an, Northwest China. Our results show that secondary formation and vehicular emission were dominant sources in summer (~80 %), and biomass burning and coal combustion were major sources in winter (~75 %), and they indicate that the composition and sources of NACs have a profound impact on the light absorption of BrC
Kouji Adachi, Naga Oshima, Sho Ohata, Atsushi Yoshida, Nobuhiro Moteki, and Makoto Koike
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3607–3626,Short summary
Aerosol particles influence the Arctic climate by interacting with solar radiation, forming clouds, and melting surface snow and ice. Individual-particle analyses using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and model simulations provide evidence of biomass burning and anthropogenic contributions to the Arctic aerosols by showing a wide range of compositions and mixing states depending on sampling altitude. Our results reveal the aerosol aging processes and climate influences in the Arctic.
Linlin Liang, Guenter Engling, Chang Liu, Wanyun Xu, Xuyan Liu, Yuan Cheng, Zhenyu Du, Gen Zhang, Junying Sun, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3181–3192,Short summary
A unique episode with extreme biomass burning (BB) impact, with daily concentration of levoglucosan as high as 4.37 µg m-3, was captured at an area upwind of Beijing. How this extreme BB pollution event was generated and what were the chemical properties of PM2.5 under this kind severe BB pollution level in the real atmospheric environment were both presented in this measurement report. Moreover, the variation of the ratios of BB tracers during different BB pollution periods was also exhibited.
Elena Barbaro, Krystyna Koziol, Mats P. Björkman, Carmen P. Vega, Christian Zdanowicz, Tonu Martma, Jean-Charles Gallet, Daniel Kępski, Catherine Larose, Bartłomiej Luks, Florian Tolle, Thomas V. Schuler, Aleksander Uszczyk, and Andrea Spolaor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3163–3180,Short summary
This paper shows the most comprehensive seasonal snow chemistry survey to date, carried out in April 2016 across 22 sites on 7 glaciers across Svalbard. The dataset consists of the concentration, mass loading, spatial and altitudinal distribution of major ion species (Ca2+, K+, Na2+, Mg2+, NH4+, SO42−, Br−, Cl− and NO3−), together with its stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition (δ18O and δ2H) in the snowpack. This study was part of the larger Community Coordinated Snow Study in Svalbard.
Yao Wang, Yue Zhao, Yuchen Wang, Jian-Zhen Yu, Jingyuan Shao, Ping Liu, Wenfei Zhu, Zhen Cheng, Ziyue Li, Naiqiang Yan, and Huayun Xiao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2959–2980,Short summary
Organosulfates (OSs) are important constituents and tracers of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) in the atmosphere. Here we characterized the OS species in ambient aerosols in Shanghai, China. We find that the contributions of OSs and SOAs to organic aerosols have increased in recent years and that OS production was largely controlled by the oxidant level (Ox), particularly in summer. We infer that mitigation of Ox pollution can effectively reduce the production of OSs and SOAs in eastern China.
Samuël Weber, Gaëlle Uzu, Olivier Favez, Lucille Joanna Borlaza, Aude Calas, Dalia Salameh, Florie Chevrier, Julie Allard, Jean-Luc Besombes, Alexandre Albinet, Sabrina Pontet, Boualem Mesbah, Grégory Gille, Shouwen Zhang, Cyril Pallares, Eva Leoz-Garziandia, and Jean-Luc Jaffrezo
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Oxidative potential of aerosols is apportioned to the main PM sources found in 15 sites over France. The sources present clear distinct intrinsic OP's at a large geographic scale, and a drastic redistribution between the mass concentration and oxidative potential measured by both AA and DTT is highlighted. Moreover, the high discrepancy between the mean and median contribution of the sources to the given metrics rises some important questions when dealing with health endpoints.
Ren-Guo Zhu, Hua-Yun Xiao, Li Luo, Hongwei Xiao, Zequn Wen, Yuwen Zhu, Xiaozheng Fang, Yuanyuan Pan, and Zhenping Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2585–2600,Short summary
Amino acids (AAs), as important organic nitrogen compounds, play key roles in the nitrogen cycles, climate change and public health. The sources and transformation of AAs in two size-segregated aerosol particles were explored. This study presents the first isotopic evidence that the sources of AAs for fine and coarse aerosol particles may be similar. And the potentially significant role of bacterial degradation processes in aerosol protein degradation state was suggested.
Runlong Cai, Chao Yan, Dongsen Yang, Rujing Yin, Yiqun Lu, Chenjuan Deng, Yueyun Fu, Jiaxin Ruan, Xiaoxiao Li, Jenni Kontkanen, Qiang Zhang, Juha Kangasluoma, Yan Ma, Jiming Hao, Douglas R. Worsnop, Federico Bianchi, Pauli Paasonen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Yongchun Liu, Lin Wang, Jun Zheng, Markku Kulmala, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2457–2468,Short summary
Based on long-term measurements, we discovered that the collision of H2SO4–amine clusters is the governing mechanism that initializes fast new particle formation in the polluted atmospheric environment of urban Beijing. The mechanism and the governing factors for H2SO4–amine nucleation in the polluted atmosphere are quantitatively investigated in this study.
Qiaorong Xie, Sihui Su, Jing Chen, Yuqing Dai, Siyao Yue, Hang Su, Haijie Tong, Wanyu Zhao, Lujie Ren, Yisheng Xu, Dong Cao, Ying Li, Yele Sun, Zifa Wang, Cong-Qiang Liu, Kimitaka Kawamura, Guibin Jiang, Yafang Cheng, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This study investigated the role of nighttime chemistry during the Chinese New Year that enhances the formation of nitrooxy-organosulfates in the aerosol phase. Results demonstrate that anthropogenic precursors, together with biogenic ones, considerably contribute to the formation of low-volatile nitrooxy-OSs. Our study provides detailed molecular composition of firework-related aerosols, which gives new insights into the physicochemical properties and potential health effects of urban aerosols.
Lei Liu, Jian Zhang, Yinxiao Zhang, Yuanyuan Wang, Liang Xu, Qi Yuan, Dantong Liu, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, Zongbo Shi, and Weijun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2251–2265,Short summary
We found that large numbers of light-absorbing primary organic particles with high viscosity, especially tarballs, from domestic coal and biomass burning occurred in rural and even urban hazes in the winter of North China. For the first time, we characterized the atmospheric aging process of these burning-related primary organic particles by microscopic analysis and further evaluated their light absorption enhancement resulting from the “lensing effect” of secondary inorganic coatings.
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The detailed molecular composition of ambient fog and aerosol influenced by regional biomass burning and secondary processes was studied. Aerosol and aqueous-phase functionalization and oxidation were observed, leading to fog compositions that are more "SOA-like" than aerosols. The significance of the aqueous phase in transforming the molecular chemistry and contributing to secondary organic aerosol is demonstrated here.
The detailed molecular composition of ambient fog and aerosol influenced by regional biomass...