Articles | Volume 16, issue 15
Research article 01 Aug 2016
Research article | 01 Aug 2016
Co-benefits of global and regional greenhouse gas mitigation for US air quality in 2050
Yuqiang Zhang et al.
No articles found.
Jan C. Minx, William F. Lamb, Robbie M. Andrew, Josep G. Canadell, Monica Crippa, Niklas Döbbeling, Piers M. Forster, Diego Guizzardi, Jos Olivier, Glen P. Peters, Julia Pongratz, Andy Reisinger, Matthew Rigby, Marielle Saunois, Steven J. Smith, Efisio Solazzo, and Hanqin Tian
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESSDShort summary
We provide a comprehensive dataset for all major greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with high sector and country resolution covering the time period 1970–2019. We find GHG have increased every decade and that the absolute increase in average annual GHG emissions has never been larger than for the most recent decade (2010–2019). We identify a number of data gaps and data quality issues and highlight the importance of stronger investments in emissions inventories and reporting.
Timothy Glotfelty, Diana Ramírez-Mejía, Jared Bowden, Adrian Ghilardi, and J. Jason West
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3215–3249,Short summary
Land use and land cover change is a major contributor to climate change in Africa. Here we document deficiencies in how a weather model represents the land surface of Africa and how we modify a common land surface model to overcome these deficiencies. Our tests reveal that the default weather model does not accurately predict and transition the properties of different African biomes and growing cycles. This paper demonstrates that our modified model addresses these limitations.
James Keeble, Birgit Hassler, Antara Banerjee, Ramiro Checa-Garcia, Gabriel Chiodo, Sean Davis, Veronika Eyring, Paul T. Griffiths, Olaf Morgenstern, Peer Nowack, Guang Zeng, Jiankai Zhang, Greg Bodeker, Susannah Burrows, Philip Cameron-Smith, David Cugnet, Christopher Danek, Makoto Deushi, Larry W. Horowitz, Anne Kubin, Lijuan Li, Gerrit Lohmann, Martine Michou, Michael J. Mills, Pierre Nabat, Dirk Olivié, Sungsu Park, Øyvind Seland, Jens Stoll, Karl-Hermann Wieners, and Tongwen Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5015–5061,Short summary
Stratospheric ozone and water vapour are key components of the Earth system; changes to both have important impacts on global and regional climate. We evaluate changes to these species from 1850 to 2100 in the new generation of CMIP6 models. There is good agreement between the multi-model mean and observations, although there is substantial variation between the individual models. The future evolution of both ozone and water vapour is strongly dependent on the assumed future emissions scenario.
Paul T. Griffiths, Lee T. Murray, Guang Zeng, Youngsub Matthew Shin, N. Luke Abraham, Alexander T. Archibald, Makoto Deushi, Louisa K. Emmons, Ian E. Galbally, Birgit Hassler, Larry W. Horowitz, James Keeble, Jane Liu, Omid Moeini, Vaishali Naik, Fiona M. O'Connor, Naga Oshima, David Tarasick, Simone Tilmes, Steven T. Turnock, Oliver Wild, Paul J. Young, and Prodromos Zanis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4187–4218,Short summary
We analyse the CMIP6 Historical and future simulations for tropospheric ozone, a species which is important for many aspects of atmospheric chemistry. We show that the current generation of models agrees well with observations, being particularly successful in capturing trends in surface ozone and its vertical distribution in the troposphere. We analyse the factors that control ozone and show that they evolve over the period of the CMIP6 experiments.
Gillian Thornhill, William Collins, Dirk Olivié, Ragnhild B. Skeie, Alex Archibald, Susanne Bauer, Ramiro Checa-Garcia, Stephanie Fiedler, Gerd Folberth, Ada Gjermundsen, Larry Horowitz, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Martine Michou, Jane Mulcahy, Pierre Nabat, Vaishali Naik, Fiona M. O'Connor, Fabien Paulot, Michael Schulz, Catherine E. Scott, Roland Séférian, Chris Smith, Toshihiko Takemura, Simone Tilmes, Kostas Tsigaridis, and James Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1105–1126,Short summary
We find that increased temperatures affect aerosols and reactive gases by changing natural emissions and their rates of removal from the atmosphere. Changing the composition of these species in the atmosphere affects the radiative budget of the climate system and therefore amplifies or dampens the climate response of climate models of the Earth system. This study found that the largest effect is a dampening of climate change as warmer temperatures increase the emissions of cooling aerosols.
Kalyn Dorheim, Steven J. Smith, and Ben Bond-Lamberty
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 365–375,Short summary
Simple climate models are frequently used in research and decision-making communities because of their tractability and low computational cost. Simple climate models are diverse, including highly idealized and process-based models. Here we present a hybrid approach that combines the strength of two types of simple climate models in a flexible framework. This hybrid approach has provided insights into the climate system and opens an avenue for investigating radiative forcing uncertainties.
Gillian D. Thornhill, William J. Collins, Ryan J. Kramer, Dirk Olivié, Ragnhild B. Skeie, Fiona M. O'Connor, Nathan Luke Abraham, Ramiro Checa-Garcia, Susanne E. Bauer, Makoto Deushi, Louisa K. Emmons, Piers M. Forster, Larry W. Horowitz, Ben Johnson, James Keeble, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Martine Michou, Michael J. Mills, Jane P. Mulcahy, Gunnar Myhre, Pierre Nabat, Vaishali Naik, Naga Oshima, Michael Schulz, Christopher J. Smith, Toshihiko Takemura, Simone Tilmes, Tongwen Wu, Guang Zeng, and Jie Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 853–874,Short summary
This paper is a study of how different constituents in the atmosphere, such as aerosols and gases like methane and ozone, affect the energy balance in the atmosphere. Different climate models were run using the same inputs to allow an easy comparison of the results and to understand where the models differ. We found the effect of aerosols is to reduce warming in the atmosphere, but this effect varies between models. Reactions between gases are also important in affecting climate.
Erin E. McDuffie, Steven J. Smith, Patrick O'Rourke, Kushal Tibrewal, Chandra Venkataraman, Eloise A. Marais, Bo Zheng, Monica Crippa, Michael Brauer, and Randall V. Martin
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3413–3442,Short summary
Global emission inventories are vital to understanding the impacts of air pollution on the environment, human health, and society. We update the open-source Community Emissions Data System (CEDS) to provide global gridded emissions of seven key air pollutants from 1970–2017 for 11 source sectors and multiple fuel types, including coal, solid biofuel, and liquid oil and natural gas. This dataset includes both monthly global gridded emissions and annual national totals.
Steven T. Turnock, Robert J. Allen, Martin Andrews, Susanne E. Bauer, Makoto Deushi, Louisa Emmons, Peter Good, Larry Horowitz, Jasmin G. John, Martine Michou, Pierre Nabat, Vaishali Naik, David Neubauer, Fiona M. O'Connor, Dirk Olivié, Naga Oshima, Michael Schulz, Alistair Sellar, Sungbo Shim, Toshihiko Takemura, Simone Tilmes, Kostas Tsigaridis, Tongwen Wu, and Jie Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14547–14579,Short summary
A first assessment is made of the historical and future changes in air pollutants from models participating in the 6th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). Substantial benefits to future air quality can be achieved in future scenarios that implement measures to mitigate climate and involve reductions in air pollutant emissions, particularly methane. However, important differences are shown between models in the future regional projection of air pollutants under the same scenario.
David S. Stevenson, Alcide Zhao, Vaishali Naik, Fiona M. O'Connor, Simone Tilmes, Guang Zeng, Lee T. Murray, William J. Collins, Paul T. Griffiths, Sungbo Shim, Larry W. Horowitz, Lori T. Sentman, and Louisa Emmons
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12905–12920,Short summary
We present historical trends in atmospheric oxidizing capacity (OC) since 1850 from the latest generation of global climate models and compare these with estimates from measurements. OC controls levels of many key reactive gases, including methane (CH4). We find small model trends up to 1980, then increases of about 9 % up to 2014, disagreeing with (uncertain) measurement-based trends. Major drivers of OC trends are emissions of CH4, NOx, and CO; these will be important for future CH4 trends.
Zebedee R. J. Nicholls, Malte Meinshausen, Jared Lewis, Robert Gieseke, Dietmar Dommenget, Kalyn Dorheim, Chen-Shuo Fan, Jan S. Fuglestvedt, Thomas Gasser, Ulrich Golüke, Philip Goodwin, Corinne Hartin, Austin P. Hope, Elmar Kriegler, Nicholas J. Leach, Davide Marchegiani, Laura A. McBride, Yann Quilcaille, Joeri Rogelj, Ross J. Salawitch, Bjørn H. Samset, Marit Sandstad, Alexey N. Shiklomanov, Ragnhild B. Skeie, Christopher J. Smith, Steve Smith, Katsumasa Tanaka, Junichi Tsutsui, and Zhiang Xie
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5175–5190,Short summary
Computational limits mean that we cannot run our most comprehensive climate models for all applications of interest. In such cases, reduced complexity models (RCMs) are used. Here, researchers working on 15 different models present the first systematic community effort to evaluate and compare RCMs: the Reduced Complexity Model Intercomparison Project (RCMIP). Our research ensures that users of RCMs can more easily evaluate the strengths, weaknesses and limitations of their tools.
Li Zhang, Meiyun Lin, Andrew O. Langford, Larry W. Horowitz, Christoph J. Senff, Elizabeth Klovenski, Yuxuan Wang, Raul J. Alvarez II, Irina Petropavlovskikh, Patrick Cullis, Chance W. Sterling, Jeff Peischl, Thomas B. Ryerson, Steven S. Brown, Zachary C. J. Decker, Guillaume Kirgis, and Stephen Conley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10379–10400,Short summary
Measuring and quantifying the sources of elevated springtime ozone in the southwestern US is challenging but relevant to the implications for control policy. Here we use intensive field measurements and two global models to study ozone sources in the region. We find that ozone from the stratosphere, wildfires, and Asia is an important source of high-ozone events in the region. Our analysis also helps understand the uncertainties in ozone simulations with individual models.
Robert J. Allen, Steven Turnock, Pierre Nabat, David Neubauer, Ulrike Lohmann, Dirk Olivié, Naga Oshima, Martine Michou, Tongwen Wu, Jie Zhang, Toshihiko Takemura, Michael Schulz, Kostas Tsigaridis, Susanne E. Bauer, Louisa Emmons, Larry Horowitz, Vaishali Naik, Twan van Noije, Tommi Bergman, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Prodromos Zanis, Ina Tegen, Daniel M. Westervelt, Philippe Le Sager, Peter Good, Sungbo Shim, Fiona O'Connor, Dimitris Akritidis, Aristeidis K. Georgoulias, Makoto Deushi, Lori T. Sentman, Jasmin G. John, Shinichiro Fujimori, and William J. Collins
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9641–9663,
Malte Meinshausen, Zebedee R. J. Nicholls, Jared Lewis, Matthew J. Gidden, Elisabeth Vogel, Mandy Freund, Urs Beyerle, Claudia Gessner, Alexander Nauels, Nico Bauer, Josep G. Canadell, John S. Daniel, Andrew John, Paul B. Krummel, Gunnar Luderer, Nicolai Meinshausen, Stephen A. Montzka, Peter J. Rayner, Stefan Reimann, Steven J. Smith, Marten van den Berg, Guus J. M. Velders, Martin K. Vollmer, and Ray H. J. Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3571–3605,Short summary
This study provides the future greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations under the new set of so-called SSP scenarios (the successors of the IPCC SRES and previous representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios). The projected CO2 concentrations range from 350 ppm for low-emission scenarios by 2150 to more than 2000 ppm under the high-emission scenarios. We also provide concentrations, latitudinal gradients, and seasonality for most of the other 42 considered GHGs.
Marielle Saunois, Ann R. Stavert, Ben Poulter, Philippe Bousquet, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Peter A. Raymond, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Sander Houweling, Prabir K. Patra, Philippe Ciais, Vivek K. Arora, David Bastviken, Peter Bergamaschi, Donald R. Blake, Gordon Brailsford, Lori Bruhwiler, Kimberly M. Carlson, Mark Carrol, Simona Castaldi, Naveen Chandra, Cyril Crevoisier, Patrick M. Crill, Kristofer Covey, Charles L. Curry, Giuseppe Etiope, Christian Frankenberg, Nicola Gedney, Michaela I. Hegglin, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Gustaf Hugelius, Misa Ishizawa, Akihiko Ito, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Katherine M. Jensen, Fortunat Joos, Thomas Kleinen, Paul B. Krummel, Ray L. Langenfelds, Goulven G. Laruelle, Licheng Liu, Toshinobu Machida, Shamil Maksyutov, Kyle C. McDonald, Joe McNorton, Paul A. Miller, Joe R. Melton, Isamu Morino, Jurek Müller, Fabiola Murguia-Flores, Vaishali Naik, Yosuke Niwa, Sergio Noce, Simon O'Doherty, Robert J. Parker, Changhui Peng, Shushi Peng, Glen P. Peters, Catherine Prigent, Ronald Prinn, Michel Ramonet, Pierre Regnier, William J. Riley, Judith A. Rosentreter, Arjo Segers, Isobel J. Simpson, Hao Shi, Steven J. Smith, L. Paul Steele, Brett F. Thornton, Hanqin Tian, Yasunori Tohjima, Francesco N. Tubiello, Aki Tsuruta, Nicolas Viovy, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Thomas S. Weber, Michiel van Weele, Guido R. van der Werf, Ray F. Weiss, Doug Worthy, Debra Wunch, Yi Yin, Yukio Yoshida, Wenxin Zhang, Zhen Zhang, Yuanhong Zhao, Bo Zheng, Qing Zhu, Qiuan Zhu, and Qianlai Zhuang
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1561–1623,Short summary
Understanding and quantifying the global methane (CH4) budget is important for assessing realistic pathways to mitigate climate change. We have established a consortium of multidisciplinary scientists under the umbrella of the Global Carbon Project to synthesize and stimulate new research aimed at improving and regularly updating the global methane budget. This is the second version of the review dedicated to the decadal methane budget, integrating results of top-down and bottom-up estimates.
Daniel M. Westervelt, Nora R. Mascioli, Arlene M. Fiore, Andrew J. Conley, Jean-François Lamarque, Drew T. Shindell, Greg Faluvegi, Michael Previdi, Gustavo Correa, and Larry W. Horowitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3009–3027,Short summary
We use three Earth system models to estimate the impact of regional air pollutant emissions reductions on global and regional surface temperature. We find that removing human-caused air pollutant emissions from certain world regions (such as the USA) results in warming of up to 0.15 °C. We use our model output to calculate simple climate metrics that will allow for regional-scale climate impact estimates without the use of computationally demanding computer models.
Leyang Feng, Steven J. Smith, Caleb Braun, Monica Crippa, Matthew J. Gidden, Rachel Hoesly, Zbigniew Klimont, Margreet van Marle, Maarten van den Berg, and Guido R. van der Werf
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 461–482,Short summary
We describe the methods used for generating gridded emission datasets produced for use by the modeling community, particularly for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6). The development of three sets of gridded data (historical open burning, historical anthropogenic, and future scenarios) was coordinated to produce consistent data over 1750–2100. We discuss the methodologies used to produce these data along with limitations and potential for future work.
Jian He, Vaishali Naik, Larry W. Horowitz, Ed Dlugokencky, and Kirk Thoning
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 805–827,Short summary
In this work, methane representation in AM4.1 is improved by optimizing CH4 emissions to match surface observations. We find increases in CH4 sources balanced by increases in sinks lead to CH4 stabilization during 1999–2006, and anthropogenic sources (e.g., agriculture, energy, and waste) are more likely major contributors to the renewed growth after 2006. Increases in CH4 emissions and decreases in OH levels during 2008–2015 prolong CH4 lifetime and amplify methane response to emission changes.
Bing Pu, Paul Ginoux, Huan Guo, N. Christina Hsu, John Kimball, Beatrice Marticorena, Sergey Malyshev, Vaishali Naik, Norman T. O'Neill, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Juliette Paireau, Joseph M. Prospero, Elena Shevliakova, and Ming Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 55–81,Short summary
Dust emission initiates when surface wind velocities exceed a threshold depending on soil and surface characteristics and varying spatially and temporally. Climate models widely use wind erosion thresholds. The climatological monthly global distribution of the wind erosion threshold, Vthreshold, is retrieved using satellite and reanalysis products and improves the simulation of dust frequency, magnitude, and the seasonal cycle in the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory land–atmosphere model.
Hongbin Yu, Yang Yang, Hailong Wang, Qian Tan, Mian Chin, Robert C. Levy, Lorraine A. Remer, Steven J. Smith, Tianle Yuan, and Yingxi Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 139–161,Short summary
Emissions and long-range transport of mineral dust and combustion-related aerosol from burning fossil fuels and biomass vary from year to year, driven by the evolution of the economy and changes in meteorological conditions and environmental regulations. This study offers both satellite and model perspectives on interannual variability and possible trends in combustion aerosol and dust in major continental outflow regions over the past 15 years (2003–2017).
Adria K. Schwarber, Steven J. Smith, Corinne A. Hartin, Benjamin Aaron Vega-Westhoff, and Ryan Sriver
Earth Syst. Dynam., 10, 729–739,Short summary
Simple climate models (SCMs) underlie many important scientific and decision-making endeavors. This illustrates the need for their use to be rooted in a clear understanding of their fundamental responses. In this study, we provide a comprehensive assessment of model performance by evaluating the fundamental responses of several SCMs. We find biases in some responses, which have implications for decision science. We conclude by recommending a standard set of validation tests for any SCM.
Matthew J. Gidden, Keywan Riahi, Steven J. Smith, Shinichiro Fujimori, Gunnar Luderer, Elmar Kriegler, Detlef P. van Vuuren, Maarten van den Berg, Leyang Feng, David Klein, Katherine Calvin, Jonathan C. Doelman, Stefan Frank, Oliver Fricko, Mathijs Harmsen, Tomoko Hasegawa, Petr Havlik, Jérôme Hilaire, Rachel Hoesly, Jill Horing, Alexander Popp, Elke Stehfest, and Kiyoshi Takahashi
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 1443–1475,Short summary
We present a suite of nine scenarios of future emissions trajectories of anthropogenic sources for use in CMIP6. Integrated assessment model results are provided for each scenario with consistent transitions from the historical data to future trajectories. We find that the set of scenarios enables the exploration of a variety of warming pathways. A wide range of scenario data products are provided for the CMIP6 scientific community including global, regional, and gridded emissions datasets.
Stephanie Fiedler, Bjorn Stevens, Matthew Gidden, Steven J. Smith, Keywan Riahi, and Detlef van Vuuren
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 989–1007,
Kai-Lan Chang, Owen R. Cooper, J. Jason West, Marc L. Serre, Martin G. Schultz, Meiyun Lin, Virginie Marécal, Béatrice Josse, Makoto Deushi, Kengo Sudo, Junhua Liu, and Christoph A. Keller
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 955–978,Short summary
We developed a new method for combining surface ozone observations from thousands of monitoring sites worldwide with the output from multiple atmospheric chemistry models. The result is a global surface ozone distribution with greater accuracy than any single model can achieve. We focused on an ozone metric relevant to human mortality caused by long-term ozone exposure. Our method can be applied to studies that quantify the impacts of ozone on human health and mortality.
Yang Yang, Steven J. Smith, Hailong Wang, Catrin M. Mills, and Philip J. Rasch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2405–2420,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) particles exert a potentially large warming influence on the Earth system. We evaluate regional climate responses, non-linearity, and short-term transient responses to BC emission perturbations. We found that climate responses do not scale linearity with emissions and BC impacts temperature much faster than greenhouse gas forcing. Removing present-day BC emissions results in discernible surface temperature changes for only limited regions of the globe.
Katherine Calvin, Pralit Patel, Leon Clarke, Ghassem Asrar, Ben Bond-Lamberty, Ryna Yiyun Cui, Alan Di Vittorio, Kalyn Dorheim, Jae Edmonds, Corinne Hartin, Mohamad Hejazi, Russell Horowitz, Gokul Iyer, Page Kyle, Sonny Kim, Robert Link, Haewon McJeon, Steven J. Smith, Abigail Snyder, Stephanie Waldhoff, and Marshall Wise
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 677–698,Short summary
This paper describes GCAM v5.1, an open source model that represents the linkages between energy, water, land, climate, and economic systems. GCAM examines the future evolution of these systems through the end of the 21st century. It can be used to examine, for example, how changes in population, income, or technology cost might alter crop production, energy demand, or water withdrawals, or how changes in one region’s demand for energy affect energy, water, and land in other regions.
Fabien Paulot, Sergey Malyshev, Tran Nguyen, John D. Crounse, Elena Shevliakova, and Larry W. Horowitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17963–17978,
Ilissa B. Ocko, Vaishali Naik, and David Paynter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15555–15568,Short summary
As communities worldwide analyse options to reduce methane emissions from energy use, agriculture, and waste management, there is an immediate need to build confidence in rapid assessment tools other than standard climate metrics – which misrepresent impacts over all timescales. In this paper, we show that a simplified climate model can easily and rapidly provide scientifically robust climate responses to changes in methane emissions, thereby improving mitigation analysis and decision-making.
Arlene M. Fiore, Emily V. Fischer, George P. Milly, Shubha Pandey Deolal, Oliver Wild, Daniel A. Jaffe, Johannes Staehelin, Olivia E. Clifton, Dan Bergmann, William Collins, Frank Dentener, Ruth M. Doherty, Bryan N. Duncan, Bernd Fischer, Stefan Gilge, Peter G. Hess, Larry W. Horowitz, Alexandru Lupu, Ian A. MacKenzie, Rokjin Park, Ludwig Ries, Michael G. Sanderson, Martin G. Schultz, Drew T. Shindell, Martin Steinbacher, David S. Stevenson, Sophie Szopa, Christoph Zellweger, and Guang Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15345–15361,Short summary
We demonstrate a proof-of-concept approach for applying northern midlatitude mountaintop peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN) measurements and a multi-model ensemble during April to constrain the influence of continental-scale anthropogenic precursor emissions on PAN. Our findings imply a role for carefully coordinated multi-model ensembles in helping identify observations for discriminating among widely varying (and poorly constrained) model responses of atmospheric constituents to changes in emissions.
Yuqiang Zhang, J. Jason West, Rohit Mathur, Jia Xing, Christian Hogrefe, Shawn J. Roselle, Jesse O. Bash, Jonathan E. Pleim, Chuen-Meei Gan, and David C. Wong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15003–15016,Short summary
Here we use a fine-resolution (36 km) self-consistent 21-year air quality simulation from 1990 to 2010, a health impact function, and annual county-level population and baseline mortality rate estimates to estimate annual mortality burdens from PM2.5 and O3 in the US, and also the contributions to the trends. We found that the PM2.5-related mortality burden has steadily decreased by 53 %, while the O3-related mortality burden has increased by 13 %, with larger inter-annual variabilities.
Fabien Paulot, David Paynter, Paul Ginoux, Vaishali Naik, and Larry W. Horowitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13265–13281,Short summary
Observations show that the sunlight reflected to space by particles has decreased over the US and Europe, increased over India, and not changed over China from 2001 to 2015. These changes are attributed to different types of particles, namely sulfate over the US and Europe, and black carbon, sulfate, and nitrate over China and India. Our results suggest that the recent shift in human emissions from the US and Europe to Asia has altered their impact on the Earth's outgoing energy.
Daniel M. Westervelt, Andrew J. Conley, Arlene M. Fiore, Jean-François Lamarque, Drew T. Shindell, Michael Previdi, Nora R. Mascioli, Greg Faluvegi, Gustavo Correa, and Larry W. Horowitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12461–12475,Short summary
Small particles in Earth's atmosphere (also referred to as atmospheric aerosols) emitted by human activities impact Earth's climate in complex ways and play an important role in Earth's water cycle. We use a climate modeling approach and find that aerosols from the United States and Europe can have substantial effects on rainfall in far-away regions such as Africa's Sahel or the Mediterranean. Air pollution controls in these regions may help reduce the likelihood and severity of Sahel drought.
Ciao-Kai Liang, J. Jason West, Raquel A. Silva, Huisheng Bian, Mian Chin, Yanko Davila, Frank J. Dentener, Louisa Emmons, Johannes Flemming, Gerd Folberth, Daven Henze, Ulas Im, Jan Eiof Jonson, Terry J. Keating, Tom Kucsera, Allen Lenzen, Meiyun Lin, Marianne Tronstad Lund, Xiaohua Pan, Rokjin J. Park, R. Bradley Pierce, Takashi Sekiya, Kengo Sudo, and Toshihiko Takemura
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10497–10520,Short summary
Emissions from one continent affect air quality and health elsewhere. Here we quantify the effects of intercontinental PM2.5 and ozone transport on human health using a new multi-model ensemble, evaluating the health effects of emissions from six world regions and three emission source sectors. Emissions from one region have significant health impacts outside of that source region; similarly, foreign emissions contribute significantly to air-pollution-related deaths in several world regions.
Jordan L. Schnell, Vaishali Naik, Larry W. Horowitz, Fabien Paulot, Jingqiu Mao, Paul Ginoux, Ming Zhao, and Kirpa Ram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10157–10175,Short summary
We evaluate the ability of a developmental version of the NOAA GFDL Atmospheric Model, version 4 to simulate observed wintertime pollution and its relationship to weather over Northern India, one of the most densely populated and polluted regions in world. We also compare two emission inventories and find that the newest version dramatically improves our simulation. Observed and modeled pollution is the highest within the Indo-Gangetic Plain, where it is closely related to near-surface weather.
Sandip S. Dhomse, Douglas Kinnison, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Ross J. Salawitch, Irene Cionni, Michaela I. Hegglin, N. Luke Abraham, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Alex T. Archibald, Ewa M. Bednarz, Slimane Bekki, Peter Braesicke, Neal Butchart, Martin Dameris, Makoto Deushi, Stacey Frith, Steven C. Hardiman, Birgit Hassler, Larry W. Horowitz, Rong-Ming Hu, Patrick Jöckel, Beatrice Josse, Oliver Kirner, Stefanie Kremser, Ulrike Langematz, Jared Lewis, Marion Marchand, Meiyun Lin, Eva Mancini, Virginie Marécal, Martine Michou, Olaf Morgenstern, Fiona M. O'Connor, Luke Oman, Giovanni Pitari, David A. Plummer, John A. Pyle, Laura E. Revell, Eugene Rozanov, Robyn Schofield, Andrea Stenke, Kane Stone, Kengo Sudo, Simone Tilmes, Daniele Visioni, Yousuke Yamashita, and Guang Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8409–8438,Short summary
We analyse simulations from the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI) to estimate the return dates of the stratospheric ozone layer from depletion by anthropogenic chlorine and bromine. The simulations from 20 models project that global column ozone will return to 1980 values in 2047 (uncertainty range 2042–2052). Return dates in other regions vary depending on factors related to climate change and importance of chlorine and bromine. Column ozone in the tropics may continue to decline.
Ulas Im, Jørgen Brandt, Camilla Geels, Kaj Mantzius Hansen, Jesper Heile Christensen, Mikael Skou Andersen, Efisio Solazzo, Ioannis Kioutsioukis, Ummugulsum Alyuz, Alessandra Balzarini, Rocio Baro, Roberto Bellasio, Roberto Bianconi, Johannes Bieser, Augustin Colette, Gabriele Curci, Aidan Farrow, Johannes Flemming, Andrea Fraser, Pedro Jimenez-Guerrero, Nutthida Kitwiroon, Ciao-Kai Liang, Uarporn Nopmongcol, Guido Pirovano, Luca Pozzoli, Marje Prank, Rebecca Rose, Ranjeet Sokhi, Paolo Tuccella, Alper Unal, Marta Garcia Vivanco, Jason West, Greg Yarwood, Christian Hogrefe, and Stefano Galmarini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5967–5989,Short summary
The impacts of air pollution on human health and their costs in Europe and the United States for the year 2010 ared modeled by a multi-model ensemble. In Europe, the number of premature deaths is calculated to be 414 000, while in the US it is estimated to be 160 000. Health impacts estimated by individual models can vary up to a factor of 3. Results show that the domestic emissions have the largest impact on premature deaths, compared to foreign sources.
Jingqiu Mao, Annmarie Carlton, Ronald C. Cohen, William H. Brune, Steven S. Brown, Glenn M. Wolfe, Jose L. Jimenez, Havala O. T. Pye, Nga Lee Ng, Lu Xu, V. Faye McNeill, Kostas Tsigaridis, Brian C. McDonald, Carsten Warneke, Alex Guenther, Matthew J. Alvarado, Joost de Gouw, Loretta J. Mickley, Eric M. Leibensperger, Rohit Mathur, Christopher G. Nolte, Robert W. Portmann, Nadine Unger, Mika Tosca, and Larry W. Horowitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2615–2651,Short summary
This paper is aimed at discussing progress in evaluating, diagnosing, and improving air quality and climate modeling using comparisons to SAS observations as a guide to thinking about improvements to mechanisms and parameterizations in models.
Jingyi Li, Jingqiu Mao, Arlene M. Fiore, Ronald C. Cohen, John D. Crounse, Alex P. Teng, Paul O. Wennberg, Ben H. Lee, Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker, Joel A. Thornton, Jeff Peischl, Ilana B. Pollack, Thomas B. Ryerson, Patrick Veres, James M. Roberts, J. Andrew Neuman, John B. Nowak, Glenn M. Wolfe, Thomas F. Hanisco, Alan Fried, Hanwant B. Singh, Jack Dibb, Fabien Paulot, and Larry W. Horowitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2341–2361,Short summary
We present the first comprehensive model evaluation of summertime reactive oxidized nitrogen using a high-resolution chemistry–climate model with up-to-date isoprene oxidation chemistry, along with a series of observations from aircraft campaigns and ground measurement networks from 2004 to 2013 over the Southeast US. We investigate the impact of NOx emission reductions on changes in reactive nitrogen speciation and export efficiency as well as ozone in the past and future decade.
Rachel M. Hoesly, Steven J. Smith, Leyang Feng, Zbigniew Klimont, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Tyler Pitkanen, Jonathan J. Seibert, Linh Vu, Robert J. Andres, Ryan M. Bolt, Tami C. Bond, Laura Dawidowski, Nazar Kholod, June-ichi Kurokawa, Meng Li, Liang Liu, Zifeng Lu, Maria Cecilia P. Moura, Patrick R. O'Rourke, and Qiang Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 369–408,Short summary
Historical emission trends are key inputs to Earth systems and atmospheric chemistry models. We present a new data set of historical (1750–2014) anthropogenic gases (CO, CH4, NH3, NOx, SO2, NMVOCs, BC, OC, and CO2) developed with the Community Emissions Data System (CEDS). This improves on existing inventories as it uses consistent methods and data across emissions species, has annual resolution for a longer and more recent time series, and is designed to be transparent and reproducible.
Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Ben Poulter, Anna Peregon, Philippe Ciais, Josep G. Canadell, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Giuseppe Etiope, David Bastviken, Sander Houweling, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Francesco N. Tubiello, Simona Castaldi, Robert B. Jackson, Mihai Alexe, Vivek K. Arora, David J. Beerling, Peter Bergamaschi, Donald R. Blake, Gordon Brailsford, Lori Bruhwiler, Cyril Crevoisier, Patrick Crill, Kristofer Covey, Christian Frankenberg, Nicola Gedney, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Misa Ishizawa, Akihiko Ito, Fortunat Joos, Heon-Sook Kim, Thomas Kleinen, Paul Krummel, Jean-François Lamarque, Ray Langenfelds, Robin Locatelli, Toshinobu Machida, Shamil Maksyutov, Joe R. Melton, Isamu Morino, Vaishali Naik, Simon O'Doherty, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Prabir K. Patra, Changhui Peng, Shushi Peng, Glen P. Peters, Isabelle Pison, Ronald Prinn, Michel Ramonet, William J. Riley, Makoto Saito, Monia Santini, Ronny Schroeder, Isobel J. Simpson, Renato Spahni, Atsushi Takizawa, Brett F. Thornton, Hanqin Tian, Yasunori Tohjima, Nicolas Viovy, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Ray Weiss, David J. Wilton, Andy Wiltshire, Doug Worthy, Debra Wunch, Xiyan Xu, Yukio Yoshida, Bowen Zhang, Zhen Zhang, and Qiuan Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11135–11161,Short summary
Following the Global Methane Budget 2000–2012 published in Saunois et al. (2016), we use the same dataset of bottom-up and top-down approaches to discuss the variations in methane emissions over the period 2000–2012. The changes in emissions are discussed both in terms of trends and quasi-decadal changes. The ensemble gathered here allows us to synthesise the robust changes in terms of regional and sectorial contributions to the increasing methane emissions.
Michael J. Prather, Xin Zhu, Clare M. Flynn, Sarah A. Strode, Jose M. Rodriguez, Stephen D. Steenrod, Junhua Liu, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Arlene M. Fiore, Larry W. Horowitz, Jingqiu Mao, Lee T. Murray, Drew T. Shindell, and Steven C. Wofsy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9081–9102,Short summary
We present a new approach for comparing atmospheric chemistry models with measurements based on what these models are used to do, i.e., calculate changes in ozone and methane, prime greenhouse gases. This method anticipates a new type of measurements from the NASA Atmospheric Tomography (ATom) mission. In comparing the mixture of species within air parcels, we focus on those responsible for key chemical changes and weight these parcels by their chemical reactivity.
Yang Yang, Hailong Wang, Steven J. Smith, Richard Easter, Po-Lun Ma, Yun Qian, Hongbin Yu, Can Li, and Philip J. Rasch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8903–8922,Short summary
Sulfate has significant impacts on air quality and climate. Local sulfate pollution could result from remote influences, making domestic mitigation efforts inefficient. Using CESM with a sulfur source-tagging technique, we found that, over regions with relatively low emissions, sulfate concentrations are primarily attributed to non-local sources and sulfate indirect radiative forcing over the Southern Hemisphere is more sensitive to emission perturbation than the polluted Northern Hemisphere.
Hyun-Deok Choi, Hongyu Liu, James H. Crawford, David B. Considine, Dale J. Allen, Bryan N. Duncan, Larry W. Horowitz, Jose M. Rodriguez, Susan E. Strahan, Lin Zhang, Xiong Liu, Megan R. Damon, and Stephen D. Steenrod
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8429–8452,Short summary
We evaluate global ozone–carbon monoxide (O3–CO) correlations in a chemistry and transport model during July–August with TES-Aura satellite observations and examine the sensitivity of model simulations to input meteorological data and emissions. Results show that O3–CO correlations may be used effectively to constrain the sources of regional tropospheric O3 in global 3-D models, especially for those regions where convective transport of pollution plays an important role.
Eri Saikawa, Hankyul Kim, Min Zhong, Alexander Avramov, Yu Zhao, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Jun-ichi Kurokawa, Zbigniew Klimont, Fabian Wagner, Vaishali Naik, Larry W. Horowitz, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6393–6421,Short summary
We analyze differences in existing air pollutant emission estimates to better understand the magnitude of emissions as well as the source regions and sectors of air pollution in China. We find large disagreements among the inventories, and we show that these differences have a significant impact on regional air quality simulations. Better understanding of air pollutant emissions at more disaggregated levels is essential for air pollution mitigation in China.
Yang Yang, Hailong Wang, Steven J. Smith, Po-Lun Ma, and Philip J. Rasch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4319–4336,Short summary
The source attributions of black carbon (BC) in China are quantified using the Community Earth System Model by source tagging. BC impacts neighboring regions greatly. Transport is important in increasing BC during regional polluted days. Emissions outside China contribute 35 % of BC direct radiative forcing in China. Efficiency analysis shows that reduction in BC emissions over eastern China could have a greater benefit for regional air quality in China, especially in the winter haze season.
Meiyun Lin, Larry W. Horowitz, Richard Payton, Arlene M. Fiore, and Gail Tonnesen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2943–2970,Short summary
US ozone pollution responds to varying global-to-regional precursor emissions and climate, with implications for designing effective air quality control policies. Asian anthropogenic emissions of ozone precursors tripled since 1990, contributing 65 % to western US ozone increases in spring, outpacing ozone decreases attained via 50 % US emission controls. In the eastern US, if emissions had not declined, more frequent hot extremes since 1990 would have worsened the highest ozone events in summer.
Olaf Morgenstern, Michaela I. Hegglin, Eugene Rozanov, Fiona M. O'Connor, N. Luke Abraham, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Alexander T. Archibald, Slimane Bekki, Neal Butchart, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Makoto Deushi, Sandip S. Dhomse, Rolando R. Garcia, Steven C. Hardiman, Larry W. Horowitz, Patrick Jöckel, Beatrice Josse, Douglas Kinnison, Meiyun Lin, Eva Mancini, Michael E. Manyin, Marion Marchand, Virginie Marécal, Martine Michou, Luke D. Oman, Giovanni Pitari, David A. Plummer, Laura E. Revell, David Saint-Martin, Robyn Schofield, Andrea Stenke, Kane Stone, Kengo Sudo, Taichu Y. Tanaka, Simone Tilmes, Yousuke Yamashita, Kohei Yoshida, and Guang Zeng
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 639–671,Short summary
We present a review of the make-up of 20 models participating in the Chemistry–Climate Model Initiative (CCMI). In comparison to earlier such activities, most of these models comprise a whole-atmosphere chemistry, and several of them include an interactive ocean module. This makes them suitable for studying the interactions of tropospheric air quality, stratospheric ozone, and climate. The paper lays the foundation for other studies using the CCMI simulations for scientific analysis.
William J. Collins, Jean-François Lamarque, Michael Schulz, Olivier Boucher, Veronika Eyring, Michaela I. Hegglin, Amanda Maycock, Gunnar Myhre, Michael Prather, Drew Shindell, and Steven J. Smith
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 585–607,Short summary
We have designed a set of climate model experiments called the Aerosol Chemistry Model Intercomparison Project (AerChemMIP). These are designed to quantify the climate and air quality impacts of aerosols and chemically reactive gases in the climate models that are used to simulate past and future climate. We hope that many climate modelling centres will choose to run these experiments to help understand the contribution of aerosols and chemistry to climate change.
Bjorn Stevens, Stephanie Fiedler, Stefan Kinne, Karsten Peters, Sebastian Rast, Jobst Müsse, Steven J. Smith, and Thorsten Mauritsen
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 433–452,Short summary
A simple analytic description of aerosol optical properties and their main effects on clouds is developed and described. The analytic description is easy to use and easy to modify and should aid experimentation to help understand how aerosol radiative and cloud interactions effect climate and circulation. The climatology is recommended for adoption by models participating in the sixth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project.
Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Ben Poulter, Anna Peregon, Philippe Ciais, Josep G. Canadell, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Giuseppe Etiope, David Bastviken, Sander Houweling, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Francesco N. Tubiello, Simona Castaldi, Robert B. Jackson, Mihai Alexe, Vivek K. Arora, David J. Beerling, Peter Bergamaschi, Donald R. Blake, Gordon Brailsford, Victor Brovkin, Lori Bruhwiler, Cyril Crevoisier, Patrick Crill, Kristofer Covey, Charles Curry, Christian Frankenberg, Nicola Gedney, Lena Höglund-Isaksson, Misa Ishizawa, Akihiko Ito, Fortunat Joos, Heon-Sook Kim, Thomas Kleinen, Paul Krummel, Jean-François Lamarque, Ray Langenfelds, Robin Locatelli, Toshinobu Machida, Shamil Maksyutov, Kyle C. McDonald, Julia Marshall, Joe R. Melton, Isamu Morino, Vaishali Naik, Simon O'Doherty, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Prabir K. Patra, Changhui Peng, Shushi Peng, Glen P. Peters, Isabelle Pison, Catherine Prigent, Ronald Prinn, Michel Ramonet, William J. Riley, Makoto Saito, Monia Santini, Ronny Schroeder, Isobel J. Simpson, Renato Spahni, Paul Steele, Atsushi Takizawa, Brett F. Thornton, Hanqin Tian, Yasunori Tohjima, Nicolas Viovy, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Michiel van Weele, Guido R. van der Werf, Ray Weiss, Christine Wiedinmyer, David J. Wilton, Andy Wiltshire, Doug Worthy, Debra Wunch, Xiyan Xu, Yukio Yoshida, Bowen Zhang, Zhen Zhang, and Qiuan Zhu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 697–751,Short summary
An accurate assessment of the methane budget is important to understand the atmospheric methane concentrations and trends and to provide realistic pathways for climate change mitigation. The various and diffuse sources of methane as well and its oxidation by a very short lifetime radical challenge this assessment. We quantify the methane sources and sinks as well as their uncertainties based on both bottom-up and top-down approaches provided by a broad international scientific community.
Raquel A. Silva, J. Jason West, Jean-François Lamarque, Drew T. Shindell, William J. Collins, Stig Dalsoren, Greg Faluvegi, Gerd Folberth, Larry W. Horowitz, Tatsuya Nagashima, Vaishali Naik, Steven T. Rumbold, Kengo Sudo, Toshihiko Takemura, Daniel Bergmann, Philip Cameron-Smith, Irene Cionni, Ruth M. Doherty, Veronika Eyring, Beatrice Josse, Ian A. MacKenzie, David Plummer, Mattia Righi, David S. Stevenson, Sarah Strode, Sophie Szopa, and Guang Zengast
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9847–9862,Short summary
Using ozone and PM2.5 concentrations from the ACCMIP ensemble of chemistry-climate models for the four Representative Concentration Pathway scenarios (RCPs), together with projections of future population and baseline mortality rates, we quantify the human premature mortality impacts of future ambient air pollution in 2030, 2050 and 2100, relative to 2000 concentrations. We also estimate the global mortality burden of ozone and PM2.5 in 2000 and each future period.
Hongyu Liu, David B. Considine, Larry W. Horowitz, James H. Crawford, Jose M. Rodriguez, Susan E. Strahan, Megan R. Damon, Stephen D. Steenrod, Xiaojing Xu, Jules Kouatchou, Claire Carouge, and Robert M. Yantosca
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4641–4659,Short summary
We assess the utility of cosmogenic beryllium-7, a natural aerosol tracer, for evaluating cross-tropopause transport in global models. We show that model excessive cross-tropopause transport of beryllium-7 corresponds to overestimated stratospheric contribution to tropospheric ozone. We conclude that the observational constraints for beryllium-7 and observed beryllium-7 total deposition fluxes can be used routinely as a first-order assessment of cross-tropopause transport in global models.
Min Zhong, Eri Saikawa, Yang Liu, Vaishali Naik, Larry W. Horowitz, Masayuki Takigawa, Yu Zhao, Neng-Huei Lin, and Elizabeth A. Stone
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 1201–1218,Short summary
Large discrepancies exist among emission inventories (e.g., REAS and EDGAR) at the provincial level in China. We use WRF-Chem to evaluate the impact of the difference in existing emission inventories and find that emissions inputs significantly affect our air pollutant simulation results. Our study highlights the importance of constraining emissions at the provincial level for regional air quality modeling over East Asia.
G. M. Wolfe, J. Kaiser, T. F. Hanisco, F. N. Keutsch, J. A. de Gouw, J. B. Gilman, M. Graus, C. D. Hatch, J. Holloway, L. W. Horowitz, B. H. Lee, B. M. Lerner, F. Lopez-Hilifiker, J. Mao, M. R. Marvin, J. Peischl, I. B. Pollack, J. M. Roberts, T. B. Ryerson, J. A. Thornton, P. R. Veres, and C. Warneke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2597–2610,Short summary
This study uses airborne trace gas observations acquired over the southeast US to examine how both natural (isoprene) and anthropogenic (NOx) emissions influence the production of formaldehyde (HCHO). We find a 3-fold increase in HCHO yield between rural and polluted environments. State-of-the-science chemical mechanisms are generally able to reproduce this behavior. These results add confidence to global hydrocarbon emission inventories constrained by spaceborne HCHO observations.
F. Paulot, P. Ginoux, W. F. Cooke, L. J. Donner, S. Fan, M.-Y. Lin, J. Mao, V. Naik, and L. W. Horowitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1459–1477,Short summary
We characterize the sensitivity of NO3 optical depth (OD) to both the sources of its precursors (NH3 and HNO3) and to its surface sinks. Uncertainties in the heterogeneous chemistry of HNO3 and the near-surface volatilization of NH4NO3 can cause up to 25 % difference in the global NO3 OD. Simulated NO3 OD increases little (< 30 %) in response to changes in emissions (2010 to 2050). Better constraints on the tropical flux of NH3 into the free troposphere are needed to improve estimates of NO3 OD.
D. M. Westervelt, L. W. Horowitz, V. Naik, J.-C. Golaz, and D. L. Mauzerall
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12681–12703,Short summary
Decreases in aerosols over the 21st century as projected by the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) lead to increases up to 0.5 - 1 ºC in global temperature and up to 0.05 - 0.1 mm/day in global precipitation, depending strongly on present-day aerosol radiative forcing. In East Asia, future aerosol decreases could be responsible for 10-20% of the total temperature increase (30-40% with strong present-day aerosol forcing), even under the high greenhouse gas emissions scenario (RCP8.5).
J. L. Schnell, M. J. Prather, B. Josse, V. Naik, L. W. Horowitz, P. Cameron-Smith, D. Bergmann, G. Zeng, D. A. Plummer, K. Sudo, T. Nagashima, D. T. Shindell, G. Faluvegi, and S. A. Strode
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10581–10596,Short summary
We test global chemistry--climate models in their ability to simulate present-day surface ozone. Models are tested against observed hourly ozone from 4217 stations in North America and Europe that are averaged over 1°x1° grid cells. Using novel metrics, we find most models match the shape but not the amplitude of regional summertime diurnal and annual cycles and match the pattern but not the magnitude of summer ozone enhancement. Most also match the observed distribution of extreme episode sizes
M. C. Woody, J. J. West, S. H. Jathar, A. L. Robinson, and S. Arunachalam
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6929–6942,Short summary
Utilizing an aircraft-specific parameterization based on smog chamber data in a regional AQM, contributions of non-traditional secondary organic aerosols (NTSOA) from aircraft emissions of semi-volatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds were assessed. NTSOA, a previously unaccounted component of PM2.5 in most AQMs, contributed up to 7.4% of aviation-attributable PM2.5 at the airport and rose to 17.9% downwind, suggesting its significance in aviation-attributed PM2.5 at all scales.
L. Ran, D. H. Loughlin, D. Yang, Z. Adelman, B. H. Baek, and C. G. Nolte
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1775–1787,Short summary
We present and demonstrate Version 2.0 of the Emission Scenario Projection (ESP) method. This method produces multi-decadal air pollutant emission projections suitable for air quality modeling. The method focuses on energy-related emissions, including those from the electric sector, buildings, industry and transportation. ESP v2.0 enhances ESP v1.0 by taking population growth, migration and land use change into consideration.
M. S. Mallard, C. G. Nolte, T. L. Spero, O. R. Bullock, K. Alapaty, J. A. Herwehe, J. Gula, and J. H. Bowden
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1085–1096,Short summary
Because global climate models (GCMs) are typically run at coarse spatial resolution, lakes are often poorly resolved in their global fields. When downscaling such GCMs using the Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) model, use of WRF’s default interpolation methods can result in unrealistic lake temperatures and ice cover, which can impact simulated air temperatures and precipitation. Here, alternative methods for setting lake variables in WRF downscaling applications are presented and compared.
Z. Shen, J. Liu, L. W. Horowitz, D. K. Henze, S. Fan, Levy II H., D. L. Mauzerall, J.-T. Lin, and S. Tao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6315–6327,
S. J. Smith and T. C. Bond
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 537–549,
M. M. Fry, M. D. Schwarzkopf, Z. Adelman, and J. J. West
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 523–535,
S. J. Smith
Earth Syst. Dynam. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submitted
S. J. Smith and A. Rothwell
Biogeosciences, 10, 6323–6337,
J. Rissman, S. Arunachalam, M. Woody, J. J. West, T. BenDor, and F. S. Binkowski
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9285–9302,
M. M. Fry, M. D. Schwarzkopf, Z. Adelman, V. Naik, W. J. Collins, and J. J. West
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5381–5399,
V. Naik, A. Voulgarakis, A. M. Fiore, L. W. Horowitz, J.-F. Lamarque, M. Lin, M. J. Prather, P. J. Young, D. Bergmann, P. J. Cameron-Smith, I. Cionni, W. J. Collins, S. B. Dalsøren, R. Doherty, V. Eyring, G. Faluvegi, G. A. Folberth, B. Josse, Y. H. Lee, I. A. MacKenzie, T. Nagashima, T. P. C. van Noije, D. A. Plummer, M. Righi, S. T. Rumbold, R. Skeie, D. T. Shindell, D. S. Stevenson, S. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, and G. Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5277–5298,
K. W. Bowman, D. T. Shindell, H. M. Worden, J.F. Lamarque, P. J. Young, D. S. Stevenson, Z. Qu, M. de la Torre, D. Bergmann, P. J. Cameron-Smith, W. J. Collins, R. Doherty, S. B. Dalsøren, G. Faluvegi, G. Folberth, L. W. Horowitz, B. M. Josse, Y. H. Lee, I. A. MacKenzie, G. Myhre, T. Nagashima, V. Naik, D. A. Plummer, S. T. Rumbold, R. B. Skeie, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, A. Voulgarakis, G. Zeng, S. S. Kulawik, A. M. Aghedo, and J. R. Worden
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4057–4072,
D. T. Shindell, J.-F. Lamarque, M. Schulz, M. Flanner, C. Jiao, M. Chin, P. J. Young, Y. H. Lee, L. Rotstayn, N. Mahowald, G. Milly, G. Faluvegi, Y. Balkanski, W. J. Collins, A. J. Conley, S. Dalsoren, R. Easter, S. Ghan, L. Horowitz, X. Liu, G. Myhre, T. Nagashima, V. Naik, S. T. Rumbold, R. Skeie, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, T. Takemura, A. Voulgarakis, J.-H. Yoon, and F. Lo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2939–2974,
D. S. Stevenson, P. J. Young, V. Naik, J.-F. Lamarque, D. T. Shindell, A. Voulgarakis, R. B. Skeie, S. B. Dalsoren, G. Myhre, T. K. Berntsen, G. A. Folberth, S. T. Rumbold, W. J. Collins, I. A. MacKenzie, R. M. Doherty, G. Zeng, T. P. C. van Noije, A. Strunk, D. Bergmann, P. Cameron-Smith, D. A. Plummer, S. A. Strode, L. Horowitz, Y. H. Lee, S. Szopa, K. Sudo, T. Nagashima, B. Josse, I. Cionni, M. Righi, V. Eyring, A. Conley, K. W. Bowman, O. Wild, and A. Archibald
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3063–3085,
W. J. Collins, M. M. Fry, H. Yu, J. S. Fuglestvedt, D. T. Shindell, and J. J. West
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2471–2485,
A. Voulgarakis, V. Naik, J.-F. Lamarque, D. T. Shindell, P. J. Young, M. J. Prather, O. Wild, R. D. Field, D. Bergmann, P. Cameron-Smith, I. Cionni, W. J. Collins, S. B. Dalsøren, R. M. Doherty, V. Eyring, G. Faluvegi, G. A. Folberth, L. W. Horowitz, B. Josse, I. A. MacKenzie, T. Nagashima, D. A. Plummer, M. Righi, S. T. Rumbold, D. S. Stevenson, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, and G. Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2563–2587,
Y. H. Lee, J.-F. Lamarque, M. G. Flanner, C. Jiao, D. T. Shindell, T. Berntsen, M. M. Bisiaux, J. Cao, W. J. Collins, M. Curran, R. Edwards, G. Faluvegi, S. Ghan, L. W. Horowitz, J. R. McConnell, J. Ming, G. Myhre, T. Nagashima, V. Naik, S. T. Rumbold, R. B. Skeie, K. Sudo, T. Takemura, F. Thevenon, B. Xu, and J.-H. Yoon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2607–2634,
P. J. Young, A. T. Archibald, K. W. Bowman, J.-F. Lamarque, V. Naik, D. S. Stevenson, S. Tilmes, A. Voulgarakis, O. Wild, D. Bergmann, P. Cameron-Smith, I. Cionni, W. J. Collins, S. B. Dalsøren, R. M. Doherty, V. Eyring, G. Faluvegi, L. W. Horowitz, B. Josse, Y. H. Lee, I. A. MacKenzie, T. Nagashima, D. A. Plummer, M. Righi, S. T. Rumbold, R. B. Skeie, D. T. Shindell, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, and G. Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2063–2090,
C. He, J. Liu, A. G. Carlton, S. Fan, L. W. Horowitz, H. Levy II, and S. Tao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1913–1926,
J.-F. Lamarque, D. T. Shindell, B. Josse, P. J. Young, I. Cionni, V. Eyring, D. Bergmann, P. Cameron-Smith, W. J. Collins, R. Doherty, S. Dalsoren, G. Faluvegi, G. Folberth, S. J. Ghan, L. W. Horowitz, Y. H. Lee, I. A. MacKenzie, T. Nagashima, V. Naik, D. Plummer, M. Righi, S. T. Rumbold, M. Schulz, R. B. Skeie, D. S. Stevenson, S. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, A. Voulgarakis, and G. Zeng
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 179–206,
Y. Fang, V. Naik, L. W. Horowitz, and D. L. Mauzerall
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1377–1394,
A. J. Turner, A. M. Fiore, L. W. Horowitz, and M. Bauer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 565–578,
J. G. John, A. M. Fiore, V. Naik, L. W. Horowitz, and J. P. Dunne
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 12021–12036,
Related subject area
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estimation of atmospherically relevant physicochemical parametersSpatial and temporal variability in the hydroxyl (OH) radical: understanding the role of large-scale climate features and their influence on OH through its dynamical and photochemical driversAnalysis of atmospheric ammonia over South and East Asia based on the MOZART-4 model and its comparison with satellite and surface observationsAir quality and health benefits from ultra-low emission control policy indicated by continuous emission monitoring: a case study in the Yangtze River Delta region, ChinaBackground conditions for an urban greenhouse gas network in the Washington, DC, and Baltimore metropolitan regionExplicit modeling of isoprene chemical processing in polluted air masses in suburban areas of the Yangtze River Delta region: radical cycling and formation of ozone and formaldehydeEvaluation of the LOTOS-EUROS NO2 simulations using ground-based measurements and S5P/TROPOMI observations over GreeceReactive organic carbon emissions from volatile chemical productsA three-dimensional-model inversion of methyl chloroform to constrain the atmospheric oxidative capacityTechnical note: On comparing greenhouse gas emission metricsLate-spring and summertime tropospheric ozone and NO2 in western Siberia and the Russian Arctic: regional model evaluation and sensitivities10-year satellite-constrained fluxes of ammonia improve performance of chemistry transport modelsRevealing the sulfur dioxide emission reductions in China by assimilating surface observations in WRF-ChemTropospheric ozone in CMIP6 simulationsIdentifying forecast uncertainties for biogenic gases in the Po Valley related to model configuration in EURAD-IM during PEGASOS 2012Impact of reduced anthropogenic emissions during COVID-19 on air quality in IndiaA comparison of long-term trends in observations and emission inventories of NOxAttribution of the accelerating increase in atmospheric methane during 2010–2018 by inverse analysis of GOSAT observationsGlobal impact of COVID-19 restrictions on the surface concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and ozoneThe impact of inhomogeneous emissions and topography on ozone photochemistry in the vicinity of Hong Kong IslandInverse modelling of carbonyl sulfide: implementation, evaluation and implications for the global budgetInfluence of aromatics on tropospheric gas-phase compositionDevelopment of Ozone Reactivity Scales for Volatile Organic Compounds in a Chinese MegacityEmission inventory of air pollutants and chemical speciation for specific anthropogenic sources based on local measurements in the Yangtze River Delta region, ChinaPhotochemical environment over Southeast Asia primed for hazardous ozone levels with influx of nitrogen oxides from seasonal biomass burningAtmospheric-methane source and sink sensitivity analysis using Gaussian process emulationCarbon and air pollutant emissions from China's cement industry 1990–2015: trends, evolution of technologies, and driversAssessment of pre-industrial to present-day anthropogenic climate forcing in UKESM1Technical note: A high-resolution inverse modelling technique for estimating surface CO2 fluxes based on the NIES-TM–FLEXPART coupled transport model and its adjointImprovement of the satellite-derived NOx emissions on air quality modeling and its effect on ozone and secondary inorganic aerosol formation in the Yangtze River Delta, ChinaAircraft-based inversions quantify the importance of wetlands and livestock for Upper Midwest methane emissionsTime-resolved emission reductions for atmospheric chemistry modelling in Europe during the COVID-19 lockdownsDownscaling system for modelling of atmospheric composition on regional, urban and street scalesComprehensive evaluations of diurnal NO2 measurements during DISCOVER-AQ 2011: Effects of resolution dependent representation of NOx emissionsRapid increase in summer surface ozone over the North China Plain during 2013–2019: a side effect of particulate matter reduction control?Measured and modelled air quality trends in Italy over the period 2003–2010
Chris Wilson, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Manuel Gloor, Robert J. Parker, Hartmut Boesch, Joey McNorton, Luciana V. Gatti, John B. Miller, Luana S. Basso, and Sarah A. Monks
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10643–10669,Short summary
Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas emitted from wetlands like those found in the basin of the Amazon River. Using an atmospheric model and observations from GOSAT, we quantified CH4 emissions from Amazonia during the previous decade. We found that the largest emissions came from a region in the eastern basin and that emissions there were rising faster than in other areas of South America. This finding was supported by CH4 observations made on aircraft within the basin.
Zhenze Liu, Ruth M. Doherty, Oliver Wild, Michael Hollaway, and Fiona M. O’Connor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10689–10706,Short summary
Surface ozone (O3) has become the main cause of atmospheric pollution in the summertime in China since 2013. We find that 70 % reductions in NOx emissions are required to reduce O3 pollution in most of industrial regions of China, and controls in VOC emissions are very important. The new chemical scheme developed for a global chemistry–climate model not only captures the regional air pollution but also benefits the future studies of regional air-quality–climate interactions.
Peng Wang, Juanyong Shen, Men Xia, Shida Sun, Yanli Zhang, Hongliang Zhang, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10347–10356,Short summary
Ozone (O3) pollution has received extensive attention due to worsening air quality and rising health risks. The Chinese National Day holiday (CNDH), which is associated with intensive commercial and tourist activities, serves as a valuable experiment to evaluate the O3 response during the holiday. We find sharply increasing trends of observed O3 concentrations throughout China during the CNDH, leading to 33 % additional total daily deaths.
Johannes G. M. Barten, Laurens N. Ganzeveld, Gert-Jan Steeneveld, and Maarten C. Krol
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10229–10248,Short summary
We present an evaluation of ocean and snow/ice O3 deposition in explaining observed hourly surface O3 at 25 pan-Arctic sites using an atmospheric meteorology/chemistry model. The model includes a mechanistic representation of ocean O3 deposition as a function of ocean biogeochemical and mixing conditions. The mechanistic representation agrees better with O3 observations in terms of magnitude and temporal variability especially in the High Arctic (> 70° N).
Simon Rosanka, Rolf Sander, Bruno Franco, Catherine Wespes, Andreas Wahner, and Domenico Taraborrelli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9909–9930,Short summary
In-cloud destruction of ozone depends on hydroperoxyl radicals in cloud droplets, where they are produced by oxygenated volatile organic compound (OVOC) oxygenation. Only rudimentary representations of these processes, if any, are currently available in global atmospheric models. By using a comprehensive atmospheric model that includes a complex in-cloud OVOC oxidation scheme, we show that atmospheric oxidants are reduced and models ignoring this process will underpredict clouds as ozone sinks.
Brad Weir, Lesley E. Ott, George J. Collatz, Stephan R. Kawa, Benjamin Poulter, Abhishek Chatterjee, Tomohiro Oda, and Steven Pawson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9609–9628,Short summary
We present a collection of carbon surface fluxes, the Low-order Flux Inversion (LoFI), derived from satellite observations of the Earth's surface and calibrated to match long-term inventories and atmospheric and oceanic records. Simulations using LoFI reproduce background atmospheric carbon dioxide measurements with comparable skill to the leading surface flux products. Available both retrospectively and as a forecast, LoFI enables the study of the carbon cycle as it occurs.
Ilya Stanevich, Dylan B. A. Jones, Kimberly Strong, Martin Keller, Daven K. Henze, Robert J. Parker, Hartmut Boesch, Debra Wunch, Justus Notholt, Christof Petri, Thorsten Warneke, Ralf Sussmann, Matthias Schneider, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Voltaire A. Velazco, Kaley A. Walker, and Feng Deng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9545–9572,Short summary
We explore the utility of a weak-constraint (WC) four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation scheme for mitigating systematic errors in methane simulation in the GEOS-Chem model. We use data from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and show that, compared to the traditional 4D-Var approach, the WC scheme improves the agreement between the model and independent observations. We find that the WC corrections to the model provide insight into the source of the errors.
Yosuke Niwa, Yousuke Sawa, Hideki Nara, Toshinobu Machida, Hidekazu Matsueda, Taku Umezawa, Akihiko Ito, Shin-Ichiro Nakaoka, Hiroshi Tanimoto, and Yasunori Tohjima
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9455–9473,Short summary
Fires in Equatorial Asia release a large amount of carbon into the atmosphere. Extensively using high-precision atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) data from a commercial aircraft observation project, we estimated fire carbon emissions in Equatorial Asia induced by the big El Niño event in 2015. Additional shipboard measurement data elucidated the validity of the analysis and the best estimate indicated 273 Tg C for fire emissions during September–October 2015.
Christine Frömming, Volker Grewe, Sabine Brinkop, Patrick Jöckel, Amund S. Haslerud, Simon Rosanka, Jesper van Manen, and Sigrun Matthes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9151–9172,Short summary
The influence of weather situations on non-CO2 aviation climate impact is investigated to identify systematic weather-related sensitivities. If aircraft avoid the most sensitive areas, climate impact might be reduced. Enhanced significance is found for emission in relation to high-pressure systems, jet stream, polar night, and tropopause altitude. The results represent a comprehensive data set for studies aiming at weather-dependent flight trajectory optimization to reduce total climate impact.
Jianing Dai and Tao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8747–8759,Short summary
We used the WRF–Chem model with the latest HONO and ClNO2 processes to investigate their effects on the concentrations of ROx radicals, O3, and PM2.5 in Asia during summer. The results show that the ship-derived HONO and ClNO2 increased the ROx radical concentration by 2–3 times and subsequently increased the O3 and PM2.5 concentrations in marine areas. These findings indicate the importance of these nitrogen processes in the evaluation of the impact of ship emissions on air quality.
Anoop S. Mahajan, Qinyi Li, Swaleha Inamdar, Kirpa Ram, Alba Badia, and Alfonso Saiz-Lopez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8437–8454,Short summary
Using a regional model, we show that iodine-catalysed reactions cause large regional changes in the chemical composition in the northern Indian Ocean, with peak changes of up to 25 % in O3, 50 % in nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2), 15 % in hydroxyl radicals (OH), 25 % in hydroperoxyl radicals (HO2), and up to a 50 % change in the nitrate radical (NO3). These results show the importance of including iodine chemistry in modelling the atmosphere in this region.
Maximilian Herrmann, Holger Sihler, Udo Frieß, Thomas Wagner, Ulrich Platt, and Eva Gutheil
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7611–7638,Short summary
Time-dependent 3D numerical simulations of tropospheric bromine release and ozone depletion events (ODEs) in the Arctic polar spring of 2009 are compared to observations. Simulation results agree well with the observations at both Utqiaġvik, Alaska, and at Summit, Greenland. In a parameter study, different settings for the bromine release mechanism are evaluated. An enhancement of the bromine release mechanism improves the agreement regarding the occurrence of ODEs with the observations.
Ashok K. Luhar, Ian E. Galbally, Matthew T. Woodhouse, and Nathan Luke Abraham
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7053–7082,Short summary
Lightning-generated nitrogen oxides (LNOx) greatly influence tropospheric photochemistry. The most common parameterisation of lightning flash rate used to calculate LNOx in global composition models underestimates measurements over the ocean by a factor of 20–25. We formulate and validate an alternative parameterisation to remedy this problem. The new scheme causes an increase in the ozone burden by 8.5 % and the hydroxyl radical by 13 %, and these have implications for climate and air quality.
Daniel M. Westervelt, Arlene M. Fiore, Colleen B. Baublitz, and Gustavo Correa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6799–6810,Short summary
Particulate air pollution in the atmosphere can impact the availability of gas-phase chemical constituents, which can then have feedbacks on gas-phase air pollutants. We use a chemistry–climate computer model to simulate the impact of particulate pollution from three major world regions on gas-phase chemical constituents. We find that surface-level ozone air pollution decreases by up to 5 ppbv over China in response to Chinese particulate air pollution, which has implications for policy.
Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz and Bernard Aumont
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6541–6563,Short summary
There are tens of thousands of different chemical compounds in the atmosphere. To tackle this complexity, there are a wide range of different methods to estimate their physical and chemical properties. We use these methods to understand how much the detailed structure of a molecule impacts its properties, and the extent to which properties can be estimated without knowing this level of detail. We find that structure matters, but methods lacking that level of detail still perform reasonably well.
Daniel C. Anderson, Bryan N. Duncan, Arlene M. Fiore, Colleen B. Baublitz, Melanie B. Follette-Cook, Julie M. Nicely, and Glenn M. Wolfe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6481–6508,Short summary
We demonstrate that large-scale climate features are the primary driver of year-to-year variability in simulated values of the hydroxyl radical, the primary atmospheric oxidant, over 1980–2018. The El Niño–Southern Oscillation is the dominant mode of hydroxyl variability, resulting in large-scale global decreases in OH during El Niño events. Other climate modes, such as the Australian monsoon and the North Atlantic Oscillation, have impacts of similar magnitude but on on more localized scales.
Pooja V. Pawar, Sachin D. Ghude, Chinmay Jena, Andrea Móring, Mark A. Sutton, Santosh Kulkarni, Deen Mani Lal, Divya Surendran, Martin Van Damme, Lieven Clarisse, Pierre-François Coheur, Xuejun Liu, Gaurav Govardhan, Wen Xu, Jize Jiang, and Tapan Kumar Adhya
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6389–6409,Short summary
In this study, simulations of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) with MOZART-4 and HTAP-v2 are compared with satellite (IASI) and ground-based measurements to understand the spatial and temporal variability of NH3 over two emission hotspot regions of Asia, the IGP and the NCP. Our simulations indicate that the formation of ammonium aerosols is quicker over the NCP than the IGP, leading to smaller NH3 columns over the higher NH3-emitting NCP compared to the IGP region for comparable emissions.
Yan Zhang, Yu Zhao, Meng Gao, Xin Bo, and Chris P. Nielsen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6411–6430,Short summary
We combined air quality and exposure response models to analyze the benefits for air quality and human health of China’s ultra-low emission policy in one of its most developed regions. Atmospheric observations and the air quality model were also used to demonstrate improvement of emission inventories incorporating online emission monitoring data. With implementation of the policy in both power and industrial sectors, the attributable deaths due to PM2.5 exposure are estimated to decrease 5.5 %.
Anna Karion, Israel Lopez-Coto, Sharon M. Gourdji, Kimberly Mueller, Subhomoy Ghosh, William Callahan, Michael Stock, Elizabeth DiGangi, Steve Prinzivalli, and James Whetstone
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6257–6273,Short summary
Estimating city emissions based on atmospheric observations requires that the portion of observed greenhouse gases that originated in the city be separated from the portion that originated outside the city, also known as the background concentration. Here, we investigate different methods to determine background concentrations for the Washington, DC, and Baltimore, MD, region and evaluate how well those methods work and the uncertainties they involve.
Kun Zhang, Ling Huang, Qing Li, Juntao Huo, Yusen Duan, Yuhang Wang, Elly Yaluk, Yangjun Wang, Qingyan Fu, and Li Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5905–5917,Short summary
Recently, high O3 concentrations were frequently observed in rural areas of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region under stagnant conditions. Using an online measurement and observation-based model, we investigated the budget of ROx radicals and the influence of isoprene chemistry on O3 formation. Our results underline that isoprene chemistry in the rural atmosphere becomes important with the participation of anthropogenic NOx.
Ioanna Skoulidou, Maria-Elissavet Koukouli, Astrid Manders, Arjo Segers, Dimitris Karagkiozidis, Myrto Gratsea, Dimitris Balis, Alkiviadis Bais, Evangelos Gerasopoulos, Trisevgeni Stavrakou, Jos van Geffen, Henk Eskes, and Andreas Richter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5269–5288,Short summary
The performance of LOTOS-EUROS v2.2.001 regional chemical transport model NO2 simulations is investigated over Greece from June to December 2018. Comparison with in situ NO2 measurements shows a spatial correlation coefficient of 0.86, while the model underestimates the concentrations mostly during daytime (12 to 15:00 local time). Further, the simulated tropospheric NO2 columns are evaluated against ground-based MAX-DOAS NO2 measurements and S5P/TROPOMI observations for July and December 2018.
Karl M. Seltzer, Elyse Pennington, Venkatesh Rao, Benjamin N. Murphy, Madeleine Strum, Kristin K. Isaacs, and Havala O. T. Pye
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5079–5100,Short summary
Volatile chemical products (VCPs) are an increasingly important source of anthropogenic reactive organic carbon emissions. Here, we develop VCPy, a new framework to model organic emissions from VCPs throughout the United States. At the national-level, VCPy emissions are broadly consistent with the US EPA’s 2017 National Emission Inventory, however county-level and categorical estimates can differ substantially. An observational evaluation indicates high fidelity in the methods employed here.
Stijn Naus, Stephen A. Montzka, Prabir K. Patra, and Maarten C. Krol
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4809–4824,Short summary
Following up on previous box model studies, we employ a 3D transport model to estimate variations in the hydroxyl radical (OH) from observations of methyl chloroform (MCF). We derive small interannual OH variations that are consistent with variations in the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. We also find evidence for the release of MCF from oceans in atmospheric gradients of MCF. Both findings highlight the added value of a 3D transport model since box model studies did not identify these effects.
Ian Enting and Nathan Clisby
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4699–4708,Short summary
We provide a new framework for comparing short-lived greenhouse gases to long-lived greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide using methane as an example. This can clarify the differences between various proposals that have been introduced in order to overcome the use of global warming potentials as a measure of greenhouse gas equivalence.
Thomas Thorp, Stephen R. Arnold, Richard J. Pope, Dominick V. Spracklen, Luke Conibear, Christoph Knote, Mikhail Arshinov, Boris Belan, Eija Asmi, Tuomas Laurila, Andrei I. Skorokhod, Tuomo Nieminen, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4677–4697,Short summary
We compare modelled near-surface pollutants with surface and satellite observations to better understand the controls on the regional concentrations of pollution in western Siberia for late spring and summer in 2011. We find two commonly used emission inventories underestimate human emissions when compared to observations. Transport emissions are the main source of pollutants within the region during this period, whilst fire emissions peak during June and are only significant south of 60° N.
Nikolaos Evangeliou, Yves Balkanski, Sabine Eckhardt, Anne Cozic, Martin Van Damme, Pierre-François Coheur, Lieven Clarisse, Mark W. Shephard, Karen E. Cady-Pereira, and Didier Hauglustaine
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4431–4451,Short summary
Ammonia, a substance that has played a key role in sustaining life, has been increasing in the atmosphere, affecting climate and humans. Understanding the reasons for this increase is important for the beneficial use of ammonia. The evolution of satellite products gives us the opportunity to calculate ammonia emissions easier. We calculated global ammonia emissions over the last 10 years, incorporated them into a chemistry model and recorded notable improvement in reproducing observations.
Tie Dai, Yueming Cheng, Daisuke Goto, Yingruo Li, Xiao Tang, Guangyu Shi, and Teruyuki Nakajima
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4357–4379,Short summary
The anthropogenic emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) over China has significantly declined as a consequence of the clean air actions. We have developed a new emission inversion system to dynamically update the SO2 emission grid by grid over China by assimilating ground-based SO2 observations. The inverted SO2 emission over China in November 2016 on average had declined by 49.4 % since 2010, which is well in agreement with the bottom-up estimation of 48.0 %.
Paul T. Griffiths, Lee T. Murray, Guang Zeng, Youngsub Matthew Shin, N. Luke Abraham, Alexander T. Archibald, Makoto Deushi, Louisa K. Emmons, Ian E. Galbally, Birgit Hassler, Larry W. Horowitz, James Keeble, Jane Liu, Omid Moeini, Vaishali Naik, Fiona M. O'Connor, Naga Oshima, David Tarasick, Simone Tilmes, Steven T. Turnock, Oliver Wild, Paul J. Young, and Prodromos Zanis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4187–4218,Short summary
We analyse the CMIP6 Historical and future simulations for tropospheric ozone, a species which is important for many aspects of atmospheric chemistry. We show that the current generation of models agrees well with observations, being particularly successful in capturing trends in surface ozone and its vertical distribution in the troposphere. We analyse the factors that control ozone and show that they evolve over the period of the CMIP6 experiments.
Annika Vogel and Hendrik Elbern
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4039–4057,Short summary
Forecasts of biogenic trace gases highly depend on the model setup and input fields. This study identifies sources of related forecast uncertainties for biogenic gases. Exceptionally high differences in both biogenic emissions and pollutant transport in the Po Valley are identified to be caused by the representation of the land surface and boundary layer dynamics. Consequently, changes in the model configuration are shown to induce significantly different local concentrations of biogenic gases.
Mengyuan Zhang, Arpit Katiyar, Shengqiang Zhu, Juanyong Shen, Men Xia, Jinlong Ma, Sri Harsha Kota, Peng Wang, and Hongliang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4025–4037,Short summary
We studied changes in air quality in India induced by the COVID-19 lockdown through both surface observations and the CMAQ model. Our results show that emission reductions improved the air quality across India during the lockdown. On average, the levels of PM2.5 and O3 decreased by 28 % and 15 %, indicating positive effects of lockdown measures. We suggest that more stringent and localized emission control strategies should be implemented in India to mitigate air pollutions.
Elena Macdonald, Noelia Otero, and Tim Butler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4007–4023,Short summary
NO2 limit values are still regularly exceeded in many European cities despite decreasing emissions. Measurements of NOx concentrations from stations across Europe were systematically analysed to assess long-term changes observed in urban areas. We compared trends in concentration increments to trends in total and traffic emissions to find potential discrepancies. The results can help in evaluating inaccuracies in emission inventories and in improving spatial imbalances in data availability.
Yuzhong Zhang, Daniel J. Jacob, Xiao Lu, Joannes D. Maasakkers, Tia R. Scarpelli, Jian-Xiong Sheng, Lu Shen, Zhen Qu, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Jinfeng Chang, A. Anthony Bloom, Shuang Ma, John Worden, Robert J. Parker, and Hartmut Boesch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3643–3666,Short summary
We use 2010–2018 satellite observations of atmospheric methane to interpret the factors controlling atmospheric methane and its accelerating increase during the period. The 2010–2018 increase in global methane emissions is driven by tropical and boreal wetlands and tropical livestock (South Asia, Africa, Brazil), with an insignificant positive trend in emissions from the fossil fuel sector. The peak methane growth rates in 2014–2015 are also contributed by low OH and high fire emissions.
Christoph A. Keller, Mathew J. Evans, K. Emma Knowland, Christa A. Hasenkopf, Sruti Modekurty, Robert A. Lucchesi, Tomohiro Oda, Bruno B. Franca, Felipe C. Mandarino, M. Valeria Díaz Suárez, Robert G. Ryan, Luke H. Fakes, and Steven Pawson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3555–3592,Short summary
This study combines surface observations and model simulations to quantify the impact of COVID-19 restrictions on air quality across the world. The presented methodology removes the confounding impacts of meteorology on air pollution. Our results indicate that surface concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, an important air pollutant emitted during the combustion of fossil fuels, declined by up to 60 % following the implementation of COVID-19 containment measures.
Yuting Wang, Yong-Feng Ma, Domingo Muñoz-Esparza, Cathy W. Y. Li, Mary Barth, Tao Wang, and Guy P. Brasseur
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3531–3553,Short summary
Large-eddy simulations (LESs) were performed in the mountainous region of the island of Hong Kong to investigate the degree to which the rates of chemical reactions between two reactive species are reduced due to the segregation of species within the convective boundary layer. We show that the inhomogeneity in emissions plays an important role in the segregation effect. Topography also has a significant influence on the segregation locally.
Jin Ma, Linda M. J. Kooijmans, Ara Cho, Stephen A. Montzka, Norbert Glatthor, John R. Worden, Le Kuai, Elliot L. Atlas, and Maarten C. Krol
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3507–3529,Short summary
Carbonyl sulfide is an important trace gas in the atmosphere and useful to estimating gross primary productivity in ecosystems, but its sources and sinks remain highly uncertain. Therefore, we applied inverse model system TM5-4DVAR to better constrain the global budget. Our finding is in line with earlier studies, pointing to missing sources in the tropics and more uptake in high latitudes. We also stress the necessity of more ground-based observations and satellite data assimilation in future.
Domenico Taraborrelli, David Cabrera-Perez, Sara Bacer, Sergey Gromov, Jos Lelieveld, Rolf Sander, and Andrea Pozzer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2615–2636,Short summary
Atmospheric pollutants from anthropogenic activities and biomass burning are usually regarded as ozone precursors. Monocyclic aromatics are no exception. Calculations with a comprehensive atmospheric model are consistent with this view but only for air masses close to pollution source regions. However, the same model predicts that aromatics, when transported to remote areas, may effectively destroy ozone. This loss of tropospheric ozone rivals the one attributed to bromine.
Yingnan Zhang, Likun Xue, William P. L. Carter, Chenglei Pei, Tianshu Chen, Jiangshan Mu, Yujun Wang, Qingzhu Zhang, and Wenxing Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We developed the localized incremental reactivity (IR) for VOCs in a Chinese megacity and elucidated their applications in calculating the OFP. The IR scales showed a strong dependence on chemical mechanisms. Both emission- and observation-based inputs are suitable for the MIR calculation, but not the case under mixed-limited or NOx-limited O3 formation regime. We provide suggestions for the application of IR and OFP scales to aid in VOC control in China.
Jingyu An, Yiwei Huang, Cheng Huang, Xin Wang, Rusha Yan, Qian Wang, Hongli Wang, Sheng'ao Jing, Yan Zhang, Yiming Liu, Yuan Chen, Chang Xu, Liping Qiao, Min Zhou, Shuhui Zhu, Qingyao Hu, Jun Lu, and Changhong Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2003–2025,Short summary
This study established a 4 km × 4 km anthropogenic emission inventory in the Yangtze River Delta region, China, for 2017 based on locally measured emission factors and source profiles. There are high-intensity NOx and NMVOC species emissions in the eastern areas of the region. Toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, propylene, ethylene, o-xylene, and OVOCs from industry and mobile sources have the highest comprehensive potentials for ozone and secondary organic aerosol formation.
Margaret R. Marvin, Paul I. Palmer, Barry G. Latter, Richard Siddans, Brian J. Kerridge, Mohd Talib Latif, and Md Firoz Khan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1917–1935,Short summary
We use an atmospheric chemistry model in combination with satellite and surface observations to investigate how biomass burning affects tropospheric ozone over Southeast Asia during its fire seasons. We find that nitrogen oxides from biomass burning were responsible for about 30 % of the regional ozone formation potential, and we estimate that ozone from biomass burning caused more than 400 excess premature deaths in Southeast Asia during the peak burning months of March and September 2014.
Angharad C. Stell, Luke M. Western, Tomás Sherwen, and Matthew Rigby
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1717–1736,Short summary
Although it is the second-most important greenhouse gas, our understanding of the atmospheric-methane budget is limited. The uncertainty highlights the need for new tools to investigate sources and sinks. Here, we use a Gaussian process emulator to efficiently approximate the response of atmospheric-methane observations to changes in the most uncertain emission or loss processes. With this new method, we rigorously quantify the sensitivity of atmospheric observations to budget uncertainties.
Jun Liu, Dan Tong, Yixuan Zheng, Jing Cheng, Xinying Qin, Qinren Shi, Liu Yan, Yu Lei, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1627–1647,Short summary
In this study, we investigated the decadal changes in carbon dioxide and air pollutant emissions in China's cement industry for the period 1990–2015 based on intensive unit-based information. We found that from 1990 to 2015, accompanied by a 10.3-fold increase in cement production, CO2, SO2, and NOx emissions from China's cement industry increased by 627 %, 56 %, and 659 %, whereas CO, PM2.5, and PM10 emissions decreased by 9 %, 63 %, and 59 %, respectively.
Fiona M. O'Connor, N. Luke Abraham, Mohit Dalvi, Gerd A. Folberth, Paul T. Griffiths, Catherine Hardacre, Ben T. Johnson, Ron Kahana, James Keeble, Byeonghyeon Kim, Olaf Morgenstern, Jane P. Mulcahy, Mark Richardson, Eddy Robertson, Jeongbyn Seo, Sungbo Shim, João C. Teixeira, Steven T. Turnock, Jonny Williams, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Stephanie Woodward, and Guang Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1211–1243,Short summary
This paper calculates how changes in emissions and/or concentrations of different atmospheric constituents since the pre-industrial era have altered the Earth's energy budget at the present day using a metric called effective radiative forcing. The impact of land use change is also assessed. We find that individual contributions do not add linearly, and different Earth system interactions can affect the magnitude of the calculated effective radiative forcing.
Shamil Maksyutov, Tomohiro Oda, Makoto Saito, Rajesh Janardanan, Dmitry Belikov, Johannes W. Kaiser, Ruslan Zhuravlev, Alexander Ganshin, Vinu K. Valsala, Arlyn Andrews, Lukasz Chmura, Edward Dlugokencky, László Haszpra, Ray L. Langenfelds, Toshinobu Machida, Takakiyo Nakazawa, Michel Ramonet, Colm Sweeney, and Douglas Worthy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1245–1266,Short summary
In order to improve the top-down estimation of the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, a high-resolution inverse modelling technique was developed for applications to global transport modelling of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. A coupled Eulerian–Lagrangian transport model and its adjoint are combined with surface fluxes at 0.1° resolution to provide high-resolution forward simulation and inverse modelling of surface fluxes accounting for signals from emission hot spots.
Yang Yang, Yu Zhao, Lei Zhang, Jie Zhang, Xin Huang, Xuefen Zhao, Yan Zhang, Mengxiao Xi, and Yi Lu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1191–1209,Short summary
We conducted new NOx emission estimation based on the satellite-derived NO2 column constraint and found reduced emissions compared to previous estimates for a developed region in east China. The subsequent improvement in air quality modeling was demonstrated based on available ground observations. With multiple emission reduction cases for various pollutants, we explored the effective control approaches for ozone and inorganic aerosol pollution.
Xueying Yu, Dylan B. Millet, Kelley C. Wells, Daven K. Henze, Hansen Cao, Timothy J. Griffis, Eric A. Kort, Genevieve Plant, Malte J. Deventer, Randall K. Kolka, D. Tyler Roman, Kenneth J. Davis, Ankur R. Desai, Bianca C. Baier, Kathryn McKain, Alan C. Czarnetzki, and A. Anthony Bloom
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 951–971,Short summary
Methane concentrations have doubled since 1750. The US Upper Midwest is a key region contributing to such trends, but sources are poorly understood. We collected and analyzed aircraft data to resolve spatial and timing biases in wetland and livestock emission estimates and uncover errors in inventory treatment of manure management. We highlight the importance of intensive agriculture for the regional and US methane budgets and the potential for methane mitigation through improved management.
Marc Guevara, Oriol Jorba, Albert Soret, Hervé Petetin, Dene Bowdalo, Kim Serradell, Carles Tena, Hugo Denier van der Gon, Jeroen Kuenen, Vincent-Henri Peuch, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 773–797,Short summary
Most European countries have imposed lockdowns to combat the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. Such a socioeconomic disruption has resulted in a sudden drop of atmospheric emissions and air pollution levels. This study quantifies the daily reductions in national emissions and associated levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) due to the COVID-19 lockdowns in Europe, by making use of multiple open-access measured activity data as well as artificial intelligence and modelling techniques.
Roman Nuterman, Alexander Mahura, Alexander Baklanov, Bjarne Amstrup, and Ashraf Zakey
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The street air pollution is usually higher than the pollution at regional and urban scales. It mostly associated with both local emission sources and urban weather conditions. We present the downscaling system for regional, sub-regional/urban and street scales and evaluate it for acute air-pollution episode. Its evaluation showed a good prediction score across various spatio-temporal scales as well as feasibility of deterministic modelling approach for the operational street scale forecasting.
Jianfeng Li, Yuhang Wang, Ruixiong Zhang, Charles Smeltzer, Andrew Weinheimer, Jay Herman, K. Folkert Boersma, Edward A. Celarier, Russell W. Long, James J. Szykman, Ruben Delgado, Anne M. Thompson, Travis N. Knepp, Lok N. Lamsal, Scott J. Janz, Matthew G. Kowalewski, Xiong Liu, and Caroline R. Nowlan
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Comprehensive evaluations of simulated diurnal cycles of NO2 and NOy concentrations, vertical profiles, and tropospheric vertical column densities at two different resolutions with various measurements during the DISCOVER-AQ 2011 campaign show the reasonability of the National Emission Inventory 2011 NOx emissions at coarser resolutions but potential distribution biases at 4-km resolution, providing another possible explanation for the overestimation of model results at high resolutions.
Xiaodan Ma, Jianping Huang, Tianliang Zhao, Cheng Liu, Kaihui Zhao, Jia Xing, and Wei Xiao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1–16,Short summary
The present work aims at identifying and quantifying the relative contributions of the key factors in driving a rapid increase in summertime surface O3 over the North China Plain during 2013–2019. In addition to anthropogenic emission reduction and meteorological variabilities, our study highlights the importance of inclusion of aerosol absorption and scattering properties rather than aerosol abundance only in accurate assessment of aerosol radiative effect on surface O3 formation and change.
Ilaria D'Elia, Gino Briganti, Lina Vitali, Antonio Piersanti, Gaia Righini, Massimo D'Isidoro, Andrea Cappelletti, Mihaela Mircea, Mario Adani, Gabriele Zanini, and Luisella Ciancarella
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We present an analysis of modelled trends of PM10, NO2 and O3 airborne concentrations over the Italian territory in the period 2003–2010. Our analysis shows a general downward simulated trend for all pollutants, with good agreement between observed and modelled values and the model widening both coverage and significance of air concentration trends. Due to the complex atmospheric dynamics, emission reductions do not always result in decreasing concentrations, especially for secondary pollutants.
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Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions can also improve air quality. We estimate the co-benefits of global GHG mitigation for US air quality in 2050 at fine resolution by downscaling from a previous global study. Foreign GHG mitigation under RCP4.5 contributes more to the US O3 reduction (76 % of the total) than domestic mitigation and contributes 26 % of the PM2.5 reduction. Therefore, the US gains significantly greater air quality co-benefits by coordinating GHG controls internationally.
Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions can also improve air quality. We estimate the...