Articles | Volume 14, issue 23
02 Dec 2014
Research article | 02 Dec 2014
Aerosol–computational fluid dynamics modeling of ultrafine and black carbon particle emission, dilution, and growth near roadways
L. Huang et al.
Y. Liu, L. Huang, S.-M. Li, T. Harner, and J. Liggio
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12195–12207,
Katherine L. Hayden, Shao-Meng Li, John Liggio, Michael J. Wheeler, Jeremy J. B. Wentzell, Amy Leithead, Peter Brickell, Richard L. Mittermeier, Zachary Oldham, Cristian M. Mihele, Ralf M. Staebler, Samar G. Moussa, Andrea Darlington, Mengistu Wolde, Daniel Thompson, Jack Chen, Debora Griffin, Ellen Eckert, Jenna C. Ditto, Megan He, and Drew R. Gentner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12493–12523,Short summary
In this study, airborne measurements provided the most detailed characterization, to date, of boreal forest wildfire emissions. Measurements showed a large diversity of air pollutants expanding the volatility range typically reported. A large portion of organic species was unidentified, likely comprised of complex organic compounds. Aircraft-derived emissions improve wildfire chemical speciation and can support reliable model predictions of pollution from boreal forest wildfires.
Chong Han, Hongxing Yang, Kun Li, Patrick Lee, John Liggio, Amy Leithead, and Shao-Meng Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10827–10839,Short summary
We presented yields and compositions of Si-containing SOAs generated from the reaction of cVMSs (D3–D6) with OH radicals. NOx played a negative role in cVMS SOA formation, while ammonium sulfate seeds enhanced D3–D5 SOA yields at short photochemical ages under high-NOx conditions. The aerosol mass spectra confirmed that the components of cVMS SOAs significantly relied on OH exposure. A global cVMS-derived SOA source strength was estimated in order to understand SOA formation potentials of cVMSs.
Irene Cheng, Leiming Zhang, Zhuanshi He, Hazel Cathcart, Daniel Houle, Amanda Cole, Jian Feng, Jason O'Brien, Anne Marie Macdonald, Julian Aherne, and Jeffrey Brook
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
Nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) deposition decreased significantly at 14 Canadian sites during 2000–2018. The greatest decline was observed in southeastern Canada owing to regional SO2 and NOx reductions. Wet deposition was more important than dry deposition, comprising 71–95 % of total N and 45–89 % of total S deposition. While critical loads (CL) were exceeded at a few sites in the early 2000s, acidic deposition has declined below CL after 2012, which signifies recovery from legacy acidification.
Huan Zhang, Sunling Gong, Lei Zhang, Jingwei Ni, Jianjun He, Yaqiang Wang, Xu Wang, Lixin Shi, Jingyue Mo, Huabing Ke, and Shuhua Lu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2221–2236,Short summary
This study established a multi-model simulation system for street-level circulation and pollutant tracking and applied to real building scenarios and atmospheric conditions. Results showed that for a particular site the potential contribution ratio varies with the height of the site, with a peak not at the ground but at a certain height. This work is of significance for urban planning and improvement of urban air quality.
Mahtab Majdzadeh, Craig A. Stroud, Christopher Sioris, Paul A. Makar, Ayodeji Akingunola, Chris McLinden, Xiaoyi Zhao, Michael D. Moran, Ihab Abboud, and Jack Chen
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 219–249,Short summary
A new lookup table for aerosol optical properties based on a Mie scattering code was calculated and adopted within an improved version of the photolysis module in the GEM-MACH in-line chemical transport model. The modified version of the photolysis module makes use of online interactive aerosol feedback and applies core-shell parameterizations to the black carbon absorption efficiency based on Bond et al. (2006) to the size bins with black carbon mass fraction of less than 40 %.
Debora Griffin, Chris A. McLinden, Enrico Dammers, Cristen Adams, Chelsea E. Stockwell, Carsten Warneke, Ilann Bourgeois, Jeff Peischl, Thomas B. Ryerson, Kyle J. Zarzana, Jake P. Rowe, Rainer Volkamer, Christoph Knote, Natalie Kille, Theodore K. Koenig, Christopher F. Lee, Drew Rollins, Pamela S. Rickly, Jack Chen, Lukas Fehr, Adam Bourassa, Doug Degenstein, Katherine Hayden, Cristian Mihele, Sumi N. Wren, John Liggio, Ayodeji Akingunola, and Paul Makar
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7929–7957,Short summary
Satellite-derived NOx emissions from biomass burning are estimated with TROPOMI observations. Two common emission estimation methods are applied, and sensitivity tests with model output were performed to determine the accuracy of these methods. The effect of smoke aerosols on TROPOMI NO2 columns is estimated and compared to aircraft observations from four different aircraft campaigns measuring biomass burning plumes in 2018 and 2019 in North America.
Sepehr Fathi, Mark Gordon, Paul A. Makar, Ayodeji Akingunola, Andrea Darlington, John Liggio, Katherine Hayden, and Shao-Meng Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15461–15491,Short summary
We have investigated the accuracy of aircraft-based mass balance methodologies through computer model simulations of the atmosphere and air quality at a regional high-resolution scale. We have defined new quantitative metrics to reduce emission retrieval uncertainty by evaluating top-down mass balance estimates against the known simulated meteorology and input emissions. We also recommend methodologies and flight strategies for improved retrievals in future aircraft-based studies.
Paul A. Makar, Craig Stroud, Ayodeji Akingunola, Junhua Zhang, Shuzhan Ren, Philip Cheung, and Qiong Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12291–12316,Short summary
Vehicle pollutant emissions occur in an environment where upward transport can be enhanced due to the turbulence created by the vehicles as they move through the atmosphere. An approach for including these turbulence effects in regional air pollution forecast models has been derived from theoretical, observation, and higher-resolution modeling. The enhanced mixing, which occurs in the immediate vicinity of roadways, changes pollutant concentrations on the regional to continental scale.
Paul A. Makar, Ayodeji Akingunola, Jack Chen, Balbir Pabla, Wanmin Gong, Craig Stroud, Christopher Sioris, Kerry Anderson, Philip Cheung, Junhua Zhang, and Jason Milbrandt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10557–10587,Short summary
We have examined the effects of airborne particles on absorption and scattering of incoming sunlight by the particles themselves via cloud formation. We used an advanced, combined high-resolution weather forecast and chemical transport computer model, for western North America, and simulations with and without the connections between particles and weather enabled. Feedbacks improved weather and air pollution forecasts and changed cloud behaviour and forest-fire pollutant amount and height.
Konstantin Baibakov, Samuel LeBlanc, Keyvan Ranjbar, Norman T. O'Neill, Mengistu Wolde, Jens Redemann, Kristina Pistone, Shao-Meng Li, John Liggio, Katherine Hayden, Tak W. Chan, Michael J. Wheeler, Leonid Nichman, Connor Flynn, and Roy Johnson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10671–10687,Short summary
We find that the airborne measurements of the vertical extinction due to aerosols (aerosol optical depth, AOD) obtained in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) can significantly exceed ground-based values. This can have an effect on estimating the AOSR radiative impact and is relevant to satellite validation based on ground-based measurements. We also show that the AOD can marginally increase as the plumes are being transported away from the source and the new particles are being formed.
Katherine Hayden, Shao-Meng Li, Paul Makar, John Liggio, Samar G. Moussa, Ayodeji Akingunola, Robert McLaren, Ralf M. Staebler, Andrea Darlington, Jason O'Brien, Junhua Zhang, Mengistu Wolde, and Leiming Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8377–8392,Short summary
We developed a method using aircraft measurements to determine lifetimes with respect to dry deposition for oxidized sulfur and nitrogen compounds over the boreal forest in Alberta, Canada. Atmospheric lifetimes were significantly shorter than derived from chemical transport models with differences related to modelled dry deposition velocities. The shorter lifetimes suggest models need to reassess dry deposition treatment and predictions of sulfur and nitrogen in the atmosphere and ecosystems.
Yuan You, Ralf M. Staebler, Samar G. Moussa, James Beck, and Richard L. Mittermeier
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1879–1892,Short summary
Tailings ponds in the Alberta oil sands can be significant sources of methane, an important greenhouse gas. This paper describes a 1-month study conducted in 2017 to measure methane emissions from a pond using a variety of micrometeorological flux methods and demonstrates some advantages of these methods over flux chambers.
Sunling Gong, Hongli Liu, Bihui Zhang, Jianjun He, Hengde Zhang, Yaqiang Wang, Shuxiao Wang, Lei Zhang, and Jie Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2999–3013,Short summary
Surface concentrations of PM2.5 in China have had a declining trend since 2013 across the country. This research found that the control measures of emission reduction are the dominant factors in the PM2.5 declining trends in various regions. The contribution by the meteorology to the surface PM2.5 concentrations from 2013 to 2019 was not found to show a consistent trend, fluctuating positively or negatively by about 5% on the annual average and 10–20% for the fall–winter heavy-pollution seasons.
Yuan You, Samar G. Moussa, Lucas Zhang, Long Fu, James Beck, and Ralf M. Staebler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 945–959,Short summary
Tailings ponds in the Alberta oil sands represent an insufficiently characterized source of fugitive emissions of pollutants to the atmosphere. In this study, a novel approach of using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer along with measurements of atmospheric turbulence is shown to present a practical, non-intrusive method of quantifying emission rates for ammonia, alkanes, and methane. Results from a 1-month field study are presented and discussed.
Lei Zhang, Sunling Gong, Tianliang Zhao, Chunhong Zhou, Yuesi Wang, Jiawei Li, Dongsheng Ji, Jianjun He, Hongli Liu, Ke Gui, Xiaomei Guo, Jinhui Gao, Yunpeng Shan, Hong Wang, Yaqiang Wang, Huizheng Che, and Xiaoye Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 703–718,Short summary
Development of chemical transport models with advanced physics and chemical schemes is important for improving air-quality forecasts. This study develops the chemical module CUACE by updating with a new particle dry deposition scheme and adding heterogenous chemical reactions and couples it with the WRF model. The coupled model (WRF/CUACE) was able to capture well the variations of PM2.5, O3, NO2, and secondary inorganic aerosols in eastern China.
Jenna C. Ditto, Megan He, Tori N. Hass-Mitchell, Samar G. Moussa, Katherine Hayden, Shao-Meng Li, John Liggio, Amy Leithead, Patrick Lee, Michael J. Wheeler, Jeremy J. B. Wentzell, and Drew R. Gentner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 255–267,Short summary
Forest fires are an important source of reactive organic gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. We analyzed organic aerosols collected from an aircraft above a boreal forest fire and reported an increasing contribution from compounds containing oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur as the plume aged, with sulfide and ring-bound nitrogen functionality. Our results demonstrated chemistry that is important in biomass burning but also in urban/developing regions with high local nitrogen and sulfur emissions.
E. Morris, X. Liu, A. Manwar, D. Y. Zang, G. Evans, J. Brook, B. Rousseau, C. Clark, and J. MacIsaac
ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., VI-4-W2-2020, 119–126,
Zoë Y. W. Davis, Udo Frieß, Kevin B. Strawbridge, Monika Aggarwaal, Sabour Baray, Elijah G. Schnitzler, Akshay Lobo, Vitali E. Fioletov, Ihab Abboud, Chris A. McLinden, Jim Whiteway, Megan D. Willis, Alex K. Y. Lee, Jeff Brook, Jason Olfert, Jason O'Brien, Ralf Staebler, Hans D. Osthoff, Cristian Mihele, and Robert McLaren
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1129–1155,Short summary
Here, we evaluate a ground-based remote sensing method (MAX-DOAS) for measuring total pollutant loading and vertical profiles of pollution in the lower atmosphere by comparing our method to a variety of other measurement methods (lidar, sunphotometer, active DOAS, and aircraft measurements). Measurements were made in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region in Alberta, Canada. The complex dataset provided a rare opportunity to evaluate the performance of MAX-DOAS under varying atmospheric conditions.
Alex K. Y. Lee, Max G. Adam, John Liggio, Shao-Meng Li, Kun Li, Megan D. Willis, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Travis W. Tokarek, Charles A. Odame-Ankrah, Hans D. Osthoff, Kevin Strawbridge, and Jeffery R. Brook
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12209–12219,Short summary
This work provides the first direct field evidence that anthropogenic organo-nitrate contributed up to half of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mass that was freshly produced within the emission plumes of oil sands facilities in Alberta, Canada. The findings illustrate the central role of organo-nitrate in SOA production from the oil and gas industry, with relevance for other urban and industrial regions with significant intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) and NOx emissions.
Nathan Hilker, Jonathan M. Wang, Cheol-Heon Jeong, Robert M. Healy, Uwayemi Sofowote, Jerzy Debosz, Yushan Su, Michael Noble, Anthony Munoz, Geoff Doerksen, Luc White, Céline Audette, Dennis Herod, Jeffrey R. Brook, and Greg J. Evans
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5247–5261,Short summary
Increased interest in monitoring air quality near roadways, combined with traffic's often unclear contribution to elevated concentrations, has created a need for better interpretation of these data. Using 2 years of measurements collected during a near-road monitoring project in Canada, this paper contrasts three methods for estimating the fraction of roadside pollution resulting from on-road traffic. Robustness of these methods was compared with tandem measurements at background locations.
Kun Li, John Liggio, Patrick Lee, Chong Han, Qifan Liu, and Shao-Meng Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9715–9731,Short summary
A new oxidation flow reactor was developed and applied to study the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from precursors associated with oil-sands (OS) operations. The results reveal that the SOA yields from OS precursors are related to the volatilities of precursors and that open-pit mining is the main source of SOA formed from oil sands. In addition, cyclic alkanes are found to play an important role in SOA formation from oil-sands precursors.
Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, W. Richard Leaitch, Amir A. Aliabadi, Allan K. Bertram, Jean-Pierre Blanchet, Aude Boivin-Rioux, Heiko Bozem, Julia Burkart, Rachel Y. W. Chang, Joannie Charette, Jai P. Chaubey, Robert J. Christensen, Ana Cirisan, Douglas B. Collins, Betty Croft, Joelle Dionne, Greg J. Evans, Christopher G. Fletcher, Martí Galí, Roghayeh Ghahremaninezhad, Eric Girard, Wanmin Gong, Michel Gosselin, Margaux Gourdal, Sarah J. Hanna, Hakase Hayashida, Andreas B. Herber, Sareh Hesaraki, Peter Hoor, Lin Huang, Rachel Hussherr, Victoria E. Irish, Setigui A. Keita, John K. Kodros, Franziska Köllner, Felicia Kolonjari, Daniel Kunkel, Luis A. Ladino, Kathy Law, Maurice Levasseur, Quentin Libois, John Liggio, Martine Lizotte, Katrina M. Macdonald, Rashed Mahmood, Randall V. Martin, Ryan H. Mason, Lisa A. Miller, Alexander Moravek, Eric Mortenson, Emma L. Mungall, Jennifer G. Murphy, Maryam Namazi, Ann-Lise Norman, Norman T. O'Neill, Jeffrey R. Pierce, Lynn M. Russell, Johannes Schneider, Hannes Schulz, Sangeeta Sharma, Meng Si, Ralf M. Staebler, Nadja S. Steiner, Jennie L. Thomas, Knut von Salzen, Jeremy J. B. Wentzell, Megan D. Willis, Gregory R. Wentworth, Jun-Wei Xu, and Jacqueline D. Yakobi-Hancock
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2527–2560,Short summary
The Arctic is experiencing considerable environmental change with climate warming, illustrated by the dramatic decrease in sea-ice extent. It is important to understand both the natural and perturbed Arctic systems to gain a better understanding of how they will change in the future. This paper summarizes new insights into the relationships between Arctic aerosol particles and climate, as learned over the past five or so years by a large Canadian research consortium, NETCARE.
Bowei Li, Steven Sai Hang Ho, Sunling Gong, Jingwei Ni, Huairui Li, Liyan Han, Yi Yang, Yijin Qi, and Dongxu Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 617–638,Short summary
Ozone (O3) pollution is affecting Chinese cities. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are important contributors in the production of tropospheric O3. The local chemical species that play a vital role in O3 formation are identified. Vehicle emissions, coal + biomass burning and solvent use were the most important sources for ambient VOCs. This study provides first-hand information on the characteristics of VOCs and assists in overcoming the O3 pollution issue in Zhengzhou, China.
Kevin B. Strawbridge, Michael S. Travis, Bernard J. Firanski, Jeffrey R. Brook, Ralf Staebler, and Thierry Leblanc
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6735–6759,Short summary
Environment and Climate Change Canada has recently developed a fully autonomous, mobile lidar system to simultaneously measure the vertical profile of tropospheric ozone, aerosol and water vapor from near the ground to altitudes reaching 10–15 km. These atmospheric constituents play an important role in climate, air quality, and human and ecosystem health. Using an autonomous multi-lidar approach provides a continuous dataset rich in information for atmospheric process studies.
Travis W. Tokarek, Charles A. Odame-Ankrah, Jennifer A. Huo, Robert McLaren, Alex K. Y. Lee, Max G. Adam, Megan D. Willis, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Cristian Mihele, Andrea Darlington, Richard L. Mittermeier, Kevin Strawbridge, Katherine L. Hayden, Jason S. Olfert, Elijah G. Schnitzler, Duncan K. Brownsey, Faisal V. Assad, Gregory R. Wentworth, Alex G. Tevlin, Douglas E. J. Worthy, Shao-Meng Li, John Liggio, Jeffrey R. Brook, and Hans D. Osthoff
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17819–17841,Short summary
Measurements of air pollutants at a ground site near Fort McKay in the Athabasca oil sands region in the summer of 2013 are presented. A large number of intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) were observed; these molecules were shown previously to generate atmospheric particles downwind of the region. A principal component analysis was performed to identify major pollution source types, including which source(s) is(are) associated with IVOC emissions (e.g., freshly mined bitumen).
Sumi N. Wren, John Liggio, Yuemei Han, Katherine Hayden, Gang Lu, Cris M. Mihele, Richard L. Mittermeier, Craig Stroud, Jeremy J. B. Wentzell, and Jeffrey R. Brook
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16979–17001,Short summary
We made measurements from a mobile laboratory across a large urban area and determined fleet-average vehicle emission factors (EFs) for a suite of traffic-related air pollutants. We present the first real-world EFs for isocyanic acid (HNCO) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and insight into their on-road variability. We find that vehicles may represent an important source of these air toxics at an urban scale. This work has implications for understanding population exposure to these species.
Mark Gordon, Paul A. Makar, Ralf M. Staebler, Junhua Zhang, Ayodeji Akingunola, Wanmin Gong, and Shao-Meng Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14695–14714,Short summary
This work uses aircraft-based measurements of smokestack plumes carried out in northern Alberta in 2013. These measurements are used to test equations used to predict how high in the air smokestack plumes rise. It is important to predict plume rise height accurately as it tells us how far downwind pollutants are carried and what air quality can be expected at the surface. We found that the equations that are typically used significantly underestimate the plume rise at this location.
Craig A. Stroud, Paul A. Makar, Junhua Zhang, Michael D. Moran, Ayodeji Akingunola, Shao-Meng Li, Amy Leithead, Katherine Hayden, and May Siu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13531–13545,Short summary
It is shown that using measurement-derived volatile organic compound (VOC) and organic aerosol (OA) emissions in the GEM-MACH air quality model provides better overall predictions compared to using bottom-up emission inventories. This work was done to better constrain the fugitive organic emissions from the Athabasca oil sands region, which are a challenge to estimate with bottom-up emission approaches. We use observations from the 2013 Joint Oil Sands Monitoring study.
Emma L. Mungall, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Jeremy J. B. Wentzell, Gregory R. Wentworth, Jennifer G. Murphy, Daniel Kunkel, Ellen Gute, David W. Tarasick, Sangeeta Sharma, Christopher J. Cox, Taneil Uttal, and John Liggio
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10237–10254,Short summary
We measured gas-phase formic and acetic acid at Alert, Nunavut. These acids play an important role in cloud water acidity in remote environments, yet they are not well represented in chemical transport models, particularly in the Arctic. We observed high levels of formic and acetic acid under both cold, wet, and cloudy and warm, sunny, and dry conditions, suggesting that multiple sources significantly contribute to gas-phase concentrations of these species in the summer Arctic.
Cynthia H. Whaley, Elisabeth Galarneau, Paul A. Makar, Ayodeji Akingunola, Wanmin Gong, Sylvie Gravel, Michael D. Moran, Craig Stroud, Junhua Zhang, and Qiong Zheng
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 2609–2632,Short summary
We present a new, high-resolution, North American model of PAHs and benzene, which are toxic air pollutants that cause a variety of negative health impacts. Our simulation in a densely populated region of Canada and the U.S. shows that the model is improved over a previous model. The new model is particularly refined regarding the gas–particle partitioning of these pollutants, which has impacts on deposition and inhalation. The simulation was sensitive to the selection of vehicle emissions.
Stephanie C. Pugliese, Jennifer G. Murphy, Felix R. Vogel, Michael D. Moran, Junhua Zhang, Qiong Zheng, Craig A. Stroud, Shuzhan Ren, Douglas Worthy, and Gregoire Broquet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3387–3401,Short summary
We developed the Southern Ontario CO2 Emissions (SOCE) inventory, which identifies the spatial and temporal distribution (2.5 km and hourly, respectively) of CO2 emissions from seven source sectors. When the SOCE inventory was used with a chemistry transport model, we found strong agreement between modelled and measured mixing ratios. We were able to quantify that natural gas combustion contributes > 80 % of CO2 emissions at nighttime while on-road emissions contribute > 70 % during the day.
Lei Zhang, Tianliang Zhao, Sunling Gong, Shaofei Kong, Lili Tang, Duanyang Liu, Yongwei Wang, Lianji Jin, Yunpeng Shan, Chenghao Tan, Yingjie Zhang, and Xiaomei Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2065–2079,Short summary
An updated emission inventory of coal-fired power plants (UEIPP) based on online monitoring data in Jiangsu Province in China for the year of 2012 was implemented in the Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC). By employing the model WRF-Chem, two simulations were executed to assess the atmospheric environmental change by using the original MEIC and the MEIC with the UEIPP. Interestingly, when the UEIPP was used, the atmospheric oxidizing capacity significantly reinforced.
Yuan You, Ralf M. Staebler, Samar G. Moussa, Yushan Su, Tony Munoz, Craig Stroud, Junhua Zhang, and Michael D. Moran
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14119–14143,Short summary
A novel approach for traffic emission measurements is shown to have the capacity to provide high-time-resolution accurate concentrations of key air pollutants. A top-down method for quantifying real-world emission rates produced vehicular emission factor estimates for carbon monoxide that agreed well with bottom-up values. Significant ammonia and hydrogen cyanide emissions were observed. The main factors modulating the concentrations were turbulent mixing and traffic density.
Catherine Phillips-Smith, Cheol-Heon Jeong, Robert M. Healy, Ewa Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Valbona Celo, Jeffrey R. Brook, and Greg Evans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9435–9449,Short summary
The sources of PM2.5 components exhibited short-term variabilities, and their contributions were identified in the Athabasca oil sands region. Much of the trace elements were found to originate from anthropogenic activities, i.e., oil sands upgrading and on- and off-road transportation. Some of these anthropogenic activities became better defined and understood only through highly time-resolved measurements, which can help guide further studies and policy decisions in the oil sands area.
Roghayeh Ghahremaninezhad, Ann-Lise Norman, Betty Croft, Randall V. Martin, Jeffrey R. Pierce, Julia Burkart, Ofelia Rempillo, Heiko Bozem, Daniel Kunkel, Jennie L. Thomas, Amir A. Aliabadi, Gregory R. Wentworth, Maurice Levasseur, Ralf M. Staebler, Sangeeta Sharma, and W. Richard Leaitch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8757–8770,Short summary
We present spring and summertime vertical profile measurements of Arctic dimethyl sulfide (DMS), together with model simulations to consider what these profiles indicate about DMS sources and lifetimes in the Arctic. Our results highlight the role of local open water as the source of DMS(g) during July 2014 and the influence of long-range transport of DMS(g) from further afield in the Arctic during April 2015.
John Liggio, Samar G. Moussa, Jeremy Wentzell, Andrea Darlington, Peter Liu, Amy Leithead, Katherine Hayden, Jason O'Brien, Richard L. Mittermeier, Ralf Staebler, Mengistu Wolde, and Shao-Meng Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8411–8427,Short summary
The emission and formation of gaseous organic acids from the oil sands industry in Canada is explored through aircraft measurements directly over and downwind wind of industrial facilities. Results demonstrated that the formation of organic acids through atmospheric chemical reactions dominated over the direct emissions from mining activities but could not be explicitly modeled. The results highlight the need for improved understanding of photochemical mechanisms leading to these species.
Tingting Liu, Sunling Gong, Jianjun He, Meng Yu, Qifeng Wang, Huairui Li, Wei Liu, Jie Zhang, Lei Li, Xuguan Wang, Shuli Li, Yanli Lu, Haitao Du, Yaqiang Wang, Chunhong Zhou, Hongli Liu, and Qichao Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2971–2980,Short summary
This paper presents a study on the severe air pollution in the winter of 2015 in China's Jing-Jin-Ji area. This triggered the first-ever red alert in the air pollution control history of Beijing, with an instantaneous PM2.5 concentration over 1 mg m−3. Analysis and modeling results show that the worsening meteorology conditions are the main reason behind this unusual increase in air pollutant concentrations.
Yuemei Han, Craig A. Stroud, John Liggio, and Shao-Meng Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13929–13944,Short summary
This study investigates the acidity effect on the yield and chemical composition of α-pinene secondary organic aerosol based on a series of laboratory experiments performed using a photochemical reaction chamber under high- and low-NOx conditions. We have found that the acidity effect largely depends on NOx level and the inorganic acidity has a significant role to play in determining various organic aerosol chemical properties such as mass yields, oxidation state, and organic nitrate content.
Graydon Snider, Crystal L. Weagle, Kalaivani K. Murdymootoo, Amanda Ring, Yvonne Ritchie, Emily Stone, Ainsley Walsh, Clement Akoshile, Nguyen Xuan Anh, Rajasekhar Balasubramanian, Jeff Brook, Fatimah D. Qonitan, Jinlu Dong, Derek Griffith, Kebin He, Brent N. Holben, Ralph Kahn, Nofel Lagrosas, Puji Lestari, Zongwei Ma, Amit Misra, Leslie K. Norford, Eduardo J. Quel, Abdus Salam, Bret Schichtel, Lior Segev, Sachchida Tripathi, Chien Wang, Chao Yu, Qiang Zhang, Yuxuan Zhang, Michael Brauer, Aaron Cohen, Mark D. Gibson, Yang Liu, J. Vanderlei Martins, Yinon Rudich, and Randall V. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9629–9653,Short summary
We examine the chemical composition of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) collected on filters at traditionally undersampled, globally dispersed urban locations. Several PM2.5 chemical components (e.g. ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, and black carbon) vary by more than an order of magnitude between sites while aerosol hygroscopicity varies by a factor of 2. Enhanced anthropogenic dust fractions in large urban areas are apparent from high Zn : Al ratios.
Vitali E. Fioletov, Chris A. McLinden, Alexander Cede, Jonathan Davies, Cristian Mihele, Stoyka Netcheva, Shao-Meng Li, and Jason O'Brien
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2961–2976,
Amir A. Aliabadi, Jennie L. Thomas, Andreas B. Herber, Ralf M. Staebler, W. Richard Leaitch, Hannes Schulz, Kathy S. Law, Louis Marelle, Julia Burkart, Megan D. Willis, Heiko Bozem, Peter M. Hoor, Franziska Köllner, Johannes Schneider, Maurice Levasseur, and Jonathan P. D. Abbatt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7899–7916,Short summary
For the first time, ship emissions of an ice-breaker, the Amundsen, is characterized while breaking ice in the Canadian Arctic using the plume intercepts by the Polar 6 aircraft. The study is novel, estimating lower plume expansion rates over the stable Arctic marine boundary layer and different emissions factors for oxides of nitrogen, black carbon, and carbon monoxide, compared to plume intercept studies in mid latitudes. These results can inform policy making and emission inventory datasets.
Alex K. Y. Lee, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, W. Richard Leaitch, Shao-Meng Li, Steve J. Sjostedt, Jeremy J. B. Wentzell, John Liggio, and Anne Marie Macdonald
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6721–6733,Short summary
Substantial biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) formation was investigated in a coniferous forest mountain region in Whistler, British Columbia. A largely biogenic aerosol growth episode was observed, providing a unique opportunity to investigate BSOA formation chemistry in a forested environment. In particular, our observations provide insights into the relative importance of different oxidation mechanisms between day and night.
Emma L. Mungall, Betty Croft, Martine Lizotte, Jennie L. Thomas, Jennifer G. Murphy, Maurice Levasseur, Randall V. Martin, Jeremy J. B. Wentzell, John Liggio, and Jonathan P. D. Abbatt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6665–6680,Short summary
Previous work has suggested that marine emissions of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) could impact the Arctic climate through interactions with clouds. We made the first high-time-resolution measurements of summertime atmospheric DMS in the Canadian Arctic, and performed source sensitivity simulations. We found that regional marine sources dominated, but do not appear to be sufficient to explain our observations. Understanding DMS sources in the Arctic is necessary to model future climate in the region.
Ting Ting Liu, Sunling Gong, Meng Yu, Qi Chao Zhao, Huai Rui Li, Jian Jun He, Jie Zhang, Lei Li, Xu Guan Wang, Shu Li Li, Yan Li Lu, Hai Tao Du, Ya Qiang Wang, Chun Hong Zhou, and Hong Li Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
Network monitoring data of air pollutants and meteorology as well as an air quality modeling system in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region were used to analyze impacts the changes of meteorology on the variation of air pollutants. Results show that the worsening meteorology conditions are the main reason behind this unusual increase of air pollutant concentrations in the winter of 2015 and the emission control measures taken during this period of time have contributed to mitigate the air pollution.
Bin Yuan, John Liggio, Jeremy Wentzell, Shao-Meng Li, Harald Stark, James M. Roberts, Jessica Gilman, Brian Lerner, Carsten Warneke, Rui Li, Amy Leithead, Hans D. Osthoff, Robert Wild, Steven S. Brown, and Joost A. de Gouw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2139–2153,Short summary
We describe high-resolution measurements of nitrated phenols using a time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (ToF-CIMS). Strong diurnal profiles were observed for nitrated phenols, with concentration maxima at night. Box model simulations were able to reproduce the measured nitrated phenols.
Y. Q. Yang, J. Z. Wang, S. L. Gong, X. Y. Zhang, H. Wang, Y. Q. Wang, J. Wang, D. Li, and J. P. Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1353–1364,Short summary
A new model, PLAM/h, has been developed and used in near-real-time air quality forecasts by considering both meteorology and pollutant emissions, based on the two-dimensional probability density function diagnosis model for emissions. The results show that combining the influence of regular meteorological conditions and emission factors together in the PLAM/h parameterization scheme is very effective in improving the forecasting ability for fog-haze weather in North China.
P. Wang, H. Wang, Y. Q. Wang, X. Y. Zhang, S. L. Gong, M. Xue, C. H. Zhou, H. L. Liu, X. Q. An, T. Niu, and Y. L. Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 989–1002,Short summary
An ensemble optimal interpolation (EnOI) data assimilation technique is used to investigate the possibility of optimally recovering the spatially resolved emissions bias of BC. The inversed emission over China in January is 240.1 Gg, and annual emission is about 2539 Gg. Even though only monthly mean BC measurements are employed to inverse the emissions, the accuracy of the daily model simulation improves. We finds that EnOI is a useful and computation-free method to make top-down estimation.
M. W. Shephard, C. A. McLinden, K. E. Cady-Pereira, M. Luo, S. G. Moussa, A. Leithead, J. Liggio, R. M. Staebler, A. Akingunola, P. Makar, P. Lehr, J. Zhang, D. K. Henze, D. B. Millet, J. O. Bash, L. Zhu, K. C. Wells, S. L. Capps, S. Chaliyakunnel, M. Gordon, K. Hayden, J. R. Brook, M. Wolde, and S.-M. Li
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 5189–5211,Short summary
This study provides direct validations of Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) satellite retrieved profiles against coincident aircraft profiles of carbon monoxide, ammonia, methanol, and formic acid, all of which are of interest for air quality. The comparisons are performed over the Canadian oil sands region during an intensive field campaign in support of the Joint Canada-Alberta Implementation Plan for the Oil Sands Monitoring (JOSM). Initial model evaluations are also provided.
Y. Liu, J. Liggio, R. Staebler, and S.-M. Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13569–13584,Short summary
This work for the first time demonstrated that organonitrogen compounds (NOC) can be formed efficiently via the uptake of ammonia by newly formed secondary organic aerosol using a smog chamber equipped with a HR-ToF-AMS. Based on the measured kinetics, this study suggests that light absorption by NOC in atmospheric particles may be important in regions where the BC contribution is minimal and NOC from ammonia should be considered with respect to overall deposition of nitrogen to ecosystems.
M. Gordon, S.-M. Li, R. Staebler, A. Darlington, K. Hayden, J. O'Brien, and M. Wolde
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3745–3765,Short summary
Aircraft-based measurements of air pollutants from sources in the Canadian oil sands were made during a summer intensive field campaign in 2013. This paper describes the top-down emission rate retrieval algorithm (TERRA) to determine facility emissions of pollutants, using SO2 and CH4 as examples. Uncertainty of the emission rates estimated with TERRA is estimated as less than 30%, which is primarily due to the unknown SO2 and CH4 mixing ratios near the surface below the lowest flight level.
N. D. Rider, Y. M. Taha, C. A. Odame-Ankrah, J. A. Huo, T. W. Tokarek, E. Cairns, S. G. Moussa, J. Liggio, and H. D. Osthoff
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2737–2748,Short summary
A photochemical source of peroxycarboxylic nitric anhydrides (PANs) in which a dialkyl ketone (acetone, diethyl-, di-isopropyl, or di-n-propyl ketone) in the presence of oxygen and nitric oxide is photodissociated by arrays of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) is described. The source output was analyzed by gas chromatography and thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectroscopy and modeled using the Master Chemical Mechanism.
H. Wang, G. Y. Shi, X. Y. Zhang, S. L. Gong, S. C. Tan, B. Chen, H. Z. Che, and T. Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3277–3287,Short summary
Solar radiation reaching the ground decreases about 15% in Chinese 3JNS region and by 20 to 25% in the region with the highest AOD. Aerosol cools the PBL atmosphere but warms the atmosphere above it, leading to a more stable atmosphere that causes a decrease in turbulence diffusion of about 52% and in PBL height of about 33%; this results in a positive feedback on the PM2.5 concentration within the PBL and the surface as well as the haze formation.
A. A. Aliabadi, R. M. Staebler, and S. Sharma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2651–2673,Short summary
In an effort to characterize the effect of shipping on Arctic air quality during the 2013 shipping season, air-quality monitoring stations were installed in Cape Dorset and Resolute, Nunavut, Canada, to measure NOx, SO2, PM2.5, O3, and BC. Results indicate that on the order of 5--25% of local cumulative exposure to these pollutants is due to ship emissions. This approach is complementary to pollution measurements at the source and has wider applications for the impact of traffic on air quality.
G. Snider, C. L. Weagle, R. V. Martin, A. van Donkelaar, K. Conrad, D. Cunningham, C. Gordon, M. Zwicker, C. Akoshile, P. Artaxo, N. X. Anh, J. Brook, J. Dong, R. M. Garland, R. Greenwald, D. Griffith, K. He, B. N. Holben, R. Kahn, I. Koren, N. Lagrosas, P. Lestari, Z. Ma, J. Vanderlei Martins, E. J. Quel, Y. Rudich, A. Salam, S. N. Tripathi, C. Yu, Q. Zhang, Y. Zhang, M. Brauer, A. Cohen, M. D. Gibson, and Y. Liu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 505–521,Short summary
We have initiated a global network of ground-level monitoring stations to measure concentrations of fine aerosols in urban environments. Our findings include major ions species, total mass, and total scatter at three wavelengths. Results will be used to further evaluate and enhance satellite remote sensing estimates.
Y. Liu, L. Huang, S.-M. Li, T. Harner, and J. Liggio
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12195–12207,
K. Tsigaridis, N. Daskalakis, M. Kanakidou, P. J. Adams, P. Artaxo, R. Bahadur, Y. Balkanski, S. E. Bauer, N. Bellouin, A. Benedetti, T. Bergman, T. K. Berntsen, J. P. Beukes, H. Bian, K. S. Carslaw, M. Chin, G. Curci, T. Diehl, R. C. Easter, S. J. Ghan, S. L. Gong, A. Hodzic, C. R. Hoyle, T. Iversen, S. Jathar, J. L. Jimenez, J. W. Kaiser, A. Kirkevåg, D. Koch, H. Kokkola, Y. H Lee, G. Lin, X. Liu, G. Luo, X. Ma, G. W. Mann, N. Mihalopoulos, J.-J. Morcrette, J.-F. Müller, G. Myhre, S. Myriokefalitakis, N. L. Ng, D. O'Donnell, J. E. Penner, L. Pozzoli, K. J. Pringle, L. M. Russell, M. Schulz, J. Sciare, Ø. Seland, D. T. Shindell, S. Sillman, R. B. Skeie, D. Spracklen, T. Stavrakou, S. D. Steenrod, T. Takemura, P. Tiitta, S. Tilmes, H. Tost, T. van Noije, P. G. van Zyl, K. von Salzen, F. Yu, Z. Wang, Z. Wang, R. A. Zaveri, H. Zhang, K. Zhang, Q. Zhang, and X. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10845–10895,
Y. Liu, S.-M. Li, and J. Liggio
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9201–9211,
M. Gordon, A. Vlasenko, R. M. Staebler, C. Stroud, P. A. Makar, J. Liggio, S.-M. Li, and S. Brown
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9087–9097,
M. L. McGuire, R. Y.-W. Chang, J. G. Slowik, C.-H. Jeong, R. M. Healy, G. Lu, C. Mihele, J. P. D. Abbatt, J. R. Brook, and G. J. Evans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8017–8042,
I. Levy, C. Mihele, G. Lu, J. Narayan, N. Hilker, and J. R. Brook
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7173–7193,
K. Toyota, J. C. McConnell, R. M. Staebler, and A. P. Dastoor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4101–4133,
D. Mendolia, R. J. C. D'Souza, G. J. Evans, and J. Brook
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2907–2924,
J. R. Brook, P. A. Makar, D. M. L. Sills, K. L. Hayden, and R. McLaren
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10461–10482,
A. Steffen, J. Bottenheim, A. Cole, T. A. Douglas, R. Ebinghaus, U. Friess, S. Netcheva, S. Nghiem, H. Sihler, and R. Staebler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7007–7021,
J. A. Seabrook, J. A. Whiteway, L. H. Gray, R. Staebler, and A. Herber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6023–6029,
L. Ahlm, K. M. Shakya, L. M. Russell, J. C. Schroder, J. P. S. Wong, S. J. Sjostedt, K. L. Hayden, J. Liggio, J. J. B. Wentzell, H. A. Wiebe, C. Mihele, W. R. Leaitch, and A. M. Macdonald
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3393–3407,
J. Liggio and S.-M. Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2989–3002,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Modeling coarse and giant desert dust particlesFire–climate interactions through the aerosol radiative effect in a global chemistry–climate–vegetation modelContributions of meteorology and anthropogenic emissions to the trends in winter PM2.5 in eastern China 2013–2018Impacts of condensable particulate matter on atmospheric organic aerosols and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in ChinaMapping the dependence of black carbon radiative forcing on emission region and seasonRegional PM2.5 pollution confined by atmospheric internal boundaries in the North China Plain: boundary layer structures and numerical simulationToward targeted observations of the meteorological initial state for improving the PM2.5 forecast of a heavy haze event that occurred in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei regionBelow-cloud scavenging of aerosol by rain: a review of numerical modelling approaches and sensitivity simulations with mineral dust in the Met Office's Unified ModelPredicting gridded winter PM2.5 concentration in the east of ChinaSatellite-based evaluation of AeroCom model bias in biomass burning regionsImpacts of marine organic emissions on low-level stratiform clouds – a large eddy simulator studyAviation contrail climate effects in the North Atlantic from 2016 to 2021Source attribution of cloud condensation nuclei and their impact on stratocumulus clouds and radiation in the south-eastern AtlanticSimulating wildfire emissions and plume rise using geostationary satellite fire radiative power measurements: a case study of the 2019 Williams Flats fireAtomistic and coarse-grained simulations reveal increased ice nucleation activity on silver iodide surfaces in slit and wedge geometriesSecondary aerosol formation in marine Arctic environments: a model measurement comparison at Ny-ÅlesundAn Improved Representation of Aerosol Mixing State for Air-Quality-Weather InteractionsEffective radiative forcing of anthropogenic aerosols in E3SM version 1: historical changes, causality, decomposition, and parameterization sensitivitiesExamination of aerosol impacts on convective clouds and precipitation in two metropolitan areas in East Asia; how varying depths of convective clouds between the areas diversify those aerosol effects?Influence of emission size distribution and nucleation on number concentrations over Greater ParisImpact of stratospheric aerosol intervention geoengineering on surface air temperature in China: a surface energy budget perspectiveRegional impacts of black carbon morphologies on shortwave aerosol–radiation interactions: a comparative study between the US and ChinaSize-Resolved Dust Direct Radiative Effect Efficiency Derived from Satellite ObservationsTropospheric warming over the northern Indian Ocean caused by South Asian anthropogenic aerosols: possible impact on the upper troposphere and lower stratosphereIntraseasonal variation of the northeast Asian anomalous anticyclone and its impacts on PM2.5 pollution in the North China Plain in early winterInverse modeling of the 2021 spring super dust storms in East AsiaCausal influences of El Niño–Southern Oscillation on global dust activitiesFormation, radiative forcing, and climatic effects of severe regional hazeAdvances in air quality research – current and emerging challengesLarge-eddy-simulation study on turbulent particle deposition and its dependence on atmospheric-boundary-layer stabilityCirculation-regulated impacts of aerosol pollution on urban heat island in BeijingThe simulation of mineral dust in the United Kingdom Earth System Model UKESM1Aerosol indirect effects in complex-orography areas: a numerical study over the Great Alpine RegionModelling the size distribution of aggregated volcanic ash and implications for operational atmospheric dispersion modellingThe effect of BC on aerosol–boundary layer feedback: potential implications for urban pollution episodesRelative importance of high-latitude local and long-range-transported dust for Arctic ice-nucleating particles and impacts on Arctic mixed-phase cloudsTechnical note: Dispersion of cooking-generated aerosols from an urban street canyonComparison of six approaches to predicting droplet activation of surface active aerosol – Part 1: moderately surface active organicsThe contribution of coral-reef-derived dimethyl sulfide to aerosol burden over the Great Barrier Reef: a modelling studyDevelopment and application of a street-level meteorology and pollutant tracking system (S-TRACK)How well do the CMIP6 models simulate dust aerosols?Input-adaptive linear mixed-effects model for estimating alveolar lung-deposited surface area (LDSA) using multipollutant datasetsSimulated impacts of vertical distributions of black carbon aerosol on meteorology and PM2.5 concentrations in Beijing during severe haze eventsData assimilation of volcanic aerosol observations using FALL3D+PDAFSimulation of the effects of low-volatility organic compounds on aerosol number concentrations in EuropeNew particle formation event detection with Mask R-CNNContribution of traffic-originated nanoparticle emissions to regional and local aerosol levelsReassessment of the radiocesium resuspension flux from contaminated ground surfaces in eastern JapanDuff burning from wildfires in a moist region: different impacts on PM2.5 and ozoneAssimilating spaceborne lidar dust extinction can improve dust forecasts
Eleni Drakaki, Vassilis Amiridis, Alexandra Tsekeri, Antonis Gkikas, Emmanouil Proestakis, Sotirios Mallios, Stavros Solomos, Christos Spyrou, Eleni Marinou, Claire L. Ryder, Demetri Bouris, and Petros Katsafados
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12727–12748,Short summary
State-of-the-art atmospheric dust models have limitations in accounting for a realistic dust size distribution (emission, transport). We modify the parameterization of the mineral dust cycle by including particles with diameter >20 μm, as indicated by observations over deserts. Moreover, we investigate the effects of reduced settling velocities of dust particles. Model results are evaluated using airborne and spaceborne dust measurements above Cabo Verde.
Chenguang Tian, Xu Yue, Jun Zhu, Hong Liao, Yang Yang, Yadong Lei, Xinyi Zhou, Hao Zhou, Yimian Ma, and Yang Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12353–12366,Short summary
We quantify the impacts of fire aerosols on climate through direct, indirect, and albedo effects. In atmosphere-only simulations, we find global fire aerosols cause surface cooling and rainfall inhibition over many land regions. These fast atmospheric perturbations further lead to a reduction in regional leaf area index and lightning activities. By considering the feedback of fire aerosols on humidity, lightning, and leaf area index, we predict a slight reduction in fire emissions.
Yanxing Wu, Run Liu, Yanzi Li, Junjie Dong, Zhijiong Huang, Junyu Zheng, and Shaw Chen Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11945–11955,Short summary
Multiple linear regression (MLR) analyses often interpret the correlation coefficient (r2) as the contribution of an independent variable to the dependent variable. Since a good correlation does not imply a causal relationship, we propose that r2 should be interpreted as the maximum possible contribution. Moreover, MLR results are sensitive to the length of time analyzed; long-term analysis gives a more accurate assessment because of its additional constraints.
Mengying Li, Shaocai Yu, Xue Chen, Zhen Li, Yibo Zhang, Zhe Song, Weiping Liu, Pengfei Li, Xiaoye Zhang, Meigen Zhang, Yele Sun, Zirui Liu, Caiping Sun, Jingkun Jiang, Shuxiao Wang, Benjamin N. Murphy, Kiran Alapaty, Rohit Mathur, Daniel Rosenfeld, and John H. Seinfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11845–11866,Short summary
This study constructed an emission inventory of condensable particulate matter (CPM) in China with a focus on organic aerosols (OAs), based on collected CPM emission information. The results show that OA emissions are enhanced twofold for the years 2014 and 2017 after the inclusion of CPM in the new inventory. Sensitivity cases demonstrated the significant contributions of CPM emissions from stationary combustion and mobile sources to primary, secondary, and total OA concentrations.
Petri Räisänen, Joonas Merikanto, Risto Makkonen, Mikko Savolahti, Alf Kirkevåg, Maria Sand, Øyvind Seland, and Antti-Ilari Partanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11579–11602,Short summary
A climate model is used to evaluate how the radiative forcing (RF) associated with black carbon (BC) emissions depends on the latitude, longitude, and seasonality of emissions. It is found that both the direct RF (BC absorption of solar radiation in air) and snow RF (BC absorption in snow/ice) depend strongly on the emission region and season. The results suggest that, for a given mass of BC emitted, climatic impacts are likely to be largest for high-latitude emissions due to the large snow RF.
Xipeng Jin, Xuhui Cai, Mingyuan Yu, Yu Song, Xuesong Wang, Hongsheng Zhang, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11409–11427,Short summary
Meteorological discontinuities in the vertical direction define the lowest atmosphere as the boundary layer, while in the horizontal direction it identifies the contrast zone as the internal boundary. Both of them determine the polluted air mass dimension over the North China Plain. This study reveals the boundary layer structures under three categories of internal boundaries, modified by thermal, dynamical, and blending effects. It provides a new insight to understand regional pollution.
Lichao Yang, Wansuo Duan, Zifa Wang, and Wenyi Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11429–11453,Short summary
The initial meteorological state has a great impact on PM2.5 forecasts. Assimilating additional observations is an effective way to improve the accuracy of the initial meteorological state. Here we used an advanced optimization approach to identify where we should preferentially place the meteorological observations associated with PM2.5 forecasts in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region of China. We provide evidence that the target observation strategy is effective for improving PM2.5 forecasts.
Anthony C. Jones, Adrian Hill, John Hemmings, Pascal Lemaitre, Arnaud Quérel, Claire L. Ryder, and Stephanie Woodward
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11381–11407,Short summary
As raindrops fall to the ground, they capture aerosol (i.e. below-cloud scavenging or BCS). Many different BCS schemes are available to climate models, and it is unclear what the impact of selecting one scheme over another is. Here, various BCS models are outlined and then applied to mineral dust in climate model simulations. We find that dust concentrations are highly sensitive to the BCS scheme, with dust atmospheric lifetimes ranging from 5 to 44 d.
Zhicong Yin, Mingkeng Duan, Yuyan Li, Tianbao Xu, and Huijun Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11173–11185,Short summary
The PM2.5 concentration has been greatly reduced in recent years in China and has entered a crucial stage that required fine seasonal prediction. However, there is still no study aimed at predicting gridded PM2.5 concentration. A model for seasonal prediction of gridded winter PM2.5 concentration in the east of China was developed by analyzing the contributions of emissions and climate variability, which could provide scientific support for air pollution control at the regional and city levels.
Qirui Zhong, Nick Schutgens, Guido van der Werf, Twan van Noije, Kostas Tsigaridis, Susanne E. Bauer, Tero Mielonen, Alf Kirkevåg, Øyvind Seland, Harri Kokkola, Ramiro Checa-Garcia, David Neubauer, Zak Kipling, Hitoshi Matsui, Paul Ginoux, Toshihiko Takemura, Philippe Le Sager, Samuel Rémy, Huisheng Bian, Mian Chin, Kai Zhang, Jialei Zhu, Svetlana G. Tsyro, Gabriele Curci, Anna Protonotariou, Ben Johnson, Joyce E. Penner, Nicolas Bellouin, Ragnhild B. Skeie, and Gunnar Myhre
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11009–11032,Short summary
Aerosol optical depth (AOD) errors for biomass burning aerosol (BBA) are evaluated in 18 global models against satellite datasets. Notwithstanding biases in satellite products, they allow model evaluations. We observe large and diverse model biases due to errors in BBA. Further interpretations of AOD diversities suggest large biases exist in key processes for BBA which require better constraining. These results can contribute to further model improvement and development.
Marje Prank, Juha Tonttila, Jaakko Ahola, Harri Kokkola, Thomas Kühn, Sami Romakkaniemi, and Tomi Raatikainen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10971–10992,Short summary
Aerosols and clouds persist as the dominant sources of uncertainty in climate projections. In this modelling study, we investigate the role of marine aerosols in influencing the lifetime of low-level clouds. Our high resolution simulations show that sea spray can both extend and shorten the lifetime of the cloud layer depending on the model setup. The impact of the primary marine organics is relatively limited while secondary aerosol from monoterpenes can have larger impact.
Roger Teoh, Ulrich Schumann, Edward Gryspeerdt, Marc Shapiro, Jarlath Molloy, George Koudis, Christiane Voigt, and Marc E. J. Stettler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10919–10935,Short summary
Aircraft condensation trails (contrails) contribute to over half of the climate forcing attributable to aviation. This study uses historical air traffic and weather data to simulate contrails in the North Atlantic over 5 years, from 2016 to 2021. We found large intra- and inter-year variability in contrail radiative forcing and observed a 66 % reduction due to COVID-19. Most warming contrails predominantly result from night-time flights in winter.
Haochi Che, Philip Stier, Duncan Watson-Parris, Hamish Gordon, and Lucia Deaconu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10789–10807,Short summary
Extensive stratocumulus clouds over the south-eastern Atlantic (SEA) can lead to a cooling effect on the climate. A key pathway by which aerosols affect cloud properties is by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Here, we investigated the source attribution of CCN in the SEA as well as the cloud responses. Our results show that aerosol nucleation contributes most to CCN in the marine boundary layer. In terms of emissions, anthropogenic sources contribute most to the CCN and cloud droplets.
Aditya Kumar, R. Bradley Pierce, Ravan Ahmadov, Gabriel Pereira, Saulo Freitas, Georg Grell, Chris Schmidt, Allen Lenzen, Joshua P. Schwarz, Anne E. Perring, Joseph M. Katich, John Hair, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, and Hongyu Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10195–10219,Short summary
We use the WRF-Chem model with new implementations of GOES-16 wildfire emissions and plume rise based on fire radiative power (FRP) to interpret aerosol observations during the 2019 NASA–NOAA FIREX-AQ field campaign and perform model evaluations. The model shows significant improvements in simulating the variety of aerosol loading environments sampled during FIREX-AQ. Our results also highlight the importance of accurate wildfire diurnal cycle and aerosol chemical mechanisms in models.
Golnaz Roudsari, Olli H. Pakarinen, Bernhard Reischl, and Hanna Vehkamäki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10099–10114,Short summary
We use atomistic simulations to study heterogeneous ice nucleation on silver iodide surfaces in slit and wedge geometries at low supercooling which serve as a model of irregularities on real atmospheric aerosol particle surfaces. The revealed microscopic ice nucleation mechanisms in confined geometries strongly support the experimental evidence for the importance of surface features such as cracks or pits functioning as active sites for ice nucleation in the atmosphere.
Carlton Xavier, Metin Baykara, Robin Wollesen de Jonge, Barbara Altstädter, Petri Clusius, Ville Vakkari, Roseline Thakur, Lisa Beck, Silvia Becagli, Mirko Severi, Rita Traversi, Radovan Krejci, Peter Tunved, Mauro Mazzola, Birgit Wehner, Mikko Sipilä, Markku Kulmala, Michael Boy, and Pontus Roldin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10023–10043,Short summary
The focus of this work is to study and improve our understanding of processes involved in the formation and growth of new particles in a remote Arctic marine environment. We run the 1D model ADCHEM along air mass trajectories arriving at Ny-Ålesund in May 2018. The model finds that ion-mediated H2SO4–NH3 nucleation can explain the observed new particle formation at Ny-Ålesund. The growth of particles is driven via H2SO4 condensation and formation of methane sulfonic acid in the aqueous phase.
Robin Stevens, Andrei Ryjkov, Mahtab Majdzadeh, and Ashu Dastoor
Absorbing particles like black carbon can be coated with other matter. How much radiation these particles absorb depends on the coating thickness. The removal of these particles by clouds and rain depends on the coating composition. These effects are important for both climate and air quality. We implement a more detailed representation of these particles into an air quality model which accounts for both coating thickness and composition. We find a significant effect on particle concentrations.
Kai Zhang, Wentao Zhang, Hui Wan, Philip J. Rasch, Steven J. Ghan, Richard C. Easter, Xiangjun Shi, Yong Wang, Hailong Wang, Po-Lun Ma, Shixuan Zhang, Jian Sun, Susannah M. Burrows, Manish Shrivastava, Balwinder Singh, Yun Qian, Xiaohong Liu, Jean-Christophe Golaz, Qi Tang, Xue Zheng, Shaocheng Xie, Wuyin Lin, Yan Feng, Minghuai Wang, Jin-Ho Yoon, and L. Ruby Leung
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9129–9160,Short summary
Here we analyze the effective aerosol forcing simulated by E3SM version 1 using both century-long free-running and short nudged simulations. The aerosol forcing in E3SMv1 is relatively large compared to other models, mainly due to the large indirect aerosol effect. Aerosol-induced changes in liquid and ice cloud properties in E3SMv1 have a strong correlation. The aerosol forcing estimates in E3SMv1 are sensitive to the parameterization changes in both liquid and ice cloud processes.
Seoung Soo Lee, Jinho Choi, Goun Kim, Kyung-Ja Ha, Kyong-Hwan Seo, Chang Hoon Jung, Junshik Um, Youtong Zheng, Jianping Guo, Sang-Keun Song, Yun Gon Lee, and Nobuyuki Utsumi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9059–9081,Short summary
This study investigates how aerosols affect clouds and precipitation and how the aerosol effects vary with varying types of clouds that are characterized by cloud depth in two metropolitan areas in East Asia. As cloud depth increases, the enhancement of precipitation amount transitions to no changes in precipitation amount with increasing aerosol concentrations. This indicates that cloud depth needs to be considered for a comprehensive understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions.
Karine Sartelet, Youngseob Kim, Florian Couvidat, Maik Merkel, Tuukka Petäjä, Jean Sciare, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8579–8596,Short summary
A methodology is defined to estimate number emissions from an inventory providing mass emissions. Number concentrations are simulated over Greater Paris using different nucleation parameterisations (binary, ternary involving sulfuric acid and ammonia, and heteromolecular involving sulfuric acid and extremely low-volatility organics, ELVOCs). The comparisons show that ternary nucleation may not be a dominant process for new particle formation in cities, but they stress the role of ELVOCs.
Zhaochen Liu, Xianmei Lang, and Dabang Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7667–7680,Short summary
Stratospheric aerosol intervention geoengineering is considered a potential means to counteract global warming. Here the impact of stratospheric aerosol intervention geoengineering on surface air temperature over China and related physical processes are investigated. Results show that the increased stratospheric aerosols cause surface cooling over China. The temperature responses vary with models, regions, and seasons and are largely related to net surface shortwave radiation changes.
Jie Luo, Zhengqiang Li, Chenchong Zhang, Qixing Zhang, Yongming Zhang, Ying Zhang, Gabriele Curci, and Rajan K. Chakrabarty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7647–7666,Short summary
The fractal black carbon was applied to re-evaluate the regional impacts of morphologies on aerosol–radiation interactions (ARIs), and the effects were compared between the US and China. The regional-mean clear-sky ARI is significantly affected by the BC morphology, and relative differences of 17.1 % and 38.7 % between the fractal model with a Df of 1.8 and the spherical model were observed in eastern China and the northwest US, respectively.
Qianqian Song, Zhibo Zhang, Hongbin Yu, Jasper F. Kok, Claudia Di Biagio, Samuel Albani, Jianyu Zheng, and Jiachen Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This study developed a dataset that enables us to efficiently calculate dust direct radiative effect (i.e., cooling or warming our planet, hereafter DRE) for any given dust size distribution in addition to three sets of dust mineral components and two dust shapes. We demonstrate and validate the method of using this dataset to calculate dust DRE. Moreover, by using this dataset, we found that dust mineral composition is the most important factor in determining dust DRE than dust size and shape.
Suvarna Fadnavis, Prashant Chavan, Akash Joshi, Sunil M. Sonbawne, Asutosh Acharya, Panuganti C. S. Devara, Alexandru Rap, Felix Ploeger, and Rolf Müller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7179–7191,Short summary
We show that large amounts of anthropogenic aerosols are transported from South Asia to the northern Indian Ocean. These aerosols are then lifted into the UTLS by the ascending branch of the Hadley circulation. They are further transported to the Southern Hemisphere and downward via westerly ducts over the tropical Atlantic and Pacific. These aerosols increase tropospheric heating, resulting in an increase in water vapor, which is then transported to the UTLS.
Xiadong An, Wen Chen, Peng Hu, Shangfeng Chen, and Lifang Sheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6507–6521,Short summary
The intraseasonal NAAA usually establishes quickly on day −3 with a life span of 8 days. Further results revealed that the probability of regional PM2.5 pollution related to the NAAA for at least 2 days in the NCP is 80% in NDJ period 2000–2021. Particularly, air quality in the NCP tends to deteriorate on day 2 prior to the peak day of the NAAA and reaches a peak on day −1 with a life cycle of 4 days. The corresponding meteorological conditions support these conclusions.
Jianbing Jin, Mijie Pang, Arjo Segers, Wei Han, Li Fang, Baojie Li, Haochuan Feng, Hai Xiang Lin, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6393–6410,Short summary
Super dust storms reappeared in East Asia last spring after being absent for one and a half decades. Accurate simulation of such super sandstorms is valuable, but challenging due to imperfect emissions. In this study, the emissions of these dust storms are estimated by assimilating multiple observations. The results reveal that emissions originated from both China and Mongolia. However, for northern China, long-distance transport from Mongolia contributes much more dust than Chinese deserts.
Thanh Le and Deg-Hyo Bae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5253–5263,Short summary
Here we assess the response of dust activities to El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) over the 1850–2014 period using climate model outputs. Our results show that ENSO is an important driver of dust deposition and dust transportation with high consensus across models. However, the results indicate that ENSO is unlikely to show causal impacts on dust emissions of major dust sources. This study allows us to obtain further understanding of the linkages between ENSO and dust cycle at a global scale.
Yun Lin, Yuan Wang, Bowen Pan, Jiaxi Hu, Song Guo, Misti Levy Zamora, Pengfei Tian, Qiong Su, Yuemeng Ji, Jiayun Zhao, Mario Gomez-Hernandez, Min Hu, and Renyi Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4951–4967,Short summary
Severe regional haze events, which are characterized by exceedingly high levels of fine particulate matter (PM), occur frequently in many developing countries (such as China and India), with profound implications for human health, weather, and climate. Our work establishes a synthetic view for the dominant regional features during severe haze events, unraveling rapid in situ PM production and inefficient transport, both of which are amplified by atmospheric stagnation.
Ranjeet S. Sokhi, Nicolas Moussiopoulos, Alexander Baklanov, John Bartzis, Isabelle Coll, Sandro Finardi, Rainer Friedrich, Camilla Geels, Tiia Grönholm, Tomas Halenka, Matthias Ketzel, Androniki Maragkidou, Volker Matthias, Jana Moldanova, Leonidas Ntziachristos, Klaus Schäfer, Peter Suppan, George Tsegas, Greg Carmichael, Vicente Franco, Steve Hanna, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, Guus J. M. Velders, and Jaakko Kukkonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4615–4703,Short summary
This review of air quality research focuses on developments over the past decade. The article considers current and future challenges that are important from air quality research and policy perspectives and highlights emerging prominent gaps of knowledge. The review also examines how air pollution management needs to adapt to new challenges and makes recommendations to guide the direction for future air quality research within the wider community and to provide support for policy.
Xin Yin, Cong Jiang, Yaping Shao, Ning Huang, and Jie Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4509–4522,Short summary
Through a series of numerical experiments using the large-eddy-simulation model, we have developed an improved particle deposition scheme that takes into account transient wind shear fluctuations. Statistical analysis of the simulation results shows that the shear stress can be well approximated by a Weibull distribution and that the new scheme provides more accurate predictions than the conventional scheme, particularly under weak wind conditions and strong convective atmospheric conditions.
Fan Wang, Gregory Carmichael, Jing Wang, Bin Chen, Bo Huang, Yuguo Li, Yuanjian Yang, and Meng Gao
Unprecedented urbanization in China has led to serious urban heat island (UHI) issues, exerting intense heat stress on urban residents. We find diverse influences of aerosol pollution on urban heat island intensity (UHII) under different circulations. Our results also highlight the role of black carbon in aggravating UHI, especially during night-time. It could thus be targeted for cooperative management of heat islands and aerosol pollution.
Stephanie Woodward, Alistair Sellar, Yongming Tang, Marc Stringer, Andrew Yool, Eddy Robertson, and Andy Wiltshire
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We describe the dust scheme in the UKESM1 earth system model and show generally good agreement with observations. Comparing with the closely related HadGEM3-GC3.1 model, we show that dust differences are not only due to inter-model differences, but also to the dust size distribution. Under climate change HadGEM3-GC3.1 dust hardly changes but UKESM1 dust decreases because that model includes the vegetation response, which in our models has a bigger impact on dust than does climate change itself.
Anna Napoli, Fabien Desbiolles, Antonio Parodi, and Claudia Pasquero
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3901–3909,Short summary
Aerosols are liquid or solid particles suspended in the air that can interact with radiation and clouds, modifying the meteoclimatic conditions. Using an atmospheric model, we study the climatological impact of aerosols through their effects on clouds in the Alps, a region characterized by high pollution levels in the densely populated surrounding flatlands. Results show that cloud cover, temperature, and precipitation are affected by aerosols, and the response varies with elevation and season.
Frances Beckett, Eduardo Rossi, Benjamin Devenish, Claire Witham, and Costanza Bonadonna
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3409–3431,Short summary
As volcanic ash is transported through the atmosphere, it may collide and stick together to form aggregates. Neglecting the process of aggregation in atmospheric dispersion models could lead to inaccurate forecasts used by civil aviation for hazard assessment. We developed an aggregation scheme for use with the model NAME, which is used by the London Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre. Using our scheme, we investigate the impact of aggregation on simulations of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull ash cloud.
Jessica Slater, Hugh Coe, Gordon McFiggans, Juha Tonttila, and Sami Romakkaniemi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2937–2953,Short summary
This paper shows the specific impact of black carbon (BC) on the aerosol–planetary boundary layer (PBL) feedback and its influence on a Beijing haze episode. Overall, this paper shows that strong temperature inversions prevent BC heating within the PBL from significantly increasing PBL height, while BC above the PBL suppresses PBL development significantly through the day. From this we suggest a method by which both locally and regionally emitted BC may impact urban pollution episodes.
Yang Shi, Xiaohong Liu, Mingxuan Wu, Xi Zhao, Ziming Ke, and Hunter Brown
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2909–2935,Short summary
We perform a modeling study to evaluate the contribution to Arctic dust loading and ice-nucleating particle (INP) population from high-latitude local and low-latitude dust. High-latitude dust has a large contribution in the lower troposphere, while low-latitude dust dominates the upper troposphere. The high-latitude dust INPs result in a net cooling effect on the Arctic surface by glaciating mixed-phase clouds. Our results highlight the contribution of high-latitude dust to the Arctic climate.
Shang Gao, Mona Kurppa, Chak K. Chan, and Keith Ngan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2703–2726,Short summary
The contribution of cooking emissions to organic aerosols may exceed that of motor vehicles. However, little is known about how cooking-generated aerosols evolve in the outdoor environment. In this paper, we present a numerical study of the dispersion of cooking emissions. For plausible choices of the emission strength, cooking can yield much higher concentrations than traffic. This has important implications for public health and city planning.
Sampo Vepsäläinen, Silvia M. Calderón, Jussi Malila, and Nønne L. Prisle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2669–2687,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols act as seeds for cloud formation. Many aerosols contain surface active material that accumulates at the surface of growing droplets. This can affect cloud droplet activation, but the broad significance of the effect and the best way to model it are still debated. We compare predictions of six different model approaches to surface activity of organic aerosols and find significant differences between the models, especially with large fractions of organics in the dry particles.
Sonya L. Fiddes, Matthew T. Woodhouse, Steve Utembe, Robyn Schofield, Simon P. Alexander, Joel Alroe, Scott D. Chambers, Zhenyi Chen, Luke Cravigan, Erin Dunne, Ruhi S. Humphries, Graham Johnson, Melita D. Keywood, Todd P. Lane, Branka Miljevic, Yuko Omori, Alain Protat, Zoran Ristovski, Paul Selleck, Hilton B. Swan, Hiroshi Tanimoto, Jason P. Ward, and Alastair G. Williams
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2419–2445,Short summary
Coral reefs have been found to produce the climatically relevant chemical compound dimethyl sulfide (DMS). It has been suggested that corals can modify their environment via the production of DMS. We use an atmospheric chemistry model to test this theory at a regional scale for the first time. We find that it is unlikely that coral-reef-derived DMS has an influence over local climate, in part due to the proximity to terrestrial and anthropogenic aerosol sources.
Huan Zhang, Sunling Gong, Lei Zhang, Jingwei Ni, Jianjun He, Yaqiang Wang, Xu Wang, Lixin Shi, Jingyue Mo, Huabing Ke, and Shuhua Lu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2221–2236,Short summary
This study established a multi-model simulation system for street-level circulation and pollutant tracking and applied to real building scenarios and atmospheric conditions. Results showed that for a particular site the potential contribution ratio varies with the height of the site, with a peak not at the ground but at a certain height. This work is of significance for urban planning and improvement of urban air quality.
Alcide Zhao, Claire L. Ryder, and Laura J. Wilcox
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2095–2119,Short summary
The CMIP6 models' simulated dust processes are getting more uncertain as models become more sophisticated. Of particular challenge are the links between dust cycles and optical properties, and we recommend more detailed output relating to dust cycles in future intercomparison projects to constrain such links. Also, models struggle to capture certain key regional dust processes such as dust accumulation along the slope of the Himalayas and dust seasonal cycles in North China and North America.
Pak Lun Fung, Martha A. Zaidan, Jarkko V. Niemi, Erkka Saukko, Hilkka Timonen, Anu Kousa, Joel Kuula, Topi Rönkkö, Ari Karppinen, Sasu Tarkoma, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, and Tareq Hussein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1861–1882,Short summary
We developed an input-adaptive mixed-effects model, which was automatised to select the best combination of input variables, including up to three fixed effect variables and three time indictors as random effect variables. We tested the model to estimate lung-deposited surface area (LDSA), which correlates well with human health. The results show the inclusion of time indicators improved the sensitivity and the accuracy of the model so that it could serve as a network of virtual sensors.
Donglin Chen, Hong Liao, Yang Yang, Lei Chen, Delong Zhao, and Deping Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1825–1844,Short summary
The black carbon (BC) vertical profile plays a critical role in BC–meteorology interaction, which also influences PM2.5 concentrations. More BC mass was assigned into high altitudes (above 1000 m) in the model, which resulted in a stronger cooling effect near the surface, a larger temperature inversion below 421 m, more reductions in PBLH, and a larger increase in near-surface PM2.5 in the daytime caused by the direct radiative effect of BC.
Leonardo Mingari, Arnau Folch, Andrew T. Prata, Federica Pardini, Giovanni Macedonio, and Antonio Costa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1773–1792,Short summary
We present a new implementation of an ensemble-based data assimilation method to improve forecasting of volcanic aerosols. This system can be efficiently integrated into operational workflows by exploiting high-performance computing resources. We found a dramatic improvement of forecast quality when satellite retrievals are continuously assimilated. Management of volcanic risk and reduction of aviation impacts can strongly benefit from this research.
David Patoulias and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1689–1706,Short summary
Our simulations indicate that the recently identified production and subsequent condensation effect of extremely low-volatility organic compounds have a smaller-than-expected effect on the total concentration of atmospheric particles. On the other hand, the oxidation of intermediate-volatility organic compounds leads to decreases in the ultrafine-particle concentrations. These results improve our understanding of the links between secondary organic aerosol formation and ultrafine particles.
Peifeng Su, Jorma Joutsensaari, Lubna Dada, Martha Arbayani Zaidan, Tuomo Nieminen, Xinyang Li, Yusheng Wu, Stefano Decesari, Sasu Tarkoma, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Petri Pellikka
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1293–1309,Short summary
We regarded the banana shapes in the surface plots as a special kind of object (similar to cats) and applied an instance segmentation technique to automatically identify the new particle formation (NPF) events (especially the strongest ones), in addition to their growth rates, start times, and end times. The automatic method generalized well on datasets collected in different sites, which is useful for long-term data series analysis and obtaining statistical properties of NPF events.
Miska Olin, David Patoulias, Heino Kuuluvainen, Jarkko V. Niemi, Topi Rönkkö, Spyros N. Pandis, Ilona Riipinen, and Miikka Dal Maso
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1131–1148,Short summary
An emission factor particle size distribution was determined from the measurements at an urban traffic site. It was used in updating a pre-existing emission inventory, and regional modeling was performed after the update. Emission inventories typically underestimate nanoparticle emissions due to challenges in determining them with high certainty. This update reveals that the simulated aerosol levels have previously been underestimated especially for urban areas and for sub-50 nm particles.
Mizuo Kajino, Akira Watanabe, Masahide Ishizuka, Kazuyuki Kita, Yuji Zaizen, Takeshi Kinase, Rikuya Hirai, Kakeru Konnai, Akane Saya, Kazuki Iwaoka, Yoshitaka Shiroma, Hidenao Hasegawa, Naofumi Akata, Masahiro Hosoda, Shinji Tokonami, and Yasuhito Igarashi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 783–803,Short summary
Using a numerical model and observations of surface concentration and depositions, the current study provides quantitative assessments of resuspension, transport, and deposition of radio-Cs in eastern Japan in 2013, which was once deposited to the ground surface after the Fukushima nuclear accident. The areal mean resuspension rate of radio-Cs from the ground to the air is estimated as 0.96 % per year, which is equivalent to 1–10 % of the decreasing rate of the ambient gamma dose in Fukushima.
Aoxing Zhang, Yongqiang Liu, Scott Goodrick, and Marcus D. Williams
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 597–624,Short summary
Duff is decomposed forest fuel under ground. Duff burning often occurs at the smoldering phase with low intensity and long periods, which has little impact on regional air quality. However, there is increasing evidence for duff burning during flaming phases. This study simulates the air quality impacts of duff burning during flaming phases in the southeastern US using a regional air quality model. The results indicate the important contributions of such burning to regional PM2.5 concentrations.
Jerónimo Escribano, Enza Di Tomaso, Oriol Jorba, Martina Klose, Maria Gonçalves Ageitos, Francesca Macchia, Vassilis Amiridis, Holger Baars, Eleni Marinou, Emmanouil Proestakis, Claudia Urbanneck, Dietrich Althausen, Johannes Bühl, Rodanthi-Elisavet Mamouri, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 535–560,Short summary
We explore the benefits and consistency in adding lidar dust observations in a dust optical depth assimilation. We show that adding lidar data to a dust optical depth assimilation has valuable benefits and the dust analysis improves. We discuss the impact of the narrow satellite footprint of the lidar dust observations on the assimilation.
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Alinot, C., and Masson, C.: k-epsilon Model for the atmospheric boundary layer under various thermal stratifications, J. Sol. Energy Eng. Trans.-ASME, 127, 438–443, https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2035704, 2005.
Arnold, F., Pirjola, L., Aufmhoff, H., Schuck, T., Lahde, T., and Hameri, K.: First gaseous sulfuric acid measurements in automobile exhaust: Implications for volatile nanoparticle formation, Atmos. Environ., 40, 7097–7105, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.06.038, 2006.
Balogh, M., Parente, A., and Benocci, C.: RANS simulation of ABL flow over complex terrains applying an Enhanced k-epsilon model and wall function formulation: Implementation and comparison for fluent and OpenFOAM, J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 104, 360–368, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jweia.2012.02.023, 2012.
Beckerman, B., Jerrett, M., Brook, J. R., Verma, D. K., Arain, M. A., and Finkelstein, M. M.: Correlation of nitrogen dioxide with other traffic pollutants near a major expressway, Atmos. Environ., 42, 275–290, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.09.042, 2008.
Blocken, B., Carmeliet, J., and Stathopoulos, T.: CFD evaluation of wind speed conditions in passages between parallel buildings - effect of wall-function roughness modifications for the atmospheric boundary layer flow, J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 95, 941–962, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jweia.2007.01.013, 2007a.
Blocken, B., Stathopoulos, T., and Carmeliet, J.: CFD simulation of the atmospheric boundary layer: wall function problems, Atmos. Environ., 41, 238–252, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.08.019, 2007b.
Brugge, D., Durant, J. L., and Rioux, C.: Near-highway pollutants in motor vehicle exhaust: A review of epidemiologic evidence of cardiac and pulmonary health risks, Environ. Health, 6, 12, https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-069x-6-23, 2007.
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Di Sabatino, S., Buccolieri, R., Pulvirenti, B., and Britter, R.: Simulations of pollutant dispersion within idealised urban-type geometries with CFD and integral models, Atmos. Environ., 41, 8316–8329, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.06.052, 2007.
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Gidhagen, L., Johansson, C., Omstedt, G., Langner, J., and Olivares, G.: Model simulations of NOx and ultrafine particles close to a Swedish highway, Environ. Sci. Technol., 38, 6730-6740, 10.1021/es0498134, 2004b.
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Gordon, M., Staebler, R. M., Liggio, J., Makar, P., Li, S.-M., Wentzell, J., Lu, G., Lee, P., and Brook, J. R.: Measurements of Enhanced Turbulent Mixing near Highways, J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol., 51, https://doi.org/10.1175/jamc-d-11-0190.1, 2012b.
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Grahame, T. J.: Does improved exposure information for PM2.5 constituents explain differing results among epidemiological studies?, Inhal. Toxicol., 21, 381–393, https://doi.org/10.1080/08958370802380495, 2009.
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Hagler, G. S. W., Tang, W., Freeman, M. J., Heist, D. K., Perry, S. G., and Vette, A. F.: Model evaluation of roadside barrier impact on near-road air pollution, Atmos. Environ., 45, 2522–2530, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.02.030, 2011.
Hargreaves, D. M., and Wright, N. G.: On the use of the k-epsilon model in commercial CFD software to model the neutral atmospheric boundary layer, J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 95, 355–369, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jweia.2006.08.002, 2007.
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Kumar, P., Garmory, A., Ketzel, M., Berkowicz, R., and Britter, R.: Comparative study of measured and modelled number concentrations of nanoparticles in an urban street canyon, Atmos. Environ., 43, 949–958, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.10.025, 2009.
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