Articles | Volume 16, issue 19
Research article 12 Oct 2016
Research article | 12 Oct 2016
Photolysis of frozen iodate salts as a source of active iodine in the polar environment
Óscar Gálvez et al.
No articles found.
David Garcia-Nieto, Nuria Benavent, Rafael Borge, and Alfonso Saiz-Lopez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2941–2955,Short summary
Trace gases play a key role in the chemistry of urban atmospheres. Therefore, knowledge about their spatial distribution is needed to fully characterize the air quality in urban areas. Using a new Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy two-dimensional (MAXDOAS-2D) instrument, along with inversion algorithms, we report for the first time two-dimensional maps of NO2 concentrations in the city of Madrid, Spain.
Zhiyuan Gao, Nicolas-Xavier Geilfus, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, and Feiyue Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Every springtime in the Arctic, a series of photochemical events occur over the ice-covered ocean, known as bromine explosion events, ozone depletion events and mercury depletion events. Here we report the re-creation of these events at an outdoor sea ice facility in Winnipeg, Canada, far away from the Arctic. The success provides a new platform with never-before opportunities to uncover fundamental mechanisms of these Arctic springtime phenomena and how they may change in a changing climate.
Huan Song, Xiaorui Chen, Keding Lu, Qi Zou, Zhaofeng Tan, Hendrik Fuchs, Alfred Wiedensohler, Daniel R. Moon, Dwayne E. Heard, María-Teresa Baeza-Romero, Mei Zheng, Andreas Wahner, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15835–15850,Short summary
Accurate calculation of the HO2 uptake coefficient is one of the key parameters to quantify the co-reduction of both aerosol and ozone pollution. We modelled various lab measurements of γHO2 based on a gas-liquid phase kinetic model and developed a state-of-the-art parameterized equation. Based on a dataset from a comprehensive field campaign in the North China Plain, we proposed that the determination of the heterogeneous uptake process for HO2 should be included in future field campaigns.
Anoop S. Mahajan, Qinyi Li, Swaleha Inamdar, Kirpa Ram, Alba Badia, and Alfonso Saiz-Lopez
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Using a regional model, we show that iodine catalysed reactions cause large regional changes to the chemical composition in the northern Indian Ocean with peak changes of up to 25 % in O3, 50 % in nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2), 15 % in hydroxyl radicals (OH), 25 % in hydroperoxyl radicals (HO2), and up to a 50 % change in the nitrate radical (NO3). These results show the importance of including iodine chemistry in modelling the atmosphere in this region.
Anoop S. Mahajan, Mriganka S. Biswas, Steffen Beirle, Thomas Wagner, Anja Schönhardt, Nuria Benavent, and Alfonso Saiz-Lopez
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Iodine plays a vital role in oxidation chemistry over Antarctica, with past observations showing highly elevated levels of iodine oxide (IO) leading to severe depletion of boundary layer ozone. We present IO observations over three summers (2015–2017) at the Indian Antarctic bases, Bharati and Maitri. IO was observed during all campaigns, with mixing ratios below 2 pptv, which are lower than the peak levels observed in West Antarctica showing the differences in regional chemistry and emissions.
Swaleha Inamdar, Liselotte Tinel, Rosie Chance, Lucy J. Carpenter, Prabhakaran Sabu, Racheal Chacko, Sarat C. Tripathy, Anvita U. Kerkar, Alok K. Sinha, Parli Venkateswaran Bhaskar, Amit Sarkar, Rajdeep Roy, Tomás Sherwen, Carlos Cuevas, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Kirpa Ram, and Anoop S. Mahajan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12093–12114,Short summary
Iodine chemistry is generating a lot of interest because of its impacts on the oxidising capacity of the marine boundary and depletion of ozone. However, one of the challenges has been predicting the right levels of iodine in the models, which depend on parameterisations for emissions from the sea surface. This paper discusses the different parameterisations available and compares them with observations, showing that our current knowledge is still insufficient, especially on a regional scale.
Yang Wang, Arnoud Apituley, Alkiviadis Bais, Steffen Beirle, Nuria Benavent, Alexander Borovski, Ilya Bruchkouski, Ka Lok Chan, Sebastian Donner, Theano Drosoglou, Henning Finkenzeller, Martina M. Friedrich, Udo Frieß, David Garcia-Nieto, Laura Gómez-Martín, François Hendrick, Andreas Hilboll, Junli Jin, Paul Johnston, Theodore K. Koenig, Karin Kreher, Vinod Kumar, Aleksandra Kyuberis, Johannes Lampel, Cheng Liu, Haoran Liu, Jianzhong Ma, Oleg L. Polyansky, Oleg Postylyakov, Richard Querel, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Stefan Schmitt, Xin Tian, Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, Michel Van Roozendael, Rainer Volkamer, Zhuoru Wang, Pinhua Xie, Chengzhi Xing, Jin Xu, Margarita Yela, Chengxin Zhang, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5087–5116,
Thomas R. Lewis, Juan Carlos Gómez Martín, Mark A. Blitz, Carlos A. Cuevas, John M. C. Plane, and Alfonso Saiz-Lopez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10865–10887,Short summary
Iodine-bearing gasses emitted from the sea surface are chemically processed in the atmosphere, leading to iodine accumulation in aerosol and transport to continental ecosystems. Such processing involves light-induced break-up of large, particle-forming iodine oxides into smaller, ozone-depleting molecules. We combine experiments and theory to report the photolysis efficiency of iodine oxides required to assess the impact of iodine on ozone depletion and particle formation.
Javier Alejandro Barrera, Rafael Pedro Fernandez, Fernando Iglesias-Suarez, Carlos Alberto Cuevas, Jean-Francois Lamarque, and Alfonso Saiz-Lopez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8083–8102,Short summary
The inclusion of biogenic very short-lived bromocarbons (VSLBr) in the CAM-chem model improves the model–satellite agreement of the total ozone columns at mid-latitudes and drives a persistent hemispheric asymmetry in lowermost stratospheric ozone loss. The seasonal VSLBr impact on mid-latitude lowermost stratospheric ozone is influenced by the heterogeneous reactivation processes of inorganic chlorine on ice crystals, with a clear increase in ozone destruction during spring and winter.
Karin Kreher, Michel Van Roozendael, Francois Hendrick, Arnoud Apituley, Ermioni Dimitropoulou, Udo Frieß, Andreas Richter, Thomas Wagner, Johannes Lampel, Nader Abuhassan, Li Ang, Monica Anguas, Alkis Bais, Nuria Benavent, Tim Bösch, Kristof Bognar, Alexander Borovski, Ilya Bruchkouski, Alexander Cede, Ka Lok Chan, Sebastian Donner, Theano Drosoglou, Caroline Fayt, Henning Finkenzeller, David Garcia-Nieto, Clio Gielen, Laura Gómez-Martín, Nan Hao, Bas Henzing, Jay R. Herman, Christian Hermans, Syedul Hoque, Hitoshi Irie, Junli Jin, Paul Johnston, Junaid Khayyam Butt, Fahim Khokhar, Theodore K. Koenig, Jonas Kuhn, Vinod Kumar, Cheng Liu, Jianzhong Ma, Alexis Merlaud, Abhishek K. Mishra, Moritz Müller, Monica Navarro-Comas, Mareike Ostendorf, Andrea Pazmino, Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, Manuel Pinharanda, Ankie Piters, Ulrich Platt, Oleg Postylyakov, Cristina Prados-Roman, Olga Puentedura, Richard Querel, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Anja Schönhardt, Stefan F. Schreier, André Seyler, Vinayak Sinha, Elena Spinei, Kimberly Strong, Frederik Tack, Xin Tian, Martin Tiefengraber, Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, Jeroen van Gent, Rainer Volkamer, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Shanshan Wang, Zhuoru Wang, Mark Wenig, Folkard Wittrock, Pinhua H. Xie, Jin Xu, Margarita Yela, Chengxin Zhang, and Xiaoyi Zhao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2169–2208,Short summary
In September 2016, 36 spectrometers from 24 institutes measured a number of key atmospheric pollutants during an instrument intercomparison campaign (CINDI-2) at Cabauw, the Netherlands. Here we report on the outcome of this intercomparison exercise. The three major goals were to characterise the differences between the participating instruments, to define a robust methodology for performance assessment, and to contribute to the harmonisation of the measurement settings and retrieval methods.
Jian Zhu, Shanshan Wang, Hongli Wang, Shengao Jing, Shengrong Lou, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, and Bin Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1217–1232,Short summary
To investigate the summer ozone pollution, observationally constrained modelling was carried out to study atmospheric oxidation capacity (AOC), OH reactivity, OH chain length, and HOx budget for three different ozone concentration levels in Shanghai, China. It shows that AOC, dominated by reactions involving OH radical during the daytime, has a positive correlation with ozone levels. Some key VOCs species are very important for the OH reactivity and also the ozone formation potential.
Niccolò Maffezzoli, Paul Vallelonga, Ross Edwards, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Clara Turetta, Helle Astrid Kjær, Carlo Barbante, Bo Vinther, and Andrea Spolaor
Clim. Past, 15, 2031–2051,Short summary
This study provides the first ice-core-based history of sea ice in the North Atlantic Ocean, reaching 120 000 years back in time. This record was obtained from bromine and sodium measurements in the RECAP ice core, drilled in east Greenland. We found that, during the last deglaciation, sea ice started to melt ~ 17 500 years ago. Over the 120 000 years of the last glacial cycle, sea ice extent was maximal during MIS2, while minimum sea ice extent exists for the Holocene.
Juan Pablo Corella, Niccolo Maffezzoli, Carlos Alberto Cuevas, Paul Vallelonga, Andrea Spolaor, Giulio Cozzi, Juliane Müller, Bo Vinther, Carlo Barbante, Helle Astrid Kjær, Ross Edwards, and Alfonso Saiz-Lopez
Clim. Past, 15, 2019–2030,Short summary
This study provides the first reconstruction of atmospheric iodine levels in the Arctic during the last 11 700 years from an ice core record in coastal Greenland. Dramatic shifts in iodine level variability coincide with abrupt climatic transitions in the North Atlantic. Since atmospheric iodine levels have significant environmental and climatic implications, this study may serve as a past analog to predict future changes in Arctic climate in response to global warming.
Qinyi Li, Rafael Borge, Golam Sarwar, David de la Paz, Brett Gantt, Jessica Domingo, Carlos A. Cuevas, and Alfonso Saiz-Lopez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15321–15337,Short summary
The abundance and distribution of reactive halogen species and their impact on air quality in Europe are poorly understood. We adopt a state-of-the-art regional model (CMAQ) to evaluate such effects, and the results demonstrate the significant influence of halogen chemistry on the capacity of atmospheric oxidation and the formation of air pollutants in Europe. Our study highlights the necessity of including halogen chemistry in the formulation of air pollution control policy.
Elizabeth Asher, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Britton B. Stephens, Doug Kinnison, Eric J. Morgan, Ralph F. Keeling, Elliot L. Atlas, Sue M. Schauffler, Simone Tilmes, Eric A. Kort, Martin S. Hoecker-Martínez, Matt C. Long, Jean-François Lamarque, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Kathryn McKain, Colm Sweeney, Alan J. Hills, and Eric C. Apel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14071–14090,Short summary
Halogenated organic trace gases, which are a source of reactive halogens to the atmosphere, exert a disproportionately large influence on atmospheric chemistry and climate. This paper reports novel aircraft observations of halogenated compounds over the Southern Ocean in summer and evaluates hypothesized regional sources and emissions of these trace gases through their relationships to additional aircraft observations.
Andrea Spolaor, Elena Barbaro, David Cappelletti, Clara Turetta, Mauro Mazzola, Fabio Giardi, Mats P. Björkman, Federico Lucchetta, Federico Dallo, Katrine Aspmo Pfaffhuber, Hélène Angot, Aurelien Dommergue, Marion Maturilli, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Carlo Barbante, and Warren R. L. Cairns
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13325–13339,Short summary
The main aims of the study are to (a) detect whether mercury in the surface snow undergoes a daily cycle as determined in the atmosphere, (b) compare the mercury concentration in surface snow with the concentration in the atmosphere, (c) evaluate the effect of snow depositions, (d) detect whether iodine and bromine in the surface snow undergo a daily cycle, and (e) evaluate the role of metereological and atmospheric conditions. Different behaviours were determined during different seasons.
Thomas Wagner, Steffen Beirle, Nuria Benavent, Tim Bösch, Ka Lok Chan, Sebastian Donner, Steffen Dörner, Caroline Fayt, Udo Frieß, David García-Nieto, Clio Gielen, David González-Bartolome, Laura Gomez, François Hendrick, Bas Henzing, Jun Li Jin, Johannes Lampel, Jianzhong Ma, Kornelia Mies, Mónica Navarro, Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, Olga Puentedura, Janis Puķīte, Julia Remmers, Andreas Richter, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Reza Shaiganfar, Holger Sihler, Michel Van Roozendael, Yang Wang, and Margarita Yela
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2745–2817,Short summary
In this study the consistency between MAX-DOAS measurements and radiative transfer simulations of the atmospheric O4 absorption is investigated. The study is based on measurements (2 selected days during the MADCAT campaign) as well as synthetic spectra. The uncertainties of all relevant aspects (spectral retrieval and radiative transfer simulations) are quantified. For one of the selected days, measurements and simulations do not agree within their uncertainties.
Alba Badia, Claire E. Reeves, Alex R. Baker, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Rainer Volkamer, Theodore K. Koenig, Eric C. Apel, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Lucy J. Carpenter, Stephen J. Andrews, Tomás Sherwen, and Roland von Glasow
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3161–3189,Short summary
The oceans have an impact on the composition and reactivity of the troposphere through the emission of gases and particles. Thus, a quantitative understanding of the marine atmosphere is crucial to examine the oxidative capacity and climate forcing. This study investigates the impact of halogens in the tropical troposphere and explores the sensitivity of this to uncertainties in the fluxes and their chemical processing. Our modelled tropospheric Ox loss due to halogens ranges from 20 % to 60 %.
Cristina Carnerero, Noemí Pérez, Cristina Reche, Marina Ealo, Gloria Titos, Hong-Ku Lee, Hee-Ram Eun, Yong-Hee Park, Lubna Dada, Pauli Paasonen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Enrique Mantilla, Miguel Escudero, Francisco J. Gómez-Moreno, Elisabeth Alonso-Blanco, Esther Coz, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Brice Temime-Roussel, Nicolas Marchand, David C. S. Beddows, Roy M. Harrison, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Kang-Ho Ahn, Andrés Alastuey, and Xavier Querol
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16601–16618,Short summary
The vertical distribution of new particle formation events was studied using tethered balloons carrying miniaturized instrumentation. Results show that new particle formation and growth occurs only in the lower layer of the atmosphere, where aerosols are mixed due to convection, especially when the atmosphere is clean. A comparison of urban and suburban surface stations was also made, suggesting that such events may have a significant impact on ultrafine particle concentrations in a wide area.
Xavier Querol, Andrés Alastuey, Gotzon Gangoiti, Noemí Perez, Hong K. Lee, Heeram R. Eun, Yonghee Park, Enrique Mantilla, Miguel Escudero, Gloria Titos, Lucio Alonso, Brice Temime-Roussel, Nicolas Marchand, Juan R. Moreta, M. Arantxa Revuelta, Pedro Salvador, Begoña Artíñano, Saúl García dos Santos, Mónica Anguas, Alberto Notario, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Roy M. Harrison, Millán Millán, and Kang-Ho Ahn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6511–6533,Short summary
We show the main drivers of high O3 episodes in and around Madrid. High levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) are evidenced, but we demonstrate that most O3 arises from the fumigation of high atmospheric layers, whereas UFPs are generated inside the PBL. O3 contributions from the fumigation of the vertical recirculation of regional air masses, hemispheric transport, and horizontally from direct urban plume transport are shown. Complexity arises from the need to quantify them to abate surface O3.
Daniel R. Moon, Giorgio S. Taverna, Clara Anduix-Canto, Trevor Ingham, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Paul W. Seakins, Maria-Teresa Baeza-Romero, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 327–338,Short summary
One geoengineering mitigation strategy for global temperature rises is to inject particles into the stratosphere to scatter solar radiation back to space. However, the injection of such particles must not perturb ozone. We measured the rate of uptake of HO2 radicals, an important stratospheric intermediate, onto TiO2 particles. Using the atmospheric model TOMCAT, we showed that surface reactions between HO2 and TiO2 would have a negligible effect on stratospheric concentrations of HO2 and ozone.
Theodore K. Koenig, Rainer Volkamer, Sunil Baidar, Barbara Dix, Siyuan Wang, Daniel C. Anderson, Ross J. Salawitch, Pamela A. Wales, Carlos A. Cuevas, Rafael P. Fernandez, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Mathew J. Evans, Tomás Sherwen, Daniel J. Jacob, Johan Schmidt, Douglas Kinnison, Jean-François Lamarque, Eric C. Apel, James C. Bresch, Teresa Campos, Frank M. Flocke, Samuel R. Hall, Shawn B. Honomichl, Rebecca Hornbrook, Jørgen B. Jensen, Richard Lueb, Denise D. Montzka, Laura L. Pan, J. Michael Reeves, Sue M. Schauffler, Kirk Ullmann, Andrew J. Weinheimer, Elliot L. Atlas, Valeria Donets, Maria A. Navarro, Daniel Riemer, Nicola J. Blake, Dexian Chen, L. Gregory Huey, David J. Tanner, Thomas F. Hanisco, and Glenn M. Wolfe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15245–15270,Short summary
Tropospheric inorganic bromine (BrO and Bry) shows a C-shaped profile over the tropical western Pacific Ocean, and supports previous speculation that marine convection is a source for inorganic bromine from sea salt to the upper troposphere. The Bry profile in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) is complex, suggesting that the total Bry budget in the TTL is not closed without considering aerosol bromide. The implications for atmospheric composition and bromine sources are discussed.
Maria A. Navarro, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Carlos A. Cuevas, Rafael P. Fernandez, Elliot Atlas, Xavier Rodriguez-Lloveras, Douglas Kinnison, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Simone Tilmes, Troy Thornberry, Andrew Rollins, James W. Elkins, Eric J. Hintsa, and Fred L. Moore
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9917–9930,Short summary
Inorganic bromine (Bry) plays an important role in ozone layer depletion. Based on aircraft observations of organic bromine species and chemistry simulations, we model the Bry abundances over the Pacific tropical tropopause. Our results show BrO and Br as the dominant species during daytime hours, and BrCl and BrONO2 as the nighttime dominant species over the western and eastern Pacific, respectively. The difference in the partitioning is due to changes in the abundance of O3, NO2, and Cly.
Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, André Seyler, Andreas Richter, Folkard Wittrock, Tim Bösch, Michel Van Roozendael, François Hendrick, Theano Drosoglou, Alkiviadis F. Bais, Yugo Kanaya, Xiaoyi Zhao, Kimberly Strong, Johannes Lampel, Rainer Volkamer, Theodore Koenig, Ivan Ortega, Olga Puentedura, Mónica Navarro-Comas, Laura Gómez, Margarita Yela González, Ankie Piters, Julia Remmers, Yang Wang, Thomas Wagner, Shanshan Wang, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, David García-Nieto, Carlos A. Cuevas, Nuria Benavent, Richard Querel, Paul Johnston, Oleg Postylyakov, Alexander Borovski, Alexander Elokhov, Ilya Bruchkouski, Haoran Liu, Cheng Liu, Qianqian Hong, Claudia Rivera, Michel Grutter, Wolfgang Stremme, M. Fahim Khokhar, Junaid Khayyam, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 955–978,Short summary
This work is about harmonization of differential optical absorption spectroscopy retrieval codes, which is a remote sensing technique widely used to derive atmospheric trace gas amounts. The study is based on ground-based measurements performed during the Multi-Axis DOAS Comparison campaign for Aerosols and Trace gases (MAD-CAT) in Mainz, Germany, in summer 2013. In total, 17 international groups working in the field of the DOAS technique participated in this study.
Paul Vallelonga, Niccolo Maffezzoli, Andrew D. Moy, Mark A. J. Curran, Tessa R. Vance, Ross Edwards, Gwyn Hughes, Emily Barker, Gunnar Spreen, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, J. Pablo Corella, Carlos A. Cuevas, and Andrea Spolaor
Clim. Past, 13, 171–184,Short summary
We present a study of bromine, iodine and sodium in an ice core from Law Dome, in coastal East Antarctica. We find that bromine and iodine variability at Law Dome is correlated to changes in the area of sea ice along the Law Dome coast as observed by satellite since the early 1970s. These findings are in agreement with a previous study based on MSA and confirm a long-term trend of sea ice decrease for this sector of Antarctica over the 20th century.
Rafael P. Fernandez, Douglas E. Kinnison, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Simone Tilmes, and Alfonso Saiz-Lopez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1673–1688,Short summary
The inclusion of biogenic very-short lived bromine (VSLBr) in a chemistry-climate model produces an expansion of the ozone hole area of ~ 5 million km2, which is equivalent in magnitude to the recently estimated Antarctic ozone healing due to the reduction of anthropogenic CFCs and halons. The maximum Antarctic ozone hole depletion increases by up to 14 % when natural VSLBr are considered, but does not introduce a significant delay of the modelled ozone return date to 1980 October levels.
Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, John M. C. Plane, Carlos A. Cuevas, Anoop S. Mahajan, Jean-François Lamarque, and Douglas E. Kinnison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15593–15604,Short summary
Electronic structure calculations are used to survey possible reactions that HOI and I2 could undergo at night in the lower troposphere, and hence reconcile measurements and models. The reactions NO3 + HOI and I2 + NO3 are included in two models to explore a new nocturnal iodine radical activation mechanism, leading to a reduction of nighttime HOI and I2. This chemistry can have a large impact on NO3 levels in the MBL, and hence upon the nocturnal oxidizing capacity of the marine atmosphere.
Pascale S. J. Lakey, Thomas Berkemeier, Manuel Krapf, Josef Dommen, Sarah S. Steimer, Lisa K. Whalley, Trevor Ingham, Maria T. Baeza-Romero, Ulrich Pöschl, Manabu Shiraiwa, Markus Ammann, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13035–13047,Short summary
Chemical oxidation in the atmosphere removes pollutants and greenhouse gases but generates undesirable products such as secondary organic aerosol. Radicals are key intermediates in oxidation, but how they interact with aerosols is still not well understood. Here we use a laser to measure the loss of radicals onto oxidised aerosols generated in a smog chamber. The loss of radicals was controlled by the thickness or viscosity of the aerosols, confirmed by using sugar aerosols of known thickness.
Shanshan Wang, Carlos A. Cuevas, Udo Frieß, and Alfonso Saiz-Lopez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5089–5101,Short summary
Multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measurements were performed in the urban environment of Madrid, Spain, where Sahara dust intrusion sometimes occurs. The study shows a high performances in the retrieval of aerosol optical depth, the surface extinction coefficient and an elevated layer during dust episodes, validated by AERONET in situ and modeling data. It is essential to capture the extinction properties of both local aerosol and Saharan dust.
Tomás Sherwen, Johan A. Schmidt, Mat J. Evans, Lucy J. Carpenter, Katja Großmann, Sebastian D. Eastham, Daniel J. Jacob, Barbara Dix, Theodore K. Koenig, Roman Sinreich, Ivan Ortega, Rainer Volkamer, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Cristina Prados-Roman, Anoop S. Mahajan, and Carlos Ordóñez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12239–12271,Short summary
We present a simulation of tropospheric Cl, Br, I chemistry within the GEOS-Chem CTM. We find a decrease in tropospheric ozone burden of 18.6 % and a 8.2 % decrease in global mean OH concentrations. Cl oxidation of some VOCs range from 15 to 27 % of the total loss. Bromine plays a small role in oxidising oVOCs. Surface ozone, ozone sondes, and methane lifetime are in general improved by the inclusion of halogens. We argue that simulated bromine and chlorine represent a lower limit.
R. Hossaini, P. K. Patra, A. A. Leeson, G. Krysztofiak, N. L. Abraham, S. J. Andrews, A. T. Archibald, J. Aschmann, E. L. Atlas, D. A. Belikov, H. Bönisch, L. J. Carpenter, S. Dhomse, M. Dorf, A. Engel, W. Feng, S. Fuhlbrügge, P. T. Griffiths, N. R. P. Harris, R. Hommel, T. Keber, K. Krüger, S. T. Lennartz, S. Maksyutov, H. Mantle, G. P. Mills, B. Miller, S. A. Montzka, F. Moore, M. A. Navarro, D. E. Oram, K. Pfeilsticker, J. A. Pyle, B. Quack, A. D. Robinson, E. Saikawa, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Sala, B.-M. Sinnhuber, S. Taguchi, S. Tegtmeier, R. T. Lidster, C. Wilson, and F. Ziska
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9163–9187,
T. Sherwen, M. J. Evans, L. J. Carpenter, S. J. Andrews, R. T. Lidster, B. Dix, T. K. Koenig, R. Sinreich, I. Ortega, R. Volkamer, A. Saiz-Lopez, C. Prados-Roman, A. S. Mahajan, and C. Ordóñez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1161–1186,Short summary
Using a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) with additional iodine emissions, chemistry, and deposition we show that iodine is responsible for ~ 9 % of global ozone loss but has negligible impacts on global OH. Uncertainties are large in the chemistry and emissions and future research is needed in both. Measurements of iodine species (especially HOI) would be useful. We believe iodine chemistry should be considered in future chemistry-climate and in air quality modelling.
A. Spolaor, T. Opel, J. R. McConnell, O. J. Maselli, G. Spreen, C. Varin, T. Kirchgeorg, D. Fritzsche, A. Saiz-Lopez, and P. Vallelonga
The Cryosphere, 10, 245–256,Short summary
The role of sea ice in the Earth climate system is still under debate, although it is known to influence albedo, ocean circulation, and atmosphere-ocean heat and gas exchange. Here we present a reconstruction of 1950 to 1998 AD sea ice in the Laptev Sea based on the Akademii Nauk ice core (Severnaya Zemlya, Russian Arctic) and halogen measurements. The results suggest a connection between bromine and sea ice, as well as a connection between iodine concentration in snow and summer sea ice.
M. Gil-Ojeda, M. Navarro-Comas, L. Gómez-Martín, J. A. Adame, A. Saiz-Lopez, C. A. Cuevas, Y. González, O. Puentedura, E. Cuevas, J.-F. Lamarque, D. Kinninson, and S. Tilmes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10567–10579,Short summary
The NO2 seasonal evolution in the free troposphere (FT) has been established for the first time, based on a remote sensing technique (MAXDOAS) and thus avoiding the problems of the local pollution of in situ instruments. A clear seasonality has been found, with background levels of 20-40pptv. Evidence has been found on fast, direct injection of surface air into the free troposphere. This result might have implications on the FT distribution of halogens and other species with marine sources.
A. Saiz-Lopez, C. S. Blaszczak-Boxe, and L. J. Carpenter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9731–9746,
N. S. Umo, B. J. Murray, M. T. Baeza-Romero, J. M. Jones, A. R. Lea-Langton, T. L. Malkin, D. O'Sullivan, L. Neve, J. M. C. Plane, and A. Williams
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5195–5210,Short summary
Combustion ash particles nucleate ice in the immersion mode at conditions relevant to mixed-phase clouds. Hence, combustion ashes could play an important role in primary ice formation in mixed-phase clouds, especially in clouds that are formed near the emission source of these aerosol particles. From this study, there is a need to quantify the atmospheric abundance of combustion ashes in order to quantitatively assess the impact of combustion ashes on mixed-phase clouds.
C. Prados-Roman, C. A. Cuevas, R. P. Fernandez, D. E. Kinnison, J-F. Lamarque, and A. Saiz-Lopez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2215–2224,
R. P. Fernandez, R. J. Salawitch, D. E. Kinnison, J.-F. Lamarque, and A. Saiz-Lopez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13391–13410,Short summary
We propose the existence of a daytime “tropical ring of atomic bromine” surrounding the tropics at a height between 15 and 19km. Our simulations show that VSL bromocarbons produce increases of 3pptv for inorganic bromine and 2pptv for organic bromine in the tropical TTL on an annual average, resulting in a total stratospheric bromine injection of 5pptv. This result suggests that the inorganic bromine injected into the stratosphere may be larger than that from VSL bromocarbons.
A. Saiz-Lopez, R. P. Fernandez, C. Ordóñez, D. E. Kinnison, J. C. Gómez Martín, J.-F. Lamarque, and S. Tilmes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13119–13143,
P. S. J. Matthews, M. T. Baeza-Romero, L. K. Whalley, and D. E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7397–7408,
S. M. MacDonald, J. C. Gómez Martín, R. Chance, S. Warriner, A. Saiz-Lopez, L. J. Carpenter, and J. M. C. Plane
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5841–5852,
M. J. Lawler, A. S. Mahajan, A. Saiz-Lopez, and E. S. Saltzman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2669–2678,
F. Wang, A. Saiz-Lopez, A. S. Mahajan, J. C. Gómez Martín, D. Armstrong, M. Lemes, T. Hay, and C. Prados-Roman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1323–1335,
X. Pang, A. C. Lewis, A. R. Rickard, M. T. Baeza-Romero, T. J. Adams, S. M. Ball, M. J. S. Daniels, I. C. A. Goodall, P. S. Monks, S. Peppe, M. Ródenas García, P. Sánchez, and A. Muñoz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 373–389,
R. Hossaini, H. Mantle, M. P. Chipperfield, S. A. Montzka, P. Hamer, F. Ziska, B. Quack, K. Krüger, S. Tegtmeier, E. Atlas, S. Sala, A. Engel, H. Bönisch, T. Keber, D. Oram, G. Mills, C. Ordóñez, A. Saiz-Lopez, N. Warwick, Q. Liang, W. Feng, F. Moore, B. R. Miller, V. Marécal, N. A. D. Richards, M. Dorf, and K. Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11819–11838,
A. S. Mahajan, J. C. Gómez Martín, T. D. Hay, S.-J. Royer, S. Yvon-Lewis, Y. Liu, L. Hu, C. Prados-Roman, C. Ordóñez, J. M. C. Plane, and A. Saiz-Lopez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 11609–11617,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Laboratory Studies | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Water uptake of subpollen aerosol particles: hygroscopic growth, cloud condensation nuclei activation, and liquid–liquid phase separationLaboratory study of the collection efficiency of submicron aerosol particles by cloud droplets – Part II: Influence of electric chargesHeterogeneous interactions between SO2 and organic peroxides in submicron aerosolTemperature and acidity dependence of secondary organic aerosol formation from α-pinene ozonolysis with a compact chamber systemProduction of HONO from NO2 uptake on illuminated TiO2 aerosol particles and following the illumination of mixed TiO2∕ammonium nitrate particlesCharacterization of secondary organic aerosol from heated-cooking-oil emissions: evolution in composition and volatilityMeasurement report: Diurnal and temporal variations of sugar compounds in suburban aerosols from the northern vicinity of Beijing, China – an influence of biogenic and anthropogenic sourcesPre-deliquescent water uptake in deposited nanoparticles observed with in situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopyTechnical note: Emission factors, chemical composition, and morphology of particles emitted from Euro 5 diesel and gasoline light-duty vehicles during transient cyclesMeasurement report: Distinct emissions and volatility distribution of intermediate-volatility organic compounds from on-road Chinese gasoline vehicles: implication of high secondary organic aerosol formation potentialEmissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds from domestic fuels used in Delhi, IndiaEffects of liquid–liquid phase separation and relative humidity on the heterogeneous OH oxidation of inorganic–organic aerosols: insights from methylglutaric acid and ammonium sulfate particlesMeasurement report: Sulfuric acid nucleation and experimental conditions in a photolytic flow reactorOzonolysis of fatty acid monolayers at the air–water interface: organic films may persist at the surface of atmospheric aerosolsFormation kinetics and mechanism of ozone and secondary organic aerosols from photochemical oxidation of different aromatic hydrocarbons: dependence of NOx and organic substituentSO2 and NH3 emissions enhance organosulfur compounds and fine particles formation from the photooxidation of a typical aromatic hydrocarbonQuantification of the role of stabilized Criegee intermediates in the formation of aerosols in limonene ozonolysisPhotochemical degradation of iron(III) citrate/citric acid aerosol quantified with the combination of three complementary experimental techniques and a kinetic process modelThe production and hydrolysis of organic nitrates from OH radical oxidation of β-ocimeneEmission factors for PM10 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from illegal burning of different types of municipal waste in householdsKinetic modeling of formation and evaporation of secondary organic aerosol from NO3 oxidation of pure and mixed monoterpenesOn the similarities and differences between the products of oxidation of hydrocarbons under simulated atmospheric conditions and cool-flamesDirect contribution of ammonia to α-pinene secondary organic aerosol formationEnhanced secondary organic aerosol formation from the photo-oxidation of mixed anthropogenic volatile organic compoundsHygroscopic behavior of aerosols generated from solutions of 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid, its sodium salts, and its mixtures with NaClChemical composition, structures, and light absorption of N-containing aromatic compounds emitted from burning wood and charcoal in household cookstovesSource Apportionment of Carbonaceous Aerosols in Beijing with Radiocarbon and Organic Tracers: Insight into the Differences between Urban and Rural SitesChemical composition and light absorption of carbonaceous aerosols emitted from crop residue burning: influence of combustion efficiencyOn mineral dust aerosol hygroscopicityDistinct chemical and mineralogical composition of Icelandic dust compared to northern African and Asian dustSecondary organic aerosol yields from the oxidation of benzyl alcoholThe Aarhus Chamber Campaign on Highly Oxygenated Organic Molecules and Aerosols (ACCHA): particle formation, organic acids, and dimer esters from α-pinene ozonolysis at different temperaturesMolecular understanding of the suppression of new-particle formation by isopreneComplex plant-derived organic aerosol as ice-nucleating particles – more than the sums of their parts?Liquid–liquid phase separation and morphologies in organic particles consisting of α-pinene and β-caryophyllene ozonolysis products and mixtures with commercially available organic compoundsCharacterization of primary and aged wood burning and coal combustion organic aerosols in environmental chamber and its implications for atmospheric aerosolsOligomer and highly oxygenated organic molecule formation from oxidation of oxygenated monoterpenes emitted by California sage plantsIncreased Primary and Secondary H2SO4 Showing the Opposing Roles in SOA Formation from Ethyl Methacrylate OzonolysisLaboratory studies of fresh and aged biomass burning aerosol emitted from east African biomass fuels – Part 2: Chemical properties and characterizationImpact of NOx on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from α-pinene and β-pinene photooxidation: the role of highly oxygenated organic nitratesEvaluation of the chemical composition of gas- and particle-phase products of aromatic oxidationGlyoxal's impact on dry ammonium salts: fast and reversible surface aerosol browningOxygenated products formed from OH-initiated reactions of trimethylbenzene: autoxidation and accretionBiomass-burning-derived particles from a wide variety of fuels – Part 2: Effects of photochemical aging on particle optical and chemical propertiesMeasured solid state and subcooled liquid vapour pressures of nitroaromatics using Knudsen effusion mass spectrometryPolar semivolatile organic compounds in biomass-burning emissions and their chemical transformations during aging in an oxidation flow reactorTemperature effects on optical properties and chemical composition of secondary organic aerosol derived from n-dodecaneAn investigation on hygroscopic properties of 15 black carbon (BC)-containing particles from different carbon sources: roles of organic and inorganic componentsDeconvolution of FIGAERO–CIMS thermal desorption profiles using positive matrix factorisation to identify chemical and physical processes during particle evaporationMineralogy and geochemistry of Asian dust: dependence on migration path, fractionation, and reactions with polluted air
Eugene F. Mikhailov, Mira L. Pöhlker, Kathrin Reinmuth-Selzle, Sergey S. Vlasenko, Ovid O. Krüger, Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Christopher Pöhlker, Olga A. Ivanova, Alexey A. Kiselev, Leslie A. Kremper, and Ulrich Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6999–7022,Short summary
Subpollen particles are a relatively new subset of atmospheric aerosol particles. When pollen grains rupture, they release cytoplasmic fragments known as subpollen particles (SPPs). We found that SPPs, containing a broad spectrum of biopolymers and hydrocarbons, exhibit abnormally high water uptake. This effect may influence the life cycle of SPPs and the related direct and indirect impacts on radiation budget as well as reinforce their allergic potential.
Alexis Dépée, Pascal Lemaitre, Thomas Gelain, Marie Monier, and Andrea Flossmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6963–6984,Short summary
The present article describes a new In-Cloud Aerosol Scavenging Experiment (In-CASE) that has been conceived to measure the collection efficiency of submicron aerosol particles by cloud droplets. The present article focuses on the influence of electrostatic effects on the collection efficiency.
Shunyao Wang, Tengyu Liu, Jinmyung Jang, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, and Arthur W. H. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6647–6661,Short summary
Discrepancies between atmospheric modeling and field observations, especially in highly polluted cities, have highlighted the lack of understanding of sulfate formation mechanisms and kinetics. Here, we directly quantify the reactive uptake coefficient of SO2 onto organic peroxides and study the important governing factors. The SO2 uptake rate was observed to depend on RH, peroxide amount and reactivity, pH, and ionic strength, which provides a framework to better predict sulfate formation.
Yange Deng, Satoshi Inomata, Kei Sato, Sathiyamurthi Ramasamy, Yu Morino, Shinichi Enami, and Hiroshi Tanimoto
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5983–6003,Short summary
The temperature and acidity dependence of yields and chemical compositions of the α-pinene ozonolysis SOA were systematically investigated using a newly developed compact chamber system. Increases in SOA yields were observed with the decrease in temperature and under acidic seed conditions. The differences in chemical compositions between acidic and neutral seed conditions were characterized and explained from the viewpoints of acid-catalyzed reactions. Some organosulfates were newly detected.
Joanna E. Dyson, Graham A. Boustead, Lauren T. Fleming, Mark Blitz, Daniel Stone, Stephen R. Arnold, Lisa K. Whalley, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5755–5775,Short summary
The hydroxyl radical (OH) dominates the removal of atmospheric pollutants, with nitrous acid (HONO) recognised as a major OH source. For remote regions HONO production through the action of sunlight on aerosol surfaces can provide a source of nitrogen oxides. In this study, HONO production rates at illuminated aerosol surfaces are measured under atmospheric conditions, a model consistent with the data is developed and aerosol production of HONO in the atmosphere is shown to be significant.
Manpreet Takhar, Yunchun Li, and Arthur W. H. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5137–5149,Short summary
Our study highlights the importance of molecular composition in constraining the chemical properties of cooking SOA as well as understanding the contribution of aldehydes in formation of SOA from cooking emissions. We show that fragmentation reactions are key in atmospheric processing of cooking SOA, and aldehydes emitted from cooking emissions contribute substantially to SOA formation. Our study provides a framework to better predict SOA formation in and downwind of urban atmospheres.
Santosh Kumar Verma, Kimitaka Kawamura, Fei Yang, Pingqing Fu, Yugo Kanaya, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4959–4978,Short summary
We studied aerosol samples collected in autumn 2007 with day and night intervals in a rural site of Mangshan, north of Beijing, for sugar compounds (SCs) that are abundant organic aerosol components and can influence the air quality and climate. We found higher concentrations of biomass burning (BB) products at nighttime than daytime, whereas pollen tracers and other SCs showed an opposite diurnal trend, because this site is meteorologically characterized by a mountain/valley breeze.
Jack J. Lin, Kamal Raj R, Stella Wang, Esko Kokkonen, Mikko-Heikki Mikkelä, Samuli Urpelainen, and Nønne L. Prisle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4709–4727,Short summary
We used surface-sensitive X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to study laboratory-generated nanoparticles of atmospheric interest at 0–16 % relative humidity. XPS gives direct information about changes in the chemical state from the binding energies of probed elements. Our results indicate water adsorption and associated chemical changes at the particle surfaces well below deliquescence, with distinct features for different particle components and implications for atmospheric chemistry.
Evangelia Kostenidou, Alvaro Martinez-Valiente, Badr R'Mili, Baptiste Marques, Brice Temime-Roussel, Amandine Durand, Michel André, Yao Liu, Cédric Louis, Boris Vansevenant, Daniel Ferry, Carine Laffon, Philippe Parent, and Barbara D'Anna
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4779–4796,Short summary
Passenger vehicle emissions can be a significant source of particulate matter in urban areas. In this study the particle-phase emissions of seven Euro 5 passenger vehicles were characterized. Changes in engine technologies and after-treatment devices can alter the chemical composition and the size of the emitted particulate matter. The condition of the diesel particle filter (DPF) plays an important role in the emitted pollutants.
Rongzhi Tang, Quanyang Lu, Song Guo, Hui Wang, Kai Song, Ying Yu, Rui Tan, Kefan Liu, Ruizhe Shen, Shiyi Chen, Limin Zeng, Spiro D. Jorga, Zhou Zhang, Wenbin Zhang, Shijin Shuai, and Allen L. Robinson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2569–2583,Short summary
We performed chassis dynamometer experiments to investigate the emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation potential of intermediate volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) from an on-road Chinese gasoline vehicle. High IVOC emission factors (EFs) and distinct volatility distribution were recognized. Our results indicate that vehicular IVOCs contribute significantly to SOA, implying the importance of reducing IVOCs when making air pollution control policies in urban areas of China.
Gareth J. Stewart, Beth S. Nelson, W. Joe F. Acton, Adam R. Vaughan, Naomi J. Farren, James R. Hopkins, Martyn W. Ward, Stefan J. Swift, Rahul Arya, Arnab Mondal, Ritu Jangirh, Sakshi Ahlawat, Lokesh Yadav, Sudhir K. Sharma, Siti S. M. Yunus, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Eiko Nemitz, Neil Mullinger, Ranu Gadi, Lokesh K. Sahu, Nidhi Tripathi, Andrew R. Rickard, James D. Lee, Tuhin K. Mandal, and Jacqueline F. Hamilton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2407–2426,Short summary
Biomass burning releases many lower-molecular-weight organic species which are difficult to analyse but important for the formation of organic aerosol. This study examined a new high-resolution technique to better characterise these difficult-to-analyse organic components. Some burning sources analysed in this study, such as cow dung cake and municipal solid waste, released extremely complex mixtures containing many thousands of different lower-volatility organic compounds.
Hoi Ki Lam, Rongshuang Xu, Jack Choczynski, James F. Davies, Dongwan Ham, Mijung Song, Andreas Zuend, Wentao Li, Ying-Lung Steve Tse, and Man Nin Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2053–2066,Short summary
This work demonstrates that organic compounds present at or near the surface of aerosols can be subjected to oxidation initiated by gas-phase oxidants, such as hydroxyl radicals (OH). The heterogeneous reactivity is sensitive to their surface concentrations, which are determined by the phase separation behavior. This results of this work emphasize the effects of phase separation and potentially distinct aerosol morphologies on the chemical transformation of atmospheric aerosols.
David R. Hanson, Seakh Menheer, Michael Wentzel, and Joan Kunz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1987–2001,Short summary
We report experimental measurements of particle formation in a flow reactor that extend the results from this experiment to a total of more than 270 runs over a time period of ~3 years. This has allowed us to detect a general increase in the cleanliness of the system and improve our knowledge of its chemistry. In-house simulations allowed us to construct phenomenological free energies of molecular clusters of sulfuric acid and ammonia that are appropriate for application to the atmosphere.
Benjamin Woden, Maximilian W. A. Skoda, Adam Milsom, Curtis Gubb, Armando Maestro, James Tellam, and Christian Pfrang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1325–1340,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols contain a large amount of organic compounds, whose oxidation affects their physical properties through a process known as ageing. We have simulated atmospheric ageing experimentally to elucidate the nature and behaviour of residual surface films. Our results show an increasing amount of residue at near-zero temperatures, demonstrating that an inert product film may build up during droplet ageing, even if only ordinarily short-lived reactive species are initially emitted.
Hao Luo, Jiangyao Chen, Guiying Li, and Taicheng An
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Formation kinetics & mechanism of O3 and SOA from different AHs are still unclear. Thus photochemical oxidation mechanism of 9 AHs with NO2 is comparably studied. Increased formation rate and yield of O3 and SOA is observed via promoting AH content. Raising number of AH's substituent enhances O3 formation, but decreases SOA yield, which is promoted by increasing methyl group number of AHs. Results are helpful to clear conversion of AHs to secondary pollutants in real atmospheric environment.
Zhaomin Yang, Li Xu, Narcisse T. Tsona, Jianlong Li, Xin Luo, and Lin Du
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The promotion effects of SO2 and NH3 on aerosol particles and organosulfur compounds formation from 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (TMB) photooxidation were observed for the first time. The enhanced organosulfur compounds included hitherto unidentified aromatic sulfonates and organosulfates, which were produced via acid-driven heterogeneous chemistry of hydroperoxides. The production of organosulfur compounds might provide a new pathway for the fate of TMB in regions with considerable SO2 emissions.
Yiwei Gong and Zhongming Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 813–829,Short summary
Stabilized Criegee intermediates (SCIs) are important factors in estimating aerosol formation in the atmosphere. Here the results show that SCIs account for more than 60 % of aerosol formation in limonene ozonolysis and water is an uncertainty in SCI performances. The aerosol formation potential of SCIs under high-humidity conditions is double that under dry and low-humidity conditions, suggesting SCI reactions are still important in contributing to aerosols at high relative humidity.
Jing Dou, Peter A. Alpert, Pablo Corral Arroyo, Beiping Luo, Frederic Schneider, Jacinta Xto, Thomas Huthwelker, Camelia N. Borca, Katja D. Henzler, Jörg Raabe, Benjamin Watts, Hartmut Herrmann, Thomas Peter, Markus Ammann, and Ulrich K. Krieger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 315–338,Short summary
Photochemistry of iron(III) complexes plays an important role in aerosol aging, especially in the lower troposphere. Ensuing radical chemistry leads to decarboxylation, and the production of peroxides, and oxygenated volatile compounds, resulting in particle mass loss due to release of the volatile products to the gas phase. We investigated kinetic transport limitations due to high particle viscosity under low relative humidity conditions. For quantification a numerical model was developed.
Ana C. Morales, Thilina Jayarathne, Jonathan H. Slade, Alexander Laskin, and Paul B. Shepson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 129–145,Short summary
Organic nitrates formed from the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds impact both ozone and particulate matter as they remove nitrogen oxides, but they represent important aerosol precursors. We conducted a series of reaction chamber experiments that quantified the total organic nitrate and secondary organic aerosol yield from the OH-radical-initiated oxidation of ocimene, and also measured their hydrolysis lifetimes in the aqueous phase, as a function of pH.
András Hoffer, Beatrix Jancsek-Turóczi, Ádám Tóth, Gyula Kiss, Anca Naghiu, Erika Andrea Levei, Luminita Marmureanu, Attila Machon, and András Gelencsér
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 16135–16144,Short summary
Emission factors for PM10 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are reported for the first time ever for the indoor combustion of 12 common types of municipal solid waste that are frequently burned in households worldwide. We have found that waste burning emits up to 40 times more PM10 and 800 times more PAHs than the combustion of dry firewood. Our finding highlights the need for coordinated actions against illegal waste combustion and the extreme health hazard associated with it.
Thomas Berkemeier, Masayuki Takeuchi, Gamze Eris, and Nga L. Ng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15513–15535,Short summary
This paper presents how environmental chamber data of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation can be interpreted using kinetic modeling techniques. Utilizing pure and mixed precursor experiments, we show that SOA formation and evaporation can be understood by explicitly treating gas-phase chemistry, gas–particle partitioning, and, notably, particle-phase oligomerization, but some of the non-linear, non-equilibrium effects must be accredited to diffusion limitations in the particle phase.
Roland Benoit, Nesrine Belhadj, Maxence Lailliau, and Philippe Dagaut
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This study compares different modes of limonene oxidation (ozonolysis, photooxidation and cool flame) on the basis of review articles and experimental results. Although the oxidation conditions are totally different, the results obtained present great similarities on the nature of the products, but also specificities related to autooxidation such as the presence of ketohydroperoxides.
Liqing Hao, Eetu Kari, Ari Leskinen, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Annele Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14393–14405,Short summary
Our work presents the observational results of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in the presence of ammonia. The particle-phase ammonium was continuously produced even after SOA formation had ceased. The gas-phase organic acids were observed to contribute to the formed particle-phase ammonium salts. This study suggests that the presence of ammonia may change the mass and chemical composition of large-size SOA particles and can potentially alter the aerosol impact on climate change.
Junling Li, Hong Li, Kun Li, Yan Chen, Hao Zhang, Xin Zhang, Zhenhai Wu, Yongchun Liu, Xuezhong Wang, Weigang Wang, and Maofa Ge
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
SOA formation from the mixed anthropogenic volatile organic compounds was enhanced compared to the predicted SOA mass concentration based on the SOA yield of single species; interaction occurred between intermediate products from the two precursors. Interactions between the intermediate products from the mixtures and the effect on SOA formation give us a further understanding of the SOA formed in the atmosphere.
Li Wu, Clara Becote, Sophie Sobanska, Pierre-Marie Flaud, Emilie Perraudin, Eric Villenave, Young-Chul Song, and Chul-Un Ro
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14103–14122,Short summary
MBTCA (3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid), a second-generation product of monoterpenes, is one of the most relevant tracer compounds for biogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). Laboratory-generated, micrometer-sized, pure-MBTCA, mono-/di-/trisodium MBTCA salts and MBTCA–NaCl mixture aerosol particles were examined systematically to observe their hygroscopic behavior, and it was also observed that the monosodium MBTCA salt aerosols were formed through a reaction between MBTCA and NaCl.
Mingjie Xie, Zhenzhen Zhao, Amara L. Holder, Michael D. Hays, Xi Chen, Guofeng Shen, James J. Jetter, Wyatt M. Champion, and Qin'geng Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14077–14090,Short summary
This study investigated the composition, structures, and light absorption of N-containing aromatic compounds (NACs) in PM2.5 emitted from burning red oak and charcoal in a variety of cookstoves. The results suggest that the identified NACs might have substantial fractions remaining in the gas phase. In comparison to other sources, cookstove emissions from red oak or charcoal fuels did not exhibit unique NAC structural features but had distinct NAC composition.
Siqi Hou, Di Liu, Jingsha Xu, Tuan V. Vu, Xuefang Wu, Deepchandra Srivastava, Pingqing Fu, Linjie Li, Yele Sun, Athanasia Vlachou, Vaios Moschos, Gary Salazar, Sönke Szidat, André S. H. Prévôt, Roy M. Harrison, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This study provides a newly developed method which combines radiocarbon (14C) with organic tracers to enable source apportionment of primary and secondary fossil vs non-fossil sources of carbonaceous aerosols at an urban and a rural site of Beijing. The source apportionment results were compared with those by Chemical Mass Balance and AMS/ACSM-PMF methods. Correlations of WINSOC and WSOC with different sources of OC were also performed to elucidate the formation mechanisms of SOC.
Yujue Wang, Min Hu, Nan Xu, Yanhong Qin, Zhijun Wu, Liwu Zeng, Xiaofeng Huang, and Lingyan He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13721–13734,Short summary
Field straw residue burning is a widespread type of biomass burning in Asia, while its emissions are poorly understood. In this study, we designed lab-controlled experiments to comprehensively investigate the emission factors, chemical compositions and light absorption properties of both water-soluble and water-insoluble carbonaceous aerosols emitted from straw burning. The results clearly highlight the significant influences of burning conditions and combustion efficiency on the emissions.
Lanxiadi Chen, Chao Peng, Wenjun Gu, Hanjing Fu, Xing Jian, Huanhuan Zhang, Guohua Zhang, Jianxi Zhu, Xinming Wang, and Mingjin Tang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13611–13626,Short summary
We investigated hygroscopic properties of a number of mineral dust particles in a quantitative manner, via measuring the sample mass at different relative humidities. The robust and comprehensive data obtained would significantly improve our knowledge of hygroscopicity of mineral dust and its impacts on atmospheric chemistry and climate.
Clarissa Baldo, Paola Formenti, Sophie Nowak, Servanne Chevaillier, Mathieu Cazaunau, Edouard Pangui, Claudia Di Biagio, Jean-Francois Doussin, Konstantin Ignatyev, Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Olafur Arnalds, A. Robert MacKenzie, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13521–13539,Short summary
We showed that Icelandic dust has a fundamentally different chemical and mineralogical composition from low-latitude dust. In particular, magnetite is as high as 1 %–2 % of the total dust mass. Our results suggest that Icelandic dust may have an important impact on the radiation balance in the subpolar and polar regions.
Sophia M. Charan, Reina S. Buenconsejo, and John H. Seinfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13167–13190,Short summary
In urban areas, the emissions from volatile chemical products may be responsible for the formation of as much particulate matter as motor vehicles. Since exposure to particulate matter is a public health crisis, understanding its formation is critical. In this work, we investigate the secondary organic aerosol formation potential of benzyl alcohol, an important compound that is representative of some of these new emission sources, and find that more particulate matter forms than is expected.
Kasper Kristensen, Louise N. Jensen, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Sigurd Christiansen, Bernadette Rosati, Jonas Elm, Ricky Teiwes, Henrik B. Pedersen, Marianne Glasius, Mikael Ehn, and Merete Bilde
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12549–12567,Short summary
Atmospheric particles are important in relation to human health and the global climate. As the global temperature changes, so may the atmospheric chemistry controlling the formation of particles from reactions of naturally emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In the current work, we show how temperatures influence the formation and chemical composition of atmospheric particles from α-pinene: a biogenic VOC largely emitted in high-latitude environments such as the boreal forests.
Martin Heinritzi, Lubna Dada, Mario Simon, Dominik Stolzenburg, Andrea C. Wagner, Lukas Fischer, Lauri R. Ahonen, Stavros Amanatidis, Rima Baalbaki, Andrea Baccarini, Paulus S. Bauer, Bernhard Baumgartner, Federico Bianchi, Sophia Brilke, Dexian Chen, Randall Chiu, Antonio Dias, Josef Dommen, Jonathan Duplissy, Henning Finkenzeller, Carla Frege, Claudia Fuchs, Olga Garmash, Hamish Gordon, Manuel Granzin, Imad El Haddad, Xucheng He, Johanna Helm, Victoria Hofbauer, Christopher R. Hoyle, Juha Kangasluoma, Timo Keber, Changhyuk Kim, Andreas Kürten, Houssni Lamkaddam, Tiia M. Laurila, Janne Lampilahti, Chuan Ping Lee, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Markus Leiminger, Huajun Mai, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna Elina Manninen, Ruby Marten, Serge Mathot, Roy Lee Mauldin, Bernhard Mentler, Ugo Molteni, Tatjana Müller, Wei Nie, Tuomo Nieminen, Antti Onnela, Eva Partoll, Monica Passananti, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Veronika Pospisilova, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Matti P. Rissanen, Clémence Rose, Siegfried Schobesberger, Wiebke Scholz, Kay Scholze, Mikko Sipilä, Gerhard Steiner, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Annele Virtanen, Alexander L. Vogel, Rainer Volkamer, Robert Wagner, Mingyi Wang, Lena Weitz, Daniela Wimmer, Mao Xiao, Chao Yan, Penglin Ye, Qiaozhi Zha, Xueqin Zhou, Antonio Amorim, Urs Baltensperger, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, António Tomé, Paul M. Winkler, Douglas R. Worsnop, Neil M. Donahue, Jasper Kirkby, and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11809–11821,Short summary
With experiments performed at CLOUD, we show how isoprene interferes in monoterpene oxidation via RO2 termination at atmospherically relevant concentrations. This interference shifts the distribution of highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) away from C20 class dimers towards C15 class dimers, which subsequently reduces both biogenic nucleation and early growth rates. Our results may help to understand the absence of new-particle formation in isoprene-rich environments.
Isabelle Steinke, Naruki Hiranuma, Roger Funk, Kristina Höhler, Nadine Tüllmann, Nsikanabasi Silas Umo, Peter G. Weidler, Ottmar Möhler, and Thomas Leisner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11387–11397,Short summary
In this study, we highlight the potential impact of particles from certain terrestrial sources on the formation of ice crystals in clouds. In particular, we focus on biogenic particles consisting of various organic compounds, which makes it very difficult to predict the ice nucleation properties of complex ambient particles. We find that these ambient particles are often more ice active than individual components.
Young-Chul Song, Ariana G. Bé, Scot T. Martin, Franz M. Geiger, Allan K. Bertram, Regan J. Thomson, and Mijung Song
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11263–11273,Short summary
We report the liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS) of organic aerosol consisting of α-pinene- and β-caryophyllene-derived ozonolysis products and commercial organic compounds. As compositional complexity increased from one to two organic species, LLPS occurred over a wider range of average O : C values (increasing from 0.44 to 0.67). These results provide further evidence that LLPS is likely frequent in organic aerosol particles in the troposphere, even in the absence of inorganic salt.
Amir Yazdani, Nikunj Dudani, Satoshi Takahama, Amelie Bertrand, André S. H. Prévôt, Imad El Haddad, and Ann M. Dillner
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Functional group composition of primary and aged aerosols from wood burning and coal combustion sources from chamber experiments are interpreted through compounds present in the fuels and known gas-phase oxidation products. Infrared spectra of aged wood burning in the chamber and ambient biomass burning samples reveal striking similarities, and a new method for identifying burning-impacted samples in monitoring network measurements is presented.
Archit Mehra, Jordan E. Krechmer, Andrew Lambe, Chinmoy Sarkar, Leah Williams, Farzaneh Khalaj, Alex Guenther, John Jayne, Hugh Coe, Douglas Worsnop, Celia Faiola, and Manjula Canagaratna
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10953–10965,Short summary
Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from plants are important for tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Real plant emissions are much more diverse than the few proxies widely used for studies of plant SOA. Here we present the first study of SOA from Californian sage plants and the oxygenated monoterpenes representing their major emissions. We identify SOA products and show the importance of the formation of highly oxygenated organic molecules and oligomers.
Peng Zhang, Tianzeng Chen, Jun Liu, Guangyan Xu, Qingxin Ma, Biwu Chu, Wanqi Sun, and Hong He
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This work highlights the opposing effects of primary and secondary H2SO4 on both SOA formation and constitutes. Our findings revealed that a substantial increase in secondary H2SO4 particles promoted the SOA formation of ethyl methacrylate with increasing SO2 in the absence of seed particles. However, increased primary H2SO4 with seed acidity enhanced ethyl methacrylate uptake, but reduced its SOA formation in the presence of seed particles.
Damon M. Smith, Tianqu Cui, Marc N. Fiddler, Rudra P. Pokhrel, Jason D. Surratt, and Solomon Bililign
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10169–10191,Short summary
Biomass fuels used for domestic purposes in east Africa produce a significant atmospheric burden of aerosols and volatile organic compounds. The chemical properties and composition of these aerosols have not been investigated in the laboratory. In this work methanol extracts from filter samples of aerosol collected from an indoor smog chamber were analyzed to determine the chemical composition and identify the light absorption properties of organic aerosol constituents.
Iida Pullinen, Sebastian Schmitt, Sungah Kang, Mehrnaz Sarrafzadeh, Patrick Schlag, Stefanie Andres, Einhard Kleist, Thomas F. Mentel, Franz Rohrer, Monika Springer, Ralf Tillmann, Jürgen Wildt, Cheng Wu, Defeng Zhao, Andreas Wahner, and Astrid Kiendler-Scharr
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10125–10147,Short summary
Biogenic and anthropogenic air masses mix in the atmosphere, bringing plant-emitted monoterpenes and traffic-related nitrogen oxides together. There is debate whether the presence of nitrogen oxides reduces or increases secondary aerosol formation. This is important as secondary aerosols have cooling effects in the climate system but also constitute a health risk in populated areas. We show that the presence of NOx alone should not much affect the mass yields of secondary organic aerosols.
Archit Mehra, Yuwei Wang, Jordan E. Krechmer, Andrew Lambe, Francesca Majluf, Melissa A. Morris, Michael Priestley, Thomas J. Bannan, Daniel J. Bryant, Kelly L. Pereira, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Andrew R. Rickard, Mike J. Newland, Harald Stark, Philip Croteau, John T. Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Lin Wang, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9783–9803,Short summary
Aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from anthropogenic activity are important for tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Here we present a detailed chemical characterisation of SOA from four C9-aromatic isomers and a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). We identify and compare their oxidation products in the gas and particle phases, showing the different relative importance of oxidation pathways and proportions of highly oxygenated organic molecules.
David O. De Haan, Lelia N. Hawkins, Kevin Jansen, Hannah G. Welsh, Raunak Pednekar, Alexia de Loera, Natalie G. Jimenez, Margaret A. Tolbert, Mathieu Cazaunau, Aline Gratien, Antonin Bergé, Edouard Pangui, Paola Formenti, and Jean-François Doussin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9581–9590,Short summary
When exposed to glyoxal in chamber experiments, dry ammonium or methylammonium sulfate particles turn brown immediately and reversibly without increasing in size. Much less browning was observed on wet aerosol particles, and no browning was observed with sodium sulfate aerosol. While estimated dry aerosol light absorption caused by background glyoxal (70 ppt) is insignificant compared to that of secondary brown carbon overall, in polluted regions this process could be a source of brown carbon.
Yuwei Wang, Archit Mehra, Jordan E. Krechmer, Gan Yang, Xiaoyu Hu, Yiqun Lu, Andrew Lambe, Manjula Canagaratna, Jianmin Chen, Douglas Worsnop, Hugh Coe, and Lin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9563–9579,Short summary
A series of OH-initiated oxidation experiments of trimethylbenzene were investigated in the absence and presence of NOx. Many C9 products with 1–11 oxygen atoms and C18 products presumably formed from dimerization of C9 peroxy radicals were observed, hinting at the extensive existence of autoxidation and accretion reaction pathways. The presence of NOx would suppress the formation of highly oxygenated C18 molecules and enhance the formation of organonitrates and even dinitrate compounds.
Christopher D. Cappa, Christopher Y. Lim, David H. Hagan, Matthew Coggon, Abigail Koss, Kanako Sekimoto, Joost de Gouw, Timothy B. Onasch, Carsten Warneke, and Jesse H. Kroll
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8511–8532,Short summary
Smoke from combustion of a wide range of biomass fuels (e.g., leaves, twigs, logs, peat, and dung) was photochemically aged in a small chamber for up to 8 d of equivalent atmospheric aging. Upon aging, the particle chemical composition and ability to absorb sunlight changed owing to reactions in both the gas and particulate phases. We developed a model to explain the observations and used this to derive insights into the aging of smoke in the atmosphere.
Petroc D. Shelley, Thomas J. Bannan, Stephen D. Worrall, M. Rami Alfarra, Ulrich K. Krieger, Carl J. Percival, Arthur Garforth, and David Topping
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8293–8314,Short summary
The methods used to estimate the vapour pressures of compounds in the atmosphere typically perform poorly when applied to organic compounds found in the atmosphere. New measurements have been made and compared to previous experimental data and estimated values so that the limitations within the estimation methods can be identified and in the future be rectified.
Deep Sengupta, Vera Samburova, Chiranjivi Bhattarai, Adam C. Watts, Hans Moosmüller, and Andrey Y. Khlystov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8227–8250,Short summary
This paper presents important results on the atmospheric chemistry of combustion emissions. Organic compounds from these emissions can contribute significantly to chemical and physical properties of atmospheric aerosols. In this paper, a detailed chemical analysis of gas- and particle-phase polar organic compounds from the laboratory combustion of globally important fuels is presented. The aging experiments were performed to understand the fate of biomass-burning organics in the atmosphere.
Junling Li, Weigang Wang, Kun Li, Wenyu Zhang, Chao Peng, Li Zhou, Bo Shi, Yan Chen, Mingyuan Liu, Hong Li, and Maofa Ge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8123–8137,Short summary
Long-chain alkanes (a large fraction of diesel fuel and its exhaust) are important potential contributors of SOA. Through the analysis of the components of formed SOA, we found that low-temperature conditions promote the oligomerization of n-dodecane, and the degree of oligomerization can reach tetramerization. The presence of the oligomers enhances the light extinction of the particles. UV-scattering particles in the boundary layer can accelerate photochemical reactions and haze production.
Minli Wang, Yiqun Chen, Heyun Fu, Xiaolei Qu, Bengang Li, Shu Tao, and Dongqiang Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7941–7954,Short summary
The mechanism and factors controlling the hygroscopicity of black-carbon-containing particles (BCPs) from different carbon sources are not well understood. We thoroughly characterized the chemical and compositional properties of 15 samples of BCPs from different sources (wood, herb, and soot) and further investigated their hygroscopicity. Depending on the carbon source, organic carbon and dissolved mineral contents were key determinants of the equilibrium and kinetics of water uptake by BCPs.
Angela Buchholz, Arttu Ylisirniö, Wei Huang, Claudia Mohr, Manjula Canagaratna, Douglas R. Worsnop, Siegfried Schobesberger, and Annele Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7693–7716,Short summary
To understand the role of aerosol particles in the atmosphere, it is necessary to know their detailed chemical composition and physical properties, especially volatility. The thermal desorption data from FIGAERO–CIMS provides both but are difficult to analyse. With positive matrix factorisation, we can separate instrument background from the real signal. Compounds can be classified by their apparent volatility, and the contribution of thermal decomposition in the instrument can be identified.
Gi Young Jeong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7411–7428,Short summary
During long-range transport, mineral dust interacts with the atmosphere, biosphere, cryosphere, and pedosphere, influencing ecosystems, the atmospheric energy balance, and air quality. This study analyzed the mineral and chemical compositions of Asian dust samples collected during 14 years in Korea. The result showed mineralogical and geochemical variation depending on the dust migration path, fractionation, and atmospheric reactions as well as average properties.
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Reactive iodine species play a key role in the oxidation capacity of the polar troposphere, although sources and mechanisms are poorly understood. In this paper, the photolysis of frozen iodate salt has been studied, confirming that under near-UV–Vis radiation iodate is photolysed. Incorporating this result into an Antarctic atmospheric model, we have shown that it could increase the atmospheric IO levels and could constitute a pathway for the release of active iodine to the polar atmosphere
Reactive iodine species play a key role in the oxidation capacity of the polar troposphere,...